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. Tennessee 37830 ABSTRACT The orifice model is generally accepted for the calculation of short-tube subcritical flow. a separate correlation is formed so that the influence of L/D is addressed. the orifice model is found inadequate due to the wide variation of the upstream and downstream conditions. * This research was sponsored by the Office of Buildings Equipment Research and Development. a correlation was formed experimentally to show the effect of pressure differential and level of liquid subcooling on the orifice constant C.SHORT-TUBE SUBCRITICAL FLOW Y. C. Department of Energy under contract W-7405-eng-26 with the Union Carbide Corporation. U. In a previous paper [7]. the effect of length over diameIn this follow-up study. However. For short tubes used as refrigerant expansion devices.S. Mei Enerag Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge. ter ratio (L/D) was not included.

the orifice model would overpredict the actual mass flow rate. is much higher than the measured one. However. In a previous study [7]. For 3 < L/D < 12. Together with the fact that the liquid is in metastable conditions [6] makes the theoretical and experimental analysis very difficult. the liquid upstream of the short tube is usually subcooled. The experimental results by Domingorena and Ball [8] were used as an example of calculations as well as to validate the correlations.9 were tested on a heat pump system. In this kind of applications. Also. A correlation was formed to calculate the short tube opening area at the system design conditions. five short tubes with length to diameter ratio. Fauske [9] suggested that Eq. which is generally applied for sharp edge orifice. the major portion of this work is dealing with steam water two phase critical flow [1-6]. short tubes are used mainly as refrigerant expansion devices. (1) only applied to L/D < 3. the sharp edge model is generally used for mass flow calculation.5. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS For short tube subcritical flow. In the air conditioning and refrigeration field. but the influence of the length of the short tube was not addressed.5 to 11. with C 0. with R-22 as the fluid. It indicates that the calculated mass flow rate. L/D. the short tube downstream pressure is always much lower than the refrigerant saturation pressure so that first stage choking is not likely to happen [6]. where the flow is usually in subcritical region. over a wide range of operating conditions. orifice G = D = C[2g p 1 (P . Zaloudek [6] and Uchida and .Pdo 1 )]/2 However. a separate model is formed so that the short tube length can be found.SHORT-TUBE SUBCRITICAL FLOW INTRODUCTION Much theoretical and experimental work regarding short tube fluid flow has appeared in the literature in the past years. Figure 1 shows the test results of one of the short tubes with L/D = 7. which means to specify the liquid upstream conditions by pressure alone is not enough. In this follow-up study.61. varying from 7.

C = -0. upstream liquid pressure and level of subcooling as well as downstream pressure. the simple orifice model is inadequate for short tube fluid flow calculation. In a previous paper by the author [7]. Figure 2 confirms that with one of the short tube tests results. If we correlate the orifice constant C to the downsteam vapor quality under equiliconditions.019337 NF + 0.1783 In order to size the short tubes as the refrigerant expansion devices. Figure 3 is the plot of orifice constant C as a function of XE with L/D as the parameter.1997 x 10 1 l . the higher the mass flow rates. however.6908 x 10-3(L/D) 2 + 1. C -3.3605 x 10 (3) (L/D)(XE) + 0.4. the effect of L/D ratio does not appear. Fauske [9] concluded that when L/D ratio increased from 3 to 12.7. but the orifice constant C was correlated to the upstream and downstream pressure differentials as well as the level of upstream liquid subcooling. It is. An analysis (the test results of the experiment [7]) confirms the link is described in detail in Ref.6368 (2) In Eq. such as mass flow rate.Nariai [10] experimentally showed that at the same short tube upstream and downstream pressure differentials.5. logical to assume ratio will have higher levels of liquid evaporation in the short tube under the same upstream and downstream condiIsbin and Gavalas [2] and Henry [11] had linearly tions. some design information.3895 2 ()2 .0605 x 10 x 10 1 1 L/D . correlated the vapor quality under metastable conditions to that under equilibrium conditions. the level of liquid metastability started to break that large L/D up. XE and L/D. therefore. between C. the higher the level of upstream liquid subcooling. the orifice model was used for mass flow calculation. the effect of L/D ratio should be brium apparent. will have to be determined . (2). The above analysis indicates clearly that in the subcritical flow region.006AT + 0. A biquadratic fit of C as a function of XE and L/D results in the following equation.

is only 6. (2) to calculate the value of C. Since D has been found in Step (2). under equilibrium conditions assuming isenthalpic expansion process. to correlate the orifice constant to the pressure differential. the . the simple orifice model was found inadequate for sizing the short tubes as the refrigerant expansion devices. performed by Domingorena and Ball [8] were used to calculate the short tube opening and length. The correlations are easy to use and can be applied over a wide range of upstream and downstream conditions. Use the upstream subcooled liquid conditions and downstream pressure to calculate the vapor quality.3%. with average deviation only 3%. The maximum deviation in short tube length is 11. The correlations were validated by the experimental results performed by Domingorena and Ball [8]. Excellent matches were obtained for the calculated and measured dimensions of the short tube.7%. The calcu-lated results are then compared with the measured values. Use Eq. 13). the experimental data from the test of a heat pump. Correlations were developed. Table 1 shows the calculated and measured short tube diameter and length. with a short tube as the expansion device and R-22 as the refrigerant. L/D ratio can be calculated by solving a second order linear equation (Eq. With C and X known. It can be seen that the maximum deviation of the calculated short tube diameter compared with the measured value. 3. 4. XE . (1) and the found value of C to calculate the short tube opening area. vapor quality at equilibrium conditions and L/D ratio. However. CONCLUSION For short tube subcritical flow. With this information. the following steps will lead to the calculation of short tube diameter and length: 1. - Use Eq.2 first. level of liquid subcooling. 2. Table 1 proves that the correlations work very well. and thus the diameter of the opening. Equation (3) will give two roots of L/D. the length of short tube can be calculated. but it is found that the smaller one is the one we want. based on experimental results. As an example of the application of the above correlations. due to the involvement of vapor quality.

. However. .. S F . this simple experimental approach can be applied to form the correlations for other fluids. . .*. *-* -. ^ \..../ . . ***' *-' ~^ ^ : ^ ^ . ^ .*-~~ *-* .correlations are only applicable with R-22 as the fluid..* . * * .

3 AT I 11.46 AP-75a8 + 14 P . 35 /D .6 8.3 *C liquid *ubcoolinx ' -1241 1379 1517 Fig. 3.61] p ~' - Mealured mas flow rate 181 1 689 -I1 827 965 AP 159 -1103 KPa L/D-7. Mass Flow Rate vs Degree of Liquid Subcooling 0.45 0. 2.55 0.40 L/D-9.I . .62 L/D-11.~~~~~L/D-7. 159 2.7 22.295 272 2 250 * kg/hr 227 k/hz227 204204 <^-' - Calculated ma flow 1 raLe vith C-0. I .40 0.2 Fig.1 'C 13.15 0.25 0.20 0.8 5.46 8.CD ^-CD~~~ I.9 16.05 0. Mass Flow Rate vs Pressure Differential 227 I 204 kg/hr *181 0 . I I. Orifice Constant vs Vapor Quality at Equilibrium Condition .70 LD-8.50 0.90 0.65 0.10 0. 0.60 C 0.30 Fig. 1.

7 13.3 472.04 4.1371 0.2 13.4920 0.5255 0.2 32.7 1149.3 19.73 4.0 13. Measured short tube length is 1.1357 0.7 473.1884 1.3 30.4 30.3 8.1372 0.4 13.1349 0.5 439.6 32.4087 1.7 1128.5 1756.1360 0.3 31.1374 0.4 10.1 32.94 3.1341 0. 471.42 3.1386 0.5 1704.2467 1.2571 1.3 1128.95 3.27 cm.1 12.7 32.4 1687.2397 Pressure drop across the evaporator was added to the suction pressure.6 458.6 430.3 10.0 424.7 473.72 4.4765 0.9 1150. CMeasured short tube diameter is 0.0 1105.5 480.5294 0.6 1103.6 472.Table 1.9 1474.3117 1.8 1115.1333 1.3 1928.0 1652.9 10.3175 1.2 1146.1 1673.3127 1.5 1538.5038 1.4 1668.2114 1.1363 0.0 12.2804 1.72 3.9 1542.0 13.3421 1.0 30.5228 0.3795 1.1 7.4 31.1 1518.2 1111.6 1113.5079 0.4 30.9 561.1397 cm.74 3.4 1697.5 29.7 1618.2 487.4 32.8 1128.1 1121.1 1153.5169 0.1369 0.1374 0.3 32.52 3.6 1544.5574 0.4 1501.97 3.0 1112. .4 32.4628 0.1 1109.7 32.1355 0.2273 1.1346 0.4 546.6 17.28 5.2 32.0 8.8 12.1 33.3 390.3 1756.1 11.1336 0.98 3.28 3.4794 0.1361 0.9 30.1364 0.6 412.2195 1.1364 0.8 2044.1 1737.54 3.12 3.5584 0.92 3.3146 1.1375 0.02 4.3 422.4991 0.4819 0.40 3.9 411.65 3.1 .2 32.2840 1.47 0.5081 0.7 468.5137 0.3 1942.8 442.0 1109.0 1121.3192 1.2 1597.5155 0.3 6.4135 1.5099 0.2 437.2 32.4999 0. bMass flow rates were corrected by recalibrating the rotameter with a turbine meter.0 1133.9 8.1304 0. Upstream Pressure ~C kpa Downstreama Pressure kpa EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS BY DOMENGORENA AND BALL [8] Liquid Density k/m Degree of Liquid SubCooling C O Massb Flowrate kg/s x 10 Calculated Value of C Calculated c Short Tube Diameter cm Calculatedc Short Tube Length cm 32.0 1149.1373 0. Liquid Temp.0 9.4850 0.5 1599.00 3.8 1151.4874 0.6 18.5 547.2643 1.3388 1.0 1119.5520 0.4 4.

NOMENCLATURE jA IJ~ Area of the tube opening Orifice constant O ~ C D G g L m P P I Diameter of the short-tube opening Refrigerant mass flow rate per unit area Dimensional constant Length of the short tube Refrigerant mass flow rate Tube upstream pressure Tube downstream pressure P -P up down AP AT XE P1 up down Level of liquid subcooling Vapor quality at equilibrium condition Liquid density {~~~P .

Fauske. Illinois. K. C. Isbin. Fauske "The Discharge of Saturated Water Through Tubes". H. Orifices. H. R. Levy. D. Uohida.and Two-Component TwoArgonne Phase Critical Flows at Low Qualities. Henry. 1963. J. Standford Univ. "Short-Tube Refrigerant Flow ASHRAE Trans. Domingorena. England 1968. Glasgow. "The Critical Flow of Hot Water through Short Tubes. 88. of Heat Transfer. February 1965. V. Heat Transfer and Fluid Mech. Vol. H. Nariai. H. Washington. ORNL/CON-23. Zaloudek. Fauske. National Engineering Laboratory. Eas Kilbride. Flow of the Component Mixtures in Nozzles. Press." ASME J. [9] [10] [11] . K. of Heat Transfer. Mei. S. E. Standford. G. Seattle. R. "Two Phase Flow through an Aperture. "Critical Two Phase Steam-Water Flows"." Proceedings of the Third International Heat Transfer Conference Aug. 1965. "The Two Phase Critical R." Proceedings of the 1962 Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute." USAEC Report HW-77594. 166. R. 61.. E. H. Vol. "A Study of One. 59. Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium No. Restrictors.. "Performance Evaluation of a Selected Three-Ton Air-to-Air Heat Pump in the Heating Mode (Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report.." [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] A. January 1980. Inst. Henry. Chicago. S. K. "Calculation of 'Choking' Flow Rate During Steam-Water Flow Through Pipes. and Short Tubes. Univ. part 2. 1961 Proc. of Washington. "Prediction of Two Phase Critical Flow Rate. "Discharge of Saturated Water through Pipes and Orifices. Cleveland." ASME J. 7-12. S. Ball. March 1968." NEL Reports 377. May 1971. A. January 1962. Gavalas." National Laboratory Report ANL-7430. Heat Transfer.REFERENCES [1] H. F. Chisholm.