Smith and Charlwood
PAPER No. 01-2301
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Beyond ASR and D-Cracking; Another Source of Concrete Pavement Deterioration?
Barbara Smith Kansas Department of Transportation, 2300 SW Van Buren, Topeka, KS 66611 Fax (785) 296-2526 Telephone (785) 291-3848 Barbara@ksdot.org
Kevin Charlwood Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washburn University, 1700 SW College Avenue, Topeka, KS 66621 Telephone (785) 231-1010 ext 1499 firstname.lastname@example.org
Transportation Research Board 80th Annual Meeting January 7-11, 2001 Washington, D. C.
A study to correlate predictions of pavements that might be vulnerable to deterioration based upon the findings of this research is underway. Topeka. KS 66611 Kevin Charlwood Department of Mathematics and Statistics. The finer textured rock had proportionately higher passing rates and lower iron content. Statistical analyses were run on the carbonate minerals exhibiting a gradation from low iron content to high iron content. varying by limestone texture. An outcome of the current study is the proposed use of iron content by geologists as an indication of changes in ledges. KS 66621
ABSTRACT Premature deterioration of concrete pavement necessitated a look for possible causes since d-cracking and alkali silica reaction (ASR) had been eliminated as probable causes.
. A new approach produced a pattern implicating iron in the carbonate mineral structures of limestone matching the emerging field pavement observations. 1700 SW College Avenue. Another Source of Concrete Pavement Deterioration?
Barbara Smith Kansas Department of Transportation. Some high iron content aggregates pass criteria and have been used in pavements. Construction engineers may use these results to check uniformity of stockpiled aggregates. The analyses indicated a moderately strong
dependence upon iron content for passing or failing the criteria for use in concrete pavement. 2300 SW Van Buren. Topeka.Smith and Charlwood
Beyond ASR and D-Cracking. The coarser textured rock had lower passing rates and higher iron content. Washburn University. The researchers used the data from a previous study of limestone quarries to see if there was a pattern linked to the new deterioration.
Studies culminating in the MacPherson test road led to practices that eliminated ASR distress in Kansas’s pavements by the early 1950s. KTMR-23. d-cracking was recognized as another mechanism of pavement destruction. With the current testing program. This series of tests seems to be effective as protection from defective highways due to ASR and d-cracking susceptible aggregate (1). Before 1974. ASR deterioration began to show up in two to five years and dcracking began within five years for moderately susceptible aggregate. These three tests have been in place for 20 years. tests for carbonate coarse aggregates have eliminated distress caused by dcracking. Through numerous studies over the past 60 years. In the late 1930s. This test takes two weeks for results. In 1997 distress was limited to about one-half mile out of 465 miles of pavement placed since 1981 (2). These results indicate that the ASR and d-cracking distress that occurred early in the pavements has been controlled. Wetting and Drying Test of Sand and Sand-Gravel Aggregate for Concrete is begun simultaneously and concrete beams using the test aggregate in the mix are measured for expansion for 365 days. Kansas state highways have been free of deterioration caused by ASR and d-cracking. Typically in Kansas. If the aggregate passes this test. Procedure B Modified is performed using a 90 day cure period after casting. Earlier pavements constructed with aggregates from quarries that proved to be Class I in the 1980s show that Class I aggregate can be expected to produce pavements lasting 30 years before replacement.
. pavement is expected to endure 20 to 30 years before visible signs of deterioration.
Currently the first test used to identify Class I aggregate is KTMR-21. Soundness and Modified Soundness of Aggregates by Freezing and Thawing Test Method.Smith and Charlwood
CARBONATE AGGREGATE RESEARCH IN KANSAS Researchers in Kansas were aware of the distress later termed alkali silica reaction (ASR) in the late 1920s and began research to determine its cause by 1932. For pavements constructed since the early 1980s. 48% of the pavement built after 1961 was d-cracked. resulting in minimal difficulties caused by ASR or d-cracking. then ASTM C 666. At that time there began a testing program to qualify Class I aggregates for use in concrete pavement.
Class I aggregate have been used since 1981 and have shown control of the early deterioration seen in Kansas caused by ASR and d-cracking. Sawing of the pavement revealed d-cracking that had not worked its way to the surface in the concrete. as found in the entire database described below. The stained peels record mineralogy and texture information in the samples. Often several peels are needed to record
. The reason for this is not understood. is associated with failing tests in 67% of its occurrences. Information in the study database about Argentine ledges indicates that it often has high iron dolomite that stains a characteristic denim or indigo blue (PB). The research uses data from 250 ledges from Kansas’s limestone quarries to provide statistics for analysis. This newly found deterioration of concrete pavement failed to fit the chronology dictated by past ASR or d-cracking. The remaining 33% pass Class I criteria and potentially are incorporated in pavement. using a standard carbonate stain procedure (3). pavement in the Kansas City area was slated for retrofit by dowell bar insertion. the research reported here investigates the aggregate sources using mineral constituents and rock texture to find possible patterns in the deterioration and aggregate sources that can point the way to eliminating the distress in future construction.Smith and Charlwood
In the spring of 1999. This limited information concerning the Argentine and the incidence of the blue color led to a further investigation of the entire database. and this pavement had been constructed in the mid-1980s under the current test program. Ledge samples are processed to produce stained acetate peels.
While many activities are ongoing. It is an important source in the Kansas City area but problematic in that some sources pass testing and nearby sources fail. This blue color.
INVESTIGATION The first deteriorating pavement was constructed using Argentine limestone. It was hoped the investigation would lead to a more inclusive understanding of how the limited information fits into the broader aspects of Class I aggregates.
OBJECTIVE This research is a preliminary step to determine whether limestone mineralogy can lead to predicative assessment of pavements constructed with Class I aggregate vulnerable to future d-cracking.
Stain color together with sample texture ranging from fine to coarse on a scale of one to eight provides entries in a database for analysis.
Using the information contained in the database (3). new contingency tables are organized in arrays with calcite determining the columns and dolomite determining the rows. each peel is coded by dominant stain color and up to four associated stain colors. it is found to be useful to group the data into 3-by-3 arrays for consistency and description. contingency tables are formed. Chi-square tests for dependence of Class I on
. Further.Smith and Charlwood
the range of differences found within a ledge. Texture 3 is a medium texture of micritic mud and grain. however.
Based on the tallies of the sample data in the original database. For the research reported here.
The stain colors indicate calcite ranging from no iron to high iron content. Individual tables are grouped by texture as follows: Textures 1 and 2 form one category of fine texture. This study is confined to peel colors categorized by color family as opposed to saturation and intensity of color. both of these indicators can provide information about iron content. The tallies of peels falling into each color category are placed in the calcite-dolomite stain color array for each texture. The entries for the samples with highest iron content are then placed toward the lower right corner of each array. Textures 4 through 8 inclusive were constituted with coarse texture grains and crystalline minerals (5). this is part of a concurrent study. and iron content increases across each row and down each column. Few samples occur in the coarser Textures 4 through 8. After categorization by color and textures found in the ledges. The stain colors are described using the Munsell color system. the entries are arranged so that samples with low iron content are presented toward the upper left corner of each array. The peels are sorted by the mix of calcite and dolomite staining and by texture. and. The related Chi-Square and Cramer’s V statistics are used to show
dependence between color family and texture and their effects on passing or failing of the Class I aggregate tests (4). Clay content and type are also important in Class I test outcomes. and dolomite ranging from no iron to high iron content. similar treatment is given to Textures 1 and 2. so they are consolidated into a combined mineral color array.
the Chi-square scores are normed through the use of Cramer’s V test. Row 2 has low counts. Note in figure 1c that as iron content increases in calcite (reading in order A.
The 3-by-3 array in figure 1b shows the passing and failing counts for the combination of all textures. and 3 with NONE. the combination YR with purple blue (PB) in row 2. the minor exception is shown in row 2 since it has low counts. Cramer’s V scores put the Chi-square scores on an equivalent basis so that they may be compared effectively (6). Cramer’s V calculations range from 0 to 1 with 0 implying complete independence (no relationship) and 1 implying complete dependence (variables completely explain the relationship). B. The Cramer’s V score for figure 1 is . The rows are 1. Since the 3-by-3 contingency tables varied by sample size extracted from the original data. and C with A representing red stain (R) and its combinations when dominant. indicating a stronger dependence of Class I on color for this texture category. These segments are described by columns A. The same is also true of dolomite. the percentage of samples passing Class I criteria decreases.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF ANALYSIS The figures below present the tallies for each texture and peel color combination from the original data grouped into 3-by-3 arrays as indicated in the section on investigation above. this combination is separated from rows 1 and 3 which contain one color or the other. indicating moderately strong dependence of Class I on color alone. B.53. Figure 3 shows Texture 3. no stain color (clear). light blue and yellow red (YR) in row 1. Figure 1a shows how the data are partitioned into stain color segments. Figure 1 is then broken down into texture categories as shown in figures 2 through 4. C). B for red purple (RP) stain combinations and C for purple (P) stain color combinations on the calcite axis. but since YR is typically indicated in passing counts and PB more likely in failing counts. Figure 2 shows the two finest textures. 2. These rows and columns in order indicate a rough approximation of stains showing little iron content to those showing high iron content in the carbonate minerals. and Cramer’s V is .Smith and Charlwood
iron content and texture are performed on the 3-by-3 arrays as contingency tables. and PB in other combinations in row 3 constituting the dolomite axis.
The statistics indicate moderately strong dependence of Class I on iron content in both calcite and dolomite minerals composing limestone. one notes that as texture coarsens. and high clay content (1. The iron contained in calcite and dolomite is in the reduced state.Smith and Charlwood
yielding a V score of . the columns are designated by A. Conclusions of KDOT researchers and others investigating alkali-carbonate reactions were that reactive rock contained more dolomite usually with a characteristic dolomitic texture. The study also discussed the importance of iron in the carbonate mineral structure (9). Figure 4 shows the coarsest textures 4 through 8 and has V score of . 2 and 3. B and C with the rows indicated by 1. the proportion dominated by high iron content increases. 12. In row 1 of each of these figures. As the textures run from fine to coarse. Ferroan dolomite is described by researchers in Iowa as indicating lower service life (7). A recent study using freshly produced limestone building stone to compare with that from a centuries old structure built from the same quarry also noted that increased amounts of iron were indicated in the poorer quality stone. In row 3.
For the sake of discussing the 3-by-3 arrays. one notes that the Class I percentage trend is also illustrated. and the Class I percentage decreases. the parenthetic number indicates the sample percentage of the total population in each category. This is the result of the iron oxidizing in the limestone. Class I percentage tends to decrease. Weathering of limestone results many times in yellow to yellow-orange colors in the weathered rock. one finds 77% in Class I for the finest textures. Considering figures 2b through 4b. This iron might also cause the
. and only 44% in Class I in the coarsest textures. Later study by these researchers lead to a conclusion that a small amount of high iron dolomite can be used to predict poor performance in concrete (8). Iron might also be incorporated as minerals (pyrite is an example) or included in clays present in the limestone.52. When all textures are combined as shown in figure 1c.37. 10. due at least in part to the smaller sample size for this texture grouping. Their study found that iron in carbonate aggregates could result in instability and premature deterioration in concrete pavements. 11. 13) but do not mention iron content as a factor. the general pattern discussed for the texture categories in row 1 of each figure continues to show that Class I percentage tends to decrease as texture runs from fine to coarse. 58% in Class I for the intermediate texture.
As stain colors on rock or aggregate. and less varied. The precise causes for the PB stain when found in a ledge may not be as important to know as simply noting that iron presence is indicated by the stain. If any of these mechanisms is responsible. A study is underway to determine how to use the results of this study in predicting future pavement distress based upon origin of the Class I aggregate and its mineralogical and textural characteristics. When used on rock or crushed aggregate rather than polished rock surfaces.
SUGGESTED USES IN THE FIELD The research reported here involves stained peels. Some of the aggregate. The same staining solutions can be used on freshly broken rock surfaces or crushed aggregate. has more iron but it is concentrated in a relatively small portion of the total aggregate production of the tested ledge. Another way for aggregate with larger concentrations of iron to find its way into the pavement is by having poorer quality aggregate incorporated with production of Class I aggregate (4). and possibly the unknown factor. These uses suggest ways geologists and construction engineers might use these results in the field. If this is true. Iron can be found in the carbonate minerals as discussed above in very minor amounts. is still useful to point out potentially low quality aggregate. then the staining as a tool indicating iron content.
If the iron in the limestone is oxidizing slowly in pavement producing d-cracking that only begins to emerge after 15 years or more. R is
. Because it is scattered through the pavement. the stain colors are darker. This may or may not be seen as deterioration for a large number of years depending on the amount of iron.Smith and Charlwood
color stain changes evidenced here. the effects of its oxidation take a long time to be seen in the pavement. the oxidation of the iron by weathering may be the important factor. The dominant color of the peels generally provides the dominant color seen in stained rocks. Regardless of the source of iron. there are several possible ways aggregate with iron is present. then staining as a tool may be a way to flag potential problems. More study is currently underway to determine the contribution of clays and iron-containing minerals to the results as seen in this study. Another possibility is that the dependence shown by iron indicated in the staining might be due to another unknown factor that simply appears with iron and is indicated by the stain. while passing the testing. more intense.
The geologist can also stain crushed aggregate as it is produced from the ledges in the quarry.
Practices begun in the early 1980s have controlled the pavement deterioration caused by ASR and d-cracking. this color seems to be a flag for potentially poor quality aggregate.Smith and Charlwood
. This reported research may form the basis for a field tool useful for field geologists sampling quarries and also for field and construction engineers checking stockpiles of produced aggregates. Knowledge of the dominant colors as recorded from the quarry for production and non-production ledges enables the engineer to compare the stain results from the stockpile with those from the quarry. or changes in aggregate quality in production zones. These are the calcite indicators. Past experience indicates RP and P predominate in Class I production ledges (2). The iron oxide coded as YR is seen as an accessory color.
Construction engineers concerned with stockpiles of aggregate at the construction site can use the staining solution on random samples from the stockpiles. Studies to check predictions based on this research for possible future deterioration are concurrent with studies to better understand the factors in the current results. High iron dolomite as PB is found as a dominant or accessory color. These two potential uses of this carbonate staining as applied in the field are currently under investigation.
While geologists are in the quarry taking samples to test for new production or to verify current production quality. Since many ledges that fail contain PB. Low iron dolomite is seldom seen. the stain solution can be used on the samples as they are collected. This would make available the stain colors as a way to locate potential poor quality zones in the quarry. The variations in dominant and accessory colors should conform to the quarry results of Class I aggregate when the production is uncontaminated by poor quality rock. RP and P are common. The stain colors can be recorded as part of the record of inspection and collection. Newly observed deterioration of pavements built since 1981 may be related to limestone aggregate that contains high iron dolomite and calcite.
Interim Report. Carl. March 2000. Karen A. Dean Hamilton. 25 pp. Bureau of Materials and Research. Kansas Department of Transportation. Barbara J. and C. Bureau of Materials and Research.Smith and Charlwood
This research was conducted using Federal and State Planning and Research Funds (SPR). Kansas Department of Transportation. 104 pp. Atlas of Sedimentary Rocks Under the Microscope. Kansas Department of Transportation. Report No. and Their Roles in Premature Deterioration of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement in Kansas. FHWA-KS-99-1. FHWA-KS-00-1. Division of Operations. Final Report. Pollock. Kenzie. Kansas Department of Transportation. Pollock. 81 pp. John Wiley and Sons. and L.
(4) Smith. and Ralph G. FHWA-KS-97/4. Study of D-Cracking in Portland Cement Concrete Pavement -Volume 4.
. John Wojakowski. Analysis of Calcite. March 1999. December 1994.
(2) Clowers. Division of Operations. Seventy-Five Years of Aggregate Research in Kansas.E.
(3) Adams. Report No. Harvey Wallace. W. Report No.. Bureau of Materials and Research. Textural and Mineralogical Characterization of Kansas Limestone Aggregates in Relation to Physical Test Results.S. Final Report. Division of Operations. 80 pp. and Ralph G.
(5) Smith Barbara J. Bureau of Materials and Research. Dolomite and Texture.
REFERENCES (1) Crumpton. A. FHWA-KS-94/3. November 1997. Petrographic Phase and Final Report. 50 pp. Division of Operations. Report No. 1984. Guilford.
Marks. Potentially Reactive Carbonate Rocks. pp. and W. 1987. Transportation Research Record 1250. Cullen Sherwood. Alkali Reactivity of Dolomitic Carbonate Rocks. Evaluation of Carbonate Aggregate Using X-Ray Analysis.. Virginia Highway Research Council. Symposium on Alkali-Carbonate Rock Reactions. John Quinn. Jack. S. National Research Council. Holt. Transportation Research Record 1301. 45. Michael A.. pp.
(7) Dubberke. 1998. National Research Council. and Vernon J. 17-24. pp.
(10) Hadley. Horbury. Characterization of Freshly Quarried and Decayed Doulting Limestone. Wendell. May 1972. S. 5. 1988. Progress Report No. and Vernon J. E. 1991. Rinehart and Winston. Transportation Research Board.
. Jr. Fourth Edition. National Research Council. Thompson. Highway Research Record.Smith and Charlwood
(6) Hays. pp. Highway Research Board.31. Federal Highway Administration. Laboratory Evaluation of the Alkali Carbonate Reaction. Statistics. 1989. part 4. National Academy of Sciences. The Relationship of Ferroan Dolomite Aggregate to Rapid Concrete Deterioration. Transportation Research Board. Transportation Research Record 1110. 1029 pp. Transportation Research Board. Vol. 73 pp. and Kiran Shelat. New York. An Evaluation of Several Methods for Detecting Alkali-Carbonate Reaction. A. 1. Wendell.
(11) Newlon. in cooperation with U. pp.20. Ozol. Howard H. 1-10..325-331. Marks. Department of Transportation.
(9) Jones. 87-96. William L. 1964. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology. and G. M.
(8) Dubberke. David W. National Research Council. No. NY.
27. pp. 167-191. Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete: A Review of Basic Concepts and Engineering Implications.
. and Marc-Andre Berube. Vol.Smith and Charlwood
(13) Fournier. April 2000. Benoit. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.
Smith and Charlwood
R None. YR.
A Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 5(94) 1(33) 2.
A Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 32/2 1/2 12/5
B 62/32 1/3 56/45
C 55/57 6/2 114/146
FIGURE 1b Pass/Fail counts for each segment of all textures.5(75) 41(43)
FIGURE 1c Percent of counts shown for each segment for all textures with percent passing (Class I) shown in ( ).5(71)
B 13(66) 1(25) 16(55)
C 18(50) 1. CL. B YR/PB PB A1 A2 A3
RP B1 B2 B3
P C1 C2 C3
FIGURE 1a Schematic of partitioning of data into stain color segments.
Smith and Charlwood
A Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 16/2 0/2 2/2
B 54/11 1/3 18/11
C 18/14 2/0 31/24
FIGURE 2a Pass/Fail counts for each segment when Texture 1 and Texture 2 data are combined as one group.
A Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 89 (8) 0 (1) 50 (2)
B 83 (30) 25 (2) 62 (13)
C 56 (15) 100 (1) 48 (30)
FIGURE 2b Percent passing (Class I) of each segment with percent contained in segment shown in ( ) for combined Texture 1 and Texture 2 data.
A Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 100(3) 100(1) 57(2)
B 58(14) 0(0) 58(17)
C 49(14) 67(1) 43(48)
Percent passing (Class I) of each segment with percent
contained in the segment shown in ( ) for Texture 3 data.
.Smith and Charlwood
A Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 12/0 1/0 4/3
B 30/22 0/0 39/28 25/27 4/2 70/91
FIGURE 3a Pass/Fail counts and percent shown in ( ) for each segment of Texture 3 data.
A Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 100(1) 0(0) 100(5)
B 63(12) 0(0) 41(20)
C 33(21) 100(1) 37(39)
FIGURE 4b Percent passing (Class I) of each segment with percent contained in the segment shown in ( ) for combined Textures 4 through 8.Smith and Charlwood
A Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 1/0 0/0 4/0
B 5/3 0/0 7/10
C 6/12 1/0 13/22
FIGURE 4a Pass / Fail counts for each segment when textures 4 through 8 are combined as one group.