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Active Directory is Microsoft's trademarked directory service, an integral part of the Windows 2000 architecture. Like other directory services, such as Novell Directory Services (NDS), Active Directory is a centralized and standardized system that automates network management of user data, security, and distributed resources, and enables interoperation with other directories. Active Directory is designed especially for distributed networking environments. ● What is LDAP?
Short for Lightweight Directory Access P rotocol, a set of protocols for accessing information directories. LDAP is based on the standards contained within the X.500 standard, but is significantly simpler. And unlike X.500, LDAP supports TCP/IP, which is necessary for any type of Internet access. Because it's a simpler version of X.500, LDAP is sometimes called X.500-lite. ● Can you connect Active Directory to other 3rd-party Directory Services? Name a few options?
Yes. Microsoft Identity Integration Server (MIIS) is used to connect Active Directory to other 3rd-party Directory Services (including directories used by SAP, Domino, etc). ● Where is the AD database held? What other folders are related to AD?
AD Database is saved in %systemroot%/ntds. You can see other files also in this folder. These are the main files controlling the AD structure ● ● ● ● ● ntds.dit edb.log res1.log res2.log edb.chk
When a change is made to the Win2K database, triggering a write operation, Win2K records the transaction in the log file (edb.log). Once written to the log file, the change is then written to the AD database. System performance determines how fast the system writes the data to the AD database from the log file. Any time the system is shut down, all transactions are saved to the database. During the installation of AD, Windows creates two files: res1.log and res2.log. The initial size of each is 10MB. These files are used to ensure that changes can be written to disk should the system run out of free disk space. The checkpoint file (edb.chk) records transactions committed to the AD database (ntds.dit). During shutdown, a "shutdown" statement is written to the edb.chk file. Then, during a reboot, AD determines that all transactions in the edb.log file have been committed to the AD database. If, for some reason, the edb.chk file doesn't exist on reboot or the shutdown statement isn't present, AD will use the edb.log file to update the AD database. The last file in our list of files to know is the AD database itself, ntds.dit. By default, the file is located in\NTDS, along with the other files we've discussed.
What is the SYSVOL folder?
The Windows Server 2003 System Volume (SYSVOL) is a collection of folders and reparse points in the file systems that exist on each domain controller in a domain. SYSVOL provides a standard location to store important elements of Group Policy objects (GPOs) and scripts so that the File Replication service (FRS) can distribute them to other domain controllers within that domain. You can go to SYSVOL folder by typing : %systemroot%/sysvol ● Name the AD NCs and replication issues for each NC
*Schema NC, *Configuration NC, * Domain NC Schema NC: This NC is replicated to every other domain controller in the forest. It contains information about the Active Directory schema, which in turn defines the different object classes and attributes within Active Directory. Configuration NC: Also replicated to every other DC in the forest, this NC contains forest-wide configuration information pertaining to the physical layout of Active Directory, as well as information about display specifiers and forest-wide Active Directory quotas. Domain NC: This NC is replicated to every other DC within a single Active Directory domain. This is the NC that contains the most commonly-accessed Active Directory data: the actual users, groups, computers, and other objects that reside within a particular Active Directory domain. ● What are application partitions? When do I use them
A1) Application Directory Partition is a partition space in Active Directory which an application can use to store that application specific data. This partition is then replicated only to some specific domain controllers. The application directory partition can contain any type of data except security principles (users, computers, groups). **A2) These are specific to Windows Server 2003 domains. An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controllers. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory partition hosts a replica of that partition. Only domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can host a replica of an application directory partition. ● How do you create a new application partition
The DnsCmd command is used to create a new application directory partition. Ex. to create a partition named “NewPartition “ on the domain controller DC1.contoso.com, log on to the domain controller and type following command. DnsCmd DC1/createdirectorypartition NewPartition.contoso.com
How do you view replication properties for AD partitions and DCs?
By using replication monitor go to start > run > type replmon
What is the Global Catalog?
The Global Catalog (GC) contains an entry for every object in an enterprise forest but only a few properties for each object. An entire forest shares a GC, with multiple servers holding copies. You can perform an enterprisewide forest search only on the properties in the GC, whereas you can search for any property in a user’s domain tree. Only Directory Services (DSs) or domain controllers (DCs) can hold a copy of the GC. Configuring an excessive number of GCs in a domain wastes network bandwidth during replication. One GC server per domain in each physical location is sufficient. Windows NT sets servers as GCs as necessary, so you don’t need to configure additional GCs unless you notice slow query response times. Because full searches involve querying the whole domain tree rather than the GC, grouping the enterprise into one tree will improve your searches. Thus, you can search for items not in the GC. ● How do you view all the GCs in the forest?
C:\>repadmin /showreps <domain_controller > where domain_controller is the DC you want to query to determine whether it’s a GC. The output will include the text DSA Options: IS_GC if the DC is a GC. . . . You would need script to make such query, but you can also check your DNS for SRV records which contain _gc in their name. ● Why not make all DCs in a large forest as GCs?
When all the DC become a GC replication traffic will get increased and we could not keep the Infrastructure master and GC on the same domain ,so atlease one dc should be act without holding the GC role . ● Trying to look at the Schema, how can I do that?
Register the schmmgmt.dll with the command regsvr32 ● What are the Support Tools? Why do I need them?
Support Tools are the tools that are used for performing the complicated tasks easily. These can also be the third party tools. Some of the Support tools include DebugViewer, DependencyViewer, RegistryMonitor, etc. ●
What is LDP? What is REPLMON? What is ADSIEDIT? What is NETDOM? What is REPADMIN?
LDP : Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is often used to establish MPLS LSPs when traffic engineering is not required. It establishes LSPs that follow the existing IP routing, and is particularly well suited for establishing a full mesh of LSPs between all of the routers on the network. Replmon : Replmon displays information about Active Directory Replication. ADSIEDIT :ADSIEdit is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that acts as a low-level editor for Active Directory. It is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool. Network administrators can use it for common administrative tasks such as adding, deleting, and
moving objects with a directory service. The attributes for each object can be edited or deleted by using this tool. ADSIEdit uses the ADSI application programming interfaces (APIs) to access Active Directory. The following are the required files for using this tool: ADSIEDIT.DLL ADSIEDIT.MSC NETDOM : NETDOM is a command-line tool that allows management of Windows domains and trust relationships. It is used for batch management of trusts, joining computers to domains, verifying trusts, and secure channels. REPADMIN : REPADMIN is a built-in Windows diagnostic command-line utility that works at the Active Directory level. Although specific to Windows, it is also useful for diagnosing some Exchange replication problems, since Exchange Server is Active Directory based. REPADMIN doesn't actually fix replication problems for you. But, you can use it to help determine the source of a malfunction. ● What are sites? What are they used for?
Active Directory (AD) sites, which consist of well-connected networks defined by IP subnets that help define the physical structure of your AD, give you much better control over replication traffic and authentication traffic than the control you get with Windows NT 4.0 domains. Because AD relies on IP, all LAN segments should have a defined IP subnet. This makes creating your AD site structure straightforward; you simply group well-connected subnets to form a site. Creating AD sites benefits you in several ways, the first of which is that creating these sites lets you control replication traffic over WAN links. This control is important in Windows 2000 because any Win2K domain controller (DC) can originate changes to AD. To ensure that a change you make on one DC propagates to all DCs, Win2K uses multimaster replication (instead of the single-master replication that NT 4.0 uses). You might think that multimaster replication would make it difficult to plan for AD replication’s effect on your WAN links, but you can overcome this obstacle using AD sites. ● What's the difference between a site link's schedule and interval?
Site Link is a physical connection object on which the replication transport mechanism depends on. Basically to speak it is the type of communication mechanism used to transfer the data between different sites. Site Link Schedule is nothing but when the replication process has to be takes place and the interval is nothing but how many times the replication has to be takes place in a give time period i.e Site Link Schedule.
What is the KCC?
KCC stands for knowledge consistency checker. Apart of the ISTG<intersite topology generator> role in active directory. The kcc checks and as an option, recreates topology information for the active directory domain. ● What is the ISTG? Who has that role by default?
Windows 2000 Domain controllers each create Active Directory Replication connection objects representing inbound replication from intra-site replication partners. For inter-site replication, one domain controller per site has the responsibility of evaluating the inter-site
rather than a network source.default gateway) A network connection (to a hub or to another computer via a crossover cable) An operational DNS server (which can be installed on the DC itself) A Domain name that you want to use The Windows Server 2003 CD media (or at least the i386 folder) Brains (recommended. then we can create a new global catalog server by performing DCPromo from that restored media. Answer Link:http://www. so you cannot back up a domain controller in domain A and create a new domain B using that media. instead of across the network. If we perform a backup of a global catalog server. use DCPromo /Adv to tell it to source from local media. What you basically have to do is to back up the systems data of an existing domain controller.replication topology and creating Active Directory Replication Connection objects for appropriate bridgehead servers within its site.il/install_dc_from_media_in_windows_server_2003. It's not a replacement for network replication. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● What are the requirements for installing AD on a new server? An NTFS partition with enough free space (if you have FAT or FAT32 use convert c:/fs:ntfs command to convert it to NTFS) An Administrator's username and password The correct operating system version A NIC Properly configured TCP/IP (IP address. So if you have an old backup. copy it to our future DC. this saving valuable time and network resources. This also works for global catalogs..htm ● How can you forcibly remove AD from a server.) What can you do to promote a server to DC if you're in a remote location with slow WAN link? Install from Media In Windows Server 2003 a new feature has been added. restore that backup to your replica candidate.co. It's only useful up to the tombstone lifetime with a default of 60 days. then you cannot create a new domain controller using that.petri. we still need network connectivity. You can promote a domain controller using files backed up from a source domain controller!!! This feature is called "Install from Media" and it's available by running DCPROMO with the /adv switch.optional .. The domain controller in each site that owns this role is referred to as the Inter-Site Topology Generator (ISTG). but now we can use an old System State copy from another Windows Server 2003. subnet mask and . and what do you do later? . IFM Limitations It only works for the same domain. and this time it's one that will actually make our lives easier. because you'll run into the problem of reanimating deleted objects. and have the first and basic replication take place from the media.. not required..
If you have Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 installed on the DC. When you force a demotion. Run. or at the command prompt: dcpromo /forceremoval Note: If you're running Certificate Services on the DC. the version of NTDSUTIL in SP1 has been enhanced considerably and does a much better job of clean-up. To clean up the metadata you use NTDSUTIL. The wizard will automatically run certain checks and will prompt you to take appropriate actions. You may be wondering why I need to clean the metadata manually. The following procedure describes how to clean up metadata on a Windows Server 2003 SP1. The rest of the procedure is similar to the procedure I described for Windows Server 2003. On Windows 2000 Servers you won't benefit from the enhancements in Windows Server 2003 SP1. you'll benefit from a few enhancements. According to Microsoft. Demoting Windows 2000 DCs : On a Windows 2000 domain controller. your job is not quite done yet. one of the biggest criticisms of Active Directory is that it doesn't clean up the mess very well. You will also be prompted to take an action if your DC is hosting any of the operations master roles. type ntdsutil. which obviously means that the earlier versions didn't do a very good job. Because the other DCs are not aware that you removed the demoted DC from the domain. 3. the references to the demoted DC need to be removed from the domain. run the following command either at the Start. Although Active Directory has made numerous improvements over the years. which allows you to either install or remove Active Directory DCs. you will be prompted for the Administrator password that you want to assign to the local administrator in the SAM database. 2. To forcibly demote a Windows Server 2003 DC." Here’s the step-by-step procedure for cleaning metadata on Windows Server 2003 DCs: 1. in other cases. you must first remove Certificate Services before continuing. you may have to manually promote some other DC to a Global Catalog server. Now you must clean up the Active Directory metadata. For example. Type connections. forced demotion is supported with Service Pack 2 and later. you won't know it unless you start digging deep into Active Directory database. if the DC is a Global Catalog server or a DNS server. Active Directory basically ignores other DCs and does its own thing. Type metadata cleanup. Once the wizard starts.Demoting Windows Server 2003 DCs: DCPROMO (Active Directory Installation Wizard) is a toggle switch. Logon to the DC as a Domain Administrator. you will be prompted. For Windows 2000 DCs. so if the DC you are demoting is a Global Catalog server. . Cleaning the Metadata on a Surviving DC : Once you've successfully demoted the DC. 4. This is obvious in most cases but. Just make sure that while running the wizard. you might want to check out Microsoft Knowledge Base article 216498. the switch is ignored and the wizard pretends that you want to install Active Directory on that server. At the command prompt. If you specify the /forceremoval switch on a server that doesn't have Active Directory installed. "How to remove data in Active Directory after an unsuccessful domain controller demotion. The metadata for the demoted DC is not deleted from the surviving DCs because you forced the demotion. you clear the "This server is the last domain controller in the domain" check box.
By the way there is a tool called cache dump . Type connect to server servername. Type select site number. 14. You should be at the Metadata Cleanup prompt. 9. 11.5. ● What tool would I use to try to grab security related packets from the wire? Network Monitor. Type select domain number. Type list servers in site. 12. where servername is the name of the server you want to connect to. Due to the nature of forced demotion and the fact that it's meant to be used only as a last resort. Ethereal or Wireshark.petri. Type list domains. 8. where number is the number associated with the server you want to remove.il/forcibly_removing_active_directoy_from_dc. Type select server number." for more information Read original full answer at http://redmondmag. 15. You will see a list of domains in the forest.com/columns/print. Type quit to go to Metadata Cleanup prompt. Even after you've used NTDSUTIL to clean the metadata. you will have better luck using forced promotion on Windows Server 2003.co.asp?EditorialsID=1352 And best read this also http://www. Using it we can extract the cached passwords from Windows XP machine which is joined to a Domain. You might want to check out Microsoft’s Knowledge Base article 332199. You might also want to cleanup DNS database by deleting all DNS records related to the server. In general. each with a different number. Type list sites. 13. you may still need to do additional cleaning manually using ADSIEdit or other such tools. where number is the number associated with the domain of your server 10. Type select operation target.htm ● Can I get user passwords from the AD database? As of my Knowledge there is no way to extract the password from AD Database. "Domain controllers do not demote gracefully when you use the Active Directory Installation Wizard to force demotion in Windows Server 2003 and in Windows 2000 Server. where number is the number associated with the site of your server. Type quit to exit ntdsutil. 6. there are additional things that you should know about forced demotion. You should see a confirmation that the removal completed successfully. Type remove selected server. Type quit or q to go one level up. especially servers running Windows 2000 SP3 or earlier. 7. ● Name some OU design considerations. 16. . because the naming contexts and other objects don't get cleaned as quickly on Windows 2000 Global Catalog servers.
This assists in removing objects from replicated servers and preventing restores from reintroducing a deleted object.il/changing_the_tombstone_lifetime_windows_ad. SP2 fixed a critical internal AD bug.exe tool for Windows Server 2003 R2 is 5. ADPrep is located in the i386 directory of the Windows Server 2003 install media. you must prepare the forest and domains with the ADPrep utility. ADPrep is not located in the same folder as in the older Windows Server 2003 media. Installation disk 2 contains the Windows Server 2003 R2 files. and instead you need to look for it in the second CD. Object Type Good Article about OU Design: http://www. ADPrep /domainprep on the Infrastructure Master in each AD domain.2. To Change the tombstone lifetime attribute read this article http://www.exe /forestprep and /domainprep switches.htm ● What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 DC in a Windows 2000 AD? Before you can introduce Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. Installation disk 1 contains a slip-streamed version of Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2 (SP2). Geographic Region. You see. This value is in the Directory Service object in the configuration NC.windowsnetworking.3790. ● The Exchange / domainprep command adds objects within the Domain Naming Context of . Windows Server 2003 R2 comes on two installation disks. You can find the R2 ADPrep tool in the following folder on the second CD: drive:\CMPNENTS\R2\ADPREP\ (where drive is the drive letter of your CD-Rom drive) Read more about ADPrep and Windows Server 2003 R2 in KB 917385 Exchange 2000 note: Please make sure you read Windows 2003 ADPrep Fix for Exchange 2000 before installing the first Windows Server 2003 DC in your existing organization. which can manifest itself when extending the schema.● ● ● ● ● Design OU structure based on Active Directory business requirements NT Resource domains may fold up into OUs Create nested OUs to hide objects Objects easily moved between OUs Departments . Microsoft recommends that you have at least Service Pack (SP) 2 installed on your domain controllers before running ADPrep.html ● What is tombstone lifetime attribute? The number of days before a deleted object is removed from the directory services. ● ● ADPrep /forestprep on the schema master in your Windows 2000 forest. ● The Exchange /forestprep command extends the schema and adds some objects in the Configuration Naming Context.com/articles_tutorials/Clearing-Confusion-OU-Design. Note: In Windows Server 2003 R2.co.2075. There were also some fixes to improve the replication delay that can be seen when indexing attributes.petri. Job Function. Similar to the Exchange setup. The correct version of the ADPrep.
which you'll find in the Cmpnents\r2\adprep folder on the second CD-ROM. You can view detailed output of the ADPrep command by looking at the log files in the %Systemroot%\system32\debug\adprep\logs directory. You can view the schema extensions by looking at the . The ADPrep command follows the same logic and performs similar tasks to prepare for the upgrade to Windows Server 2003. you must first upgrade the schema to the R2 version (this is a minor change and mostly related to the new Dfs replication engine). ● What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 R2 DC in a Windows 2003 AD? If you're installing Windows 2003 R2 on an existing Windows 2003 server with SP1 installed. ensure all DCs are running Windows 2003 or Windows 2000 with SP2 (or later). modifies ACLs on some objects. The ADPrep /domainprep creates new containers and objects. and changes the meaning of the Everyone security principal. you must be sure that the updates from /forestprep have replicated to all domain controllers in the forest. Here's a sample execution of the Adprep /forestprep command: D:\CMPNENTS\R2\ADPREP>adprep /forestprep ADPREP WARNING: Before running adprep. The log files are named based on the time and date ADPrep was run. These files contain LDIF entries for adding and modifying new and existing classes and attributes. you require only the second R2 CD-ROM. These new schema objects are necessary for the new features supported by Windows Server 2003. Before you can run ADPrep /domainprep. /domainprep must be run on the Infrastructure Master of a domain and under the credentials of someone in the Domain Admins group. all Windows 2000 domain controllers in the forest should be upgraded . Each time ADPrep is executed. you can then start upgrading your domain controllers to Windows Server 2003 or installing new Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. Since the schema is extended and objects are added in several places in the Configuration NC.exe will display the Windows 2003 R2 Continue Setup screen. To update the schema. the user running /forestprep must be a member of both the Schema Admins and Enterprise Admins groups. a new log file is generated that contains the actions taken during that particular invocation. The ADPrep /forestprep command extends the schema with quite a few new classes and attributes. Insert the second CD and the r2auto. run the Adprep utility.ldf files in the \i386 directory on the Windows Server 2003 CD. Before running this command. If you're installing R2 on a domain controller (DC).the domain it is being run on and sets some ACLs. Once you’ve run both /forestprep and /domainprep and allowed time for the changes to replicate to all domain controllers.
.. type any other key and press ENT ER to quit.. install R2 by performing these steps: 1... click Next......... or to Windows 2000 SP2 (or later). C Opened Connection to SAVDALDC01 SSPI Bind succeeded Current Schema Version is 30 Upgrading schema to version 31 Connecting to "SAVDALDC01" Logging in as current user using SSPI Importing directory from file "C:\WINDOWS\system32\sch31.. [User Action] If ALL your existing Windows 2000 domain controllers meet this requirement... The command has completed successfully Adprep successfully updated the forest-wide information... then goto Active Directory Users and Computers. QFE 265089 (included in Windows 2000 SP2 and later) is required to prevent poten tial domain controller corruption.. Note: The license key entered for R2 must match the underlying OS type. as the figureshows...to Windows 2000 Service Pack 1 (SP1) with QFE 265089. Click the "Continue Windows Server 2003 R2 Setup" link... After the installation is complete.. Enter the R2 key and click Next..... then you can't use a retail or Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) R2 key.. 4... For more information about preparing your forest and domain see KB article Q3311 61 at http://support. 2....... Click Finish..... Copy files)...co..... At the "Welcome to the Windows Server 2003 R2 Setup Wizard" screen... select the Saved Queries... .. 5. you'll see a confirmation dialog box..... type C and then press ENTER to continue.. You'll be prompted to enter an R2 CD key (this is different from your existing Windows 2003 keys) if the underlying OS wasn't installed from R2 media (e.. After running Adprep..... ● How would you find all users that have not logged on since last month? If you are using windows 2003 domain environment. You'll see the setup summary screen which confirms the actions to be performed (e.g......... a regular Windows 2003 SP1 installation)... 3....g.. which means if you installed Windows 2003 using a volume-license version key.. then using the custom common queries and define query there is one which shows days since last logon ● What are the DS* commands? Answer is at http://www.uk/Logon/DSadd_DSmod_DSrm....computerperformance. Click Next..... Otherwise........com.... 139 entries modified successfully.microsoft.htm ....ldf" Loading entries....... right click it and select new query.....
Check which users you have. dc=cp. Let us create an OU (organizational unit) to hold the rest of the test objects.list the properties of an object Adding objects is great. you wish to quickly change a user's password. Let us now modify the the user's password with DSmod Example 1 Modify Password Logon to your domain controller. As ever. ou=guyds. dc=cp... and you would like to able to do it quickly from the command line. Alternatively type it starting with dsmod user . For ease of learning I introduce one variable at a time.to relocate objects DSadd . pay close .. but there are times in Windows 2003 when you need to change the Active Directory properties... ou=guyds... dc=com" -pwd a1yC24kg Example 2 Create user WITH password Note 1: We could have created the password at the same time we created the user. CMD then copy your script and paste into the command window. or even contacts. Command : dsadd user "cn=pault. Examine the script below.to delete Active Directory objects DSmove .create new accounts DSquery . Tricky method! Try dsmod group /? for more help. The primary use of DSadd is to quickly add user accounts to Windows Server 2003 Active Directory. here is the complete command to add a user with a password. However. if necessary create an ou called guyds and user called guyt.. Scenario.to find objects that match your query attributes DSget . Edit the dc=cp and dc =com to the fully qualified name of your Windows 2003 domain.DSadd ou. This is task you are going to have to do regularly. you can also use this method to create OUs computers. dc=com" -pwd a1yC24kg Example 3 Modify Groups Another use of DSmod is to add members to a group. Command : dsmod user "cn=guyt.. groups.. Creating an OU . Problems contact Guy Thomas see below for email address Introduction to DSadd DSadd is the most important member of this DS scripting family.. Run. Decide how cn= or ou= or dc= need editing. However.● ● ● ● ● ● DSmod DSmod . In this instance you need the full distinguished name (DN) of the group then the -addmbr switch followed by the DN of the users.modify Active Directory attributes DSrm .
but ou=GUY Space DS.. This command tells Active Directory which object to create.. Also remember that DS is new in Window 2003. dc=cp. Example 1 Using DSadd to Create an Organizational Unit in Windows 2003 Preparation: Logon to your domain controller.. Creating a User .. CMD then copy your script and paste into the command window.. dc=cp. dc=com" is enclosed in double speech marks..DSadd user.. Run. for instance the DN "ou=guyds. ou=guyds. So ou=guyds. Change "cn=guyt to a different user name if you wish. CMD then copy your script and paste into the command window. dc=cp. DS Error Messages DS has its own family of error messages. Decide if cn= or ou= or dc= need editing. in this case an OU (not a user). dc=cp.. Alternatively type it starting with dsadd user .. dc=com" Example 2 Employing DSadd to Create a User.. dc=cp.. Run.. Command: dsadd user "cn=guyt.. dc=com fails because of the spaces in the GUY Space DS. Edit ou= or dc= to reflect YOUR domain. Single 'speech marks' will not work. Note 2: You only really need speech marks if there is a space in any of your names. Preparation: Logon to your domain controller.. name... Note also that the distinguished name is encased in double "speech marks". I expect you spotted that the user will be created in the guyds organizational unit that was created in the first example.. (Assumes you have completed Example 1) The purpose of this example is to create a new user in an OU called guyds. dc=com" Note 1: dsadd ou. dc=com would work fine. Examine the script below. so will not work in Windows 2000.. just remember to pay attention to detail. I found that they are specific and varied. New DS built-in tools for Windows Server 2003 . dc=cp. Alternatively type it starting with dsadd ou . READ ERROR MESSAGES SLOWLY.attention to the syntax. dc=com" Note: DSadd requires the complete distinguished name.. In this second example you would type: "ou=GUY Space DS. Command : dsadd ou "ou=guyds. Examine the script below.
dc=com or dsquery ou domainroot Learning Points Note 1: dc does NOT mean domain controller.dc=com Learning Points . (not computers). Note 2: I queried users.To find all users in the default Users folder with DSQuery In this example we just want to trawl the users folder and find out who is in that container.dc=com Learning Points Note 1: The default users' folder is actually a container object called cn=users. Challenge 1: Substitute OU=xyz for cn=users. Example 1 . but they dislike spaces. Note 2: The dc commands are not case sensitive. Unfortunately. it means domain context. dc=com will draw an error. Which command do you think would supply the information? Commands: dsquery server dsquery server domainroot dsquery server dc=cp. Commands: dsquery user cn=users. however dsquery requires the singular user. Note 4: Best of all. not userS. If I need to find a user quickly from the command prompt. the command fails. where xyz is the name of your OU. Challenge 2: Substitute computer for user Example 3 .dc=cp. you can substitute domainroot for dc=cp.DSQuery to list all the OUs in your domain Let us find how many Organizational Units are there in your domain? This command will produce a listing of all OUs with this command. Other objects that you can query are computer (not computers!).At last I have found a real useful member of the DS family of utilities.DSQuery to list all your Domain Controllers Suppose you want to list all of your domain controllers. Example 2 . in this scenario. i call for DSQuery. I seriously suggest that you create some to organize your users. dc=mydom. cn=users domainroot does not work. Commands: Dsquery ou dc=mydom. group or even contact. Note 3: If you haven't got any OUs (Organizational Units). My point is if you try ou=users.
rid. -desc or -disabled are others. Moreover. Commands: dsquery server -hasfsmo schema Learning Points Note 1: The command is -hasfsmo not ?hasfsmo as in some documents. Example 6 . The DS family in general and DSQuery in particular.DSQuery Knowledge is power.dc=com -name smith* d or plain dsquery user smith* Learning Points Note 1: Remember to type the singular user.DSQuery to find all users whose name begins with smith* This DSQuery example shows two ways to filter your output and so home in on what you are looking for. you probably realize it's a wildcard. we are not sure whether their name is spelt Smith. Note 3: -name is but one of a family of filters. The arguments. DC= part which you may not be interested in. but this is not a switch I use. are handy . In a nutshell rdn strips away the OU=. Note 2: There is a switch -o dn.To query the FSMO roles of your Domain Controllers Here is a wonderful command to find the FSMO roles (Flexible Single Master Roles) -hasfsmo. Let us pretend that we know the user's name but have no idea which OU they are to be found. Note 2: Probably no need to introduce *. Example 5 .Note 1: Amazingly. Example 4 . Commands : dsquery user domainroot -name smith* or dsquery user dc=cp. Smithy or Smithye. dsquery server. which correspond to the 5 roles are: schema. infr and pdc.DSQuery to filter the output with -o rdn The purpose of -o rdn is to reduce the output to just the relative distinguished name. Command: dsquery user -name smith* -o rdn Learning Points Note 1: o is the letter oh (not a number). Note 2: I thank Jim D for pointing out that we want here is the singular 'server'. In my minds eye o stands for output. name. the simplest command get the job done. Summary .
Perhaps you could remote desktop into such a server? Note 2: Feel free to change smith* to one of your users. Commands: dsquery user domainroot -name smith* or dsquery user -name smith* | dsget user -dn -desc Learning Points for DSGet Note 1: Master the pipe command | which separates dsquery from dsget. . Note 2: Even though dsquery told the operating system it was a user object. Note 3: This example is just to build a foundation. Better still. In this instance what we need is a pipe symbol ( | ) to join DSQuery with DSGet. if this is not the case take the time to have a refresher Next a reminder to pay close attention to DS syntax. computer or group without calling for the Active Users and Computers GUI. dsget still has to invoke user in its section of the command. Hold down the shift key while pressing the key next to the Z. Now let us move on to DSGet. Perhaps the day will come when you need to find a user. Example 2 Basic DSGet We need to interrogate the output for more information.commands for interrogating Active Directory from the command line. description. Example 1 To Check that DSQuery is working Let build a solid foundation with a DSQuery (Only found on a Windows Server 2003 DC) Commands: dsquery user domainroot -name smith* or dsquery user -name smith* Learning Points Note 1: You need a Windows Server 2003 machine. So we use DSGet to retrieve the description. manager or department. you type this pipe (|) with the shift key and the key next to the Z. create a test account and start filling in those user properties. The idea is that when DSQuery returns a list of objects. Naturally this pre-supposes you entered the relevant information in the user's properties sheet! Introduction to DSGet My assumption is that you are comfortable with DSQuery. To create |. Just to be clear. (A colon : would produce an error). DSGet DSGet is a logical progression from DSQuery. DSGet can interrogate those objects for extra properties such as.
O. Note. there are the following DSGet commands : Computer. In addition to user. -mgr. dsget requires -ln instead of -sn and -fn instead of givenName grrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr. Telephones (tab). What's the matter with -sn? I will tell you what's wrong. Guess what information these switches return? -email. Follow up with: notepad filename. think of all these useful switches. email Manager. Commands: dsquery user domainroot -name smith* or dsquery user -name smith* | dsget user -fn -ln -mgr > dsget. -office Useful property -sn This command does not work.txt to your DS command. go with the flow. If you haven't done so already.txt Learning Points Note 1: To read the file type.K. Example 3 . -tel. Tell the truth. but on reflection I was expecting the impossible. So. in the context of DSGet. DSGet partition means Active Directory partition. Organization (tab).Challenge: See what happens if you omit the -dn. Group. so let us try exporting the DSGet output not to screen but a text file. it was a big disappointment that DSGet did not return the disk information. even Site and Subnet. Calm down Guy. They say the old tricks the best. I have come from Philistine to champion.Change the DSget output. however.DSGet As far as DSGet is concerned. address.txt. telephone number. . time to get a user's properties sheet and start filling in those attribute boxes. For example. the application partition in Active Directory.Which extra properties shall we query? -display Display name is different from the user's description field. just tag on > filename. Mobile. It also reminds of that old truism the more you know the easier it gets. > filename. Now I really enjoy the challenge of DSGet and appreciate the way it works hand in glove with DSQuery.meaning DC. Summary . Here we need a different type of pipe command. for example. not disk. partition and quota refer to Active Directory. notepad dsget. There are also two commands called partition and quota. also Server . OU.txt Note 2: I am impressed by the column format of the output I would like to leave you with a few more DSGet object that you can interrogate or experiment with. No more moaning. Now find them on the user's properties sheet. DSGet is actually fun and productive. this time it's the greater than symbol. Example 4 . -mobile Answers: General (tab).txt.
in which the PDC is responsible for processing all updates in a given domain. Windows 2000/2003 incorporates methods to prevent conflicting Active Directory updates from occurring. provides the flexibility of allowing changes to occur at any DC in the enterprise. Of course. as with the DSADD command. LDIFDE is a command that can be used to import and export objects to and from the AD into a LDIF-formatted file. it is replicated from the schema master to all other DCs in the directory. but I will show you some basic samples of how to import a large number of users into your AD. Once the Schema update is complete. Like CSVDE. In a single-master model. while CSVDE can only import and export objects. The five FSMO roles are: Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the schema. however it is not readable in programs like Excel. In such cases. the Active Directory performs updates to certain objects in a single-master fashion. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest. I will not go to length into this powerful command. only one DC in the entire directory is allowed to process updates. A LDIF (LDAP Data Interchange Format) file is a file easily readable in any text editor. This is similar to the role given to a primary domain controller (PDC) in earlier versions of Windows (such as Microsoft Windows NT 4. The major difference between CSVDE and LDIFDE (besides the file format) is the fact that LDIFDE can be used to edit and delete existing AD objects (not just users). while discarding the changes in all other DCs. there are times when conflicts are just too difficult to resolve using the "last writer wins" approach. "the last writer wins"). ● What are the FSMO roles? Who has them by default? What happens when each one fails? ***** Windows 2000/2003 Multi-Master Model A multi-master enabled database. In a forest. . Windows 2000/2003 Single-Master Model To prevent conflicting updates in Windows 2000/2003. To update the schema of a forest. One way Windows 2000/2003 deals with conflicting updates is by having a conflict resolution algorithm handle discrepancies in values by resolving to the DC to which changes were written last (that is. it is best to prevent the conflict from occurring rather than to try to resolve it after the fact.● What's the difference between LDIFDE and CSVDE? Usage considerations? CSVDE is a command that can be used to import and export objects to and from the AD into a CSV-formatted file. such as the Active Directory. A CSV (Comma Separated Value) file is a file easily readable in Excel. Although this resolution method may be acceptable in some cases. Consult your help file for more info. CSVDE can do more than just import users. For certain types of changes. you must have access to the schema master.0). but it also introduces the possibility of conflicts that can potentially lead to problems once the data is replicated to the rest of the enterprise. there are five FSMO roles that are assigned to one or more domain controllers.
Note: The Infrastructure Master (IM) role should be held by a domain controller that is not a Global Catalog server (GC). When a DC's allocated RID pool falls below a threshold. and the DN of the object being referenced. The domain RID master responds to the request by retrieving RIDs from the domain's unallocated RID pool and assigns them to the pool of the requesting DC. all the domain controllers have the current data. The purpose of the time service is to ensure that the Windows Time service uses a hierarchical relationship that controls authority and does not permit loops to ensure appropriate common time usage. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a Global Catalog server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. Relative ID (RID) Master: The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers in a particular domain. there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain. cross-domain object references in that domain will not be updated and a warning to that effect will be logged on that DC's event log. When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or group. At any one time. As a result. Each DC in a domain is allocated a pool of RIDs that it is allowed to assign to the security principals it creates. The PDC emulator at the root of the forest becomes authoritative for the enterprise. it attaches a unique Security ID (SID) to the object. There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest. that DC issues a request for additional RIDs to the domain's RID master. the SID (for references to security principals).Domain naming master: The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest. and should be configured to gather the time from an external source. This SID consists of a domain SID (the same for all SIDs created in a domain). At any one time. All Windows 2000/2003-based computers within an enterprise use a common time. It can also add or remove cross references to domains in external directories. . If all the domain controllers in a domain also host the global catalog. and a relative ID (RID) that is unique for each security principal SID created in a domain. Infrastructure Master: When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain. it represents the reference by the GUID. The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for updating an object's SID and distinguished name in a cross-domain object reference. This is because a Global Catalog server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. PDC Emulator: The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise. there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain. This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain from the directory. and it is not important which domain controller holds the infrastructure master role. All PDC FSMO role holders follow the hierarchy of domains in the selection of their in-bound time partner. The PDC emulator of a domain is authoritative for the domain. Windows 2000/2003 includes the W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the Kerberos authentication protocol.
an AD administrator must have the exact knowledge of which one of the existing DCs is holding a FSMO role. With that knowledge in hand. This part of the PDC emulator role becomes unnecessary when all workstations. one can accomplish this task by many means. Domain naming master . The five FSMO roles are: ● ● ● ● ● Schema master .In a Windows 2000/2003 domain. In order to better understand your AD infrastructure and to know the added value that each DC might possess.Forest-wide and one per forest. and what role it holds. ● Editing or creation of Group Policy Objects (GPO) is always done from the GPO copy found in the PDC Emulator's SYSVOL share. At any one time. How to find out which DC is holding which FSMO role? Well.Forest-wide and one per forest. The PDC emulator still performs the other functions as described in a Windows 2000/2003 environment. and better prepare him or herself in case of a non-scheduled cease of operation from one of the DCs. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emulator master in each domain in the forest.Domain-specific and one for each domain.0 Server-based PDC or earlier PDC performs for Windows NT 4.0 or earlier are all upgraded to Windows 2000/2003. ● The PDC emulator performs all of the functionality that a Microsoft Windows NT 4.Domain-specific and one for each domain. and domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4. the PDC emulator role holder retains the following functions: ● Password changes performed by other DCs in the domain are replicated preferentially to the PDC emulator. ● Authentication failures that occur at a given DC in a domain because of an incorrect password are forwarded to the PDC emulator before a bad password failure message is reported to the user. unless configured not to do so by the administrator. Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation).0-based or earlier clients. ● Account lockout is processed on the PDC emulator. The following table summarizes the FSMO default locations: . This article will list a few of the available methods. PDC .PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. RID master . member servers. However. the administrator can make better arrangements in case of a scheduled shut-down of any given DC. Infrastructure master . Method #1: Know the default settings The FSMO roles were assigned to one or more DCs during the DCPROMO process. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC.
When you're done click Close. . Use this table to see which tool can be used for what FSMO role: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Which snap-in should I use? Schema snap-in AD Domains and Trusts snap-in AD Users and Computers snap-in Finding the RID Master.FSMO Role Number of DCs holding this role Original DC holding the FSMO role The first DC in the first domain in the forest (i. PDC Emulator. Open the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. Open the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. and Infrastructure Masters via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain-Specific RID Master. Right-click the Active Directory Users and Computers icon again and press Operation Masters. PDC Emulator. any Tree Root Domain. Finding the Domain Naming Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain Naming Master Role: 1.e. 2. 3. or any Child Domain) RID One per domain PDC Emulator Infrastructure Method #2: Use the GUI One per domain One per domain The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of some of the AD snap-ins. including the Forest Root Domain. 4. the Forest Root Domain) Schema One per forest Domain Naming One per forest The first DC in a domain (any domain. Select the appropriate tab for the role you wish to view. and Infrastructure Master FSMO Roles: 1.
On the Console menu. Press Add. 1. Type roles . 2. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. type List roles for connected server. click Run. At the server connections: prompt. 7. 8. Finding the Schema Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Schema Master Role: 1. and then press ENTER again. 1. type CMD in the Open box. and then press ENTER. and then press ENTER again. On any domain controller. 3. Press Add and press Close. 4. 4. Press OK. At the FSMO maintenance: prompt. Netdom. Type connections . After it loads right-click it and press Operation Masters. 6. 3. and then press ENTER. 3. click Start. When you're done click Close. Right-click the Active Directory Domains and Trusts icon again and press Operation Masters. Method #4: Use the Netdom command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. type Ntdsutil in the Open box. type ?. Register the Schmmgmt. click Run. press Add/Remove Snap-in. and then press ENTER. 5. Method #3: Use the Ntdsutil command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Ntdsutil command. Download Windows XP SP1 Deploy Tools). 5. Click the Active Directory Schema icon.dll library by pressing Start > RUN and typing: regsvr32 schmmgmt. 2. Type connect to server <servername>. and then press ENTER. Type q 3 times to exit the Ntdsutil prompt.dll Press OK. From the Run command open an MMC Console by typing MMC.2. Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality. click Start. and then . type q. 1. and then press ENTER again. You should receive a success confirmation. You must either download it separately (from here Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools) or by obtaining the correct Support Tools pack for your operating system. 6. Press the Close button. On any domain controller. and then click OK. type Select operation target. The Support Tools pack can be found in the \Support\Tools folder on your installation CD (or you can Download Windows 2000 SP4 Support Tools.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools. At the select operation target: prompt. where <servername> is the name of the server you want to use. 2. Select Active Directory Schema.
as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory. In the Add Server to Monitor window. 3. and then click OK. But Replmon can also provide valuable information about the AD. Install the package before attempting to use the tool. Replmon can be used for a wide verity of tasks. 2. about any DC. click Start. On any domain controller. Just like Netdom. click Run. 7. and select Properties. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. such as GPOs and FSMO roles. Windows Server 2003 Active Directory is a bit different than the Windows 2000 version . 5. 2. Right-click the server that is now listed in the left-pane. select the Search the Directory for the server to add. In the Command Prompt window. 6. type netdom query /domain:<domain> fsmo (where <domain> is the name of YOUR domain).click OK. ● What FSMO placement considerations do you know of? Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). In the site list select your site. mostly with those that are related with AD replication. 1. However.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools. Right-click Monitored servers and select Add Monitored Server. Replmon. Make sure your AD domain name is listed in the drop-down list. and also about other objects and settings. Click Finish. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. 4. Method #5: Use the Replmon tool The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. expand it. type REPLMON in the Open box. and click to select the server you want to query. Click Ok when you're done. Click on the FSMO Roles tab and read the results.
6. Expand the Servers folder to see a list of the servers in that site.For each server that holds one or more operations master roles. leave all of the FSMO roles on the first DC in the forest. leave the PDC emulator. move all of the FSMO roles to a DC that is not a global catalog server . in the console tree in the left pane. . click New. Configure a standby operations master . Multiple Domain Forest In a multiple domain forest. In this article I will only deal with Windows Server 2003 Active Directory. and Infrastructure master roles on the first DC in the domain. and ensure that this DC is never designated as a global catalog server (unless the child domain only contains one DC. ● If all domain controllers are not also global catalog servers. make another DC in the same domain available as a standby operations master. You should also configure all the domain controller as a Global Catalog servers. 5. ● The standby operations master should have a manually created replication connection to the domain controller that it is the standby operations master for. This configuration reduces the risk of losing data when you seize the role because it minimizes replication latency. then you have no choice but to leave it in place). RID master. and it should be in the same site. select the name of the standby operations master then click OK. ● In each child domain. Single Domain Forest In a single domain forest. 4. leave all of the FSMO roles on the first domain controller in the forest. Making a DC as a standby operation master involves the following actions: ● The standby operations master should not be a global catalog server except in a single domain environment. use the following guidelines: ● In the forest root domain: ● If all domain controllers are also global catalog servers. Expand the site name in which the current role holder is located to display the Servers folder. while allowing GC-related applications (such as Exchange Server) to easily perform GC queries. and then click Connection. This will NOT place additional stress on the DCs. but you should bear in mind that most considerations are also true when planning Windows 2000 AD FSMO roles. In the Find Domain Controllers dialog box. Right-click NTDS Settings. 2.when dealing with FSMO placement. In Active Directory Sites and Services snap-in. To create a connection object on the current operations master: 1. expand the Sites folder to see the list of available sites. where all domain controllers are also global catalog servers. Expand the name of the server that is currently hosting the operations master role to display NTDS Settings. 3. ● Configure the RID master as a direct replication partner with the standby or backup RID master.
and point the connection to the current FSMO role holder. you must locate the domain naming master on a server that hosts the global catalog. What will happen if you keep a FSMO role offline for a long period of time? This table has the info: FSMO Role Schema Loss implications The schema cannot be extended. Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Not necessarily high capacity server .0 BDCs will not be able to replicate. Will be missed soon. Note regarding Windows 2000 Active Directory domains: If the forest is set to a functional level of Windows 2000 native. in the short term no one will notice a missing Schema Master unless you plan a schema upgrade during that time. Chances are good that the existing DCs will have enough unused RIDs to last some time. such as the PDC Emulator role. it is not necessary for the domain naming master to be on a global catalog server. should never be offline for more than a few minutes at a time. For example. However. unless you're building hundreds of users or computer object per week. there will be no time synchronization in the domain. Although most FSMO losses can be dealt with within a matter of hours (or even days at some cases). Unless you are going to run DCPROMO. then you will not miss this FSMO role. NT 4. If the forest is set to a functional level of Windows Server 2003. A highly available DC is one that uses computer hardware that enables it to remain operational even during a hardware failure. Group memberships may be incomplete. some FSMO roles. If you only have one domain.A high-capacity domain controller is one that . Server performance and availability Most FSMO roles require that the domain controller that holds the roles be: Highly available server . To create a connection object on the standby operations master perform the same procedure as above. enter an appropriate name for the connection object or accept the default name and click OK.FSMO functions require that the FSMO role holder is highly available at all times. then there will be no impact. having a RAID1 or RAID5 configuration enables the server to keep running even if one hard disk fails. you will probably not be able to change or troubleshoot group policies and password changes will become a problem.7. In the New Object-Connection dialog box.
for example. when the original FSMO role holder went offline or became non operational for a long period of time.has comparatively higher processing power than other domain controllers to accommodate the additional work load of holding the operations master role. One exception is the performance of the PDC Emulator. FSMO roles usually do not place stress on the server's hardware. FSMO roles are not automatically relocated during the shutdown process . and is described in this article. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. The transfer of an FSMO role is the suggested form of moving a FSMO role between domain controllers and can be initiated by the administrator or by demoting a domain controller. However. ● Do not make the DC a global catalog server. It has a faster CPU and possibly additional memory and network bandwidth.0 BDCs. In a graceful transfer of an FSMO role between two domain controllers. so there is no need to reduce replication latency for a seize operation). Moving the FSMO roles while both the original FSMO role holder and the future FSMO role holder are online and operational is called Transferring. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. the transfer process is not initiated automatically by the operating system.this must be considered when shutting down a domain controller that has an FSMO role for maintenance. for example a server in a shut-down state. ● Do not require that the standby domain controller be a direct replication partner (Seizing the PDC emulator role does not result in lost data. However. However. What do I do? What's the difference between transferring a FSMO role and seizing one? Transferring FSMO Role Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). That is why you should: ● Increase the size of the DC's processing power. and is described in the Seizing FSMO Roles article. The process of moving the FSMO role from a non-operational role holder to a different DC is called Seizing. the administrator might consider moving the FSMO role from the original. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory. a synchronization of the data that is maintained by the FSMO role owner to the server receiving the FSMO role is performed prior to transferring the role to ensure that any changes have been recorded before the role change. . non-operational holder. mainly when used in Windows 2000 Mixed mode along with old NT 4. to a different DC. ● Centrally locate this DC near the majority of the domain users. ● ● I want to look at the RID allocation table for a DC. ● Reduce the priority and the weight of the service (SRV) record in DNS to give preference for authentication to other domain controllers in the site.
the target. Right-click the Active Directory Users and Computers icon again and press Operation Masters. 4. If you are NOT logged onto the target domain controller. right-click the icon next to Active Directory Users and Computers and press Connect to Domain Controller. 2. Right-click the Active Directory Domains and Trusts icon again and press Operation Masters. in the snap-in. 6. 3. Press OK to confirm the change. 2. right-click the icon next to Active Directory Domains and Trusts and press Connect to Domain Controller. PDC Emulator. 7. Press OK to confirm the change. and Infrastructure Masters via GUI To Transfer the Domain-Specific RID Master. Depending on the FSMO role that you want to transfer. 4. Select the domain controller that will be the new role holder. Select the appropriate tab for the role you wish to transfer and press the Change button. Open the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. PDC Emulator. Press the Change button. . 6. and Infrastructure Master FSMO Roles: 1. 5. you can use one of the following three MMC snap-in tools: ● ● ● Active Directory Schema snap-in Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in To transfer the FSMO role the administrator must be a member of the following group: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Administrator must be a member of Schema Admins Enterprise Admins Domain Admins Transferring the RID Master. in the snap-in.You can transfer FSMO roles by using the Ntdsutil. Press OK all the way out.exe command-line utility or by using an MMC snap-in tool. and press OK. If you are NOT logged onto the target domain controller. Select the domain controller that will be the new role holder and press OK. 5. Transferring the Domain Naming Master via GUI To Transfer the Domain Naming Master Role: 1. 3. Open the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder.
Press OK. Register the Schmmgmt. Type connect to server <servername>. Press OK. where <servername> is the name of the server you want to use. and then press ENTER again. Transferring the FSMO Roles via Ntdsutil To transfer the FSMO roles from the Ntdsutil command: Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality. Type transfer <role>. On the Console menu. Press Specify . 4. click Run. 7. Press the Change button. Right-click right-click the Active Directory Schema icon again and press Operation Masters. For example. 1. 3. 2. Press OK all the way out. Transferring the Schema Master via GUI To Transfer the Schema Master Role: 1.. 1. and then press ENTER. and type the name of the new role holder. Select Active Directory Schema. 5. Press OK all the way out. and then click OK. 2. Type connections .. in the snap-in. Type roles . and then press ENTER. 6. press Add/Remove Snap-in. right-click the Active Directory Schema icon in the Console Root and press Change Domain Controller.dll library by pressing Start > RUN and typing: 1. and then press ENTER. Press Add. On any domain controller. Press OK. 8. 1.. 1. 9. type q. Press Add and press Close. click Start. you would type transfer rid master: Options are: . to transfer the RID Master role. 10. You should receive a success confirmation. where <role> is the role you want to transfer. From the Run command open an MMC Console by typing MMC. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. 1. type ?. type Ntdsutil in the Open box. At the server connections: prompt.7. If you are NOT logged onto the target domain controller. and then press ENTER.
If a DC holding a FSMO role fails. and is described in the Transferring FSMO Roles article.Domain-specific and one for each domain. so it is not a problem to them to be unavailable for hours or even days. in most cases. to a different DC. Restart the server and make sure you update your backup. and transfer the FSMO roles to a reliable computer. This operation. Infrastructure master . 2.PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. Moving the FSMO roles while both the original FSMO role holder and the future FSMO role holder are online and operational is called Transferring. in the short term no one will notice a missing Schema . However. should be performed only if the original FSMO role owner will not be brought back into the environment.Domain-specific and one for each domain. Domain naming master . After you transfer the roles. What will happen if you do not perform the seize in time? This table has the info: FSMO Role Schema Loss implications The schema cannot be extended. If a DC becomes unreliable. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. non-operational holder. PDC .1. when the original FSMO role holder went offline or became non operational for a long period of time. Only seize a FSMO role if absolutely necessary when the original role holder is not connected to the network.Forest-wide and one per forest. Since none of the FSMO roles are immediately critical (well.exe. the best thing to do is to try and get the server online again. You will receive a warning window asking if you want to perform the transfer. Seizing the FSMO ROLES. almost none. and is described in this article. However. type q and press ENTER until you quit Ntdsutil. 3. the loss of the PDC Emulator FSMO role might become a problem unless you fix it in a reasonable amount of time). RID master . Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). However.Forest-wide and one per forest. The process of moving the FSMO role from a non-operational role holder to a different DC is called Seizing. try to get it back on line. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. the administrator might consider moving the FSMO role from the original. Administrators should use extreme caution in seizing FSMO roles. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. Click on Yes. The five FSMO roles are: ● ● ● ● ● Schema master .
as this table lists: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure To seize the FSMO roles by using Ntdsutil. then you will not miss this FSMO role.Master unless you plan a schema upgrade during that time. Schema. The following table summarizes the FSMO seizing restrictions: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Restrictions Original must be reinstalled Can transfer back to original Another consideration before performing the seize operation is the administrator's group membership. Group memberships may be incomplete. unless you're building hundreds of users or computer object per week.0 BDCs will not be able to replicate. Will be missed soon. you will probably not be able to change or troubleshoot group policies and password changes will become a problem. If you only have one domain. or Domain Naming FSMOs are seized. NT 4. then there will be no impact. It is necessary to reinstall Windows if these servers are to be used again. there will be no time synchronization in the domain. follow these steps: Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory Administrator must be a member of Schema Admins Enterprise Admins Domain Admins . RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Important: If the RID. then the original domain controller must not be activated in the forest again. Chances are good that the existing DCs will have enough unused RIDs to last some time. Domain Naming Unless you are going to run DCPROMO.
Type connections. and then click OK. type Ntdsutil in the Open box. fsmo maintenance: Seize infrastructure master Attempting safe transfer of infrastructure FSMO before seizure. to seize the RID Master role. At the server connections: prompt. On any domain controller. Connected to server100 using credentials of locally logged on user. and then press ENTER. Type seize <role>. type ?. Type roles. and then press ENTER. C:\WINDOWS>ntdsutil 2. You will receive a warning window asking if you want to perform the seize. For example. server connections: q fsmo maintenance: 2. and then press ENTER. 1. and then press ENTER. Server connections: 1.. where <servername> is the name of the server you want to use.. click Run. you would type seize rid master: Options are: Seize domain naming master Seize infrastructure master Seize PDC Seize RID master Seize schema master 7. where <role> is the role you want to seize. server connections: connect to server server100 Binding to server100 . Type connect to server <servername>. type q . ldap_modify_sW error 0x34(52 (Unavailable). Click on Yes.functionality. and then press ENTER again. . fsmo maintenance: connections server connections: 2. ntdsutil: roles fsmo maintenance: Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. 1. click Start.
CN=SERVER200.DC=net Domain .DC=net PDC . Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema .CN=Configuration.CN=Default-First-Site-Name.DC=net Infrastructure .CN=NTDS Settings. data 1722 Win32 error returned is 0x20af(The requested FSMO operation failed.CN=Sites .DC=net fsmo maintenance: Note: All five roles need to be in the forest.CN=Sites .CN=Servers.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=SERVER200.CN=Servers.CN=Configuration. proceeding with seizure .) ) Depending on the error code this may indicate a connection.CN=Default-First-Site-Name.CN=SERVER100. Transfer of infrastructure FSMO failed. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until you've seized all the required FSMO roles. problem 5002 (UNAVAILABLE) .CN=NTDS Settings. After you seize or transfer the roles.CN=Sites .CN=Servers.CN=Configuration.CN=Default-First-Site-Name. 2.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=Sites .CN=Servers. The current FSMO holde r could not be contacted. or role transfer error.CN=SERVER100. ldap.DC=dpetri.DC=dpetri.CN=SERVER100.DC=dpetri..CN=Servers.CN=Configuration. Determine which roles are to be on which remaining domain controllers so that all five roles are not on only one server.CN=Default-First-Site-Name.CN=NTDS Settings. If the first domain controller is out of the forest then seize all roles.Ldap extended error message is 000020AF: SvcErr: DSID-03210300.DC=dpetri. type q.DC=dpetri. 1.CN=Default-First-Site-Name.DC=net RID .CN=Configuration. and then press ENTER until you quit the Ntdsutil ..CN=Sites .
co. global and universal groups? Domain local groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain resources. My Documents.tool.htm Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Security questions What’s the difference between local. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a GC server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold.petri. What are administrative templates? What's the difference between software publishing and assigning? Can I deploy non-MSI software with GPO? You want to standardize the desktop environments (wallpaper. What are the GPC and the GPT? Where can I find them? What are GPO links? What special things can I do to them? What can I do to prevent inheritance from above? How can I override blocking of inheritance? How can you determine what GPO was and was not applied for a user? Name a few ways to do that. Note: Do not put the Infrastructure Master (IM) role on the same domain controller as the Global Catalog server. What will you look for? Name a few differences in Vista GPOs Name some GPO settings in the computer and user parts. A user claims he did not receive a GPO. Better look of this answer can be found at http://www. Global groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains. I am trying to create a new universal user group. and everyone else there gets the GPO.petri.co.il/mcse_system_administrator_active_directory_interview_questions. yet his user and computer accounts are in the right OU. This is because a GC server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. Start menu.il/seizing_fsmo_roles. Why can’t I? .) on the computers in one department. printers etc. Universal groups grant access to resources in all trusted domains.htm ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Which FSMO role should you NOT seize? Why? How do you configure a "stand-by operation master" for any of the roles? How do you backup AD? How do you restore AD? How do you change the DS Restore admin password? Why can't you restore a DC that was backed up 4 months ago? What are GPOs? What is the order in which GPOs are applied? Name a few benefits of using GPMC. How would you do that? Source : http://www.
Users may be selectively restricted from modifying their IP address and other network configuration parameters.zap text file can be used to add applications using the Software Installer. Which one has the highest priority? The computer settings take priority. . Sites. Why doesn’t LSDOU work under Windows NT? If the NTConfig. You want to set up remote installation procedure. it has the highest priority among the numerous policies. You need to automatically install an app.adm? Microsoft NetMeeting policies How can you restrict running certain applications on a machine? Via group policy. where the policies are applied to Local machines. but do not want the user to gain access over it. What can be restricted on Windows Server 2003 that wasn’t there in previous products? Group Policy in Windows Server 2003 determines a users right to modify network and dial-up TCP/IP properties. rather than the Windows Installer. it uses . What do you do? A . security settings for the group.Universal groups are allowed only in native-mode Windows Server 2003 environments. then Software Restriction Policies. What is LSDOU? It’s group policy inheritance model. Domains and Organizational Units. and now the computer and user settings are in conflict. but MSI file is not available. What’s contained in administrative template conf. What do you do? gponame–> User Configuration–> Windows Settings–> Remote Installation Services–> Choice Options is your friend. Where are group policies stored? %SystemRoot%System32\GroupPolicy What is GPT and GPC? Group policy template and group policy container. Where is GPT stored? %SystemRoot%\SYSVOL\sysvol\domainname\Policies\GUID You change the group policies.zap files. Plus.pol file exist. What’s the difference between Software Installer and Windows Installer? The former has fewer privileges and will probably require user intervention. Native mode requires that all domain controllers be promoted to Windows Server 2003 Active Directory.
particularly those who move between workstations or those who must periodically work offline. he can still gain access to the file using the Universal Naming Convention (UNC). I have a file to which the user has access. Only native NTFS provides extensive permission control on both remote and local files. For a user in several groups.Enforce Show Policies Only. How do you fight tattooing in NT/2000 installations? You can’t. . The best way to start would be to type the full path of a file into Run… window. Can he access it? It is possible for a user to navigate to a file for which he does not have folder permission. What is "tattooing" the Registry? The user can view and modify user preferences that are not stored in maintained portions of the Registry. This involves simply knowing the path of the file object. If the group policy is removed or changed. newly created subfolders will inherit this permission. Explan the List Folder Contents permission on the folder in NTFS. Make sure you check Block inheritance among the options when creating the policy. the user preference will persist in the Registry. How do you fight tattooing in 2003 installations? User Configuration . and stored files for users.enable . applications. However. are Allow permissions restrictive or permissive? Permissive.How frequently is the client policy refreshed? 90 minutes give or take. user will have the same permission. if at least one group has Allow permission for the file/folder. You want to create a new group policy but do not wish to inherit. How do FAT and NTFS differ in approach to user shares? They don’t. Even if the user can’t drill down the file/folder tree using My Computer. both have support for sharing. Where is secedit? It’s now gpupdate. but not inherited by files within a folder. but he has no folder permission to read it. Same as Read & Execute.Group Policy .Administrative Templates . What’s the major difference between FAT and NTFS on a local machine? FAT and FAT32 provide no security over locally logged-on users.System . What does IntelliMirror do? It helps to reconcile desktop settings.
with no file-locking involved in DFS. What’s the difference between standalone and fault-tolerant DFS (Distributed File System) installations? The standalone server stores the Dfs directory tree structure or topology locally. if a shared folder is inaccessible or if the Dfs root server is down. What’s the number of permitted unsuccessful logons on Administrator account? Unlimited. if at least one group has Deny permission for the file/folder. Only one file will be propagated through DFS. are Deny permissions restrictive or permissive? Restrictive. Use the UNC path. Drive$. What hidden shares exist on Windows Server 2003 installation? Admin$. We’re using the DFS fault-tolerant installation. Can you use Start->Search with DFS shares? Yes. user will be denied access. users are left with no link to the shared resources. print$ and SYSVOL. What hashing algorithms are used in Windows 2003 Server? RSA Data Security’s Message Digest 5 (MD5). What problems can you have with DFS installed? Two users opening the redundant copies of the file at the same time. How does Windows 2003 Server try to prevent a middle-man attack on encrypted line? Time stamp is attached to the initial client request. A fault-tolerant root node stores the Dfs topology in the Active Directory. which is then replicated to other domain controllers. changing the contents and then saving. What third-party certificate exchange protocols are used by Windows 2003 Server? Windows Server 2003 uses the industry standard PKCS-10 certificate request and PKCS-7 certificate response to exchange CA certificates with third-party certificate authorities. Where exactly do fault-tolerant DFS shares store information in Active Directory? In Partition Knowledge Table. . NETLOGON. and the Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1). only 2000 and 2003 clients can access Server 2003 fault-tolerant shares. not client. but cannot access it from a Win98 box. regardless of other group permissions. redundant root nodes may include multiple connections to the same data residing in different shared folders. you can’t. Yeah. I run Microsoft Cluster Server and cannot install fault-tolerant DFS. which is replicated to other domain controllers. encrypted with the shared key.For a user in several groups. Is Kerberos encryption symmetric or asymmetric? Symmetric. Install a standalone one. Thus. produces a 160-bit hash. produces a 128-bit hash. IPC$. Thus.
The structural class is important to the system administrator in that it is the only type from which new Active Directory objects are created. What’s the difference between guest accounts in Server 2003 and other editions? More restrictive in Windows Server 2003. system. How many passwords by default are remembered when you check "Enforce Password History Remembered"? User’s last 6 passwords. specifically the ones using NTLMv1? A cracker would launch a dictionary attack by hashing every imaginable term used for password and then compare the hashes. What snap-in administrative tools are available for Active Directory? Active Directory Domains and Trusts Manager. The name for the technology is APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing).*. Active Directory Schema Manager (optional. not any account that’s part of the Administrators group. Active Directory Replication (optional. how is it possible to attack the password lists. Active Directory Sites and Services Manager. This is accomplished by right-clicking the application or setup program and selecting Properties –> Compatibility –> selecting the previously supported operating system. don’t have any access to the corporate network and on ipconfig my address is 169. (b) IP offer.* netmask is assigned to Windows machines running 98/2000/XP if the DHCP server is not available.Remember.ini timeout and default settings. What do you do if earlier application doesn’t run on Windows Server 2003? When an application that ran on an earlier legacy version of Windows cannot be loaded during the setup function or if it later malfunctions.*.*. What happened? The 169. and hidden to prevent unwanted editing. the users do not seem to be getting DHCP leases off of it? The server must be authorized first with the Active Directory. that it’s the Administrator account.ini file is set as read-only. © IP selection and (d) acknowledgement. . you must run the compatibility mode function. Describe how the DHCP lease is obtained ? It’s a four-step process consisting of (a) IP request. We’ve installed a new Windows-based DHCP server. I can’t seem to access the Internet. however.254. To change the Boot. use the System option in Control Panel from the Advanced tab and select Startup. Active Directory Users and Group Manager. Structural classes are developed from either the modification of an existing structural type or the use of one or more abstract classes. available from adminpak) What types of classes exist in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory? Structural class . How do you double-boot a Win 2003 server box? The Boot. though. available from the Resource Kit).254. If hashing is one-way function and Windows Server uses hashing for storing passwords.
? A Case: A Min DC (Windows 2003) & A BDC (windows 2000 Server) when the time of replication. or the Web server is shut down. OR.What is presentation layer responsible for in the OSI model? The presentation layer establishes the data format prior to passing it along to the network application’s interface. What’s the role of http. as it used to be in IIS 5. AND. How would you search for C++? Just enter C++. You can combine several networks and devices connected via several adapters by enabling IP routing. How many group policies can be applied to an OU? How many objects can be created in a Directory Partition? In Active Directory Replication. What is socket pooling? Non-blocking socket usage. and |. Does Windows Server 2003 support IPv6? Yes. introduced in IIS 6. Can Windows Server 2003 function as a bridge? Yes. What about Barnes&Noble? Should be searched for as Barnes’&’Noble.sys in IIS? It is the point of contact for all incoming HTTP requests.0? On disk. and it’s a new feature for the 2003 product. @. as opposed to memory. It have two .? What is Active Directory schema? The Active Directory schema contains formal definitions of every object class that can be created in an Active Directory forest it also contains formal definitions of every attribute that can exist in an Active Directory object. no more queues are available. Which characters should be enclosed in quotes when searching the index? &. Where’s ASP cache located on IIS 6. TCP/IP networks perform this task at the application layer. It listens for requests and queues them until they are all processed. What’s the order of precedence of Boolean operators in Microsoft Windows 2003 Server Indexing Service? NOT.0. $. ( ).exe from command line to disable it. Are the searches case-sensitive? No. but what about "Applicatoin Partition in main DC". run ipv6. #. NEAR. which FSMO roles is participating in replication. since + is not a special character (and neither is C). The global catalog contains a complete replica of all objects in Active Directory for its host domain. and contains a partial replica of all objects in Active Directory for every other domain in the forest. What is Global Catalog Server? A global catalog server is a domain controller it is a master searchable database that contains information about every object in every domain in a forest. Active Directory stores and retrieves information from a wide variety of applications and services. More than one application can use a given socket. All partition will replicated. ^.
this packet will contain the source MAC.0. the server will send the packet containing Source IP and Source MAC. How do you set a default route on an Cisco router? ip route 0.x. POP3 – 110. it is in hexa decimal format.0 x. To change the Boot. ip v6 it is a 128 bit size address. These 3 types: 1.x.x. DHCP Server leases the IP addresses to the clients as follows: DORA D (Discover) : DHCP Client sends a broadcast packets to identify the dhcp server. POP3.ini timeout and default settings. RPC. 3. A (Acknowledge) : DHCP server will send an ack packet which contains the IP address.0. unicast address multicast address anycast address loopback address of ip v6 is ::1 How do you double-boot a Win 2003 server box? The Boot.3268 What is a default gateway? The exit-point from one network and entry-way into another network. This is accomplished by right-clicking the application or setup program and selecting Properties –> Compatibility –> selecting the previously supported operating system. O (Offer) : Once the packet is received by the DHCP server. you must run the compatibility mode function.0 0. RPC – 135. LDAP and Global Catalog? SMTP – 25. This is total 8 octants each octant size is 16 bits separated with “:”.0. often the router of the network. What do you do if earlier application doesn’t run on Windows Server 2003? When an application that ran on an earlier legacy version of Windows cannot be loaded during the setup function or if it later malfunctions.ini file is set as read-only. 2.important functions: ● ● Provides group membership information during logon and authentication Helps users locate resources in Active Directory What is the ntds. . use the System option in Control Panel from the Advanced tab and select Startup. system. LDAP – 389.x.x [where x.x represents the destination address] Describe the lease process of the DHCP server. IMAP4 – 143. It follows IPv4 as the second version of the Internet Protocol to be formally adopted for general use. IMAP4. What is IPv6? Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer IP standard used by electronic devices to exchange data across a packet-switched internetwork. and hidden to prevent unwanted editing. Global Catalog .tit file default size? 40 MB What are the standard port numbers for SMTP. R (Request) : Client will now contact the DHCP server directly and request for the IP address.0.
How do you get to Internet Firewall settings? Start –> Control Panel –> Network and Internet Connections –> Network Connections. The Active Directory Installation Wizard verifies a proper configuration of the DNS infrastructure. workstations. Organizations form partnerships and joint ventures. and devices. servers. changes to computer account passwords. Organizations merge or are acquired and naming continuity is desired. Winkey + R opens Run dialog. and makes these resources available to authorized users and groups. Winkey + BREAK displays the System Properties dialog box. Win 98. In order to be located on a network. XP. Unique trade or brand names often give rise to separate DNS identities. While access to common resources is desired. Winkey + SHIFT+ M undoes minimization. changes to password policies. it performs debugging and reports what caused the failure and how to fix the problem. Winkey + M minimizes all.If you uninstall Windows Server 2003. Winkey + D shows the desktop. Winkey + B moves the focus to the notification area. every DC must register in DNS DC locator DNS records. These changes include account and individual user lockout policies. What’s new in Windows Server 2003 regarding the DNS management? When DC promotion occurs with an existing forest. and modifications to the Local Security Authority (LSA). Winkey + CTRL + F opens the Search panel with Search for Computers module selected. which operating systems can you revert to? Win ME. All DNS configuration debugging and reporting activity is done with the Active Directory Installation Wizard. Winkey + TAB moves the focus to the next application in the taskbar. Where are the Windows NT Primary Domain Controller (PDC) and its Backup Domain Controller (BDC) in Server 2003? The Active Directory replaces them. 2000. How long does it take for security changes to be replicated among the domain controllers? Security-related modifications are replicated within a site immediately. What are the Windows Server 2003 keyboard shortcuts? Winkey opens or closes the Start menu. An underlying principle of the Active Directory is that everything is considered an object—people. Winkey + F1 opens Help. What is Active Directory? Active Directory is a network-based object store and service that locates and manages resources. Each object has certain attributes and its own security access control list (ACL). Winkey + SHIFT + TAB moves the focus to the previous application in the taskbar. Winkey + L locks the computer. If the wizard fails to locate a DC. the Active Directory Installation Wizard contacts an existing DC to update the directory and replicate from the DC the required portions of the directory. printers. Now all domain controllers share a multimaster peer-to-peer read and write relationship that hosts copies of the Active Directory. documents. Winkey + E opens Windows Explorer showing My Computer. Note. however. Winkey + F opens the Search panel. Winkey + U opens the Utility Manager. When should you create a forest? Organizations that operate on radically different bases may require separate trees with distinct namespaces. that you cannot upgrade from ME and 98 to Windows Server 2003. a separately .
(3) Kerberos delegation to N-tier application in another forest. Active Directory Users and Group Manager. available from adminpak) What types of classes exist in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory? Structural class . abstract. 88 class . The user and related group SIDs together form the user account’s security token. nor is it in common use for the development of objects in Windows Server 2003 environments. and auxiliary definitions. there was typically one GC on every site in order to prevent user logon failures across the network.500 specification was adopted. Abstract classes are so named because they take the form of templates that actually create other templates (abstracts) and structural and auxiliary classes. Every group to which the user belongs has an associated SID. Active Directory Schema Manager (optional. (2) Kerberos and NTLM interactive logon for physical logon outside the user’s home forest. The 88 class includes object classes defined prior to 1993. . when the 1988 X. SIDs from the security token are mapped to the access control list (ACL) of any object the user attempts to access. Every domain has at least one GC that is hosted on a domain controller.defined tree can enforce more direct administrative and security restrictions. Rather than apply numerous attributes when creating a structural class. What snap-in administrative tools are available for Active Directory? Active Directory Domains and Trusts Manager. In Windows 2000. Think of abstract classes as frameworks for the defining objects. it provides a streamlined alternative by applying a combination of attributes with a single include action. Abstract class . The structural class is important to the system administrator in that it is the only type from which new Active Directory objects are created. Active Directory Sites and Services Manager. How is user account security established in Windows Server 2003? When an account is created. and (4) user principal name (UPN) credentials. This type does not use the structural. What is Global Catalog? The Global Catalog authenticates network user logons and fields inquiries about objects across a forest or tree. which determines access levels to objects throughout the system and network. The auxiliary class is a list of attributes. How can you authenticate between forests? Four types of authentication are used across forests: (1) Kerberos and NTLM network logon for remote access to a server in another forest. If I delete a user and then create a new account with the same username and password. Active Directory Replication (optional. Structural classes are developed from either the modification of an existing structural type or the use of one or more abstract classes. Auxiliary class . available from the Resource Kit). it is given a unique access number known as a security identifier (SID). How do you delete a lingering object? Windows Server 2003 provides a command called Repadmin that provides the ability to delete lingering objects in the Active Directory.
connecting a branch office network to a company headquarters network. sending it through a VPN tunnel over the Internet.exe) What are the differences between a site-to-site VPN and a VPN client connecting to a VPN server? What protocols are used for these? > EXPERT RESPONSE Site-to-site VPNs connect entire networks to each other -. If you delete a user account and attempt to recreate it with the same user name and password. hosts do not have VPN client software.509 certificates. VPN. DOS batch files (. when the user logs off. dial-in with callback.would the SID and permissions stay the same? No.for example. Where are the settings for all the users stored on a given machine? \Document and Settings\All Users What languages can you use for log-on scripts? JavaScipt. depending on how large his profile folder is. Upon receipt. The Credential Management feature provides a secure store of user credentials that includes passwords and X. the SID will be different. or even . Therefore. This can be useful for roaming users who move between computer systems. and relays the packet towards the target host inside its private network. Remote access VPNs connect individual hosts to private networks -. all changes to the locally stored profile are copied to the shared server folder. What remote access options does Windows Server 2003 support? Dial-in. travelers and teleworkers who need to access their company's network securely over the Internet. the first time a roaming user logs on to a new system the logon process may take some time. In a site-to-site VPN. VBScript. they send and receive normal TCP/IP traffic through a VPN gateway. since the Macs only store their passwords that way. and.com. What do you do with secure sign-ons in an organization with many roaming users? Credential Management feature of Windows Server 2003 provides a consistent single sign-on experience for users. decrypts the content. Anything special you should do when adding a user that has a Mac? "Save password as encrypted clear text" must be selected on User Properties Account Tab Options. The VPN gateway is responsible for encapsulating and encrypting outbound traffic.for example. .bat. to a peer VPN gateway at the target site. Where are the documents and settings for the roaming profile stored? All the documents and environmental settings for the roaming user are stored locally on the system. In a remote . the peer VPN gateway strips the headers.
unlike PPTP. Whenever the host tries to send any traffic. To learn more about VPN protocols and topologies. Remote access VPN protocols are more varied. the VPN gateway performs the reverse process to send an encrypted response back to the VPN client over the Internet. or temporary Win32 program that is removed when the session ends). Most routers and firewalls now support IPsec and so can be used as a VPN gateway for the private network behind them. and IPsec VPNs. an extension to the standard IP protocol used by the Internet and most corporate networks today. The most common secure tunneling protocol used in site-to-site VPNs is the IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). Over the past few years. the VPN client software encapsulates and encrypts that traffic before sending it over the Internet to the VPN gateway at the edge of the target network. What are . and a VPN gateway that supports the same protocol and options/extensions for remote access. every host must have VPN client software (more on this in a minute). although MPLS does not provide encryption. L2TP. Also." but it is more accurate to say that they use web browsers as VPN clients. Many VPN gateways use IPsec alone (without L2TP) to deliver remote access VPN services.access VPN. usually in combination with dynamically-downloaded software (Java applet. many vendors have released secure remote access products that use SSL and ordinary web browsers as an alternative to IPsec/L2TP/PPTP VPNs. that VPN gateway behaves as described above for site-to-site VPNs. The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) over IPsec is present in Windows 2000 and XP and is more secure than PPTP. Another site-to-site VPN protocol is Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). Upon receipt. ActiveX control. watch my New directions in VPN searchSecurity webcast. These "SSL VPNs" are often referred to as "clientless. or read this InfoSec Magazine article on SSL VPNs. SSL VPNs tend to connect users to specific applications protected by the SSL VPN gateway. All of these approaches require VPN client software on every host. The Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) has been included in every Windows operating system since Windows 95. If the target host inside the private network returns a response. which connect remote hosts to an entire private network.
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