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Write Music


35 H37 1917
c. 1


Presented to the

LIBRARY o/tfu?
from the






. LTD. Gray Go. Harris Associate of the Royal College of Organists Edited by Mallinson Randall NEW YORK The H. W. .How to Write Music Musical Orthography By Clement A. Sole Agents for NoVELLO & Co.

1917 BY THE H. W. Made in the United Stata of America .COPYRIGHT. GRAY CO.

. . ..41 -47 ... ....... .. 50 52 54 55 ACCIDENTALS LEGIBILITY .. . . INTRODUCTORY CHOICE OF PAPER SCORING BARRING CLEFS SIGNATURES NOTATION OF RHYTHM PLACING OF NOTES RESTS . .. Hi Page 53. not the Page... .. .56 INDEX.. .. i 2 3 4 5 6 8 14 DOTS STEMS HOOKS LEGER-LINES .. . ..... ...15 20 22 29 36 37 VOCAL Music OPEN SCORE TO SHORT SHORT SCORE TO OPEN EXTRACTING A SINGLE PART FROM SCORE .. . ...CONTENTS The numbers refer to the Paragraph... . . ... .... .. . .....51 FACILITY COPYRIGHT PROOF READING .. ... ..


How . they have increased the number of those by whom the necessity Intelligent is felt. Even when writing from a copy. par.g. (See e. Many performers will play or sing a note at sight without hesitation. The immense increase in the amount of music published. asked to write. musician shall be at least an accurate and legible writer as well as a reader of the language of his Art.) Yet many musicians. and its cheapness. some alteration is frequently necessary. cannot write a measure of music without bringing a smile to the lips of the initiated.. 28. seem rather to have increased than decreased this necessity. for they have vastly multiplied activity in the Art. . requiring independent knowledge of the subject on the part of the copyist. which. to Write Music It is reasonable to expect that a I Introductory. thoroughly competent as performers. as will be shown in the following pages. If they have not intensified the necessity for music-writing. knowledge of Notation is the more necessary inasmuch as music-writing is in only a comparatively few cases mere copying.

at they will least wrong by writing The admirable working of theoretical exami- at the nation papers is sometimes in ridiculous contrast with the puerility of the writing. tion. Psychologists would probably say that this was because conceptual action is a higher mental nition. This was once the case: music-writing was a necessary part of a musician's education. they should.2 HOW TO first falter it WRITE MUSIC over and then bungle octave. inasmuch as phonography in the musical sense is a distinctly pleasant occupaWithout being either drawing or writing. While containing some matter which may have escaped the attention of more advanced musicians. it partakes of the nature of both. on the Elements. either be used along with a Primer it. Hence the following pages. function than perceptual: in is other words. One may be the more surprised at its falling into disuse. the reading of it. that recollection harder than recog- Recognition must be developed till it becomes recollection: the writing of music must be taught concurrently with The remedy is simple. or immediately follow . in an educational course. But many points in the writing of music are not now considered to form part of the Rudiments of Music. and are not included in primers on the subject.

two bracketed for piano part. For piano and violin music. This is a most convenient number. . with a third for the voice part. r of a pen will be in ruling the scorelines. Very useful for other purposes where a small. t -11 t. tion in making a manuscript copy of Paper music choice of the right kind of music-paper. to allow of the large number of leger lines fre- quently required. narrow stave is required. allowing for a two-. Most paper contains twelve staves to the page. four-. to allow for writing in the words. WRITE MUSIC . score. . no brackets or clefs. 3 Choice of The is first ! . Scoring. Full-score paper: much smaller than shortscore staves. This latter is at a considerable distance above the other staves. Song-paper: three-stave score. matter to claim atten. two staves being braced for the piano part. or six-stave score. room Organ-music paper: three-stave staves braced for manual part. paper should be chosen the staves of which are wide apart. The paper chosen. A "score" technically is as many . three-.. : Quartet-paper with accompaniment six-stave score. two and another underneath for pedal part. . the first use 3.HOW TO 2. Quartet-paper: four stave score. . This will primarily be determined by the number of staves each score requires.

and. scores to the page. neglect of which will lead to endless bar-lines. 4. name. six in four-part vocal music with piano accompaniment. scored their being through. four in an unaccompanied quartet. of course. Some music is so uniform that a given space may be assigned to each measure. Hence the their left-hand edge.4 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC staves as are performed simultaneously: two in pianoforte music. and consequently a uniform number of measures to each score. provided that there is no change of key or time. (2) measure of each score for the key . . from Their position always being at the left-hand edge of the staves. Except in a full score there will generally be at least two. require a considerable space. and their length determined by the number of staves. And annoyance and dissatisfaction. three in organ music. and These staves have a line drawn down so on. Care must be taken when a page is ruled at a time not to draw the score-line through more than the necessary number of staves. After the score-lines come the with the arranging of these begins that careful mapping-out of the whole work. must be made In determining this space allowance (i) in the first measure of each for the movement which may in the first key and time signatures. they may be drawn before the length of the measures has been arranged. very often more.

but to several measures. a single whole note and the next thirty-two thirty-second notes. and as these notes must occupy as nearly as possible their proin the entire portionate part of the measure. (4) also to the number of measures movement. the skilful scribe will keep both words and music in mind simultaneously. some passages allowing of this so much more easily than others. or . in vocal or instrumental music the measures vary greatly. they must fall under the notes to which they are to be sung. otherwise a new page to have be added for only one measure! may (5) in vocal music careful regard must be paid to the words as well as the notes. it is necessary to plan each score separately. as a guide in estimating their average length. consequently in very simple music the words In florid require more space than the music. perhaps. however. Where. But. is compositions syllable. not to several notes merely. A syllable will often require more space than a note. while the words must not be cramped.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC 5 signature: the time signature is only repeated at the beginning of each movement or when the time is changed. one having. or at least a measure or two of them. on the a other hand. (3) regard must be had to where a turn-over will come. often sung. and the music requires much more space than the words. In the former case the author has found it a good plan to write the words first.

through the two staves of a piano part. It is a fault which one commits the moment watchfulness is relaxed. .. may Bar-lines are usually drawn through each stave of vocal music separately. at the left-hand edge of each score thus: or Fig. Carrying a measure from the end of one score to the beginning of the next is not practised now. with a T A single bar-line out of the perpendicu- most readily be done in square. as it once was. and in instru- mental music through as many staves as same instrument or group of instruments. and the four or five belonging to the belong to the "strings" in a full score. Where the measures vary in length the ruling will light pencil inked. if bar-lines may be ruled a page at a care be taken not to make the line con- tinuous through more than the required number of staves. but not enough for another one. and afterwards lar will spoil the appearance of a whole page.HOW TO the end WRITE MUSIC be reached with too much space for the last measure. and entails much scratching out. Uniform time. e.g. These instrumental staves are also usually connected by a brace . 1.

. quote false. as in the present examples. TO WRITE MUSIC actual musical char- 7 The first acters to be written are the clefs. touching it in all four times. Misconception of the function of these is so common. part of the treble clef is sometimes kept within the stave." or treble clef. sometimes not merely covering all the lines of a stave. on that line which its and which it curls The upper round.HOW 5. The commonest clefs are fallacies are to suppose that if the right shape their exact position on the stave does not matter. but going beyond them. The point is merely a matter of taste. "G. not among practical musicians only. the treble clef a small "g. that it is necessary Thus the to explain which line a clef is on. but." From this beginning has been evolved so elaborate a sign. "accurately A clef identifies and originally was used line. the shape of clefs has varied so cians much that many able practical musido not know that they were originally simple letters. with a single and identifies others only by their relationship to this. Hence its precise shape is of less importance than its being on the right line. but on the part of elementary theorists." the bass clef a small "f." a delightful Ruskinism. more often rises above the stave. and that their Both suppositions are. Indeed. to position varies. is interior termination is on. that a few words of explanation are necessary.

This is not now done with treble and bass clefs. and which has a dot above and below. These staves are also used in familiarity with them is in all advanced theoretical absolutely necessary old vocal music. with both two lines above and two below. appears . or three below and one above. For instance. or pot-hook.8 HOW TO The C clef is on WRITE MUSIC that line which has an oblique or straight stroke. the F line with two lines below and two above. above and below. however many may be above or below it. which are only used with respectively the top and bottom five lines of the Great Stave of eleven lines. And line the lines this position never varies. The C clef. Fig. especially and trombone music. and examinations. and three below and one above. its stave. Whatever or few In olden days any clef line might be taken with any number of lines above and below. making the tenor stave. therefore. Hence care must be taken to write the treble clef on the second. 2. The F clef is on that line which its interior termination is on. making the alto stave. bass clef on the fourth line of is still and the But it in viola customary to use the C clef. F clef is on is F. and which it curls round either to the right or the left.

and it is the selection of lines which varies. other hand (c). illustrates a high is part for the left hand. first of course. The example. method is the hardest to write and to choose between If There not much the second and third. Really it is always on the same line. tion of the treble the C clef as fourth line." "movable. accurately represent music to the eye was by means of a single line with a letter at the beginThis was what has since become the ning. may be written either: By means of leger lines (Fig. no clef is in a This is because the first attempt to space. The read. a) By changing the clef (6) or By writing the part in the stave proper to the ." Note that all clefs are on lines. the clef line. of the bass stave. In pianoforte and organ music. being sometimes on the third and sometimes on the fourth line. or low ones for the right. . 3. high parts for the left hand.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC 9 to move. Hence the misdescrip- and bass clefs as "immovable. the third be adopted .

should have an F clef im- mediately preceding the part. Page 2. See Fig. begins with notes more easily written in the other. if the first measure written. Fig. and repeated This is especially in the measure affected. and immediately followed by that in which the notes are most conveniently Thus Fig. of a composition. 4. .. b. in organ or piano music. the old plan of inserting a "direct" is to be recommended. . though mainly in its proper stave.10 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC care must be taken not to insert rests in the vacant stave: their absence shows that the hand is not resting. the case in regard to the first score of a new page involving a turn-over. Page I. 3. the clef proper to the part should be inserted. G clef in the left-hand A change of clef affecting the first note of a score should be anticipated in the last measure of the previous score. When a part. In addition to anticipating the clef. as showing its general character. 4.

be on the top line. like clefs. And and confusion. should be avoided as causing unnecessary trouble space.-. never over or under (3) it. But solecisms. The custop space. desirable. in the writer's opinion. of course. in the treble clef. cover much more is of the stave than the single line or space which they govern. The first sharp should. . repeated at the beginning of every score. manuscript music it is very usual to repeat it only at the head of each in But page. and therefore cramping it. As preventing many mistakes the repetition is 6. though not in themselves inaccurate. . Common faults are: (1) Placing the sharps or flats at the wrong octave. not in the bottom the second flat should be in the not on the bottom line. . . and naturals. Sharps. is. not ne- Following the clef comes the key . .HOW TO The WRITE MUSIC 11 signature should be repeated in the changed clef. After a change of clef in the middle of a score this cessary. invariably the best. (2) A perhaps commoner fault is in not allowing sufficient space for the signature. flats. Each sharp or flat should be well to the right-hand of the preceding one. of tomary way writing signatures is not. Signatures.T j In printed music this is signature. usually exercised enough care Not nearly to make the .

who originated modern musical all. Two points These are (this -of are of paramount importance. In is common a choice between the and the letter signature "C. The time is where there signature need only be inserted a change of movement. 7. The guiding principle in writing these is that their right interpretation shall be apparent to the eye. called triple time "perfect" in honor of the Blessed Trinity. mistook for the initial letter "Common Time." The latter is the more interesting historically. and represented it with the sign of perfection a circle: common. as showing the exact value of a measure. center of the sharp. or the loop of the exactly correspond with this." But the numeral signarapidly superseding this. not . circle to represent imperfection. as it should. the selection of the right characters (i) course only affects those who are writ- ing original compositions or arrangements. Originally it was not a letter at the monks. and being in accordture is ance with the signatures of time.12 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC flat. or quadruple time. 8. time there " numeral signature " J notation. of not unnaturally. all other kinds of Following the time-signature come the notes. and cut a slice out of the right-hand side of the This printers. they called imperfect.

That way must be selected rhythm. pitfalls. 5 I Fig. contain but few and even an inexperienced writer not likely to go far wrong. -T-j ? (6) Good. The bare duration of a note. . and not represent it nearly as significantly as does a tied note or separate rest. 5. such as five eighth notes. to the eye. it is not nowadays customary however. its merely arithmetical value. 9. Their chief function is to represent durations which cannot be represented by a single character. compare a and b. can generBut ally be expressed in more ways than one. this is not sufficient.HOW TO mere copists). The dot to dot an unaccented note or rest. Simple forms of time. its which represents its correct accen- tuation. WRITE MUSIC (2) 13 and the correct placing of these in the measure. 10. 5. Tied notes should not be employed where a single note would represent the same sound without misrepresenting the rhythm. in this case would represent the succeeding accented beat. Fig. is be as well to warn such an one. as distinct from Compound. It may that (a) 4 I I Not good.

The second effected to release the sound therefore overtakes the first. of by Cipriani Potter As having been a personal Beethoven's he was likely to know. Fig. (It is comparatively easy on some pianos and very hard on others. is continuous.14 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC ii. There is noth- ing but one's judgment to distinguish this from the ordinary kind of tie. 1 06. 6. the following tied sixteenth notes from the Adagio of Beethoven's Sonata. though periodically reinforced. This is by allowing the key to rise sufficiently hammer. had it not been for the intention of overlapping iteration (Fig. measure 134 of Beethoven's well-known Sonata Pastorale were ties The commencing in evidently regarded this order. as of friend (The . 6). The chief indication is the employment of a tie where a single musical character would otherwise have been better. could better have been represented by eighth notes. Op. the composer indicates his intention by a tie. In pianoforte music a note is very occasionally intended to be reiterated before the first iteration has ceased to sound.) As the sound. but not sufficiently to reimpose the damper on the string. For instance.

6a). this is evidently tion edited why. in the edi- by Potter.HOW TO WRITE great composer refers to MUSIC 15 with Ries in 1818. The above inapplicable. they are marked with a tie plus a dot and horizontal stroke (Fig. Ell .) him in corresponding The duration of these test is therefore notes could not have been written otherwise than by means of ties.

7) indeed. WRITE MUSIC errors in simple time are not in regard to notes. Fig. beats (see b. it may be said that triple . time it is better to avoid a single rest representing the latter and greater part of a measure (see d. Fig. Nor one rest represent an unaccented and an accented beat (see c. Fig. 7). Thus a beat should not be represented by two rests where one would do. 7). Not -=-n- ^F=j= (c) (a) Good **=M . This is because silence cannot be divided or syncopated. though it might be by two notes (see Nor one rest represent parts of two a. but rests. The commonest and therefore that would often be quite right as a representation of sound which is quite wrong as a representation of silence. Fig. In half-note rests should not be used in triple time. 7).16 HOW TO 12.

8). A Two dotted quarter notes in twelveFig. Fig. 8). Not good -" . 8). applies to rests. sixteen time are not so bad as a dotted half note in six-eight time. not by represented by rests which fuse a beat and part of the next (see c. never by a single note equalling both a half note in this case (see b. if required. but they misrepresent these halves as consisting of three sixths of a measure whereas they rhythmically consist of two quarters (see d. Fig. A beat-and-a-third.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC 17 thirds instead of two halves. A similar principle measure's silence should be rests divisible into beats. as they correctly represent the division of the measure into two halves. Fig. 8). by representing a beat-and-a-third and two thirds of a beat (see a. should be represented by a note of the value of a beat tied to one of the value of a third.

But simple music can be made quite symmetrical. irrespective of the value of the measure. point ure. actual or mental. the second the correct placing of them in the measrectly . This is is that music. Any .} c. or by quarter. . in his full scores. eighth. roughly. represent Mentally. One well-known composer. rules beat-lines in light pencil. The characters which will cor. space represents duration. is the given rhythm having been determined. Each note should be placed in the /e//-hand its end of space. like words. as a measure-rest. the measure should be divided into as many equal portions as there are beats in it. of course. can be done by a single which is also commonly used Placmgof Notes. 14. Fig. and in all music such beat-lines. have been written in the above way. it is said. 8) might also. (Hence the German name taktThe six-eight measure of silence (see pause. for the simple reason read from left to right and.18 HOW A TO WRITE MUSIC is twelve-sixteen measure of silence much easier to write. as well as In very elaborate bar-lines. eighth rests in place of the dotted rests. at least. since it whole note rest. are an invaluable check and guide. music this symmetrical arrangement cannot be . fully carried out sixty-four sixty-fourth notes cannot be written in the same space as one whole note. and a whole note would look lost in the space required for the sixty-fourth notes. quarter.

" when a and applied to polyphonic music. Fig. so far as the eye is concerned. ~r Fig. owing to each being in the middle of its space! 3t=3L_*in~\ m . the time is two half notes and the whole note is to be sounded simultaneously with the two half notes. in the former of which four notes intended to be begun simultaneously are no two of them in line. But for the fact that in open score half notes below the middle line have their stems turned down. is. 9. The following (Fig. as may be seen from old music. 10. 9) is an example from an organ work of Rinck's (1770-1846). hardly too strong a term to apply to the results of this illogical method "Confusion worse confounded. even an expert would not improbably suppose the time to be four half notes in the bar.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC 19 other arrangement is misleading. in which a note was often placed in the middle of its space. Compare b. This is not the case.

from the ab- .) The practice cannot have been due to the non-invention of the "tie" or "bind. even when it involved writing a note on the barline! or a note in one measure and its dot in the next (see Fig. / clear instances. 11. form of a bracket. and that therefore no error can arise from their appearance being deferred. But a performer should be conscious of the action or inaction of every voice or part. in the in 1597. how is he to know whether it is a note or rest which has been omitted? If he concludes. rests. n). . This has been defended on the ground that they represent silence or inaction. when used Rests. Rests. published 15. occur in Morley's Practical Music. If there be a seeming vacuum or hiatus. are still very often illogically placed in the middle of the space they represent. (Pianists will recall a modern instance.20 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC This practice was consistently carried out. especially whole note for a whole measure. J I J J-fc=d Fig. in a little exercise in major of Czerny's." For though the first C use of this is difficult to trace. so far as the dot is concerned.

he will not know in how many parts the piece is written. since the example is from Bach. rests should any note. in writing a single melody or part on one stave. is generally placed in the third space. and half note rests above the third. Let a sheet of paper be held over the right half of the measure. 12. 1 J Fig. and though the player will be able to begin. Quarter note middle of in the rests should be written exactly 1 6. it is usual to make whole note rests below the fourth line.HOW TO sence of WRITE MUSIC 21 rest is intended. the rest in Fig. In open score. that is. of eighth note rests. This helps to distinguish them from . If it be located on the same principle as be not a profanation to say so. The stems of rests are. that a notes. The crook reason to the contrary. 12 would have been better placed at the beginning of the measure. in the absence of any the stave. he can only guess how long it will prove to be when it does come. Therefore. better slanted somewhat. in the writer's opinion. and the upper crook of shorter rests. in manuscript music especially.

and the 17. the use of a leger-line (see b. 14). in writing two or stave. rest. there- . only top the stave as may best indicate to which part more parts or voices on one they apply. 13. to indicate the part they belong to by the direction taken. This. the rests are not in or the bottom space of placed. It is. 13). however.22 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC in rapidly written the stems of notes script manu- a not unimportant thing! There are two forms of quarter note the rest. English. and therefore cannot be made. Manuscript forms of German quarter note Fig. Fig. as the stems of notes can. which is somewhat difficult to describe. and of the slightly varying forms. involving. The 'German is far the better of the two as being much more distinct from the eighth note rest. harder to write. in the case of whole note and half note rests. perhaps the easiest is that with a crook at each end of a very oblique stem and which is thus very much like a re- versed letter Z (see the first example in Fig. This is partly because the stems of all rests are turned down. German. In short score. that is. which is like the eighth note rest but turned to the right-hand. but above and below it. 1 8.

S. 14). rests are employed to represent the absence of the other. or off. rests often represent the absence. . though by no means on a line with it. rests are often not employed if both hands are engaged And in music which (see Fig.HOW TO fore. bass clef. though parts are incomplete. H. (o) <i Fig. but of the hand. .BACH. each playing alter- . many the notes. 3. WRITE MUSIC 23 has to be shown by their position on. though representing as parts as the piece can be supposed to If possess. In modern piano music which is not of a strictly part. employed rests to represent the hand with him they always represent a voice. divided between the hands.writing character. if ever. c. are all to be played by one hand. the stave (see Fig. is of a part-writing charthe acter. be seen that the lower eighth note rest example belongs to the same part as the following sixteenth note rest. not of a part or voice. J. supposing it to be of more than two parts) Bach rarely. Thus in a melodic or one-part passage . It will in the first 19.

therefore rests represent the thirty-second note silences. See Fig. represent. but the way of playing it. would have implied a second With him rests represent a living. voice. As repeat marks.24 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC nate groups. Dots are used in music for three purposes: (i) as repeat marks. appearing simultaneously with the notes. 20. the first half of which is in two parts. he used no rests to represent the absent hand. 15. It is from a B flat Prelude in Bach's Well-tempered part. in modern usage they frequently part. (2) to indicate semi-staccato. (3) to prolong a note one half. though absent. therefore Clavier. 15. These. not music. and the second half of which is in one no rests are employed though is one hand only engaged at a time. Dots. they . Fig.

Time-dots. apart from this rule. The con- . should be in the same space as the note. if the next note of the part is higher. Staccato dots and staccatissimo dashes. one up and the other down. or in the second and third spaces only. and in the space below if it is lower. when two parts are being written on one stave. and in one part it is dotted. may expose anyone playing the passage at sight. cannot be called a rule. to tell which part has the note dotted and which not (except. if applied to a note in a space. should be placed below the note if applying to the lower part. of course. and in the other not. and above if applying to the higher. they are best placed on the side opposite the stem. having two stems. one! When two parts are written on one and a note is doubled. which any mistake). from the context.HOW TO may WRITE MUSIC 25 be placed in each of the four spaces of the stave (which in the writer's opinion is the better plan. to indicate this. The following " from Henry Smart's Festive March in example D. as being less liable to confusion with timedots)." for the organ. In the case of open score (a single part on one stave). in accordance with a modern custom. if applied to a note on a line they should be placed in the space above. it is impossible. The imporIf it tance of this usage is often overlooked. or those which prolong a note one half. it is high time it was made stave. appears to contain two dotted It would probably be so read by half notes.

time-dots may be written either im- mediately after such note. note is dotted in both parts or voices. as in the last group above. be awkward when the note was in a space. As regards distance from the note they prolong. and also when it was on a line. however. Logic would suggest that where a doubled. it is text shows that half note which where this is on a line. as in Fig. 16. All the dots except that to the last note but one should have been in the space below the note. There is another slight inaccuracy in the above example which will be noticed later on. 16. both voices proceeded to a lower note (or both to a For according to the rule here being higher). Let the tyro try and find it! 21. that is a two-stemmed. two dots should follow one above the other. both dots would have to be in the space below (or above). considered. or in the part of the measure with which they syn- . This would. if.26 HOW TO is WRITE MUSIC the eighth note not the intended to be dotted. Fig.

This is Observe clear when the whole passage is seen. 17. but in the space next-but-one higher than the note they prolong." Fig. and tenor measures are an eighth note behind the treble. in or near the part of the they synchronize measure with which apart from any such purpose appearance in music as that just explained. that. as in the following excerpt from Sterndale Bennett's piano study "The Lake. though they could not be written with separate bar-lines. therefore. Here. to make the (Also that the overlapping clear to the eye. the alto. The dot made its first . and to refute it by showing that there are in reality two series of accents in Rhythm. 9). Elsewhere throughout the same study the composer has placed dots immediately after the note they prolong. that the dot to the last note of a measure is placed at the beginning of the next.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC 27 chronize. he seems to have anticipated the objection that he was dotting zm-accented notes (see "Notation of Par. indeed. at cross purposes with each other." each measure.) Dots are not infrequently placed thus that is. dots to the last alto and tenor quarter notes are placed not in the space next.

generally the result of a badly directed hook (see a. Fig.D. The of this to the direction they take there is a In open score (when one part written on a stave). Fig. As definite rule. the stems of those below the middle line should be turned up (see b. It did not. stems in a single group of notes are as often There as not of different lengths. is This. WRITE MUSIC about A. the stems of being ill-equipped writer betrays himself by nothing more often than by sprawling stems. 23. The object is to keep the stems within the stave and prevent their sprawling above or below. however. however. 18). The stems in a group of notes are generally turned according to the direction of the first In a group containing a note. inverted its Sometimes it had a tail ("punctus cattdatus") and looked not unlike an comma. or the majority.28 HOW TO 1300. according to the position of the notes and the direction taken by the hook. 1 8). till present meaning 22. wide skip they are often turned individually according to the rule. especially fourth note have to be added. A common fault is to make them too when the four hooks of a sixty- short. only is notes above the middle line should be turned down. acquire about a century later. is The no rule as to the length of stems. and they vary greatly. involving opposite direc- .

and of those . the time-values required by one verse or language have the stems of the notes turned up. (5) In music written on two staves. some organ music. the hook is placed between the staves. especially Germany. ink. though having the same notes. though according to Dr. and the stems of the notes on the lower stave are turned up. the stems of the right-hand notes are turned up. and those of the left down (see Fig. or is to be divided between the hands. In "copy" for the printer grace-notes are best written in red In piano music when a single part. for the sake of greater distinctness (see d. 18. the c. from Molique's oratorio "Abraham"). latter half of measure). (4) In vocal music. those required by the other down (see e. (2) row of notes. requires different time-values from the first verse. down. 18). or a translation requires different time-values from (3) Similarly in that in the original language. 18). WRITE MUSIC 29 (see hook being drawn between them : Fig. Hullah it should be turned in the direction contrary to that of the stem of the principal note. Five exceptions are common (i) The stem of a grace note is almost invariably turned upwards.HOW TO tions. those by the left. Fig. printed pedal notes which are to be played by the right foot have the stems turned up. when a subsequent verse. one playing one group and the other the next. 15. Fig. when the notes of a single group skip from one stave to the other.

30 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC on the upper stave down. a well-known case from a chant by Sir John Goss. When the parts cross. In short score. Fig. 18. not the upper note. Fig. wards. Fig. must have the upward stem. -and those to the lower downwards. To make quite clear which note each stem belongs to. irrespective of their relation to the middle line of the stave (see /. 18. the rule must be strictly adhered to: the note belonging to the upper part. where the tenor goes below the bass). Sometimes more than two parts are written on one stave. 19. the stems belonging to the upper part should be turned up24. in this case the stems of two parts . that is when two parts have to be written on one stave. from the " Moonlight" Sonata). Only by this means can the course of the parts be made clear to the eye. it is well in this case to make the notes a little less close together than they otherwise would be (see a.

At one time whole notes and shorter notes were not round.HOW TO ingenuity is WRITE MUSIC 31 must be turned the same way. and the hooks of simultaneous eighths and shorter notes do not concur. Fig. downwards. J. 25. 19. of a note at hand side of the note-head. at the 27. and the stem was then in the middle. but lozenge-shaped. The stems of rests are always turned downwards. This rule is observed less in the case of half notes than of shorter notes for what reason the writer is unable to say. and considerable required to make the course of the parts clear. J'. to allow of separate stems: the stems are generally rather short.-J J Fig. those left. Simultaneous notes are generally written not quite in a line with each other. so as not to run into each other. There is also a definite rule as to the side which the stem should be placed: stems turned upwards should be at the right26. 19). Two measures from Bach's piano fugues will illustrate these points (b and c. These gave way to . thus $. Usually the middle part varies in the direction of its stems. the longer notes being square.

published about 1675. ^ *\ . alto. With one should be made The exception is when longer and shorter 30. notes are combined in the same group. hooks at the right-hand side of the stem. was probably one of the earliest books printed wholly with round notes. they are therefore sometimes at the same side as the note-head. or chant book the stems of one part are all turned the same way: in the part-book they must be turned according to their relation to the middle line. or bass from a short-score hymn or chant book into a choir In the hymn part-book is not mere copying. subject to this. if the group contains more than one beat. It follows from the foregoing rules that even so apparently simple a task as transcribing a part soprano. tenor. In this case the hooks not common to the whole group are invariably turned so as to lie within the group. so as to lie within the beat of which they form part.32 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC round notes about the seventeenth century. Playford's well-known Whole Booke of Psalms. 29. and. 28. and sometimes not. exception.

and Germans. (In an edition in the writer's possession. But at the time of the Restoration. the notes forming a single beat of the measure should be united in one hook." pars. according to the position they occupy in the beat they belong to. four eighth notes must not have the same hook in Compound Time: they must be grouped as three and one. but this is probably rather due to the venue than to the later date. or two and two. French. published in Venice as late as 1724-27. The Italians did not adopt it till later. WRITE MUSIC 1660. united hooks are used. The device was copied by the Dutch. Thus. In threefour time. 8-13). but very commonly two beats have one rhythm hook between them. published in 1757. Marcello's Psalms. especially in four-four . have separate hooks. John Playshorter note for the separate ford substituted a connecting horizontal line hooks of two or more eighths belonging to the same division of the measure. Thus. united in strict accordance with the laws of (see "Notation of Rhythm. six eighth notes may have one hook. but in six-eight time they should preferably have separate hooks of three eighth notes each. time. or one and three.HOW TO 31.) Hooks in instrumental music must be 32. 33 eighth Previous to each or had a separate hook or hooks. Broadly speaking.

. and the inner hook or hooks the sub-division into beats (see Fig. the outermost hook often shows the half-measure. 21).34 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC In the case of sixteenths and shorter notes.

as the stave-lines are one from another." par. and 36. 8. Fig. 14) must be maintained as regards the pitch as well as the duration of notes their perpendicular as well as their horizontal position. 37). The appeal to the eye (see "Notation of Rhythm." par. Carelessness in this matter is very common and very confusing. syllable (see "Vocal Music. This is necessitated by the usage with regard to stems in such cases [see "Stems. ger ' "Placing of Notes. In vocal music notes should not have the same hook which are sung to a different 35. notes must be Subject grouped according to their rhythm. . exception (2)]. 22.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC 35 the rhythm. How often lines a lower note looks as though above a higher one." par. but with the hand which is to play them (see d. and from each other. Consequently leger- must be the same distance from the stave." par. to these exceptions. 22).

" as Euclid says: thing let leger-lines "Two and they will But accuracy in the number of lines is of more importance than the appeal to the eye. it about occupies. and the appeal to the eye must of course not be made a substitute for it. the stems in the second half of the first measure should have been turned up. not a manu- two notes are evidently intended as grace-notes. and would be were it a yard above the stave! (The example is taken from a printed.) script copy! first The Fig. The context shows the high note in Fig.36 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC because leger-lines are cramped together in one case and too wide apart in another (see Fig. things which are equal to the same are equal to each other. 23). 23. it is A. on the paper. being on the first leger-line. though the stems are turned down. the position of which. But. be level with each other. 24 (which is several times repeated) to have been intended for E. . Fig. be equidistant with stave-lines. 24.

C. half notes. . " 9 r . V. and quarters. WRITE MUSIC . 37 In vocal music the singing of Vocal Music. .HOW TO 37. STANFORD. Tc Deum. by a slur (see Fig. 25). one syllable to two or more notes is shown in the case of whole notes.

sary with hooked notes unless. to which one syllable is to be sung. though belonging to the same rhythmic group. But this is quite unnecesto one sung syllable. a gam. should have a united hook." ir His will r ri j rrrrf eth di - rect - Fig. when notes. depends much upon getting the syllables exactly under or over the notes to which they are to be sung. Fig. 27. This Mendelssohn's music. Intelligibility . if sung to separate syllables: a - gam. a syllable is sung to a whole group and part of another. Eighths and shorter notes. 38. 39. provided that they belong to the same rhythmic group. or parts of two groups. Paul. especially the case in MENDELSSOHN'S "St. as in the preceding example. Redundancy of slurs very common in old music is confusing rather than helpful. Many writers place a slur over eighth as well as quarters and longer notes.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC is dispensed with. 28. and separate hooks.

HOW 40. the same note-head if they begin at the same time. or hyphens. But a whole note and a half note separate note-heads.Fig. . and by strokes. 29. if parts of a word. though of different lengths. In transcribing from open Open Score 41. TO WRITE MUSIC 39 Syllables sung to notes extending over more space than themselves should be followed by dots if forming a complete word. may have Black notes. by having two stems. to Short score to short score. be represented by two noteheads linked. 30. one up and the other down: Fig. since a must have stem would turn a . if a whole note. if a half note or shorter note. a single sound Score. See preceding examples. two voices simultaneously sung by beginning and ending at the same time. the difference being shown in the hook or hooks: 42. should.

since a note cannot be white and black at the same time.4o HOW TO WRITE MUSIC whole note into a half note. because the hook shows that in one part the note is intended may have to be read as an eighth note. 31. Albeit a half note and an eighth. In this case the notehead of shorter duration must be written first: Fig. They cannot have an eighth note-head because there is nothing to distinguish the stem of a half note from that of a quarter: S. this be that the provided of half note. the same note-head. . first. HELLER. The first rule is sometimes relaxed. and the longer is note written when the shorter note the of a group. and a whole note or half note and a quarter note must have separate note-heads. or other hooked note.

42). the example is inaccurate. This would involve writing one of them in the wrong part of the measure (see "Placing of Notes. 33. [The tyro must not mistake the above two final note-heads.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC 41 end at the same time. Right." par. and therefore the final note does not begin at the same time (though it ends at the same time) in the treble and alto parts of the last group of Fig. the longer of which comes for a breach of the rule exemplified in Fig. . as a dotted quarter is a sixteenth shorter than two dotted eighths and a sixteenth. 31 (par. to two violins. 34. It should have been written thus: Fig. 1 6 (par. and which applies to two notes which begin at the same time. and would be so played were the passage given. Fig. say. Here the longer note beginsJ^/ore the shorter one. Hence.] first. Wrong. 14). 35).

HOW TO WRITE MUSIC all In part-music the accidentals in an open score will have to be reproduced in short Each performer is only supposed to score. read his own part. 35 Fig. pianist or organist would not need the second sharp in each stave. and cannot be assumed to have seen an accidental in another part which. 35. while probably preferring it as a recognition of the part-writing character if for of the music. 36. had it been seen.42 44. would have rendered one in his own unnecessary.) . intended (A part-singers or players. will remain in a transcription to short score. TJ^J: Fig. p m Thus the sharps in Fig.

writing.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC 43 In music which is not part. in transcribing the tenor of the following extract from the hymntune "Heathlands" into a part-book. The commonest form of this is probably in extracting a single part. J _jj Fig. alto. The guiding hood of error principle will be to avoid the likelion the part of a competent reader. it would be necessary to insert a natural before the A. Thus. Care must be taken to turn the stems of 46. Co-relatively. . or bass. tenor. transcriber will have to use his discretion as to the repetition of accidentals which have already appeared in another "part" in thesamemeasure. T^T^. it will octo Open Score. be to accicasionally necessary put dentals in the latter which are not in the former. from an ordinary short score hymn or chant book. the 45. in transcribing Short Score from short score to open. and not necessarily as they are in the open score. and writing it in a part-book for the particular voice. soprano. half notes and shorter notes according to the principles of short score. 47. 37.

44 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC Far more often. below the middle score. must be turned up down according to their position above or line. or The stems. in the following extract from the tune "Endless Alleluia. it should be enclosed in brackets a not infrequent. device with careful writers. and very commend- able. s^ ' r .) 49. when an accidental is desirable but not necessary according to rule. it is necessary 48. that the natural is almost a C necessity even had the previous treble C sharp not been included. Fig. and not as in the short ." the natural in both the tenor and bass would be unnecessary were these parts written out separately from the other parts and each other. (The gests of the A sharp in the tenor of this extract sugsharp so strongly apart from the rest harmony. Thus. however. Not being required according to rule. 38. however. to omit naturals used to contradict an accidental occurring in a part which is not being copied. of course.

. copying out a single part from a score. . But if a pause occurs in any of the other parts The number of bars before the pause must be counted.HOW 50. care must be taken in abbreviating a number of is a Single Part * measures' rest. He may be drawn into the bad and very irritating modern habit of using accidentals which are not Accidentals where unnecesreally called for. used with the object of are doubtless sary assurance doubly sure. follows. has just been pointed out. assuming it to occur in the thirteenth bar : 12 12 Fig. and the pause or pauses shown in the abbreviation as of the score this will not do. 39. . 40. for inserting necessity ' Accidentals. full or short. They have premaking cisely the reverse effect. Yet the musical Hercules is beset with a Charybdis as well as a Scylla. thus: Fig. The not appear in a short-score. The usual way of doing this to write the number of measures over a single 25 measure. 111 TO WRITE MUSIC 45 Extracting . in a part-copy which may accidentals 51. besides being uncompli- mentary to put it mildly to the intelligence .




of the performer.

Sharps, flats, and naturals are which sometimes foreign to the signature, and sometimes duplicate it, cause confusion

where there was previously assurance. Bad enough at all times, they are, when one is transposing at sight, exasperating to the last degree. An accidental is operative during the bar in




and no

further, unless it inflects

the last note of a bar, and the next bar begins with the same note. It is so usual, however, to contradict an accidental in the bar next to that in which it occurs, that this practice may

almost be said to have become a rule, breach of which might cause uncertainty in all but the This is no justification for the clearest cases. absurd practice of some writers, of contradicting an inflection the next time the same note uninflected occurs, however far off this



As a rule, a natural should only be used where
the sharp or
to continue.

to be cancelled would not
inflection intended

have to be repeated were the

r .... Legibility.


A common cause of illegibility J
. .

music is what may be called a spider-like sameness in the web. Stems and hooks indeed sometimes stems and notein manuscript




same thickness and them in printed music, Compare
of the




score, of

be seen that a dozen, perhaps a stems could be spun out of one hook.




Should it be necessary to erase and re53. write a note, the blurred effect too often resulting may be almost entirely avoided by penciling the correct note before tracing it in ink. This produces a lead-lined groove and prevents the ink from running.

54. careful

Orthography is taught by the making drawing rather than
of large letters.

Fac iuty.


The formation

of a

more rapid and individual hand does not come
So with musical phonography. The and patience, must first acquire accuracy and clearness. Not till these are gained must he think of rapidity

student, at whatever cost of time



Hence the consideration

of facility

has been deferred to the

well worthy of consideration, especially on the part of those who have much music to write. little thought will often show how


a character


be made in one stroke, which

any other way will take two or more, and that without any loss of clearness. Thus a half note can- be made in one stroke
begun at the point where the ring
joins the


stem; that is, at the top of the ring for upward stems, at the under part for downward stems.

Fig. 41.




Quarter notes may be made in one stroke if the head be begun first when the stem is upward, and the stem first when the stem is downward.

Fig. 42.


If this

very simple expedient were more gen-

erally known, the practice of writing downward as well as upward stems at the right-hand side

never done in printed music would not be as common as it is. It should be added that to make a quarter or half note satisfactorily in one stroke, a pliable pen, fine, but spreading under pressure, and rapidly recovering itself, is necessary, otherwise the head will be too thin or the stem too thick.
of the note-head

Eighth notes, especially those with downward stems, are best made in two strokes. They can, however, be made in one if begun at the bottom. That is to say, those with upward stems must be begun at the head, and those with downward stems at the hook. This hook must be drawn
thin, if made thick the pen will scratch when making the stem: if the head be made first the pen ends at the wrong side for a downward stem.

Fig. 43.


each of which takes one to itself. 2 4 I Z7 . raphy is hardly complete without a few words on Copyright. so does a sharp. with stem. owing to the dots. or at The G clef downward extremity.) a. 4 . A flat may be made in one stroke. Chords may be expeditiously formed. WRITE MUSIC 49 shorter note requires an additional can be made in one stroke if begun at the innermost part of the curl. A primer on musical orthog55. (The joinings are purposely left imperfect to The numbers show the or- der of the four actions for the four notes. and then adding the other notes. by making the top note. first. 4 2 3 a3 a. but is very apt to look like a half note. show the method. Chords with upward stems should be begun at the bottom. As long as a work is in manuscript and copies are not offered for sale it enjoys the same protection. if with downward stem.HOW TO Each action. A natural requires two movements. the The C clef requires four movements. 44. The F clef requires three strokes.Fig.

provided that notice of renewal given the copyright office one year Seprior to the expiration of the first term. reprint. such infringements can be prosecuted and the full penalty exacted. an international is curing copyright usually undertaken by the publisher.. D. each and every copy. or vend the whole or any portion of a copyright work for any purpose whatsoever. Copyright (date) by (name and to send to the Registrar of Copyright. two complete copies with a fee of one dollar for registration and a certificate under seal. It is an infringement to copy a hymn tune. Washington. It can be readily understood for copyright. a portion of an anthem. . as if properly entered It is an infringement of copyto right copy. publish. C. as are also such matters as mechanical rights.50 HOW TO WRITE MUSIC under the common law. secure a copyright in the United States of America it is necessary to print on To of proprietor). that such copying deprives the composer or proprietor of his just returns from the sales of his work. The copyright is first secured for twenty-eight years from the date of publication with the privilege of a renewal is for twenty-eight years. or to transpose a song. orchestral parts.

A C move over v^x close up takeout f </ space turnover "^^ . transpose -x"^i' C-"" lower case ^ These symbols should be marked on the margin of the proof (see sample page). Notes are indicated by their position on the staff not by their names. Slurs are drawn in and indicated by the word " slur. . for publication. / t wrong font ^Vt." Dots are encircled with a line to give them prominence.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC 51 When the finished composition is ready 56. The value of a note is indicated by a fraction. and no other instructions are necessary. There are certain symbols in universal use which are as follows: in every particular. a fair copy should be made and care exercised to see that it is legible and correct few suggestions as to proofreading and correcting may prove useful.

M. H. praise. P. love tbee. JbecA thy workl cast sloth awayT not thus that souls Mfc . tabor onl 'tis not lor natgl r b inXjo*t/e7rt lifyt it heavenly tain.HOW TO WRITE MUSIC L. If He ihaJL/raUe theeTIF He willing heart (or deign and mark and cheer: shall Notpll 4 Him be In vain. labor on. Should not J J J I Go. Jren heed thee. The j^aster praises: what are men? 3 Go. labor on! enoag gh. SMITH went. while here. wbef! n a dayl I The It Is world's dark night is hasteninRnn. Co. thee not. Speed.

32 Half Note Head with Eighth Note Hook. ... ..INDEX The numbers Accidentals. . 42 I Simple Time Slur 12 Sonata Pastorale 53 37. not the Page. 7 Hooks Introductory 29. 12. 27. 23. 36. Erasures Extracting a Single Part Facility 53 50 2 44 50 54 Placing of Notes 14 Playford's "Whole Booke of Psalms" 27. to Short Compound Time Copyright Crossing Parts Direct 55 24 5 20. 13. Open Score Open Score Score 16.. 21. 32. refer to the Paragraph. 22. Scoring 3 Short Score 18. Barring Beat-hnes 4 14 14 Leger-lines Legibility 36 52 Bind Black-notes 42 4 7 54 5 52 13 Mapping-out Mercer's Psalter Change of Key Change of Time Chords Clefs Morley 's Practical Music Notation of Rhythm . 24 Short Score to Open. 20. 5. 51 PARAGRAPH Key Signature 4. 9. 14. 42 31 7. . 31 German Quarter Note Rests 17 Grace-notes 23 Groups. 38 Rests 15-19. 8. Rhythm. 42 Sign of Perfection 7 Signatures 6. 14. PARAGRAPH 44-48. Notation 8. . 30. 50 of.. 34. 13. 4. 6. 40 Organ Music Over-lapping (Piano) Iteration II Dots Paper Part Writing Pause 19. 12.39 9 . Historical Notes. 4 4 14 32 23 41 23 Common Faults. 35.

.37 35.. . 23 (Exception 4) 51 9 Three Parts on One Stave 24 Ties. 16. 14. a more important Paragraph.40 "Vocal 4 Time Signature Turn Over 4.. 18 PARAGRAPH Unnecessary Accidentals Vocal music 37. 7 5 Words (See also Music") When a it higher is because it refers to number precedes a lower in the above index.54 Stems Of Rests Stroke and Dot INDEX PARAGRAPH 22 25. . 10. ii.