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[ThefollowingisatranscriptionofIgorShafarevich's TheSocialistPhenomenon .ThisworkwasoriginallypublishedinRussianinFranceunderthetitle Sotsializmkakiavleniemirovoiistoriiin1975,byYMCAPress.AnEnglishtranslationwassubsequentlypublishedin1980byHarper&Row.Thisworkisnowout ofprintanddifficulttofind. Asapublicservice,IhavetranscribedthisimportantworkandIammakingitavailableforfreeviatheInternet.

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RobertLStephens]

IgorShafarevich

TheSocialistPhenomenon
TRANSLATEDFROMTHERUSSIANBY WilliamTjalsma

ForewordbyAleksandrI.Solzhenitsyn
[iii]

Contents
Forewordvii Prefacexi

PARTONE CHILIASTICSOCIALISM
Introduction2 I. TheSocialismofAntiquity7 II. TheSocialismoftheHeresies18 1.GeneralSurvey18 Appendix:ThreeBiographies 46 2.ChiliasticSocialismandtheIdeologyoftheHereticalMovements 67 III. TheSocialismofthePhilosophers80 1.TheGreatUtopias80 2.TheSocialistNovel101 3.TheAgeofEnlightenment106 4.TheFirstSteps120 Summary129

PARTTWO STATESOCIALISM
IV. SouthAmerica132 1.TheIncaEmpire132 2.TheJesuitStateinParaguay142

[v]

V. TheAncientOrient152 1.Mesopotamia152 2.AncientEgypt161 Appendix:ReligioninAncientEgyptandMesopotamia 166 3.AncientChina168 Appendix:WasThereSuchaThingasan"AsiaticSocialFormation"? 185

V. TheAncientOrient152 1.Mesopotamia152 2.AncientEgypt161 Appendix:ReligioninAncientEgyptandMesopotamia 166 3.AncientChina168 Appendix:WasThereSuchaThingasan"AsiaticSocialFormation"? 185 Summary189

PARTTHREE ANALYSIS
VI. TheContoursofSocialism194 1.TheAbolitionofPrivateProperty195 2.TheAbolitionofTheFamily195 3.TheAbolitionofReligion195 4.CommunalityorEquality196 VII. SurveyofSomeApproachestoSocialism202 VIII. TheEmbodimentoftheSocialistIdeal236 1.Economy239 2.TheOrganizationofLabor241 3.Family243 4.Culture248 5.Religion251 IX. SocialismandIndividuality258 X. TheGoalofSocialism270 XI. Conclusion286 Bibliography301 Index309 [vi]

Foreword
Itseemsthatcertainthingsinthisworldsimplycannotbediscoveredwithoutextensiveexperience, beitpersonalorcollective.Thisappliestothepresentbookwithits freshandrevealingperspectiveonthemillenniaoldtrendsofsocialism.Whileitmakes use ofavoluminousliteraturefamiliartospecialiststhroughouttheworld,thereisan undeniablelogicinthefactthatitemergedfromthecountrythathasundergone(andisundergoing)theharshestandmostprolongedsocialistexperienceinmodernhistory. Norisitatallincongruousthatwithinthatcountrythisbookshouldnothavebeenproducedbyahumanist,forscholarsinthehumanitieshavebeenthemostmethodically crushedofallsocialstrataintheSovietUnioneversincetheOctoberRevolution.Itwaswrittenbyamathematicianofworldrenown:intheCommunistworld, practitionersoftheexactsciencesmuststandinfortheirannihilatedbrethren. Butthiscircumstancehasitscompensations.Itprovidesuswitharareopportunityofreceivingasystematicanalysisofthetheoryandpracticeofsocialismfromthepenof anoutstandingmathematicalthinkerversedintherigorousmethodologyofhisscience.(Onecanattachparticularweight,forinstance,tohisjudgmentthatMarxismlacks eventheclimate ofscientificinquiry.) Worldsocialismasawhole,andallthefiguresassociatedwithit,areshroudedinlegenditscontradictionsareforgottenorconcealeditdoesnotrespondtoarguments butcontinuallyignoresthemallthisstemsfromthemistofirrationalitythatsurroundssocialismandfromits instinctive aversiontoscientificanalysis,featureswhichthe [vii] authorofthisvolumepointsoutrepeatedlyandinmanycontexts.Thedoctrinesofsocialismseethewithcontradictions,itstheoriesareatconstantoddswithitspractice, yetduetoapowerful instinctalsolaidbarebyShafarevichthesecontradictionsdonotintheleasthindertheunendingpropagandaofsocialism.Indeed,noprecise, distinctsocialismevenexistsinsteadthereisonlyavague,rosynotionofsomethingnobleandgood,ofequality,communalownership,andjustice:theadventofthese thingswillbringinstanteuphoriaandasocialorderbeyondreproach. Thetwentiethcenturymarksoneofthegreatestupsurgesinthesuccessofsocialism,andconcomitantlyofitsrepulsivepracticalmanifestations.Yetduetothesame passionateirrationality,attemptstoexaminetheseresultsarerepelled:theyareeitherignoredcompletely,orimplausiblyexplainedawayintermsofcertain"Asiatic"or "Russian"aberrationsorthepersonalityofaparticulardictator,orelsetheyareascribedto"statecapitalism."Thepresentbookencompassesvaststretchesoftimeand space.Bycarefullydescribingandanalyzingdozensofsocialistdoctrinesandnumerousstatesbuiltonsocialistprinciples,theauthorleavesnoroomforevasivearguments basedonsocalled"insignificantexceptions"(allegedlybearingnoresemblancetothegloriousfuture).WhetheritisthecentralizationofChinainthefirstmillenniumB.C., thebloodyEuropeanexperimentsofthetimeoftheReformation,thechilling(thoughuniversallyesteemed)utopiasofEuropeanthinkers,theintriguesofMarxandEngels, ortheradicalCommunistmeasuresoftheLeninperiod(nowitmorehumanethanStalin'sheavyhandedmethods)theauthorinallhisdozensofexamplesdemonstrates theundeviatingconsistencyofthephenomenonunderconsideration. Shafarevichhassingledouttheinvariantsofsocialism,itsfundamentalandunchangingelements,whichdependneitherontimenorplace,andwhich,alas,arelooming ominouslyovertoday'stotteringworld.Ifoneconsidershumanhistoryinitsentirety,socialismcanboastofagreaterlongevityanddurability,ofwiderdiffusionandof controloverlargermassesofpeople,thancancontemporaryWesterncivilization.Itisthereforedifficulttoshakeoffgloomypresentimentswhencontemplatingthatmaw intowhichbeforethecenturyisoutwemayallplunge:that"Asiaticformation"whichMarxhastenedtocircumventinhisclassification,andbeforewhichcontemporary Marxistthoughtstandsbaffled,havingdiscerneditsownhideouscountenance [viii] inthemirrorofthemillennia.Itcouldprobablybesaidthatthemajorityofstatesinthehistoryofmankindhavebeen"socialist."Butitisalsotruethatthesewereinno

controloverlargermassesofpeople,thancancontemporaryWesterncivilization.Itisthereforedifficulttoshakeoffgloomypresentimentswhencontemplatingthatmaw intowhichbeforethecenturyisoutwemayallplunge:that"Asiaticformation"whichMarxhastenedtocircumventinhisclassification,andbeforewhichcontemporary Marxistthoughtstandsbaffled,havingdiscerneditsownhideouscountenance [viii] inthemirrorofthemillennia.Itcouldprobablybesaidthatthemajorityofstatesinthehistoryofmankindhavebeen"socialist."Butitisalsotruethatthesewereinno senseperiodsorplacesofhumanhappinessorcreativity. Shafarevichpointsoutwithgreatprecisionboththecauseandthegenesisofthefirstsocialistdoctrines,whichhecharacterizesas reactions: PlatoasareactiontoGreek culture,andtheGnosticsasareactiontoChristianity.Theysoughttocounteracttheendeavorofthehumanspirittostanderect,andstrovetoreturntotheearthbound existenceoftheprimitivestatesofantiquity.Theauthoralsoconvincinglydemonstratesthediametricaloppositionbetweentheconceptsofmanheldbyreligionandby socialism.Socialismseekstoreducehumanpersonalitytoitsmostprimitivelevelsandtoextinguishthehighest,mostcomplex,and"Godlike"aspectsofhuman individuality.Andevenequality itself,thatpowerfulappealandgreatpromiseofsocialiststhroughouttheages,turnsouttosignifynotequalityofrights,ofopportunities, andofexternalconditions,butequality qua identity,equalityseenasthemovementofvarietytowarduniformity. Eventhough,asthisbookshows,socialismhasalwayssuccessfullyavoidedtrulyscientificanalysesofitsessence,Shafarevich'sstudychallengespresentdaytheoreticians ofsocialismtodemonstratetheirargumentsinabusinesslikepublicdiscussion. ALEKSANDRI.SOLZHENITSYN

[ix]

Preface
Thisbookisinspiredbytheconvictionthatthecataclysmswhichhumanityhasexperiencedinthetwentiethcenturyareonlythebeginningofamuchmoreprofoundcrisis ofaradicalshiftinthecourseofhistory.Tocharacterizethescopeofthiscrisis,Ihadthoughtofcomparingittotheendofancientcivilizationortothetransitionfromthe MiddleAgestothemodernperiod.ButlaterIbecameacquaintedwithabolderand,itseemstome,morepenetratingapproach.Forexample,F.Heichelheiminhis fascinatingAnAncientEconomicHistory expressesthesuppositionthatthepresentperiodofhistory,whichhaslastedoverthreethousandyears,iscomingtoanend.It haditsbeginningsintheIronAge,whentendenciesrootedinthefreedevelopmentofpersonalityledtothecreationofthespiritualandculturalvaluesuponwhich contemporarylifeisbased: Itisquitepossiblethattheeconomicstatecontrolsofthelastdecades,producedbyimmanenttrendsofourLateCapitalistAgeofthetwentiethcentury, meantheendandconclusionofthelongdevelopmentinthedirectionofeconomicindividualism,andthebeginningsofanovelorganizationoflaborwhichis closertotheAncientOrientalmodelsoffivethousandyearsagothantotheidealsforwhichthefoundationswerelaidatthebeginningoftheIronAge.(90: pp.115116)* Itishardlynecessarytodemonstratethatoneofthebasicforcesinfluencingthedevelopingcrisisofmankindissocialism.Itbothpromotes

*Throughoutthiswork,Arabicnumberswithinparenthesesrefertoentriesinthebibliographybeginningonpage301.Romannumeralsindicatevolumenumbers.

[xi] thiscrisis,asaforcedestroyingthe"oldworld,"andundertakestoshowawayout.Thereforetheattempttocomprehendsocialismitsorigins,itsdrivingforces,thegoal towardwhichitleadsisdictatedquitesimplybytheinstinctforselfpreservation.Wefearthepossibilityoffindingourselvesatthecrossroadswithblinderson,atatime whenchoosingwhichroadtotakemaydeterminethewholeofmankind'sfuture. Butitispreciselysuchattemptstounderstandwhichseemtocurtailalldiscussion.Thefactthattheadherentsofsocialismthemselveshaveexpressedsomany contradictoryviewsoughttoputusonguard.Inaddition,notionsaboutthenatureofsocialismareasarulestrikinglyvague,andyettheydonotelicitdoubtandare perceivedastruthneedingnoverification.Thisisespeciallyapparentinattemptstomakecriticalevaluationsofsocialism.Pointingoutthetragicfactsthatsofrequently haveaccompaniedthesocialistexperimentsofthetwentiethcenturyusuallyevokestheobjectionthatanideacannotbejudgedbytheunsuccessfulattemptsatits implementation.Thetaskofrebuildingsocietyissoimmeasurablycomplicated,itissaid,thatintheinitialstageserrorsareinevitabletheyare,however,duetothe shortcomingsofcertainindividualsortheheritageofthepastinnosensedotheyfollowfromthefineprinciplesenunciatedbythefoundersofthedoctrine.Thefactthat evenintheearliestdeclarationsofsocialistdoctrinethereareschemeswhichintheircrueltyfarexceedanyrealsystemisdismissedasinsignificant.Itisarguedthatthe determiningfactorisreallifeandhardlytheconstructionsoftheoreticiansorthefantasyofutopianthinkers.Life,itissaid,hasitsownlaws.Itwilltemperandsmoothout theextremesofthefanaticsandcreateasocialstructurewhich,evenifitdoesnotquitecorrespondtotheiroriginalplans,willbeatleastviable,andinanycasecloserto perfectionthanthatwhichnowexists. Inattemptingtobreakoutofthisviciouscircle,itisusefultocomparesocialismtosomeotherphenomenonwhichhashadaninfluenceofsimilarmagnitudeonlifefor example,religion.Religionmayhaveasocialfunction,supportingordestroyingsocialinstitutionsitmayhaveaneconomicfunction(asthetemplesoftheancientEastdid withtheirlandholdings,orasinthecaseoftheCatholicChurchintheMiddleAges)oritmayhaveapoliticalrole,andsoon.Butthisispossibleonlybecausethereare peoplewhobelieveinGodandbecausethereisastrivingforaunionwithGodwhichreligioncreates. [xii] Withouttakingthisfundamentalfunctionofreligionintoaccount,itisimpossibletounderstandhowitinfluenceslifegenerally.Itisthisaspectthatmustbeclarifiedbefore onecanexaminethequestionofhowitinteractswithotherspheresoflife. Itisnaturaltosupposethatsocialism,too,containsafundamentaltendencywhichmakespossibleitsphenomenalinfluenceonlife.Butitisunlikelytobeidentifiedby studying,forexample,theWesternsocialistparties,inwhichbasicsocialisttendenciesarehopelesslyentangledwithpracticalpolitics.Itisnecessary,first,tostudythis phenomenonoverasufficientlylongtimespaninordertoascertainitsbasiccharacteristicsand,second,toexamineitsmoststrikingandconsistentmanifestations. Inpursuingthismethodweshallbeastonishedtofindthatsocialism(atleastatfirstsight)turnsouttobeaglaringcontradiction.Proceedingfromacritiqueofagiven society,accusingitofinjustice,inequalityandlackoffreedom,socialismproclaimsinthesystemswhereitisexpressedwiththegreatestconsistencyafargreater injustice,inequalityandslavery!NobleUtopiasandgoldendreamsabouttheCityoftheSunusuallyevokenothingmorethanareproachfortheir"utopian"nature,for

Itisnaturaltosupposethatsocialism,too,containsafundamentaltendencywhichmakespossibleitsphenomenalinfluenceonlife.Butitisunlikelytobeidentifiedby studying,forexample,theWesternsocialistparties,inwhichbasicsocialisttendenciesarehopelesslyentangledwithpracticalpolitics.Itisnecessary,first,tostudythis phenomenonoverasufficientlylongtimespaninordertoascertainitsbasiccharacteristicsand,second,toexamineitsmoststrikingandconsistentmanifestations. Inpursuingthismethodweshallbeastonishedtofindthatsocialism(atleastatfirstsight)turnsouttobeaglaringcontradiction.Proceedingfromacritiqueofagiven society,accusingitofinjustice,inequalityandlackoffreedom,socialismproclaimsinthesystemswhereitisexpressedwiththegreatestconsistencyafargreater injustice,inequalityandslavery!NobleUtopiasandgoldendreamsabouttheCityoftheSunusuallyevokenothingmorethanareproachfortheir"utopian"nature,for theiridealsthataretoohighformankindatpresent.Butitisenoughmerelytoopenthesebookstobeastonishedbythescene:disobedientcitizensturnedintoslaves informersworkandlifeinparamilitarydetachmentsandunderclosesupervisionpassesthatareneededevenforasimplestroll,andespeciallythedetailsofgeneral leveling,depictedastheyarewithgreatrelish(identicalclothing,identicalhouses,evenidenticalcities).Aworkentitled"TheLawof Freedom" describesanidealsociety whereineachsmallcommunethereisahangmanandanyonewhohasbeenremissordisobedientisfloggedorturnedintoaslaveandwhereeachcitizenisconsidereda soldier.Therevolutionarieswhodrewupthe"Conspiracyof Equals" understoodequalityinsuchawaythattheyaloneformedthegovernment,whileothersweretoobey implicitlyandthosewhodidnotweretobeexiledtocertainislandsforforcedlabor.InthemostpopularworkofMarxism,the CommunistManifesto, oneofthefirst measuresofthenewsocialistsystemtobeproposedistheintroductionof compulsorylabor. Anditispredictedthatthiswillleadtoasocietyinwhich"thefree developmentofeachwillbetheconditionofthefreedevelopmentofall"! Attemptstoestablishthehappysocietyofthefuturebymeansof [xii] executionsmayperhapsbeexplainedbythediscrepancybetweenvisionandreality,bythedistortionthattheideaundergoesinbeingputintopractice.Buthowto understandateachingwhichinitsideal versionincludesbothanappealtofreedomandaprogramfortheestablishmentofslavery? Orhowtoreconciletheimpassionedcondemnationoftheoldorderandquitejustifiedindignationatthesufferingofthepoorandtheoppressedwiththefactthatthesame teachingsenvisagenolesssufferingfortheseoppressedmassesasthelotofwholegenerationspriortothetriumphofsocialjustice?ThusMarxforeseesfifteen,perhaps evenf ifty yearsofcivilwarfortheproletariat,andMaoTsetungisreadytoacceptthelossof half ofhumanityinanuclearwarforthesakeofestablishingasocialist structureintheworld.Acallforsacrificesonthisscalemightsoundconvincingonthelipsofareligiousleaderappealingtoatruthbeyondthisworld.Butnotfrom convincedatheists. Itwouldseemthatsocialismlacksthatfeaturewhich,inmathematics,forexample,isconsideredtheminimalconditionfortheexistenceofaconcept:adefinitionfreeof contradictions. Perhapssocialismisonlyameansofpropaganda,asetofseveralcontradictoryconceptions,eachofwhichappealstoagivengroup?Theentirehistory ofsocialismspeaksagainstsuchaview.Themonumentalinfluenceithashadonmankindprovesthatsocialismisinessenceaninternallyconsistentviewoftheworld.One needsonlytouncoverthetruelogicofsocialismandtofindthatvantagepointfromwhichitcanbeseenasaphenomenonwithoutcontradiction.Thepresentbookisan attempttoaccomplishsuchatask. Inthesearchforthisvantagepoint,Iproposetotreattheworksofsocialistideologynotasthewritingsofsupermentowhomthepastandthefutureofmankindare known,norasmerejournalisticpropaganda.Oneoughtnotacceptalltheirpretensionsastruth,butontheotherhand,oneneednotdenytheaccuracyoftheirviewsin areaswheretheymaywellbecompetentfirstofall,inpronouncementsbearingonthemselves.If,forexample,Marxrepeatedlyexpressesthethoughtthatmanexists onlyasarepresentativeoftheinterestsofadefiniteclassandhasnoexistenceasanindividual,ofcoursewearenotobligedtobelievethattheessenceofmanwas revealedtoMarx.Butwhynotacceptthatheisdescribingaviewoftheworldinherentincertainpeople,himselfinparticular,whoregardmannotasapersonalityhaving anindependentsignificanceinthe [xiv] worldbutmerelyasa tool offorcesoutsidehiscontrol?Ifwereadthatsociety(andtheworld)mustbedestroyed,"razedtotheground,"thatlifecannotbeimprovedor correctedandthathistorymaybeassistedonlybyitsmidwifeViolence,itwouldbeincautioustotrustthepropheticgiftoftheauthorsofsuchpredictions.Butitisquite possiblethattheyareconveyingaviewoflifeinwhichtheentireworldevokesmalevolence,loathingandnausea(asinSartre'sfirstnovel, Nausea). Lifereeksofdeath andbyforceofastrangedualismisjustasloathsomeasdeathanddecayundernormalcircumstances. Theperceptionoftheworldthatmaybeinferredinthiswayfromthestudyofsocialistideologyappearstobeaccurateandtruetolife.AnditisnaturaltoaSsumethatthis ispreciselywhatmovestheadherentsofsocialistideology.Furthermore,sincesocialismiscapableofinspiringmassmovements,itfollowsthatmanyaresubjecttothe influence ofsuchaworldview,perhapsevenallpeoplearetoagreaterorlesserdegree.Ifsocialismisviewedastheultimatetruthaboutman,thenitunquestionably disintegratesintocontradictoryelements.Butifweconsiderittobeamanifestationofonlyoneofthetendenciesinmanandmankind,thenitappearspossibletoremove thecontradictionsandtounderstandsocialismasabasicallycohesiveandconsistentphenomenon.Onlythenmaythequestionberaisedastotheroleofsocialismin history.Theconsiderationssetforthinthelastparagraphsofthisbookdonotconstituteadefinitiveanswertothisquestion.Rather,theyindicatethedirectioninwhich,so itseemstome,theanswershouldbesought. Inthepresentwork,theproblemisconsideredinitsmostabstractform:Whatarethosebasicfeaturesofsocialismwhich,interwovenasineachcasetheyarewiththe individualpeculiaritiesofvariouscountriesandepochs,engenderthemultiplicityofitsmanifestations?Therefore,althoughaconsiderablenumberoffactsandconcrete historicalsituationsareexamined,weshallabstractfromthespecificnatureofthesesituationsinordertodelineatebasicfeaturescommontoallofthem.Asaresult,the conclusionstowhichthisdiscussionleadsarenotdirectlyapplicabletoanyconcretesituationnotuntilsocialistidealsfindtheirabsoluteandunconstrainedrealization.In allexistinghistoricalrealizationsofthesocialistideal,wearedealingnotwithapurephenomenonbutwithafusionofsocialistandmanyothertendencies.Therefore,in ordertoapplyourviewstoaspecifichistoricalsituation,itwouldbenecessarytotaketheoppositeapproach: [xv] toelucidatehowthegeneraltendenciesofsocialismsingledoutbyusarereflectedinthepeculiaritiesofhistoricalepochsandnationaltraditions.Suchisnotthepurposeof thisbook.However,itseemstomethatwithoutmakingadistinctionbetweenthephenomenoninitsgeneralaspectandthespecificsgeneratedbyconcretehistorical conditions,allattemptsatunderstandingarehopeless. PartsOneandTwoofthebookareanexpositionofconcretefactsfromthehistoryofsocialistteachingsandsocialiststates.OnlyinPartThreeisthereanattemptto analyzethesefactsandtodrawcertainconclusions.Thisstructureentailsanumberofdifficultiesforthereader.Ifhedoesnotwishtogointothedetailsofthevarious historicalepochs,hemaysimplyskimPartsOneandTwoandmovequicklyintoPartThree.Fortheconvenienceofsuchareader,severalsummariesreviewthose conclusionsfromthehistoricalsectionswhichareofspecialimportanceforthesubsequentdiscussion. Workingonthisbookwithoutofficialpermission,undertheconditionsprevailinginourcountry,Iencounteredconstantdifficultiesinobtainingthenecessaryliterature. Giventhissituation,Iamawareofthelikelihood(andperhapseventheinevitability)oferrorincertainspecificquestionsandoftheshortcomingsofmyarguments,which mayhavebeenpresentedearlierandmoreeffectivelybyothers.Myonlyjustificationistheurgencyofthethemeandthespecialhistoricalexperienceofourcountry. Thelattercircumstancewasthebasicstimulusformywork,inspiringmewithacertainhopeofsuccess.Russia'sexperienceinthetwentiethcenturyhasbeenunique amongmodernnationsperhapstherearefewprecedentsinthewholeofworldhistory.Webecamewitnessestoeventsandchangeswhichwewouldhardlyhavethought

conclusionsfromthehistoricalsectionswhichareofspecialimportanceforthesubsequentdiscussion. Workingonthisbookwithoutofficialpermission,undertheconditionsprevailinginourcountry,Iencounteredconstantdifficultiesinobtainingthenecessaryliterature. Giventhissituation,Iamawareofthelikelihood(andperhapseventheinevitability)oferrorincertainspecificquestionsandoftheshortcomingsofmyarguments,which mayhavebeenpresentedearlierandmoreeffectivelybyothers.Myonlyjustificationistheurgencyofthethemeandthespecialhistoricalexperienceofourcountry. Thelattercircumstancewasthebasicstimulusformywork,inspiringmewithacertainhopeofsuccess.Russia'sexperienceinthetwentiethcenturyhasbeenunique amongmodernnationsperhapstherearefewprecedentsinthewholeofworldhistory.Webecamewitnessestoeventsandchangeswhichwewouldhardlyhavethought possiblebeforethistime.Anewfieldofphenomena,formerlyattainableonlythroughartisticormysticalintuition,nowbecameopentorationalinvestigation,basedona studyoffactsandtheirlogicalanalysis.Wehavehadtheopportunityofseeinghistoryinanewaspectanadvantagethatcanoutweighmanydifficulties. Thisbookwouldneverhavebeenwrittenwereitnotfortheassistancerenderedmebynumerouspeople.Atthemoment,itisnotpossibleformetonamethemallandto expresstoeachmydebtofgratitude.ButIcanthanktwoofthemhere:A.I.Solzhenitsyn,underwhoseinfluenceIundertooktowritethisbook,andV.M.Borisov, whosecriticismwasinvaluable. [xvi]

PARTONE CHILIASTICSOCIALISM
[1]

Introduction
Theword"socialism"oftenimpliestwoquitedifferentphenomena: 1. Adoctrineandanappealbasedonit,aprogramforchanginglife,and 2. Asocialstructurethatexistsintimeandspace. ThemostobviousexamplesincludeMarxismascontainedinthe"classic"writingsofMarxandothersandthesocialstructurethatexistsintheU.S.S.R.andthePeople's RepublicofChina.Amongthefundamentalprinciplesofthestatedoctrineinthesecountriesistheassertionthattheconnectionbetweenthetwophenomenaisvery simple.Ontheonehand,itisasserted,thereisascientifictheorywhichprovesthatafterachievingadefinitelevelinthedevelopmentofproductiveforces,mankindwill passovertoanewhistoricformationthistheorypointsthewaytothemostrationalpathsforsuchatransition.Andontheotherhand,weareassured,thereisthe embodimentofthisscientificprognosis,itsconfirmation.AsanexampleofquiteadifferentpointofviewweciteH.G.Wells,whovisitedRussiain1920and,though infectedbytheworshipofsocialism,fashionablethenasnow,neverthelessalmostinstinctivelyrefusedtoacceptMarxism,inthissensereflectingtheantipathytowardall scholastictheoriestypicalofanEnglishman.InhisbookRussiaintheShadows, Wellswrites:"MarxistCommunismhasalwaysbeenatheoryofrevolution,atheorynot merelylackingincreativeandconstructiveideasbuthostiletocreativeandconstructiveideas."(1:p.60)HedescribesthecommunismthatgovernedRussiaas"...inso manymatterslikeaconjurerwhohaslefthis [2] pigeonandhisrabbitbehindhimandcanproducenothingwhateverfromthehat."(1:p.64) Fromthispointofview,Marxismdoesnotsetitselfanygoalotherthanthatofpreparingfortheseizureofpower.Thestatesystemestablishedasaresultistherefore definedandshapedbythenecessityofholdingpower.Sincethesetasksareentirelydifferent,theofficialtheoryandtheactualimplementationhavenothingincommon. Itwouldbeincautioustotakeeitheroftheseassertionsonfaith.Onthecontrary,itwouldbedesirable,first,tostudyboth"socialisms"independently,withoutanyapriori hypotheses,andonlythenattempttocometoconclusionsabouttheconnectionsthatexistbetweenthem. Weshallbeginwithsocialismunderstoodasadoctrine,asanappeal. Allsuchdoctrines(andasweshallsee,thereweremanyofthem)haveacommoncoretheyarebasedonthecompleterejectionoftheexistingsocialstructure.Theycall foritsdestructionandpaintapictureofamorejustandhappysocietyinwhichthesolutiontoallthefundamentalproblemsofthetimeswouldbefound.Furthermore,they proposeconcretewaysofachievingthisgoal.InreligiousliteraturesuchasystemofviewsisreferredtoasbeliefinthethousandyearKingdomofGodonearthchiliasm. Borrowingthisterminology,weshalldesignatethesocialistdoctrinesofthistypeas"chiliasticsocialism." Inordertogivesomesenseofthescaleofthisphenomenonandoftheplaceitoccupiesinthehistoryofmankind,weshallexaminetwodoctrinesthatfitthecategoryof chiliasticsocialism,astheyaredescribedbytheircontemporaries.Indoingso,weshallattempttoextractapictureofthefuturesocietyenvisaged,leavingtoonesidefor themomentthemotivationaswellastheconcretemeansrecommendedforachievingtheideal. ThefirstexampletakesustoAthensin392B.C.duringthegreaturbanDionysia,whenAristophanespresentedhiscomedyEcclesiazusae or TheCongresswomen. HerehedepictsateachingfashionableintheAthensofthetime.Theplotisasfollows:Thewomenofthecity,wearingbeardsanddressedinmen'sclothing,cometothe assemblyandbyamajorityvotepassaresolutiontransferringallpowerinthestatetowomen.Theyusethispowertointroduceaseriesofmeasures,whichare expoundedinadialoguebetweenPraxagora,theleaderofthewomen,andherhusband,Blepyros.Hereareseveralquotations. [3] PRAXAGORA: CompulsoryUniversalCommunityPropertyiswhatIproposetoproposeacrosstheboardEconomicEquality,tofillthosefissuresthatscaroursociety'sface. NomorethedivisionbetweenRichandPoor.... ...We'llwearthesameclothes,andsharethesamefood.... ...Myinitialmovewillbetocommunalizeland,andmoney,andallotherproperty,personalandreal. BLEPYROS: Buttakethelandlessmanwho'sinvisiblywealthy...becausehehideshissilverandgoldinhispockets.Whatabouthim? PRAXAGORA:

CompulsoryUniversalCommunityPropertyiswhatIproposetoproposeacrosstheboardEconomicEquality,tofillthosefissuresthatscaroursociety'sface. NomorethedivisionbetweenRichandPoor.... ...We'llwearthesameclothes,andsharethesamefood.... ...Myinitialmovewillbetocommunalizeland,andmoney,andallotherproperty,personalandreal. BLEPYROS: Buttakethelandlessmanwho'sinvisiblywealthy...becausehehideshissilverandgoldinhispockets.Whatabouthim? PRAXAGORA: He'lldeposititallintheFund.... ...I'llknockoutwallsandremodeltheCityintoonebighappyhousehold,whereallcancomeandgoastheychoose.... ...I'mpoolingthewomen,creatingapublichoardfortheuseofeverymanwhowishestotakethemtobedandmakebabies. BLEPYROS: Asystemlikethisrequiresaprettywisefathertoknowhisownchildren. PRAXAGORA: Butwhydoesheneedto?Ageisthenewcriterion:Childrenwillhenceforthtracetheirdescentfromallmenwhomight havebegotthem.... BLEPYROS: Who'sgoingtoworkthelandandproducethefood? PRAXAGORA: Theslaves.Thisleavesyoujustonecivicfunction:Whentheshadesofnightdrawon,slipsleeklydowntodinner.... ...TheState'snotgoingtostint.Itshandisfullandopen,itsheartislarge,it'llstuffitsmenfolkfreeofcharge,thenissuethemtorcheswhendinner'sdoneandsend themouttohuntforfun. (2:pp.4351) Thereaderwillofcoursealreadyhavenoticedmanyofthefeaturesofafamiliardoctrine.Letusattempttospecifytheassociationsthatarisebyconsideringasecond exampletheclassicstatementoftheMarxistprogramcontainedintheCommunistManifesto. Herearesomequotationscharacterizingthefuturesocietyastheauthors imagineit:"...thetheoryoftheCommunistsmaybesummedupinthesinglesentence:Abolitionofprivateproperty...."(3:V:p.496)"Abolitionofthefamily!Eventhe mostradicalHareupatthisinfamousproposaloftheCommunists....Onwhatfoundationisthepresent [4] family,thebourgeoisfamilybased?Oncapital,onprivategain.Initscompletelydevelopedform,thisfamilyexistsonlyamongthebourgeoisie.Butthisstateofthingsfinds itscomplementinthepracticalabsenceofthefamilyamongtheproletarians,andinpublicprostitution. "Thebourgeoisfamilywillvanishasamatterofcoursewhenitscomplementvanishes,andbothwillvanishwiththevanishingofcapital. "But,youwillsay,wedestroythemosthallowedofrelationswhenwereplacehomeeducationbysocial. "Andyoureducation!Isnotthatalsosocial,anddeterminedbythesocialconditionsunderwhichyoueducate?..."(3:V:p.499) Thatlastthoughtissomewhatclarifiedin"PrinciplesofCommunism,"adocumentwrittenbyEngelsinthecourseofpreparingtheCommunistManifesto. Amongthefirstmeasurestobetakenaftertherevolution,wefind: "8.Theeducationofallchildren,fromthemomentthattheycangetalongwithoutamother'scare,shallbeatstateinstitutionsandatstateexpense."(3:V:p.475) TheCommunistManifesto again: "ButyouCommunistswouldintroducecommunalityofwomen,screamsthewholebourgeoisieinchorus."(3:V:p.499) Answeredby:"TheCommunistshavenoneedofintroducingcommunalityofwomenithasexistedalmostfromtimeimmemorial. "Ourbourgeois,notcontentwithhavingthewivesanddaughtersofproletariansathisdisposal,nottospeakofCommonprostitutes,takesthegreatestpleasurein seducingeachother'swives. "BourgeoismarriageisinrealityasystemofwivesinCommonandthus,attheworst,whattheCommunistsmightpossiblybereproachedwithisthattheydesireto introduce,intheplaceofahypocriticallyconcealed,anopenlylegalizedcommunalityofwomen."(3:V:p.500) IntheCommunistManifesto thereisnoreferencetotheothermaterialaspectsoflife.In"PrinciplesofCommunism"wefind: "9.ThebuildingoflargepalacesinthenationalestatesascommondwellingsfortheCommunes,whosecitizenswillbebusyinindustry,agriculturethesestructureswill combinethemeritsofurbanandrurallifeandavoidtheirdefects."(3:V:p.475) [5] WeseeconcealedinMarx'sHegelianphraseologyandAristophanes'buffooneryalmostthesameprogram: 1.Abolitionofprivateproperty. 2.Abolitionofthefamilyi.e.,communalityofwivesanddisruptionofthebondsbetweenparentsandchildren. 3.Purelymaterialprosperity. Itwouldevenbepossibletosaythatbothprogramscoincideperfectly,wereitnotforoneplaceinthe Ecclesiazusae. InanswertoBlepyros'squestionastowhowilldo theplowing,Praxagorareplies:"Slaves!"Heresheproclaimsthefourthpointoftheprogram,andamostsignificantoneliberationfromthenecessityofwork. Interestinglyenough,onthispointHerbertMarcuse,thebestknownoftheneoMarxistsandoneoftheleadersoftheNewLeftintheU.S.A.,differsfromMarx. Forinstance,inhisessay"TheEndofUtopia,"Marcusesaysthat"itisnoaccidentthatformodernavantgardeleftintellectualstheworksofFourierhavebecomerelevant again.FourierdidnotflinchwhereMarxwasinsufficientlybold.Hespokeofasocietywhereworkwouldbecomeplay."Andelsewhereinthesameessay:"New technicalpotentialitiesleadtooppressionunlesstheredevelopsavitalneedfortheabolitionofalienatingwork."(4:pp.75,77) Supplementingtheprogramofthe CommunistManifesto inthisfashion,weobtainadescriptionoftheidealwhichfullycoincideswithwhathadbeentheobjectof Aristophanes'derisiononthestageoftheAtheniantheaterin392B.C.

Forinstance,inhisessay"TheEndofUtopia,"Marcusesaysthat"itisnoaccidentthatformodernavantgardeleftintellectualstheworksofFourierhavebecomerelevant again.FourierdidnotflinchwhereMarxwasinsufficientlybold.Hespokeofasocietywhereworkwouldbecomeplay."Andelsewhereinthesameessay:"New technicalpotentialitiesleadtooppressionunlesstheredevelopsavitalneedfortheabolitionofalienatingwork."(4:pp.75,77) Supplementingtheprogramofthe CommunistManifesto inthisfashion,weobtainadescriptionoftheidealwhichfullycoincideswithwhathadbeentheobjectof Aristophanes'derisiononthestageoftheAtheniantheaterin392B.C. Weareconfrontedbyasetofideaswithcertainstrikinglydurablefeatureswhichhaveremainedalmostunchangedfromantiquitytoourday.Theterm"chiliasticsocialism" willbeappliedtosuchideas.Below,weshallattempttooutlinethisconceptmoreprecisely,topointoutthemainstagesofitshistoricaldevelopmentandtotakenoteof thebroaderideologicalframeworkwithinwhichthedoctrinesofchiliasticsocialismcameintobeing. [6]

I. TheSocialism ofAntiquity
InclassicalGreeceweencountertheconceptofchiliasticsocialisminitsfullfledged,onemightevensayideal,form.Plato'senunciationofthisconceptinitselfhadan enormousinfluenceonthesubsequenthistoryofchiliasticsocialism.TwoofPlato'sdialoguesaredevotedtothistheme:TheRepublic andLaws. Intheformer,Plato depictswhatheconsidersanidealstatestructure,whilethelattershowsthebestpracticalapproximationofthisideal.TheRepublic waswrittenduringthemiddleyearsof Plato'slife, Laws inhisoldage.ItseemspossiblethatthefailuresPlatoexperiencedtryingtoputhisviewsintopracticearereflectedintheseworks. WebeginwithanoverviewofthepictureoftheidealsocietythatisgiveninTheRepublic, aworkthatSergiusBulgakovcalls"wondrousandperplexing."Indeed,theten booksofthisdialoguereflectalmostallaspectsofPlato'sphilosophyhisconceptionofbeing(theworldofideas),cognition(thevisualworld,theworldaccessibletothe mind),thesoul,justice,artandsociety.TheRepublic mayatfirstsightseemtoonarrowatitleforsuchawork.Nevertheless,itisfullyjustified,sincethequestionofthe structureofsocietyisthecenteraroundwhichPlato'smanysidedphilosophyrevolves,aswellasservingastheprincipalillustrationofhisteaching.Understandingthe conceptsofGoodandBeautyisessentialforrulingastate.Thedoctrinesoftheimmortalityofthesoulandofretributionafterdeathpromotethedevelopmentofthe spiritualqualitiesessentialforrulers,thestatemustbefoundedonjustice,andartisoneofthemajorinstrumentsfortheeducationofcitizens. [7] Platoexpoundsonthepossibleformsofastate(henamesfivestructures)andspeaksaboutthecorrespondingspiritualqualities.Allthestatesthatexistedcontemporary tohimheclassifiesasbelongingtofourcorrupt types.Division,hostility,discord,willfulnessandstrivingforrichesreigninthesestates. "...suchacityshouldofnecessitybenotone,buttwo,acityoftherichandacityofthepoor,dwellingtogether,andalwaysplottingagainstoneanother."(5:551d)* Thefifthformofstatestructureis,accordingtoPlato,theperfectstate. Itsbasicqualityisjustice,whichpermitsittopartakeofvirtue.Inanswertothequestionwhat constitutesjusticeinastate,Platosays: "...whatwelaiddowninthebeginningasauniversalrequirementwhenwewerefoundingourcity,thisIthink,orsomeformofthis,isjustice.Andwhatwedidlaydown, andoftensaid,ifyourecall,wasthateachonemanmustperformonesocialserviceinthestateforwhichhisnaturewasbestadapted."(433a) Onthebasisofthisproposition,thepopulationofthestateisdividedintothreesocialgroupswemayevencallthemcastes.Theyare:philosophers,guardiansorsoldiers, artisansandpeasants.Thechildrenofartisansandpeasantsbelongtothesamegroupastheirparentsandmayneverbecomeguardians.Thechildrenofguardiansasa ruleinherittheirfathers'occupation,butiftheyshownegativeinclinationstheyaremadeintoeitherartisansorpeasants.Butthephilosophersmaysupplementtheir numbersfromthebestoftheguardians,butnotuntilthelatterreachtheageoffifty. Plato'sconceptionisnotatallmaterialistic:hisconcernisnotwiththemannerinwhichproductionisorganizedinhisstate.Thushespeaksverylittleaboutthedailylifeof theartisansandpeasants.Hebelievesthatthelifeofthestateisdeterminedbyitslaws,henceheisconcernedaboveallwiththelifeofthosecastesthatcreateandguard thelaw. Thephilosophershaveunlimitedpowerinthestate.(Bulgakovevensuggeststhattheword"philosophers"shouldbetranslated"therighteousmen"or"saints.") Theyarethepeople"...enamoredofthekindofknowledgewhichrevealstothemsomethingofthatessencewhichiseternal,andisnotwanderingbetweenthetwopoles ofgenerationanddecay."(485b)

*InsubsequentreferencestoPlato's Republic, onlythemarginalsiglawillbequoted.

[8] Aphilosopherpossesses"...amindhabituatedtothoughtsofgrandeurandthecontemplationofalltimeandallexistence....suchamanwillnotsupposedeathtobe terrible."(486b) Oncethephilosophershaveunderstoodtheirhighmission,theywillstructuretheirlivesinaccordancewithit,"...devotingthegreaterpartoftheirtimetothestudyof philosophy,butwhentheturncomesforeach,toilingintheserviceofthestateandholdingofficeforthecity'ssake,regardingthetasknotasafinethingbutanecessity. Andso,wheneachgenerationhaseducatedotherslikethemselvestotaketheirplaceasguardiansofthestate,theyshalldeparttotheIslandsoftheBlessedandthere dwell."(540a,b) Theguardiansareunderthephilosophers'command.Plato'sfavoriteimageindescribingtheguardiansisthatofthedog.Thus,aswithpurebredcanines,theguardians' "...naturaldispositionistobemostgentletotheirfamiliarsandthosewhomtheyrecognize,butthecontrarytothosewhomtheydonotknow."(375e)Theirchildren shouldbetakenoncampaignsinordertoaccustomthemtowar..."givethematasteofbloodaswedowithwhelps."(537a)Youthfulguardianspossessthequalitiesof purebredpups:"...eachofthemmustbekeenofperception,quickinpursuitofwhatithasapprehended,andstrongtooifithastofightitoutwithitscaptive."(375a) Womenaretoenjoyequalrightswithmenandaretohavethesameobligations,allowingonlyforthefactthattheyhavelessphysicalstrengththanmen.Platoarguesby analogy:"Doweexpectthefemalesofwatchdogstojoininguardingwhatthemalesguardandtohuntwiththemandsharealltheirpursuits,ordoweexpectthefemales

dwell."(540a,b) Theguardiansareunderthephilosophers'command.Plato'sfavoriteimageindescribingtheguardiansisthatofthedog.Thus,aswithpurebredcanines,theguardians' "...naturaldispositionistobemostgentletotheirfamiliarsandthosewhomtheyrecognize,butthecontrarytothosewhomtheydonotknow."(375e)Theirchildren shouldbetakenoncampaignsinordertoaccustomthemtowar..."givethematasteofbloodaswedowithwhelps."(537a)Youthfulguardianspossessthequalitiesof purebredpups:"...eachofthemmustbekeenofperception,quickinpursuitofwhatithasapprehended,andstrongtooifithastofightitoutwithitscaptive."(375a) Womenaretoenjoyequalrightswithmenandaretohavethesameobligations,allowingonlyforthefactthattheyhavelessphysicalstrengththanmen.Platoarguesby analogy:"Doweexpectthefemalesofwatchdogstojoininguardingwhatthemalesguardandtohuntwiththemandsharealltheirpursuits,ordoweexpectthefemales tostayindoors....?"(451d)Thewholeoftheguardiancasteiscomparedwithapackofhardandwiryhounds.(422d) Butaguardianshouldalsopossessother,higherqualities:"Anddoesitseemtoyouthatourguardiantobewillalsoneed,inadditiontobeinghighspirited,thefurther qualityofhavingtheloveofwisdominhisnature?"(375e)And:"...neverbysorcerynorbyforcecanbebroughttoexpelfromtheirsouls...thisconvictionthattheymust dowhatisbestforthestate."(412e) Thesequalitiesareattainedbymeansofacarefullythoughtoutsystemofeducationguidedbythephilosophersandlastinguntilagethirtyfive.Afundamentalrolein educationisreservedforart,which,forthebenefitofthestate,issubjectedtostrictcensorship."Wemustbegin,then,itseems,byacensorshipoverourstorymakers, andwhat [9] theydowellwemustpassandwhatnot,reject."(377c)"Whattheydowell"appliesherenottotheestheticqualitiesofstoriesandmythsbuttotheireducationalfunction, Badstoriesarethose"thatHesiodandHomerandtheotherpoetsrelatetous,"(377d)Furthermore,"Shallwe,then,thuslightlysufferourchildrentolistentoanychance storiesfashionedbyanychanceteachersandsototakeintotheirmindsopinionsforthemostpartcontrarytothosethatweshallthinkitdesirableforthemtoholdwhen theyaregrownup?"(377b) Allstoriesthatmightinspireafalseimpressionofdivinityareforbidden,aswellasthosethatdescribethecrueltyofthegods,theirquarrelsorloveadventures,andstories whichsuggestthatgodsmaybethecauseofmisfortune."...wemustcontendineverywaythatneithershouldanyoneassertthisinhisowncityifitistobewellgoverned, noranyonehearit,neitheryoungernorolder,neithertellingastoryinmeterorwithoutmeter."(380b)Allpoeticworksthatspeakaboutthehorrorsofthenetherworld andofdeatharetobeeliminated,aswellasthosethatinvolveanymanifestationoffearorsorrowallthathindersthedevelopmentofcourage.Guardiansshouldsee nothingfrighteningaboutdeath.Itisforbiddentospeakabouttheinjusticeoffatethatrighteouspeoplecansuffermisfortuneandunrighteousonescanleadhappylives.It isforbiddentocriticizetheleadersortowriteaboutanymanifestationoffear,grief,famineordeath."WewillbegHomerandtheotherpoetsnottobeangryifwecancel thoseandallsimilarpassages,notthattheyarenotpoeticandpleasingtomosthearers,butbecausethemorepoetictheyare,thelessaretheysuitedtotheears,"(387b) Otherartsarealsotobekeptundersurveillance."Itishere,then,Isaid,inmusic,asitseems,thatourguardiansmustbuildtheirguardhouseandpostawatch."(424d) Polyphonyandthecombiningofvariousscalesareforbidden.Therearetobenoflutesormakersofflutesinthestateonlythelyreandthekitharaarepermitted.Plato expandsontheseprinciples:"Isit,then,onlythepoetsthatwemustsuperviseandcompeltoembodyintheirpoemsthesemblanceofthegoodcharacterorelsenotwrite poetryamongus,ormustwekeepwatchovertheothercraftsmen,andforbidthemtorepresenttheevildisposition,thelicentious,theilliberal,thegraceless,eitherinthe likenessoflivingcreaturesorinbuildingsorinanyotherproductoftheirart,onpenalty,ifunabletoobey,ofbeingforbiddentopracticetheirartamongus?..."(401b) TheanswerisobviousforPlato. [10] Ontheotherhand,newmythsarecreated,withthepurposeofinstillingintheguardiansaspiritnecessarytothestate,Forinstance,toinculcateinthemloveforone anotherandthestate,theyaretoldthattheyareallbrothers,sonsofthesinglemotherearthoftheirland.Buttoreinforcetheideaofcastes,itisstressedthatinthe processphilosophersreceivedanadmixtureofgold,guardiansofsilver,peasantsandartisansofiron. Theentireeducationoftheguardians,beginningwithchildren'sgames,issupervisedbythephilosophers,whosubjectthemtovarioustests,checkingtheirmemory, endurance,moderationandcourage.Adults,aswellaschildren,areseverelypunishedforlying.Butlyingispermittedthephilosophers."Itseemslikelythatourrulerswill havetomakeconsiderableuseoffalsehoodanddeceptionforthebenefitoftheirsubjects."(459d) IthasalreadybeennotedthatPlatoperceivesthemajordefectoffaultystatesintheabsenceofunityamongcitizens,inanimosityanddiscord.Heseekstofindthecause ofthesephenomena, "Andthechiefcauseofthisiswhenthecitizensdonotutterinunisonsuchwordsas'mine'and'notmine,'andsimilarlywithregardtotheword'alien'? "Preciselyso," "Thatcity,then,isbestorderedinwhichthegreatestnumberusetheexpression'mine'and'notmine'ofthesamethingsinthesameway."(462c) Theguardians'lifeisregulatedaccordingly.Theypossess"nothinginprivatepossessionbuttheirbodies,butallelseincommon."(464e) "Secondly,nonemusthaveanyhabitationortreasurehousewhichisnotopenforalltoenteratwill.Theirfood,insuchquantitiesasareneedfulforathletesofwarsober andbrave,theymustreceiveasanagreedstipendfromtheothercitizensasthewagesoftheirguardianship,someasuredthatthereshallbeneithersuperfluityattheendof theyearnoranylack,Andresortingtoacommonmesslikesoldiersoncampaigntheywilllivetogether."(416d) "...fortheseonlyofallthedwellersinthecityitisnotlawfultohandlegoldandsilverandtotouchthemnoryettocomeunderthesameroofwiththem,nortohangthem asornamentsontheirlimbsnortodrinkfromsilverandgold,"(417a) Guardiansliveintheirownstateashiredguarddetachments."...andwhatismore,theyserveforboardwagesanddonotevenreceive [11] payinadditiontotheirfoodasothersdo,sothattheywillnotevenbeabletotakeajourneyontheirownaccount,iftheywishto,ormakepresentstotheirmistresses,or spendmoneyinotherdirectionsaccordingtotheirdesireslikethemenwhoarethoughttobehappy."(420a) Property,however,isonlyoneofthethingsbywhichprivateinterestsmaydistracttheguardiansfromtheirduty.Anotherfactorthatcouldsetthemapartisthefamily thereforeitisalsoeliminated. "Thesewomenshallallbecommontoallthesemen,andthatnoneshallcohabitwithanyprivately,andthatthechildrenshallbecommon,andthatnoparentshallknowits ownoffspringnoranychilditsparent."(457d)Marriageisreplacedbyatemporaryunionofsexesforpurelyphysiologicalsatisfactionandpropagationofthespecies. Thisaspectoflifeiscarefullyregulatedbythephilosophers,whichpermitstheintroductionofaperfectsystemofsexselection.Theunionofcouplesisconductedsolemnly

Property,however,isonlyoneofthethingsbywhichprivateinterestsmaydistracttheguardiansfromtheirduty.Anotherfactorthatcouldsetthemapartisthefamily thereforeitisalsoeliminated. "Thesewomenshallallbecommontoallthesemen,andthatnoneshallcohabitwithanyprivately,andthatthechildrenshallbecommon,andthatnoparentshallknowits ownoffspringnoranychilditsparent."(457d)Marriageisreplacedbyatemporaryunionofsexesforpurelyphysiologicalsatisfactionandpropagationofthespecies. Thisaspectoflifeiscarefullyregulatedbythephilosophers,whichpermitstheintroductionofaperfectsystemofsexselection.Theunionofcouplesisconductedsolemnly andisperformedtotheaccompanimentofsongscomposedbypoetsespeciallyfortheseoccasions.Whoistobejoinedtowhomisdecidedbylotsothatnoonecan blameanyonebutfate.Buttheleadersofthestatecarefullymanipulatetheprocesstoachievethedesiredresults. Ascouldbeexpected,theeducationofchildrenisinthehandsofthestate."...thechildren...willbetakenoverbytheofficialsappointedforthis...."(460b)"...butthe offspringoftheinferior,andanyofthoseoftheothersortwhoareborndefective,theywillproperlydisposeofinsecret,sothatnoonewillknowwhathasbecomeof them."(460c)Asforachildbornofunregulatedsexualunion,thefollowingisindicated:"...todisposeofitontheunderstandingthatwecannotrearsuchan offspring."(461c)Parentsoughtnotknowtheirchildren:"...conductingthemotherstothepenwhentheirbreastsarefull,butemployingeverydevicetopreventanyone fromrecognizingherowninfant."(460c)Astothequestionhowparentsandchildrenshallrecognizeoneanother,theanswerisasfollows:"Theywon't...exceptthata manwillcallallmaleoffspringbornbetweentheseventhandthetenthmonthafterhebecameabridegroomhissons,andallfemale,daughters,andtheywillcallhim father."(461d) Deprivedoffamily,childrenandallproperty,theguardiansliveexclusivelyforthebenefitofthestate.Anyviolationoftheinterestsofthestateispunished.Soldierswho showcowardiceareturnedinto [12] artisansorpeasantsprisonerstakenarenottoberansomedoutofslavery.Medicineisalsousedasameansofcontrol.Physiciansandjudges"...willcareforthebodies andsoulsofsuchofyourcitizensasaretrulywellborn,butthosewhoarenot,suchasaredefectiveinbody,theywillsuffertodie,andthosewhoareevilnaturedand incurableinsoultheywillthemselvesputtodeath."(410a) Whywouldtheguardiansundertakesuchalife?Oneoftheparticipantsinthedialoguesays:"Whatwillbeyourdefense,Socrates,ifanyoneobjectsthatyouarenot makingthesemenveryhappy,andthatthroughtheirownfault?Forthecityreallybelongstothemandyettheygetnoenjoymentoutofitasordinarymendo."(419a)

However,fromPlato'spointofviewhappinessisnotdeterminedbymaterialwellbeing.II)dischargingtheirduties,theguardianswillachievetherespectandloveofother citizens,aswellasthehopeforrewardafterdeath.Hesays: "...theywillliveahappierlifethanthatmencountmosthappy,thelifeofthevictorsatOlympia. "Howso? "Thethingsforwhichthosearefelicitatedareasmallpartofwhatissecuredforthese.Theirvictoryisfairerandtheirpublicsupportmorecomplete.Fortheprizeof victorythattheywinisthesalvationoftheentirestate,thefilletthatbindstheirbrowsisthepublicsupportofthemselvesandtheirchildrentheyreceivehonorfromthe citywhiletheyliveandwhentheydieaworthyburial. "Afairguerdon,indeed,hesaid."(465e) Thoughgivingadetailedaccountofthelifeofthephilosophersandguardians,Platosaysalmostnothingabouttherestofthepopulationtheartisansandpeasants.Laws forthemaredeterminedbythephilosophersinaccordancewiththebasicprinciplesexpressedinthedialogue:"Nay,'twouldnotbefitting...todictatetogoodand honorablemen.Formostoftheenactmentsthatareneededaboutthesethingstheywilleasily,Ipresume,discover."(425d) Clearly,theentirepopulationissubjectedtothephilosophersandtheguardians.Theguardianssetuptheircampinthecity:"...apositionfromwhichtheycouldbesthold downrebellionagainstthelawsfromwithin."(415e) Everyoneisboundtohisprofession: "...wewereatpainstopreventthecobblerfromattemptingtobeatthesametimeafarmer,aweaver,orabuilderinsteadof [13] justacobbler,totheendthatwemighthavethecobbler'sbusinesswelldone,andsimilarlyassignedtoeachandeveryonemanoneoccupation,forwhichhewasfitand naturallyadaptedandatwhichhewastoworkallhisdays."(374c)Thelifeoftheartisansandthepeasantsisregulatedonthebasisofagreaterorlesserdegreeof leveling,sinceforthembothpovertyandrichesleadtodegradation,and"theworkthatheturnsoutwillbeworse,andhewillalsomakeinferiorworkmenofhissonsor anyotherswhomheteaches." (421e) Butitisnotcleartowhatextentthesocialistprinciplesthatgovernthelifeofthetwoothergroupsextendtoartisanandpeasant. Inconclusion,itisinterestingtonotethatreligiousproblemsaregivenagooddealofspaceinthedialogue,andareclearlyconnectedwiththequestionoftheidealstate. However,thislinkageistreatedinaquiterationalisticfashionreligiondoesnotsetthestateanygoals,butratherplaysaprotectiveandeducationalrole.Myths,manyof whicharespeciallyinvented,asPlatosays,withthispurposeinmind,facilitatethedevelopmentofcharacteristicsusefultothestate. AlmosteveryonewhohaswrittenonPlato's Republic hasremarkedontheambiguousimpressionproducedbythisdialogue.Plato'sschemeforthedestructionofthe subtlestandmostprofoundfeaturesofhumanpersonalityandthereductionofhumansocietytothelevelofananthillevokesrevulsion.Andatthesametimeonecannot helpbeingimpressedbythealmostreligiousimpulsetosacrificepersonalintereststoahighergoal.Plato'sentireprogramisfoundedonthedenialofpersonalitybuton thedenialofegoismaswell.Heunderstoodthatthefutureofmankindisnotdependentonthevictoryofthisorthatcontendinggroupinthestruggleformaterialinterests, butratheronthechangeswithinpeopleandonthedevelopmentofnewhumanqualities. ItisdifficulttodenythatPlato'sRepublic ismorally,ethicallyandinpurelyaesthetictermsfarsuperiortoothersystemsofchiliasticsocialism.Ifwecansupposethat Aristophanes' Ecclesiazusae isaparodyofideassuchasPlato'spresumablywidelydiscussedinAthensatthetimethenmodernsystemslikethatofMarcuseseem muchnearertothecaricaturethantotheoriginal.Marcuse's"turningworkintoplay,"his"sociosexualprotest,"thestruggleagainstthe"necessityofsuppressingone's instincts,"areshockinglyprimitiveincomparisonwiththeloftyasceticismdescribedbyPlato. Inspiteoftheiruniqueroleinthehistoryofsocialistideas,Plato's [14] Republic andhisLaws arebutoneofmanyexpressionsofancientchiliasticsocialism.Atticcomedyaboundswithreferencestoideasofthiskind.Forexample,outofthe

instincts,"areshockinglyprimitiveincomparisonwiththeloftyasceticismdescribedbyPlato. Inspiteoftheiruniqueroleinthehistoryofsocialistideas,Plato's [14] Republic andhisLaws arebutoneofmanyexpressionsofancientchiliasticsocialism.Atticcomedyaboundswithreferencestoideasofthiskind.Forexample,outofthe elevensurvivingcomediesofAristophanes,two(Ecclesiazusae andPlutus) aredevotedtosocialistthemes. DuringtheHellenisticepochtherecameintobeinganextensiveutopiansocialistliterature,partiallyserious,inpartmeantasentertainment,wheretheasceticidealofthe PlatonicRepublic wasreplacedby"thelandofmilkandhoney"andbythehappystateoffreelove.Theplotsofanumberoftheseworksareknowntousfromthe HistoricalLibrary bythefirstcenturyB.C.writerDiodorus. Oneofthemostvividdescriptionstellsofatravelertoastatesituatedon"sunnyislands"(apparentlyintheIndianOcean).Thisstateconsistsofsocialistcommunesoffour hundredpeopleeach.Laborisobligatoryforallmembersofsociety,moreover,with"allservingtheothersinturn,fishing,engagingincrafts,artsorpublicservice."(6:p. 323)Foodisregimentedinasimilarmannerthemenuforeachdayisregulatedbylaw."Marriageisunknowntotheminsteadtheyenjoycommunalwiveschildrenare broughtupincommonastheybelongtothewholeofthecommunityandareequallylovedbyall.Frequently,itsohappensthatnursesexchangebabiestheyaresuckling sothatevenmothersdonotrecognizetheirchildren."(6:p.63)Duetotheexcellentclimate,theinhabitantsoftheislandsweremuchtallerthanordinarymortals.They livedtotheageof150.Allwhowereincurablyillorsufferedfromsomephysicaldefectweresupposedtocommitsuicide.Thosewhoreachedacertainagewerealsoto killthemselves. SocialistideasinoneoranotherformfrequentlyplayedaroleinthemovementsandsectsthatarosearoundemergingChristianity.EveninthefirstcenturyA.D.,thesect oftheNicolaitespreachedthecommunalityofpropertyandwives.TheChristianwriterEpiphanesconsidersthesect'sfoundertobeNicolasoneofthesevendeacons chosenbythecommunityofthedisciplesoftheApostlesinJerusalem(asrecountedinActsoftheApostles6:5). IrenaeusofLyonsandClementofAlexandriadescribethegnosticsectofCarpocratianswhichappearedinAlexandriainthesecondcenturyA.D.Thefounderofthis sect,Carpocrates,taughtthatfaithandlovebringsalvationandplacemanabovegoodandevil.TheseideaswereelaboratedbyhissonEpiphanes,whodiedattheageof seventeen,havingwrittenawork"OnJustice."AccordingtoClementof [15] Alexandria,hewaslaterworshipedasagodinSamos,whereasanctuarywaserectedtohim. SomequotationsfromEpiphanesfollow: "God'sjusticeconsistsincommunityandequality." "TheCreatorandFatherofallgaveeveryoneequallyeyestoseeandestablishedlawsinaccordancewithhisjusticewithoutdistinguishingfemalefrommale,wisefrom humbleandingeneralonethingfromanyother." "TheprivatecharacteroflawscutsandgnawsthecommunityestablishedbyGod'slaw.DoyounotunderstandthewordsoftheApostle:'ThroughlawIknew sin'(Romans7:7)?'Mine'and'thine'werespreadtothedetrimentofcommunitybyvirtueofthelaw." "Thus,Godmadeeverythingcommonformanaccordingtotheprinciplesofcommunality,hejoinsmanandwoman.Inthesameway,helinksalllivingbeingsinthishe hasrevealedjusticedemandingcommunalityinconjunctionwithequality.Butthosebegotteninthiswaydenythecommunitythathascreatedthem,saying:'Hewhotakes awife,lethimpossessher.'Buttheycanpossessallincommonastheanimalsdo." "Itisthereforelaughabletohearthegiveroflawssaying:'Donotcovet'andmorelaughablestilltheaddition:'thatwhichisyourneighbor's.'Forhehimselfinvesteduswith desires,whichmoreovermustbesafeguardedastheyarenecessaryforprocreation.Butevenmorelaughableisthephrase'yourneighbor'swife,'forinthiswaythat whichiscommonisforciblyturnedintoprivateproperty."(7:p.117) Themembersofthissect,whichextendedasfarasRome,followedprinciplesofcompletecommunality,includingcommunalityofwives. TheappearanceofManicheismgaverisetoagreatnumberofsectsthatprofesseddoctrinesofasocialistcharacter.St.Augustineinformsusoftheexistenceofsuchsects attheendofthethirdandthebeginningofthefourthcenturiesA.D. ThemovementinspiredbyMazdak,whichwaswidespreadatthebeginningofthefifthcenturyinPersia,wasalsoofManicheanorigin.Mazdaktaughtthatcontradictions, angerandviolenceareallrelatedtowomenandmaterialthings."Therefore,"inthewordsofthePersianhistorianMohammedIbnHarun,"hemadeallwomenaccessible andallmaterialwealthcommonandprescribedthateveryonehadanequalshare,justaseachhasanequalshareofwater,fireandpastures."(8:p.20) [16] Thismovementspreadovertheentirecountry,andforatimeevenKingKawadhIsupportedit.Anotherhistorian,Tabari,writes:"Frequently,amandidnotknowhisson northesonhisownfather,andnoonepossessedenoughtobeguaranteedlifeandlivelihood."(8:p.35)Inthedisturbancewhichsubsequentlyarose,thefollowersof Mazdakweredefeated. Theextentofsocialdislocationcausedbythismovementcanbeappreciatedfromtheinformation(8:pp.3233)thatKawadh'sheirissuedalawensuringthewelfareof fatherlesschildrenandlegislatingthereturnofabductedwomentotheirfamilies. Weencounterherethephenomenonofbroadmassesofpeopleaffectedbyasocialistdoctrine.Thiswasunknowninantiquity,althoughitistypicaloftheMiddleAges,to whichMazdak'smovementbringsuschronologically. [17]

II. TheSocialism oftheHeresies


DuringtheMiddleAgesandtheperiodoftheReformation,doctrinesofchiliasticsocialismoftenfomentedbroadpopularmovementsinWesternEurope.Suchasituation

II. TheSocialism oftheHeresies


DuringtheMiddleAgesandtheperiodoftheReformation,doctrinesofchiliasticsocialismoftenfomentedbroadpopularmovementsinWesternEurope.Suchasituation didnotobtaininantiquity,whentheseideaswereexpressedbyindividualthinkersorwithinnarrowgroups.Asaresultofthisevolution,thesocialistdoctrines,inturn, acquirednewandextremelyimportanttraits,whichtheyhavepreservedtothisday. Thesurveybelowprovidesaverygeneralandschematicoverviewofthedevelopmentofsocialistideasinthisepoch.Inordertocompensatesomewhatfortheabstract characterofthepresentationandtohelpmakemoreconcretetheatmosphereinwhichtheseideasarose,weintroduce(intheAppendixfollowingtheGeneralSurvey) threebiographiesofeminentrepresentativesofthechiliasticsocialismoftheperiod.Inthesubsequentsection,anattemptismadetodelineatetheideologicalframework withinwhichthedoctrinesofchiliasticsocialismdeveloped.

1.GeneralSurvey
BeginningwiththeMiddleAgesandtheReformation,doctrinesofchiliasticsocialisminWesternEuropeappearedunderreligiousguise.Asvariedastheywere,allthese doctrineshadincommonacharacteristictraittherejectionofnumerousaspectsoftheteachingsoftheCatholicChurchandafiercehatredfortheChurchitself.Asa result,theydevelopedlargelywithintheframeworkofthehereticalmovements.BelowweshallreviewseveralcharacteristicMedievalheresies. [18] Cathars. ThemovementoftheCathars(Greekfor"thepure")spreadinWesternandCentralEuropeintheeleventhcentury.ItseemstohaveoriginatedintheEast,arrivingfrom Bulgaria,thehomeofBogomilheresyintheprecedingcentury.Theultimateoriginsofboth,however,aremoreancient. AmongtheCatharsthereweremanydifferentgroups.PopeInnocentIIIcountedasmanyasfortyCatharsects.Inaddition,thereexistedothersectsthathadmany doctrinalpointsincommonwiththeCatharsamongthebestknownweretheAlbigenses.TheyareallusuallycategorizedasgnosticorManicheanheresies.Inorderto avoidunnecessarycomplexity,weshalldescribethebeliefsandnotionscommontoallgroups,withoutspecifyingtherelativeimportancethataparticularviewmighthave inagivensect.(Foramoredetailedaccount,see9[Vol.I],10,and11.) Thebasiccontentioninallbranchesofthemovementwasthebeliefintheirreconcilablecontradictionbetweenthephysicalworld,seenasthesourceofevil,andthe spiritualworld,seenastheessenceofgood.ThesocalleddualisticCatharsbelievedthistobecausedbytheexistenceoftwoGodsonegood,theotherevil.Itwasthe Godofevilwhohadcreatedthephysicalworldtheearthwitheverythingthatgrowsuponit,thesky,thesunandthestars,andhumanbodiesaswell.ThegoodGod,on theotherhand,wasseenasthecreatorofthespiritualworld,inwhichthereisanother,spiritualsky,otherstarsandanothersun.OtherCathars,calledmonarchian Cathars,believedinonebeneficentGod,thecreatoroftheuniverse,butassumedthatthephysicalworldwasthecreationofhiseldest,fallensonSatanorLucifer.All theCatharsheldthatthemutualhostilityoftherealmsofmatterandspiritallowedfornointermingling.TheythereforedeniedthebodilyincarnationofChrist(assertingthat hisbodywasaspiritualone,whichhadonlytheappearanceofphysicality)andtheresurrectionoftheflesh.Theysawareflectionoftheirdualisminthedivisionofthe HolyScripturesintoOldandNewTestaments.TheyidentifiedtheGodoftheOldTestament,thecreatorofthephysicalworld,withtheevilGodorwithLucifer.They professedtheNewTestamentastheteachingofthegoodGod. TheCatharsdidnotbelievethatGodhadcreatedtheworldfromnothingtheyheldthatmatterwaseternalandthattheworldwouldhavenoend.Sofaraspeoplewere concerned,theyconsideredtheirbodiestobethecreationoftheevilforce.Theirsouls,though,did [19] nothaveasinglesource.Thesoulsofthemajorityofmen,justliketheirbodies,werebegottenbyevilsuchpeoplehadnohopeforsalvationandweredoomedtoperish whentheentirematerialworldreturnedtoastateofprimevalchaos.ButthesoulsofsomemenhadbeencreatedbythegoodGodtheseweretheangelsledinto temptationbyLuciferandthusimprisonedinearthlybodies.Asaresultofchangingintoaseriesofbodies(Catharsbelievedinthetransmigrationofsouls),theywere destinedtoendupintheirsectsoastoreceiveliberationfromtheprisonofmatter.Theultimategoalandtheidealofallmankindwasinprincipleuniversalsuicide.This wasconceivedeitherasinthemostdirectsense(weshallencounterthepracticalrealizationofthis.viewlater)orthroughceasingtobearchildren. Theseviewsdeterminedtheattitudetowardbothsinandsalvation.TheCatharsdeniedtheexistenceoffreedomofwill.Thedoomedchildrenofevilcouldnotavoidtheir fate.Butthosewhowereinitiatedintothehighestrankofthesectcouldnolongersin.Thestringentrulestowhichmembershadtosubjectthemselveswerejustifiedbythe dangerofbeingdefiledbysinfulmatter.Nonobservanceoftheserulesmerelyindicatedthattheinitiationhadbeeninvalid,sinceeithertheinitiatesorthosewhohad initiatedthemdidnotpossessangelicsouls.Beforeinitiation,norestrictionsofanykindwereplacedonbehavior:theonlyrealsinwasthefalloftheangelsinheaven everythingelsewasconsideredtobeaninevitableconsequence.Afterinitiation,neitherrepentanceforsinscommittednortheirexpiationwasconsiderednecessary. TheCathars'attitudetowardlifefollowedconsistentlyfromtheirviewthatevilpermeatedthephysicalworld.PropagationofthespecieswasconsideredSatan'swork. Catharsbelievedthatapregnantwomanwasundertheinfluenceofdemonsandthateverychildbornwasaccompaniedbyademon.Hencetheprohibitionagainsteating meatandagainstanythingthatcamefromsexualunion.Thesametendencyledtoacompleteavoidanceofsocialinvolvement.Secularpowerwasconsideredtobethe creationoftheevilGodandhencenottobesubmittedto,norweretheytobecomeinvolvedinlegalproceedings,thetakingofoaths,orthecarryingofarms.Anyone usingforcewasconsideredamurderer,behesoldierorjudge.ItfollowsthatparticipationinmanyareasoflifewascompletelyclosedtotheCathars.Moreover,many consideredthatanycontactwhateverwithpeopleoutsidethesectwasasin,withtheexceptionofattemptstoproselytize.(12:p.654) [20] AllCatharswereunitedintheirhatredoftheCatholicChurch.TheyregardeditnotastheChurchofJesusChristbutasthechurchofsinners,theWhoreofBabylon.The Popewasheldtobethesourceofallerrorandpriestsconsideredsophistsandpharisees.IntheopinionoftheCathars,thefalloftheChurchhadtakenplaceinthetime ofConstantinetheGreatandPopeSylvester,whentheChurchhadviolatedthecommandmentsofChristbyencroachinguponsecularpower.Theydeniedthe sacraments,particularlythebaptismofchildren(sincetheyweretooyoungtobelieve),butmatrimonyandCommunionaswell.Somebranchesofthemovement systematicallyplunderedanddefiledchurches.In1225,CatharsburneddownaCatholicChruchinBresciain1235,theykilledtheBishopofMantua.AcertainEonde l'toile,headofaManicheansect(11431148),proclaimedhimselfthesonofGodandtheLordofeverythingonearth.Inthiscapacity,hecalleduponhisfollowersto plunderchurches. TheCatharshatedthecrossinparticular,consideringittobeasymboloftheevilGod.Asearlyasabout1000A.D.,acertainLeutard,preachingnearChlons,calledfor thesmashingofcrossesandreligiousimages.Inthetwelfthcentury,PierredeBruysmadebonfiresofbrokencrosses,untilfinallyhehimselfwasburnedbyanangrymob. TheCatharsconsideredchurchestobeheapsofstonesanddivineservicesmerepaganrites.Theyrejectedreligiousimages,deniedtheintercessionofthesaintsandthe

systematicallyplunderedanddefiledchurches.In1225,CatharsburneddownaCatholicChruchinBresciain1235,theykilledtheBishopofMantua.AcertainEonde l'toile,headofaManicheansect(11431148),proclaimedhimselfthesonofGodandtheLordofeverythingonearth.Inthiscapacity,hecalleduponhisfollowersto plunderchurches. TheCatharshatedthecrossinparticular,consideringittobeasymboloftheevilGod.Asearlyasabout1000A.D.,acertainLeutard,preachingnearChlons,calledfor thesmashingofcrossesandreligiousimages.Inthetwelfthcentury,PierredeBruysmadebonfiresofbrokencrosses,untilfinallyhehimselfwasburnedbyanangrymob. TheCatharsconsideredchurchestobeheapsofstonesanddivineservicesmerepaganrites.Theyrejectedreligiousimages,deniedtheintercessionofthesaintsandthe efficacyofprayerforthedeparted.AbookbytheDominicaninquisitorRainierSacconi,himselfahereticforseventeenyears,statesthattheCatharswerenotforbidden toplunderchurches. AlthoughtheCatharsrejectedtheCatholichierarchyandthesacraments,theyhadahierarchyandsacramentsoftheirown.Thebasicdivisionofthesectwasintotwo groupsthe"perfect" (perfecti) andthe"faithful"(credenti). Theformerwerefewinnumber(Rainiercountedonlyfourthousandinall),buttheyconstitutedtheselect groupofthesectleaders.Theclergywasdrawnfromtheperfecti, andonlytheywereprivytoallthedoctrinesofthesectmanyextremeviewsthatwereradically opposedtoChristianitywereunknowntotheordinaryfaithful.Onlytheperfecti wereobligedtoobservethemanyprohibitions.Inparticular,theywerenotallowedto denytheirfaithunderanycircumstances.Incaseofpersecution,theyweretoacceptamartyr'sdeath.Thefaithful,ontheotherhand,wereallowedtogotoregularchurch forform'ssakeand,whenpersecuted,todisavowthefaith. [21] Incompensationfortherigorsimposedontheperfecti, theirpositionwasfarhigherthanthatoccupiedbyCatholicpriests.Incertainrespects,theperfecti wereasgods themselves,andthefaithfulworshipedthemaccordingly.Thefaithfulwereobligedtosupporttheperfecti. Oneoftheimportantritesofthesectwasthatof"submission," inwhichthefaithfulperformedathreefoldprostrationbeforetheperfecti. Theperfecti hadtorenouncemarriage,andtheyliterallydidnothavetherighttotoucha woman.Theycouldnotpossessanypropertyandwereobligedtodevotetheirwholelivestoserviceofthesect.Theywereforbiddentokeepapermanentdwellingof anykindandwererequiredtospendtheirlivesinconstanttravelortostayinspecialsecretsanctuaries.Theconsecrationoftheperfecti, the "consolation"(consolamentum), wasthecentralsacramentofthesect.ThisritecannotbecomparedtoanythingintheCatholicChurch.Itcombinedbaptism(or confirmation),ordination,confession,absolutionandsometimessupremeunctionaswell.Onlythosewhoreceiveditcouldcountonbeingfreedfromthecaptivityofthe bodyandhavingtheirsoulsreturnedtotheircelestialabode. ThemajorityoftheCatharshadnohopeoffulfillingthestrictcommandmentsthatwereobligatoryfortheperfecti andintended,rather,toreceive"consolation"ontheir deathbed.Thiswascalled"thegoodend."Theprayertogrant"thegoodend"underthecareof"thegoodpeople"(theperfecti) wasrecitedtogetherwiththeLord's Prayer. Sometimes,havingreceived"consolation,"asickpersonrecovered.Hewasthenusuallyadvisedtocommitsuicide(called"endura").Inmanycases,"endura"wasinfacta conditionforreceiving"consolation."Notinfrequently,theagedortheveryyoungwhohadreceived"consolation"weresubjectedto"endura"i.e.,ineffect,murdered. Therewerevariousformsof"endura."Mostfrequentlyitwasbystarvation(especiallyforchildren,whomthemotherssimplystoppedsuckling)bleeding,hotbaths followedbysuddenchilling,drinkingofliquidmixedwithgroundglassandstrangulationwerealsoused.I.Dollinger,whostudiedtheextantarchivesoftheInquisitionin ToulouseandCarcassonne,writes:"Whoeverexaminestherecordsoftheabovementionedcourtsattentivelywillhavenodoubtthatfarmorepeopleperishedfromthe 'endura'(somevoluntarily,someforcibly)thanasaresultoftheInquisition'sverdicts."(10:p.226) Thesebasicnotionswerethesourceofthesocialistdoctrinesdisseminated [22] amongtheCathars.Theyrejectedpropertyasbelongingtothematerialworld.Theperfecti wereforbiddentohaveanypersonalbelongings,butasagroupthey controlledtheholdingsofthesect,whichoftenwereconsiderable. Catharsenjoyedinfluenceinvarioussegmentsofsociety,includingthehigheststrata.ThusitissaidthatCountRaymondVIofToulousealwayskeptinhisretinueCathars disguisedinordinaryattire,sotheycouldblesshimincaseofimpendingdeath.Forthemostpart,however,thepreachingoftheCatharsapparentlywasdirectedtothe urbanlowerclasses,asindicatedinparticularbythenamesofvarioussects:populicani (i.e.,populists,althoughcertainhistoriansseethisnameasacorruptionof "Paulicians"),piphlers (derivedfrom"plebs"), texerants (weavers),etc.Intheirsermons,theCatharspreachedthatatrueChristianlifewaspossibleonlyonthecondition thatpropertywasheldincommon.(12:p.656)In1023,agroupofCatharswereputontrialinMonteforte,chargedwithpromulgatingcelibacyandcommunalityof propertyandwithattackingtheacceptedreligioustraditions. ItseemsthattheappealforcommunalityofpropertywasratherwidespreadamongtheCathars,sinceitismentionedincertainCatholicworksdirectedagainstthem.In oneofthese,forinstance,Catharsareaccusedofdemagogicallyproclaimingthisprinciplewhilenotadheringtoitthemselves:"Youdonothaveeverythingincommon. Somehavemore,othersless."(13:p.176) Celibacyamongtheperfecti andthegeneralcondemnationofmarriagearecommontoallCathars.Butinanumberofcases,onlymarriageisconsideredsinfulnot promiscuityoutsidemarriage.Itshouldberecalledthat"Thoushaltnotcommitadultery"wasconsideredtobeacommandmentoftheGodofevil.Bythesametoken, theseprohibitionshadastheiraimnotsomuchmortificationofthefleshasdestructionofthefamily.Inthewritingsofcontemporaries,theCatharsareconstantlyaccused of"free"or"holy"love,andofhavingwivesincommon. SaintBernardofClairvaux,between1130and1150,accusedtheCatharsofpreachingagainstmarriagewhilecohabitingwithwomenwhohadabandonedtheirfamilies. (10:p.16)Rainiersupportsthiscontention.(9:pp.7273)ThesameaccusationagainstaManicheansectthatwasmakinginroadsintoBrittanyaround1145canbe foundintheChronicleofHugod'Amiens,ArchbishopofRouen.Abook [23] againstheresiesbyAlaindeLille,whichwaspublishedinthetwelfthcentury,ascribedthefollowingviewtotheCathars:"Maritalbondsarecontrarytothelawsofnature, sincetheselawsdemandthateverythingbeheldincommon."(13:p.176) TheCatharheresysweptoverEuropewithextraordinaryswiftness.In1012,asectofCatharsisrecordedinMainz,in1018andagainin1028inAquitaine,in1022in Orleans,in1025inArras,in1028inMonteforte(nearTurin),in1030inBurgundy,in1051inGoslar,etc.Around1190,Bonacursus,whohadpreviouslybeenabishop withtheCathars,wroteofthesituationinItaly:"Arenotalltownships,citiesandcastlesoverrunwiththesepseudoprophets?"(12:p.651)Andin1166,theBishopof Milanassertedthatthereweremorehereticsthanfaithfulinhisdiocese.OneworkfromthethirteenthcenturyenumeratesseventytwoCatharbishops.RainierSacconi speaksofsixteenChurchesofCathars.TheywereallcloselyassociatedandapparentlyheadedupbyaCatharPope,whowaslocatedinBulgaria.Councilswerecalled, whichwereattendedbyrepresentativesfromnumerouscountries.Forexample,in1167,acouncilwasopenlyheldinSt.FelixnearToulouseitwassummonedbythe hereticalPopeNicetasandwasattendedbyahostofheretics,includingsomefromBulgariaandConstantinople. TheheresywasparticularlysuccessfulinthesouthofFrance,inLanguedocandProvence.Missionsforconversionofthehereticswererepeatedlysentthere,oneof whichincludedSt.BernardofClairvaux,whoreportedthatchurchesweredesertedandthatnoonetookcommunionorwasbaptized.Themissionariesandthelocal

Milanassertedthatthereweremorehereticsthanfaithfulinhisdiocese.OneworkfromthethirteenthcenturyenumeratesseventytwoCatharbishops.RainierSacconi speaksofsixteenChurchesofCathars.TheywereallcloselyassociatedandapparentlyheadedupbyaCatharPope,whowaslocatedinBulgaria.Councilswerecalled, whichwereattendedbyrepresentativesfromnumerouscountries.Forexample,in1167,acouncilwasopenlyheldinSt.FelixnearToulouseitwassummonedbythe hereticalPopeNicetasandwasattendedbyahostofheretics,includingsomefromBulgariaandConstantinople. TheheresywasparticularlysuccessfulinthesouthofFrance,inLanguedocandProvence.Missionsforconversionofthehereticswererepeatedlysentthere,oneof whichincludedSt.BernardofClairvaux,whoreportedthatchurchesweredesertedandthatnoonetookcommunionorwasbaptized.Themissionariesandthelocal Catholicclergywereassaultedandsubjectedtothreatsandinsults. ThenoblesofsouthernFrancesupportedthesectactively,seeinganopportunitytoacquirechurchlands.FormorethanfiftyyearsLanguedocwasunderthecontrolof theCatharsandseemedlosttoRomeforever.Apapallegate,PierredeCastelnau,waskilledbyheretics.ThePopeannouncedseveralcrusadesagainsttheCathars.The firstofthesefailedbecauseofsupportgiventothehereticsbythelocalnobility.Itwasonlyinthethirteenthcentury,aftermorethanthirtyyearsoftheguerres albigeoises, thattheheresywassuppressed.However,theinfluenceofthesesectscontinuedtobefeltforseveralcenturies. BrethrenoftheFreeSpiritandtheApostolicBrethren. Inthecreationofthedoctrinesofthesesectsaspecialrolewasplayedbytwothinkers [24] whoseideasweredestinedtoexertacontinuousinfluenceonthehereticalmovementsoftheMiddleAgesandtheReformation:JoachimofFloreandAmalricofBena. Theybothlivedinthetwelfthcenturyanddiedsoonafter1200. Joachimwasamonkandanabbot.Hisdoctrine,asheclaimed,wasbasedpartlyonthestudyoftheHolyScripturesandpartlyonrevelation.Itisbasedontheviewthat thehistoryofmankindinvolvestheprogressivelygreatercomprehensionofGod.Joachimdividedhistoryintothreeepochs:theKingdomoftheFather,fromAdamto ChristtheKingdomoftheSon,fromChristuntil1260andtheKingdomoftheSpirit,whichwastobeginin1260.Thefirstwasanageofslavishsubmissionthesecond, anageoffilialobediencewhilethethirdwastobeanageoffreedom.ForinthewordsoftheApostle:"WheretheSpiritoftheLordis,thereisfreedom."Inthislast epoch,God'speoplewouldabideinpeace,freedfromlaborandsuffering.Thiswouldbeanageofthehumbleandthepoorpeoplewouldnotknowthewords"thine" and"mine."Monasterieswouldembracethewholeofmankind,andtheEternalGospelwouldbereadandunderstoodinitsmysticaldimension.Aneraofperfection wouldbeattainedwithintheframeworkofearthlylifeandhumanhistoryandbythehandofmortalhumanbeings.Thisepochwastobeprecededbyterriblewars,and theAntichristwouldappear.JoachimsawproofofthisinthedecayoftheChurchinhistime.TheLastJudgmentwouldbeginwiththeChurch,andtheAntichristwould becomePope.TheelectofGod,revertingtoapostolicpoverty,wouldmakeupthehostofChristinthisstruggle.TheywoulddefeattheAntichristandunitethewholeof mankindinChristianity. AcharacteristicfeatureofJoachim'sdoctrineistheviewofhistoryasapredeterminedprocesswhosecoursecanbeforeseenandcalculated.Hecalculates,forexample, thatthefirstepochinhisschemelastedfortytwogenerations,thesecondwouldlastfifty.... Duringhislife,JoachimwasafaithfulsonoftheChurchhefoundedamonasteryandwroteagainsttheCathars.Butacollectionofexcerptsfromhisworkswaslater condemnedasheretical,probablybecauseofhisinfluenceonthehereticalsects. AmalrictaughttheologyinParis.Hedidnotexpoundhissysteminfull,onlyitsmoreinoffensivepropositions.Nevertheless,acomplaintWaslodgedagainsthiminRome andthePopecondemnedhissystelnand,in1204,dismissedhimfromhischair.Amalricdiedsoonthereafter. [25] AmalricwasideologicallylinkedtoJoachimofFlore.Healsosawhistoryasaseriesofstagesindivinerevelation.Inthebeginning,therewasMoses'law,thenChrist's whichsupersededit.Nowthetimeofthethirdrevelationhadcome.ThiswasembodiedinAmalricandhisfollowers,aspreviouslyrevelationhadbeenembodiedin Christ.TheyhadnowbecomeasChrist.ThreebasicthesesofthisnewChristianityhavebeenpreserved.Firstofall:"Godisall."Second:"EverythingisOne,for everythingthatisisGod."Andthird:"Whoeverobservesthelawofloveisabovesin."Thesetheseswereinterpretedinsuchawaythatthosewhofollowedtheteachings ofAmalriccouldattainidentitywithGodthroughecstasy.Inthem,theHolySpiritbecameflesh,justasinChrist.Maninthisstateisincapableofsin,forhisdeeds coincidewiththewillofGod.Herisesabovethelaw. ThusthefollowersofAmalricperceivedtheKingdomoftheSpiritmoreintermsofaspiritualstateofthemembersofthesectthanintermsofaworldtobeactively transformed.Thesecondinterpretationwasnotentirelyforeigntothem,however. Inthethirteenthandfourteenthcenturies,asectwithviewsverysimilartothoseofAmalricspreadoverFrance,Germany,SwitzerlandandAustria.Itsmemberscalled themselvestheBrothersandSistersoftheFreeSpiritorsimplythe"FreeSpirits." Thekeydoctrineofthissectwasbeliefinthepossibilityof"transfigurationintoGod."Sincethesoulofeachmanconsistsofdivinesubstance,anymaninprinciplecan achieveastateof"Godliness."Toattainthisendhemustpassthroughmanyyearsofnovitiateinthesect,renounceallproperty,family,will,andlivebybegging.Onlythen doesheattainthestateofGodlinessandbecomeoneofthe"FreeSpirits."Numerousdescriptionsofthesect'sworldviewhavebeenpreserved.Thereareaccountsby FreeSpiritsorbyFreeSpiritswholaterrepented,aswellasthoseinthearchivesoftheInquisition.(See14:p.5615:p.13616:pp.110,11917:p.160etc.)All sourcesagreeononepointthatGodlinessisnotatemporarystatebutacontinuousone.JohannHartmannfromatownnearErfurtcharacterizedthisecstasyas"a completedisappearanceofthepainfulstingofconscience."(15:p.136)Inotherwords,theFreeSpiritwasliberatedfromallmoralconstraints.HewashigherthanChrist, whowasamortalmanwhoattainedGodlinessonlyonthecross.TheFreeSpiritwasthecompleteequalofGod,"withoutdistinctions."HencehiswillisthewillofGod, andtohimthenotionofsinbecomesmeaningless. [26] Thissinlessnessandfreedomfrommoralrestrictionswascharacterizedinanumberofways.TheFreeSpiritisthekingandsovereignofallthatis.Everythingbelongsto him,andhemaydisposeofitatwill.Andwhoeverinterfereswiththismaybekilledbyhim,evenifitistheemperorhimself.Nothingperformedbythefleshofsuchaman caneitherdecreaseorincreasehisdivinity.Therefore,hemaygiveitcompletefreedom."Letthewholestateperishratherthanheabstainfromthedemandsofhisnature," saysHartmann.(15:p.141)Intimacywithanywoman,evenwithasisterorhismother,cannotstainhimandwillonlyincreaseherholiness.Numeroussourcesdating fromthefourteenthandfifteenthcenturiesreportonritualsofthesects,whichincludedindiscriminatesexualunion.InItaly,such"masses"werecalled barilotto. In Germany,therewerereportsofspecialsanctuariescalled"paradises"forthispurpose. ThecontemporaryscholarH.Grundmann(18)pointsoutinthisregardthatinthelateMiddleAgestherewasnoneedtobelongtoasectinordertoadheretoanysortof freeviewsinsexualmatters.Thebasisofthe"orgiasticmass"wasstrictlyideological.TheFreeSpirit,whohadattained"Godliness,"brokecompletelywithhisformerlife. Whathadbeenblasphemyforhiminthepast(andremainedsofor"rude"folk)nowbecameasignoftheendofonehistoricalepochandthebeginningofanother the newEon.InthiswayhewasabletocomprehendandtoexpresshisnewbirthandthebreakwiththeoldEon.

fromthefourteenthandfifteenthcenturiesreportonritualsofthesects,whichincludedindiscriminatesexualunion.InItaly,such"masses"werecalled barilotto. In Germany,therewerereportsofspecialsanctuariescalled"paradises"forthispurpose. ThecontemporaryscholarH.Grundmann(18)pointsoutinthisregardthatinthelateMiddleAgestherewasnoneedtobelongtoasectinordertoadheretoanysortof freeviewsinsexualmatters.Thebasisofthe"orgiasticmass"wasstrictlyideological.TheFreeSpirit,whohadattained"Godliness,"brokecompletelywithhisformerlife. Whathadbeenblasphemyforhiminthepast(andremainedsofor"rude"folk)nowbecameasignoftheendofonehistoricalepochandthebeginningofanother the newEon.InthiswayhewasabletocomprehendandtoexpresshisnewbirthandthebreakwiththeoldEon. ItisclearthattheFreeSpiritshadnouseforthepathofsalvationproposedbytheCatholicChurchpenance,confession,absolutionofsins,communion.Moreover,they sawtheChurchasahostileorganization,sinceithadusurpedtherighttoexamineandtodecide,whichtheyconsideredsolelytheirownprerogative.Abitterlyanti ecclesiasticalsentimentpervadestheviewsoftheFreeSpiritsandfindsexpressionintheirfrequentworshipofLucifer. Inthecenterofthesect'sideologystoodnotGodbutmanmadedivine,freedfromthenotionofhisownsinfulnessandmadethecenteroftheuniverse.Asaresult,Adam playedacentralroleintheirteaching,notAdamthesinnerdepictedintheOldTestament,butAdamtheperfectman.ManyoftheFreeSpiritsreferredtothemselvesas the"NewAdams,"andKonradKanlerevencalledhimselfAntichrist("butnotinthebadsense").Itseemspossibletoarguethathere,withintheconfinesofthisrelatively smallsect,weencounterthefirstprototype [27] ofthehumanistideologywhichwouldlaterattainworldwidesignificance. TheuprisingagainstthePopeinUmbria,inthe1320s,servesasavividexampleoftheinfluencethesecthadonsociallife.TheteachingsoftheFreeSpiritswere widespreadamongthenobilityofthisregionandbecametheideologyoftheantipapalparty.InthestruggleagainstthePopeandtheurbancommunes,thedoctrine justifiedtheapplicationofallmeansandtherejectionofmercyofanykind.Theentirepopulationsofcapturedtownswereslaughtered,includingwomenandchildren.The headoftheuprising,CountMontefeltro,andhisfollowerspridedthemselvesonplunderingchurchesandviolatingnuns.TheirsupremedeitywasSatan.(17:p.130) Butthemostfarreachinginfluencethatthesecthadwasamongthepoor,especiallyamongtheBeghardsandtheBeguinesunionsofcelibatemenandwomenwho engagedincraftsorbegging.Theexternal,exotericcircleofparticipantsinthesectwasmadeupfromthesesocialelements,whiletheFreeSpirits,thosewhohadattained "Godliness,"formedanarrow,esotericcircle.ThedivisionintotwocategoriesrecallstheCatharswiththeirchosencircleoftheperfecti. Thebroadmassesthatformedtheexotericcircleofthesectwerepoorlyinformedabouttheradicalnatureofthedoctrine,asnumeroussurvivingrecordsofthe proceedingsoftheInquisitionmakeclear.TheordinaryfollowersfeltthatthedivinityoftheFreeSpiritsjustifiedtheirrighttobespiritualguides.Forthisgroup,themost significantaspectsofthedoctrinewerethosethatproclaimedtheideaofcommunalityinitsmostextremeformandrejectedthefundamentalinstitutionsofsociety:private property,thefamily,thechurchandthestate.Itisherethatwecanseethesect'ssocialistaspects.Theassertionthat"allpropertyoughttobeheldincommon"iscited frequentlyasoneoftheelementsofthedoctrine(e.g.,15:p.53).Appealsforsexualfreedomwereoftendirectedagainstmarriageindeed,sexualunioninmarriagewas consideredsinful.Suchviewswereexpressed,forexample,bythe"HominesIntelligentia"group,whichwasactiveinBrusselsin14101411.(9:II:p.528)Theequality proclaimedbetweenFreeSpiritsandChristhadtheaimofdestroyinghierarchy,notonlyonearthbutinheavenaswell.Alloftheseideaswerecommonmainlyamongthe mendicantBeghards,whomtheir"divine"leaderscalledtoacompleteliberationfromthisworld.Forinstance,AegidiusCantorisofBrusselstaught:"Iamtheliberatorof mankind.Through [28] meyouwillknowChrist,asthroughChristyouknowtheFather."(9:II:p.527) TheBrethrenoftheFreeSpiritexertedaninfluenceonasectthatemergedinItalyinthesecondhalfofthethirteenthcentury.ThemembersofthisItalianmovementcalled eachother"Apostolic Brethren."ThissecttaughtthatthecomingoftheAntichristforetoldbyJoachimwasdrawingnear.TheCatholicChurchhadfallenawayfromChrist'scommandmentsand hadbecometheWhoreofBabylon,thebeastofsevenheadsandtenhornsoftheApocalypse.ItsfalldatedfromthetimeofEmperorConstantineandPopeSylvester, whohadbeenpossessedbytheDevil.Thetimesoftroublewerecoming,whichwouldendinvictoryforanew,spiritualChurchthatoftheApostolicBrethren,a communityofsaints.Theworldwouldbegovernedbyasaint,aPopeelevatedbyGodandnotelectedbycardinals(allthecardinalswouldhavebeenkilledbythen,in anycase).AndthesectwasalreadythoughttobeheadedbyaGodappointedleader.Implicitobediencewasduehim.Everythingwaspermittedindefenseofthefaith, anyviolenceagainstenemies,while,atthesametime,thepersecutioninflictedbytheCatholicChurchontheApostolicBrethrenwasconsideredtobethegravestof crimes.Thesectpreachedcommunalityofpropertyandofwives. Thedoctrinewasspreadamongthepeoplebyitinerant"apostles."Thelettersoftheleaderofthesect,Dolcino,weredisseminatedbywayofproclamations.Finallyin 1404,anattemptwasmadetoputtheteachingintopractice.Gatheringsomefivethousandmembersofthesect,Dolcinofortifiedhimselfandhisarmyinamountainous areaofnorthernItaly,fromwherehesalliedforthtoplunderthesurroundingvillagesanddestroythechurchesandmonasteries.Warwentonforthreeyears,until Dolcino'scampwastakenandhewasexecuted. ThisepisodeisdescribedatgreaterlengthinthebiographyofDolcinointheAppendix. Taborites. TheburningofJanHusin1415gavetheimpetustotheantiCatholicHussitemovementinBohemia.ThemoreradicalfactionoftheHussiteswasconcentratedinawell protectedtownnearPrague.TheycalledtheplaceTabor.PreachersfromhereticalsectsgravitatedtherefromalloverEurope:Joachimites(followersofJoachimofFlore), Waldensians,Beghards.Chiliasticandsocialisttheorieswereprevalent [29] amongtheTaborites,andtherewerenumerousattemptstobringtheoryintopractice.WeshallgiveabriefoutlineoftheviewsoftheTaboritesbasedonthewritingsof theircontemporaries(thefuturePopeAeneasSylviusPiccolomini,Prbram,Vavinec,LaurenceofBezin). Theendoftheworldtheconsumatiosaeculiwas tooccurin1420.Theterm,however,coversonlytheendoftheoldworldandofthe"dominionofevil."Allthe "wicked"wouldberemovedforthwith."Thedayofvengeanceandtheyearofretribution"weredrawingnear."Theloftyandpowerfulmustbebentdownliketree branchesandcutoffandburnedinfurnaceslikestraw,leavingneitherrootnorbranch,theymustbethrashedlikesheavesofgrain,theirblooddrainedtothelastdrop, theyaretobeexterminatedwithscorpions,serpentsandwildbeasts,andputtodeatheverywhere."(19:p.78) Christ'slawofmercywastobeabolished,since"itsinterpretationandwrittentenetscontradictinmuchtheopinioncitedabove."(20:p.235)Onthecontrary,onewasto act"resolutelyandwithzealandwithjustretribution."Furthermore:"ItisnecessaryforeachofthefaithfultowashhishandsinthebloodoftheenemiesofChrist."(20:p. 231)Moreover:"AnyonewhoprotestsagainstthesheddingofthebloodofChrist'senemiesshallbecursedandpunishedjustastheseenemiesare.Allpeasantswho refusetojointheTaboritesshallbedestroyedtogetherwiththeirproperty."(19:p.81)

branchesandcutoffandburnedinfurnaceslikestraw,leavingneitherrootnorbranch,theymustbethrashedlikesheavesofgrain,theirblooddrainedtothelastdrop, theyaretobeexterminatedwithscorpions,serpentsandwildbeasts,andputtodeatheverywhere."(19:p.78) Christ'slawofmercywastobeabolished,since"itsinterpretationandwrittentenetscontradictinmuchtheopinioncitedabove."(20:p.235)Onthecontrary,onewasto act"resolutelyandwithzealandwithjustretribution."Furthermore:"ItisnecessaryforeachofthefaithfultowashhishandsinthebloodoftheenemiesofChrist."(20:p. 231)Moreover:"AnyonewhoprotestsagainstthesheddingofthebloodofChrist'senemiesshallbecursedandpunishedjustastheseenemiesare.Allpeasantswho refusetojointheTaboritesshallbedestroyedtogetherwiththeirproperty."(19:p.81) God'sKingdomonearthwillbeestablished,butnotforallonlyforthe"elect.""Evil"willnotbeeliminatedfromtheworldbutwillbesubjectedtothecontrolofthose whoare"good."AllthefaithfulweretocongregateinfivecitiesthosewhoremainedoutsidewouldnotbesparedtheLastJudgment.Fromthesecitiesthefaithfulwereto ruletheworld,andthosecitiesandtownsopposingthemweretobe"destroyedandburntlikeSodom."(20:p.236)Inparticular:"Inthisyearofretribution,Praguemust bedestroyedandburntbythefaithfullikeBabylon."(19:p.82) TheperiodwastoculminateinthecomingofChrist.ThenthechosenofGodwould"reignwiththeLordvisiblyandphysicallyforathousandyears."(19:p.94)When Christhaddescendedtoearthwithhisangels,pioussoulswhohaddiedforChristweretoberesurrectedinordertojudgethesinnerswithHim.Wiveswouldconceive withoutknowingamanandgivebirthwithoutpain.Noonewouldsoworreap."Thefruitoftheearthshallnolongerbeconsumed."(19:pp.85) [30] Thecallwentoutfromthepreachers"todonowork,topulldowntreesanddestroyhouses,churchesandmonasteries."(19:p.85)"Allhumaninstitutionsandhuman lawsmustbeabolished,fornoneofthemwerecreatedbytheHeavenlyFather."(19:p.110)ItwastaughtthattheChurchwas"hereticalandunrighteousandthatallits wealthmustbetakenawayandgiventolaymen."And:"Thehousesofpriestsandallchurchpropertymustbedemolished,andthechurches,altarsandmonasteries destroyed."(19:p.83)"Churchbellsweretakendownandbrokentopiecesandthensoldawaytoforeignlands.Churchobjects,candlesticks,goldandsilverwere smashed."(19:p.84)"Everywherealtarsweresmashed,thesacramentscastout,God'stemplesdefiledandturnedintostallsandstables."(19:p.127)"Thesacrament wastroddenunderfoot....TheBloodofChristwaspouredout,chalicesstolenandsold."(19:p.139)OneoftheTaboritepreachersstatedthathe"wouldsoonerprayto theDevilthanbendhiskneebeforetheHolyEucharist."(19:p.153)"Agreatmultitudeofpriestswerekilled,burnedandslaughtered,andthegreatestjoyforthemwas toseizesomebodyandmurderhim."(19:p.84)ThefavoritesongofthcTaboriteswas:"Comeon,monks,let'sseeyoudanceforus!"(18:p.84)Itwassaidthatwhen theKingdomoftheRighteouscametherewouldbe"noneedforanyonetoteachanother.Therewouldbenoneedforbooksorscriptures,andallworldlywisdomwill perish."(19:p.159)InmonasteriestheTaboritesinvariablydestroyedthelibraries."AllbelongingsmustbetakenawayfromGod'senemiesandburnedorotherwise destroyed."(19:p.81) "Thiswinterandsummerthepreachersandelderheadmenhavebeenpersistentlydupingthepeasantstopourmoneyintotheirbarrels."(19:p.101)Inthismannerall moneyinthecommunitywassocialized.Supervisorsofthebarrelswereappointedtooverseethestrictdeliveryofmoneyandtodistributethecommunalfund."Inthe townofTaborthereisnothingwhichismineorthine,butallpossesseverythingincommonandnooneistohaveanythingapart,andwhoeverdoesisasinner."(19:pp. 99100)OnepointoftheTaboriteprogramstated:"Nooneshallpossessanything,buteverythingmustbecommunal."(19:p.106)Thepreacherstaught:"Everythingwill becommon,includingwives:therewillbefreesonsanddaughtersofGodandtherewillbenomarriageasunionoftwohusbandandwife."(19:p.113) AmongtheTaborites,aBeghardfromBelgiumfoundedasectofAdamiteswhoestablishedthemselvesonasmallislandintheLunice [31] river.HepronouncedhimselfAdamandtheSonofGod,calledupontoresurrectthedeadandtocarryoutwhatwasforeordainedintheApocalypse.TheAdamites consideredthemselvestobetheincarnationoftheomnipresentGod.Theyexpectedtheworldsoontobefloodedwithbloodashighasahorse'sbridle.Onthisearththey sawthemselvesasGod'sscythesenttotakevengeanceandtodestroyallthatisvileintheworld.Forgivenesswasasin.Theykilledandtheyburnedtownsandvillagesat night,citingthephrasefromtheBible:"Atmidnighttherewasacrymade."InthetownofPricthey"killedpeople,youngandold,andburnedthetown."(19:p.464)At theirgatheringstheyworenoclothing,believingthatonlyinthiswaywouldtheybecomepure.Theyhadnomarriageeverymancouldchoosewomenatwill.Itwas enoughtosayaboutawoman"Sheinflamesmyspirit"forAdamtogivehisblessing:"Goandgivefruitandmultiplyandpopulatetheearth."Accordingtocertainsources, theirsexualrelationswerecompletelyindiscriminate."TheskytheycallaroofandsaythereisnoGodonearthastherearenodevilsinhell."(19:p.478)Onordersfrom Janika,AdamiteswereexterminatedbymoremoderateTaborites. Foralongtime,thestoriesabouttheAdamites(aswellasmanyreportsabouttheTaborites)werethoughttobetheinventionsoftheirenemies.Suchaviewwasfirst positedbytheFrenchHuguenotIsaacdeBeausobre,arepresentativeoftheAgeofEnlightenment,andinitsmostextremeformitfindsexpressionintheworksofthe CzechMarxisthistorianJ.Macek.ThequestionoftheAdamiteshasrecentlybeensubjectedtothoroughcriticalreviewbytheMarxisthistoriansE.WernerandM. Erbstsser.(15,16,17)Theydemonstratetheexistenceofanearlier"Adamite"tradition,acultofAdam,withintheBrethrenoftheFreeSpirit.Ifwetakeintoaccount certainunavoidabledistortionsduetothehermeticnatureoftheteaching,informationabouttheBohemian"Adamites"isinfullaccordwiththepictureoftheEuropean movementof"FreeSpirits"whichwehavedrawnintheprecedingsection. Forexample,Macekconsidersthepassage"Allshallbeincommon,wivesaswell"(fromthe OldChronicle) tobe"theheightoffilthyslander."(19:p.113)Inhis opinion,thispassageiscontradictedbyanotherinPrbram,whoassertsthatinTaborintimacybetweenhusbandandwifewasprohibited:"Ifhusbandandwifewereseen togetherortheirmeetingbecameknown,theywerebeatentodeathothers [32] werethrownintotheriver."However,thesetwopassagesactuallyareinfullaccordwiththetraditionoftheFreeSpirits,whopreachedunlimitedsexuallibertyandthe sinfulnessofmarriageatoneandthesametime.Thiswasalsothepositionofthe"HominesIntelligentia"groupinBrusselsataboutthesameperiod.Wenoteinthis connectionthatEngelshadpointedout:"Itisacuriousfactthatineverylargerevolutionarymovementthequestionof'freelove'comestotheforeground."(3:XVI:p. 160) TheemperorandthePopeappealedforacrusadeagainsttheTaborites.Butthelatternotonlycrushedthecrusadersbutcarriedwaroverintoneighboringcountries. Theseraids,whichreceivedthename"TheSplendidCampaigns"intheHussitetradition,wereundertakenonayearlybasisbetween1427and1434.Somecountries weredevastatedandlootedinothersforexample,Silesiagarrisonswereestablished.Asongofthetimeruns:"MeissenandSaxonyaredestroyed,Silesiaand Lauschwitzlieinruins,Bavariahasbecnturnedintoadesert,Austriaisdevastated,Moraviastripped,Bohemiaturnedupsidedown." DetachmentsofTaboriteswentasfarastheBalticSea,thewallsofVienna,LeipzigandBerlinNurembergpaidtribute.Czechiawasravaged.IntheOldCollegiate Chronicle itissaid:"InthesecampaignsthemajorityofsoldierswereforeignerswhofeltnolovefortheKingdom."And:"Fires,robberies,murdersandactsofviolence areontheirconscience."(21:p.161)ThewholeofCentralEuropewassubjectedtoterribledevastation.ThePopewasforcedtomakeconcessions.AttheBasel Councilof1433,anagreementwiththeHussiteswasreached,asaresultofwhichtheyreturnedtotheCatholicChurch.Butthemoreradical,Taborite,factionof HussitesdidnotrecognizetheagreementandwasannihilatedinthebattleatLipany,in1434. Duringthewarsof14191434,theimpactoftheHussiteswentbeyondthedevastationofneighboringcountries.Theyalsocarriedtheirchiliasticandsocialistideas abroad.TheirmanifestoeswerereadinBarcelona,Paris,Cambridge.In1423and1430,thereweredisturbancesbyHussiteadherentsinFlanders.InGermanyand

Chronicle itissaid:"InthesecampaignsthemajorityofsoldierswereforeignerswhofeltnolovefortheKingdom."And:"Fires,robberies,murdersandactsofviolence areontheirconscience."(21:p.161)ThewholeofCentralEuropewassubjectedtoterribledevastation.ThePopewasforcedtomakeconcessions.AttheBasel Councilof1433,anagreementwiththeHussiteswasreached,asaresultofwhichtheyreturnedtotheCatholicChurch.Butthemoreradical,Taborite,factionof HussitesdidnotrecognizetheagreementandwasannihilatedinthebattleatLipany,in1434. Duringthewarsof14191434,theimpactoftheHussiteswentbeyondthedevastationofneighboringcountries.Theyalsocarriedtheirchiliasticandsocialistideas abroad.TheirmanifestoeswerereadinBarcelona,Paris,Cambridge.In1423and1430,thereweredisturbancesbyHussiteadherentsinFlanders.InGermanyand Austria,Hussiteinfluencewasstillfeltacenturylater,duringtheperiodoftheReformation.InsideBohemiaitself,thedefeatedTaboritesgaverisetothesectof"Bohcmian Brethren"or"UnitasFratrum,"whocombinedthepreviousintolerantattitudetowardtheCatholicChurch [33] andsecularauthoritywithacompleterenunciationofviolenceevenforselfdefense.Weshallhaveoccasiontospeakofthissect,whichisstillinexistence,laterinthis work. Anabaptists. TheReformationcalledforthanewupsurgeofsocialistmovements.EveninpreReformationtimes,Germanywasfullofchiliasticsentiment.Wanderingpreachers exposedthesinsoftheworldandforetoldtheforthcomingvengeance.Astrologicalpredictionsofcalamitywerecommonfamine,rebellion,"whentheriverswillflowwith blood."Therewasasaying:"Whodoesnotdiein1523,isnotdrownedin1524,isnotkilledin1525,shallsaythatamiraclehashappenedtohim." Theinventionofprintingenormouslymagnifiedtheeffectoftheseideas.Anypeasantorartisancouldbeexposedtoleafletsshowingapeasantarmymarchingtowardthe futurerevolution,withafrightenedPope,princesandprelatesfleeingbeforeit. ThissentimentwasgivenespeciallystrongexpressionintheAnabaptistmovement,whichspreadtoGermany,Switzerland,Austria,Czechia,DenmarkandHollandand which,inthefollowingcentury,spilledoverintoEngland.Thesect'sname,assooftenhappened,wasgiventoitbyitsenemies.Itseemsthatthetermwascoinedby Zwingli.Themovementassuchhadexistedlongbefore,itsmemberscallingeachother"Brother."ThedesignationAnabaptist("therebaptized")istobeexplainedbythe factthatthesectrefusedtorecognizethebaptismofchildrenandoftenperformedasecondbaptismofadults.Inlatertimes,membersofthissectcametocallthemselves Baptists. Basically,thedoctrineoftheAnabaptists(see22,23,24,25,26)derivedfromthenotion,alreadyfamiliartous,ofthefallingawayoftheCatholicChurch,inEmperor Constantine'stime,fromthetrueteachingsofChrist.ThesesectariansconsideredthemselvesdirectsuccessorsoftheChristianityofApostolictimes.Theydeniedthe entiretraditionoftheCatholicChurchthatis,everyaspectofitsdoctrineandorganizationnotspecificallyidentifiedintheGospels.Theyrefusedtorecognizethe supremeauthorityofthePope,believedthatsalvationofthesoulwaspossibleoutsidetheChurchandprofessedauniversalpriesthood.OftheScriptures,theyrecognized onlytheGospelsassacredandonlythewordsspokenbyChristhimself,atthat.TheSermonontheMounthadparticularsignificanceforthem,andtheybelievedthatits commandmentsshouldbeobservedtotheletter.According [34] totheirdoctrine,themeaningoftheGospelsisrevealedthroughinspirationtoanyoneworthyofit,nowjustasinApostolictimes. Anabaptistsbelievedmurdertobeacardinalsinunderanycircumstancesandrejectedoathsofanykind.Forthisreason,theyrefusedtoparticipateinmanyaspectsof life.Ingeneral,theoppositionof"trueChristians"tothe"worldoffalseChristians"playedalargeroleintheirteachings.Thisledatcriticalperiodstomilitantappealsfor "exterminationoftheimpious." InorganizationtheAnabaptistslargelyresembledtheCathars.Themovementwasguidedentirelybyasocietyof"Apostles"who,havingrenouncedmarriageand property,ledthelifeofpilgrims.Theywanderedinpairs,theolderApostledevotinghimselftomattersoffaithandthesect'sorganization,withtheyoungerApostlehelping himwithpracticalmatters.TheApostleselectedbishopsfromamongtheirownranks,thelatterguidingtheactivityofthesectinvariousregions.Councilsofbishops, "synods"orcapituli, wereconvenedtodiscussquestionsofprinciple.Forexample,inhisinvitationtothesynodatWaldshutin1524,BalthazarHumbayerwrote:"The ancientcustomofApostolictimesissuchthat,incircumstanceshardforthefaith,thosetowhomGod'swordisentrustedgathertotakeaChristiandecision."(24:p.376) OftenbishopsfromthewholeofEuropecametogether.Forinstance,the capituli inBaselbetween1521and1523wereattendedbyBrethrenfromSwitzerland, Flanders(Beltin),Saxony(HeinrichvonEppendorf),Franconia(Stumpf),FrankfurtamMain(theKnightHartmutvonKronberg),Holland(Rode),England(Richard Crock,ThomasLipset),andotherplaces.(24:p.378f.)AttheAugsburgsynodof1526,morethansixty"elderBrethren"werepresent. ThesocialviewsoftheAnabaptistswerenotuniformthroughout.The Chronicle bySebastianFranck(sixteenthcentury)saysaboutthem:"Somebelievethemselvesto beholyandpuretheyhaveeverythingincommon....Otherspracticecommunalityonlytotheextentthattheydonotpermitneedtoariseamongthemselves....Among themasectappearedwhichwishedtomakewives,aswellasbelongings,communal."(25:p.306) ThereismuchdataonAnabaptiststobefoundinthebookbyBullinger,alsowritteninthesixteenthcentury.Indescribingthesectof"FreeBrethren"thatappearedinthe vicinityofZrich,hewrites:"TheFreeBrethren,whommanyAnabaptistscalled'crudeBrethren,' [35] werequitewidespreadintheearlydaysofthemovement.TheyunderstoodChristianfreedominacarnalsense.Fortheywishedtobefreeofalllaws,presumingthat Christhadliberatedthem.Therefore,theyregardedthemselvesasfreeoftithe,ofthecorveandofserfdom.Someofthem,desperatelibertines,seducedsillywomeninto believingthattheycouldnotbecomespiritualwithoutbreakingwedlock.Othersbelievedthatifallthingsmustbeincommon,thenalsowives.Stillotherssaidthatafterthe newbaptismtheyhadbeenbornanewandcouldnotsin:onlyfleshsins.Thesefalseteachingswerethesourceofshameandobscenity.Andyettheydaredtoteachthat suchwasthewilloftheFather."(40:p.129) ElsewhereBullingerreports:"Andtheysayinearnestthatnooneshouldhavepropertyandthatallwealthandpatrimonyshouldbeincommon,asitisimpossibletobe Christianandwealthyatthesametime....Theysetforthasanewmonasticorderrulesregardingclothingastothefabric,shapeandstyle,lengthandsize....Theysetforth rulesastoeating,drinking,sleeping,leisure,standingandwalkingabout."(25:p.284) Intheearly1520s,theAnabaptistsrenouncedtheconspiratorialcharacteroftheiractivitiesandenteredintoanopenstrugglewiththe"world"andtheCatholicChurch.In 1524,alargescalesecretconferencewasheldinNurembergandattendedbyDenck,oneofthemostinfluentialAnabaptistwriters,bythe"Picard"Hetzer,byHutofthe oldWaldensianBrethren,andbyotherBrethren.Manywereseized,butDenckfledtoSwitzerland.HereanewassemblyofBrethrenfromvariouscountriestookplace. Itwasdecidedtobegintopracticethesecondbaptismopenly.ThisdecisionwasputintoeffectinZurichandSt.Gall.Thiswasapparentlysymbolicoftheshifttooutright strugglepreciselythecoursetakenbytheCzechBrethreninthevillageofLota,in1457,whentheydecidedtodemonstrateopenlytheirsplitwithCatholicism. InSt.Gallin1525,auniformofcoarsegrayfabricandabroadgrayhatwereintroducedasobligatoryforallmembersofthecommunity.Allformsofparticipationin

Intheearly1520s,theAnabaptistsrenouncedtheconspiratorialcharacteroftheiractivitiesandenteredintoanopenstrugglewiththe"world"andtheCatholicChurch.In 1524,alargescalesecretconferencewasheldinNurembergandattendedbyDenck,oneofthemostinfluentialAnabaptistwriters,bythe"Picard"Hetzer,byHutofthe oldWaldensianBrethren,andbyotherBrethren.Manywereseized,butDenckfledtoSwitzerland.HereanewassemblyofBrethrenfromvariouscountriestookplace. Itwasdecidedtobegintopracticethesecondbaptismopenly.ThisdecisionwasputintoeffectinZurichandSt.Gall.Thiswasapparentlysymbolicoftheshifttooutright strugglepreciselythecoursetakenbytheCzechBrethreninthevillageofLota,in1457,whentheydecidedtodemonstrateopenlytheirsplitwithCatholicism. InSt.Gallin1525,auniformofcoarsegrayfabricandabroadgrayhatwereintroducedasobligatoryforallmembersofthecommunity.Allformsofparticipationin publiclifeandentertainmentwereforbidden.Anabaptistswerecalled"monkswithouthoods."TheleadersoftheAnabaptistcommunityinZurichpreachedthat"all propertymustbeheldincommonandtogether."Theseeventswereaccompaniedbystrangehappenings.Membersofsomeofthegroupswentnakedattheirgatherings and,tobelikechildren,creptaroundontheground,playing.OthersburnedtheBible,andwithshoutsof"Here! [36] Here!"beatthemselvesonthebreasttoshowtheplacewherethelifegivingspiritdwells.Oneofthem,onordersfromhisfather,killedhisbrotherinimitationofChrist's sacrifice.(23:p.701) TheAnabaptistsdidnotsucceedintakingcontroloftheReformationmovementinSwitzerland(thanksinlargeparttoZwingli'soppositiontothem).ExiledSwiss AnabaptistsfledtoBohemiaandjoinedtheBohemianBrethrenthere.Largecombinedcommunitieswerefoundedoncollectivistprinciples. Communalpropertywasintroduced.EverythingearnedbytheBrethrenwashandedovertothecommontreasury,whichwassupervisedbyaspecial"distributor."The "goodpolice"controlledthewholeofthelifeofthecommunityclothing,lodging,upbringingofchildren,marriageandwork. Thetypeofmen'sandwomen'sclothing,thehourforgoingtobed,thetimeforworkandrestwereallstrictlyprescribed.ThelifeoftheBrethrentookplacebeforethe eyesofothers.Itwasforbiddentocookanythingforoneselfmealshadtobetakenincommon.Theunmarriedsleptincommonbedrooms,menandwomenseparately. Children(fromtheageoftwo)wereseparatedfromtheirparentsandbroughtupincommon"children'shouses."Marriageswerearrangedbytheelders.Theyalso assignedtoeveryonehisorheroccupation.Membersofthecommunityrefusedtohaveanycontactwiththestatetheydidnotserveinthearmy,neverwenttocourt. Theydid,however,retainapassivelyhostileattitudewhilerejectingviolenceofanykind.(See27,39.) InGermany,Anabaptismbegantotakeonanincreasinglyrevolutionarycharacter.InThuringia,neartheBohemianborder,thecityofZwickaubecamethecenterofthe movement.ThesocalledZwickauProphets,headedbytheAnabaptistApostleKlausStorch,believedthattheelectoftheLordcouldcommunicatewithHimdirectly,as theApostlesofoldcould,anddeniedthattheChurchwascapableofgivingsalvation.Theirteachingconsideredscienceandtheartsunnecessaryforman,foreverything essentialtohissalvationwasalreadygiventohimbyGod. InimitationofChrist,StorchsurroundedhimselfwithtwelveApostlesandseventydisciples.The"Prophets"predictedaninvasionbytheTurks,thereignoftheAntichrist, destructionoftheimpiousandfinallythearrivalofthethousandyearKingdomofGod,whentherewouldbeonebaptismandonefaith. AnexpositionofStorch'steachingshasbeenpreservedinawork [37] byWagnerpublishedinthelatesixteenthcenturyinErfurt.Itistitled"HowNiklausStorchInstigatedSeditioninThuringiaandtheNeighboringRegions"andwaswritten onthebasisofeyewitnessaccounts.Itcitesthefollowingpointsofhisdoctrine: 1.Thatnomatrimonialunion,whethersecretoropen,shouldbeobserved.... 3.Thatonthecontrary,eachmaytakewiveswheneverhisfleshdemandsitandhispassionrises,andmaylivewiththeminintimacyathiswill. 4.Thateverythingoughttobeheldincommon,forGodhassentallmenequallynakedintotheworld.Andlikewise,Hehasgiventhemequallyeverythingthatisonthe earth:thebirdsoftheairandthefishofthewater. 5.Thereforeitoughttobethatallauthorities,secularandclerical,bedeprivedoftheirofficesonceandforallorkilledbythesword,fortheyaloneliveastheywilland suckthebloodandsweatofthepoor,gluttingthemselvesanddrinkingdayandnight. "Henceeveryonemustriseup,thesoonerthebetter,armhimselfandattackthepriestsintheircozynests,massacreandexterminatethem.Foroncethesheepare deprivedofaleader,itwillgoeasywiththesheep.Nextitwillbenecessarytoattackalsothosewhofleeceothers,toseizetheirhouses,plundertheirproperty,andraze theircastlestotheground."(28:p.53) ThisfirstsurgeoftheAnabaptistmovementcoincidedwiththe1525PeasantWarinGermany.Thesocialistteachingsofthetimearemostvividlymirroredintheactivity ofThomasMntzer.HisbiographyispresentedatgreaterlengthintheAppendixweshallthereforelimitourselvestoabriefcommentonhisdoctrinehere.Mntzer taughtthattheonlyLordandKingoftheearthisChrist.Heassignedtoprincesafunctionverylikethatofhangmenandeventhisprerogativewastobeexercisedonlyon directordersfromtheelectoftheLord.Iftheprincesrefusedtoobey,theyweretobeexecuted.TheauthorityofChristwasseenastrulyembodiedinthesocietyofthe elect,anarrowunionsharplyseparatedfromtherestofthepopulation.Mntzerdidindeedattempttoorganizesuchaunion. HeseizedpowerinthetownofMhlhausen,whererebelliousinhabitantshaddrivenoutthemunicipalcouncil.Inthecityandthesurroundingarea,monasterieswerelaid waste,sacredimagesdestroyed,monksandpriestskilled.Mntzertaughtthatallproperty [38] wastobeheldincommon.Anidenticaldemandwaspartoftheprogramofhisunion.Achroniclewrittenatthetimerelatesthatapracticalattemptatimplementingthese principleswasundertakenatMhlhausen.However,anarmygatheredbythelocalprincessoonapproachedthetown.Mntzerandhisfollowerswereoverwhelmingly defeatedhewasexecuted.(Seethemoredetailedaccountin28andin39:pp.199253.) TheAnabaptists'participationinthePeasantWarcalledforththeparticularireoftheauthorities.AviolentandextremelycruelwaveofpersecutionofAnabaptistsswept acrosssouthandcentralGermany.Thistemporarilyweakenedmilitantandsocialistsentiments,butaround1530theysurfacedagain.InhisChronicle, SebastianFranck reportsthatabout1530(inSwitzerland),Brethrenwhobelievedinthepossibilityofselfdefenseandwarundercertaincircumstancesbegantogaintheupperhandinthe organization."SuchBrethrenwereinthemajority." AttheAnabaptistsynods,theinfluenceofthemoremoderate"Apostle"Denckwaned,whileaformerassociateofMntzer's,Hut,whopreachedcompletecommunality ofworldlygoods,cametotheforefront.Heproclaimed:"Thesaintsmustbejoyfulandmusttakeupdoubleedgedswordsinordertowreakvengeanceinthe nations."(23:p.703)Hutcreatedanewunionwhosegoalwas"slaughterofalloverlordsandpowersthatbe."Healsoproposed"establishingtheruleofHansHuton

acrosssouthandcentralGermany.Thistemporarilyweakenedmilitantandsocialistsentiments,butaround1530theysurfacedagain.InhisChronicle, SebastianFranck reportsthatabout1530(inSwitzerland),Brethrenwhobelievedinthepossibilityofselfdefenseandwarundercertaincircumstancesbegantogaintheupperhandinthe organization."SuchBrethrenwereinthemajority." AttheAnabaptistsynods,theinfluenceofthemoremoderate"Apostle"Denckwaned,whileaformerassociateofMntzer's,Hut,whopreachedcompletecommunality ofworldlygoods,cametotheforefront.Heproclaimed:"Thesaintsmustbejoyfulandmusttakeupdoubleedgedswordsinordertowreakvengeanceinthe nations."(23:p.703)Hutcreatedanewunionwhosegoalwas"slaughterofalloverlordsandpowersthatbe."Healsoproposed"establishingtheruleofHansHuton earth"andmakingMhlhausenthecapital.Amajorityofthemembersoftheunionknewnothingofhisradicalplans.Onlyanarrowcircleofmembers,calledthe "knowers,"wasinitiatedintothesesecrets. In1535,counselorstoEmperorCharlesVsubmittedareportstatingthat"Anabaptists,whocallthemselvestrueChristians,wishtodivideallproperty...."(24:p.395) Theincreasinglyexplosivesituationfoundexpressioninsomepreposterousincidentswhichwere,however,destinedtobeoutstrippedbylaterevents.Forexample,the furrierAugustinBaderproclaimedhimselfkingoftheNewIsraelandmadehimselfacrownandkinglygarments.HewastriedinStuttgart.(23:p.703) In15341535,thisriseofAnabaptistmilitancyledtoanoutbreakofviolencewhichcanbeseenasanattempttobringaboutanAnabaptistrevolutioninnorthernEurope. ThemaineventswereplayedoutinnorthernGermanyAnabaptistshadgravitatedthereearlier,having [39] beendrivenoutofsouthernandcentralGermany.ThetownofMnsterbecamethecenteroftheseevents. TakingadvantageofthestrugglegoingonbetweenCatholicsandLutherans,theAnabaptistsgainedcontrolinthemunicipalcouncilandthencompletelysubjugatedthe town.Allwhorefusedtoacceptasecondbaptismwereexpelledafterbeingstrippedoftheirpossessions.Thereafterallpropertyinthecitywasappropriatedforthe commonlot,everyonebeingobligedtodeliverhispossessionsunderthesupervisionofspecialdeacons.Nextpolygamywasintroduced,andwomenofacertainagewere forbiddentostayunmarried. AnabaptistApostlesfannedoutfromMnsteracrossGermany,DenmarkandHolland,preachingthesecondbaptismandcallingthefaithfultocometotheaidofthecity. Revoltgrippedanumberoftowns,andAnabaptistsgatheredbylandandbyseatosupportMnster.TerrifiedbydevelopmentsBishopWaldeck,whosediocese includedMnster,calledupanarmytogetherwiththeneighboringprincesandsurroundedthetown.Thesiegelastedforoverayear.Withinthetowninthemeantime,one oftheAnabaptists,JanBokelson,alsocalledJohannofLeyden,wasproclaimedthekingofMnsterandofthewholeworld.Hesurroundedhimselfwithaluxurious courtandamultitudeofwives,andhepersonallybeheadedrecalcitrantsinthetownsquare.Atthesametime,uprisingsofAnabaptistsbrokeoutallovernorthern GermanyandinHolland,wheretheyevensucceededinseizingtheAmsterdamtownhallforashorttime. Theauthoritiesfinallybegantoregaincontrol.In1535,MnsterwastakenbyassaultandBokelsonandotherAnabaptistleaderswereexecuted.Amoredetailed descriptionofthisepisodeisgivenintheAppendix. SectsintheEnglishRevolutionof1648. AfterthefallofMnster,aschismagainappearedbetweenthemorepeaceableandthemorebelligerenttendenciesoftheAnabaptistmovement.In1536,asynodtook placeinthevicinityofthetownofBuchholzinWestphalia.Batenburg,aleaderofthemilitantfaction,supportedtheviewsoftheMnsterAnabaptistsonarmedstruggle, ontheapproachingKingdomofGod,andsoon.ThefollowersofUbboPhillipstooktheoppositeposition.Thislattergroupgainedtheupperhand,althoughitsadherents didnotcondemntheiropponentsinprinciple,sayingonlythatevenifBatenburgwasright,thetimeofthe"KingdomoftheElect"hadnotyetarrived,andthatitwas thereforenotyettimetoattempt [40] towrestpowerfromthegodless.ThisepisodemarksthebeginningofdecreasedpoliticalinvolvementofAnabaptistsontheContinent.Itsmoreextremerepresentatives, theFamilists,emigrated(viaHolland)toEngland.ItisworthnotingthatsomeEnglishmenhadattendedtheBuchholzsynod.Oneofthem,Henrybyname,tookanactive partinorganizingthesynodandpaidtravelingexpensesforthedelegates.(30:pp.7677) Atthebeginningoftheseventeenthcentury,theAnabaptistswhohadmigratedtoEnglandbegantomergewiththemovementoftheLollards,whichhadexistedtherefor alongtime.TheEnglishrevolutionof1648coincidedwithaflurryofactivitybyallthesesects.TheexampleofMnsterandJohannBokelsongrippedthepopular imaginationonceagain.AbookoriginatinginQuakercirclesstatedthefollowing,forexample:"NoFriendhasreasontobeashamedofhisAnabaptistorigins.Evenin MnstertheyrebelledmerelyagainstthecrueltyoftheGermantyrants,wholiterallylikedevilsoppressedthesoulsandthebodiesofthecommonfolk.Theywere defeatedandthereforedeclaredmutineers.Theiruprisingwasviolentbecausetheiroppressorswerestillmoreviolent."(33:p.25)AmongtheapologistsfortheM nster rebellionwasLilburne,ahighlypopularleaderoftheradicalwinginthePuritanarmy(seehispamphlet"TheBasicLawsofLiberty"). Inanotherpamphletoftheday(entitled"Heresiography"),thefollowingAnabaptistdoctrineiscited:"AChristianmaynotwithasafeconsciencepossessanythingproper tohimselfbutwhatsoeverhehathhemustmakecommon."(31:p.99) Inthemiddleoftheseventeenthcentury,thesectofRantersappearedinEnglanditsdoctrineisstrikinglyakintothatoftheBrethrenoftheFreeSpirit.TheRanters believedthatallwhichexistswasdivineandthatthedivisionbetweenGoodandEvilwasamanmadeconcept.Inmysticaltermsthiswasperceivedasanidentity:"The DevilisGod,HellisHeaven,SinHoliness,DamnationSalvation."(32:p.77) Thisledtoadenialofmoralsandtoostentatiousamorality.ThusClarksonsaysoftheperiodwhenhewasaRanter:"Theverymotionofmyheartwastoallmannerof theft,cheat,wrongorinjurythatprivatelycouldbeacted,thoughintongueIprofessedthecontrary,notconsideringIbrakethelawinallpoints(murderexcepted)andthe groundofthismyjudgmentwas,Godmadeallthingsgood,sonothingevilbutasmanjudgedit."(32:p.78) Inthesocialfield,theRantersrejectedpropertyandmarriage. [41] Inthepamphlet"TheRanters'LastSermon,"wefindtheteaching"thatitwasquitecontrarytotheendofCreationtoAppropriateanythingtoanyManorWomanbut thatthereoughttobeaCommunityofallthings....Theysaythatforonemantobetiedtoonewoman,oronewomantobetiedtooneman,isafruitofthecursebutthey saywearefreedfromthecursethereforeitisourlibertytomakeuseofwhomweplease."(32:p.90) Inhispamphlet"AWonder,"EdwardHideascribestotheRantersthefollowingview:"Thatallthewomenintheworldarebutoneman'swifeinunityandallthemenin theworldarebutonewoman'shusbandinunitysothatonemanmayliewithallthewomenintheworldinunity,andonewomanmayliewithallmenintheworld,for theyareallherhusbandinunity."(32:p.90) RanterswereaccusedofperformingritualswhichinvolvedaparodyofCommunionandindiscriminatesexualunion,similartothe barilotto andthe"paradise"ofthe

saywearefreedfromthecursethereforeitisourlibertytomakeuseofwhomweplease."(32:p.90) Inhispamphlet"AWonder,"EdwardHideascribestotheRantersthefollowingview:"Thatallthewomenintheworldarebutoneman'swifeinunityandallthemenin theworldarebutonewoman'shusbandinunitysothatonemanmayliewithallthewomenintheworldinunity,andonewomanmayliewithallmenintheworld,for theyareallherhusbandinunity."(32:p.90) RanterswereaccusedofperformingritualswhichinvolvedaparodyofCommunionandindiscriminatesexualunion,similartothe barilotto andthe"paradise"ofthe BrethrenoftheFreeSpirit. AnactofParliamentwasdirectedagainsttheRanters.Itcondemnedthosewhopreached"thatsuchmenandwomenaremostperfectorliketoGodorEternitywhichdo committhegreatestsinswithleastremorseorsense."(32:p.103) Inthe1650s,themajorityofRantersjoinedtheQuakers,sothatitbecamedifficulttodrawadistinctlinebetweenthetwocurrents.Religiousupheavalsofthedaywere exacerbatedbytheindignationarousedbyCromwell'sforeignpolicytheconclusionofpeaceintheNetherlands,whichfrustratedthehopeofspreadingthereignofthe "saints"throughoutEurope. JamesNayler,aQuakerpreacher,acquiredaconsiderablefollowingevenwithinCromwell'sretinue.ItwasrumoredthathewasasecondChrist.Peoplewrotetohim, saying:"HenceforewardyournameisnotJamesbutJesus."WhenavisitbyhimwasannouncedinBristol,suchexcitementwasarousedthatcontemporariesconsideredit likelythatBristolwouldbecomea"NewJerusalem,"asecondMnster.WhenNaylerrodeintotownonhorseback,thousandsfollowedhim.Buthewasmetby Cromwell'ssoldiers,seasonedbytheirserviceintheCivilWar,andtheydispersedthecrowd,seizedNaylerandtookhimtojail.HiscasewasdebatedinParliamentfor severalmonths.Itseemstohavehadpoliticalimplications:itispossiblethatanuprisingofAnabaptistswasfeared.Nayler'sexecutionseemedimminent,buttherewere disturbancesandanoutpouringofpleasformercy.Cromwell [42] spokeinfavorofmitigatingthesentence.NaylerwaspubliclyRoggedandbranded.Acrowdofadherentssurroundedthescaffold,kissinghisfeet,handsandhair.(33: pp.264274,34:pp.256263) Interestingly,thenameRantersreappears150yearslater,inthe1820s,whenthetermwasappliedtoacertaingroupofMethodists.Fromtheirmidstcamethefirst organizersoftheEnglishtradeunionmovement,menwhohadacquiredtheskillsofpopularoratorsinthesect.(31:p.167) ThemovementwhosemembersbecameknownasDiggershadsharplydefinedsocialistcharacteristics.Externally,itexpresseditself(beginningin1649)intheseizureof communallandbysmallgroupsofpeopleforjointtillage.Thisattemptatorganizingcommunes,however,wasameregesture,whichledtonopracticalconsequences, anditwastheDiggers'literaryactivitythatprovedtohavelastingsignificance. GerrardWinstanleywasthemostimportantfigureamongthem.Inseveralpamphletsheproclaimedhisbasicideatheillegitimacyofprivateownershipofland.He reportedthathehadhadavision,"avoiceandarevelation,"andwaspreachingwhathadbeenrevealedtohim:"Andsolongasweoranyothermaintainthiscivil property,weconsentstilltoholdthecreationdownunderthatbondageitgroansunder,andsoweshouldhindertheworkofrestorationandsinagainstlightthatisgiven untous,andsothroughthefearoftheResh(man)loseourpeace.Andthatthiscivilpropertyisthecurseismanifestthus:thosethatbuyandsellland,andarelandlords, havegotiteitherbyoppressionormurderortheftandalllandlordsliveinthebreachoftheseventhandeighthcommandments, "Thoushaltnotstealnorkill. "("The TrueLevellers'StandardAdvanced:or,TheStateofCommunityopened,andPresentedtotheSonsofMen.")(35:p.85) Winstanleyviewedtradeandmoneyinequallynegativeterms:"Forbuyingandsellingisthegreatcheatthatrobsandstealstheearthonefromanother....Wehope,"he says,"thatpeopleshalllivefreelyintheenjoymentoftheearth,withoutbringingthemarkoftheBeastintheirhandsorintheirpromiseandthattheyshallbuywineand milkwithoutmoneyorwithoutprice,asIsaiahspeaks."("ADeclarationfromthePoorOppressedPeopleofEngland.")(35:p.101) ThesocialistdemandsofWinstanleywereconfinedtothedenialofprivateproperty,tradeandmoney.Hewasexplicitlyopposedto [43] moreextremeviews:"Likewisetheyreportthatwediggersholdwomentobecommon,andliveinthatbestialness.FormypartIdeclareagainstit.Iownthistobea truth,thattheearthoughttobeacommontreasurytoallbutasforwomen,Leteverymanhavehisownwife,andeverywomanherownhusbandandIknownoneof thediggersthatactinsuchanunrationalexcessoffemalecommunity.Ifanyshould,Iprofesstohavenothingtodowithsuchpeople,butleavethemtotheirownmaster, whowillpaythemwithtormentofmindanddiseasesintheirbodies."("ANewyear'sGiftfortheParliamentandArmy.")(35:p.177)Winstanleyconstantlydeclared himselfanenemyofviolenceaswell,persuadinghisreadersthattheDiggerswouldseektheirendsonlybypeaceablemeans.Buttheemotionalthrustofhismessage sometimescarriedhimbeyondthepoint,andheraisedhisvoiceagainstanykindofprivateproperty:"thecursedthing,calledprivateproperty,whichisthecauseofall wars,bloodshed,theftandenslavingwars,thatholdthepeopleundermisery."(32:p.108)Hesaystohisopponents:"Butnowthetimeofdeliveranceiscome,andthou proudEsauandstoutheartedcovetousness,thoumustcomedownandbelordofthecreationnolonger.FornowtheKingofrighteousnessisrisingtoruleinandover theearth.Therefore,ifthouwiltfindmercy,LetIsraelgofree breakinpiecesquicklythebondofparticularproperty."("TheTrueLevellers'StandardAdvanced...") (35:p.93) TheDiggerscompriseonlyasinglegroupinawidermovementduringtheperiodoftheEnglishrevolution.SupportersofthegeneralmovementwerecalledLevellers.One ofthem,theLondonmerchantWilliamWalwyn,asked"thatthroughoutthecountrytherebenofences,norhedges,normoats."Acontemporarypamphletascribesto Walwynthefollowingviews:"Itwouldneverbewelluntilallthingswerecommonanditbeingreplied,willthatbeever?answered,wemustendeavorititbeingsaid,that thiswoulddestroyallGovernment,answered,thatthentherewouldbenothieves,nocovetouspersons,nodeceivingandabusingofoneanothe,r,andsononeedof Government."(32:pp.185186)TheauthorinformsusthatWalwynneverdisprovedtheseassertions."Afewdiligentspiritsmayturntheworldupsidedownifthey observetheseasonsandshallwithlifeandcourageengageaccordingly,"Walwynproposes.(32:p.185) TheModerate, anewspaperespousingtheviewsoftheLevellers,wroteontheoccasionoftheexecutionofcertainrobbers:"Manyan [44] honestmantriestoprovethatitisonlyprivatepropertywhichgovernsthelivesofpeopleofsuchconditionandforcesthemtoviolatethelawinordertosustainlife. Further,theyexplainwithmuchconvictionthatpropertyistheprimecauseofallclashesbetweenparties."(36:p.62) Apamphletofthedaysays:"LetusestablishinregardtothosewhoarecalledLevellersthefollowing:Theywishthatnoonecallanythingwhatsoeverhisown,and,in theirwords,thepowerofmanoverlandistyranny,and,intheiropinion,privatepropertyistheworkofthedevil."(33:pp.168169) UnlikeWinstanley,whopreachedrenunciationofviolence,theextremeLevellergroupsagitatedforterror.Oneoftheirpamphletsisentitled"RemovalIsNotMurder." Theirefforttofomentrebellionwas,however,easilycrushedbyCromwell'stroops.

Further,theyexplainwithmuchconvictionthatpropertyistheprimecauseofallclashesbetweenparties."(36:p.62) Apamphletofthedaysays:"LetusestablishinregardtothosewhoarecalledLevellersthefollowing:Theywishthatnoonecallanythingwhatsoeverhisown,and,in theirwords,thepowerofmanoverlandistyranny,and,intheiropinion,privatepropertyistheworkofthedevil."(33:pp.168169) UnlikeWinstanley,whopreachedrenunciationofviolence,theextremeLevellergroupsagitatedforterror.Oneoftheirpamphletsisentitled"RemovalIsNotMurder." Theirefforttofomentrebellionwas,however,easilycrushedbyCromwell'stroops. InalmostallLevellergroups,socialistaspirationswerecombinedwithsomeformofatheism.EvenWinstanley,whoreferredtovoicesandrevelationandwasfondof quotingtheprophets,wroteofChristianity:"Thisdivineteachingthatyoucall'spiritualandcelestial'isintruththethiefwhocomesandplundersthevineyardsofhuman peace....Thosewhopreachthisdivineteachingarethemurderersofmanypoorsouls."Overtonpublishedabookentitled:"Maniswhollymortal,oratreatisewherein'tis provedboththeologicallyandphilosophicallythataswholemansinned,sowholemandiescontrarytothatcommondisinclinationofsoulandbody."(31:p.94)His followersformedthesectofthe"SleepingSouls."Theybelievedthatthesoulfallsintothesleepofdeathalongwiththebody. TheperiodoftheEnglishrevolutionrepresentsthelastgreatsurgeinthefortunesofthesectarianmovement.Inlateryears,thecharacteristicfigureoftheprophet cum apostle*disappearsfromthehistoricalscene.Thesectsthemselvesalsovanish,afterhavingsopersistentlypreservedalltheirtypicaltraitsformorethansixhundredyears. Thesocialistcurrentsofthisperiodreflectthecharacteristicsofatimeoftransition.Ontheonehand,theyretaincleartracesoftheirsectarianorigin.Thisisexemplifiedby Winstanley'sreferencestovisions,revelationandvoicesandhisattemptstoderivehisviewsfrom

*ThelastrepresentativeofthistypemaybeseeninWilhelmWeitling,whohadsuchagreatinfluenceonMarx,InWeitling'scareerweencounterthecharacteristicallyendless journeysalloverEurope(andtoAmerica)topreachhisdoctrine,andthephenomenonofaChristianvocabularyemployedtopropoundsocialismandviolence,includinga projectforarmingfortythousandbrigands.

[45] theScriptures.DirecttieswiththesectarianmovementontheContinentcanalsobedemonstrated.SomeoftheroutesbywhichAnabaptismcametoEnglandhavebeen mentionedabove.Thesedirectcontactsweremaintainedthroughouttheperiodprecedingtherevolution.Forexample,itwasatthistimethatabishopoftheBohemian Brethren,JanKomensky(Comenius),settledinEngland.HewasexpelledfromEnglandin1642,buthisinfluencelingeredforalongtimeafterward.Theworksof KomenskyweretranslatedintoEnglishbytheinfluentialLevellerpamphleteerSamuelHartlib. Ontheotherhand,manyworksproducedbytheLevellersexhibitapurelyrationalistspiritandshownotraceofanyreligiousconsideration.Certainofthesewritings belongtothenewliterarygenreofsocialistutopias.SuchwasHartlib's"KingdomofMacaria,"whichpresentsapictureoflifewhollysubordinatedtothestate.Themost importantofWinstanley'sworks,"TheLawofFreedom,"isalsowritteninthisstyle.Forthisreasonitwillbemoreproperlydiscussedinthenextchapter. Appendix ThreeBiographies DolcinoandtheApostolicBrethren. ThesectofApostolicBrethrenwasfoundedbyayoungpeasantfromnearParma,GerardSegarelli.Contemporariesportrayhimascombiningthefeatures ofacraftypeasantandasimpleton,butjudgingbyhissuccess,hepossessedotherqualitiesaswell.Inanycasehewasin1248refusedadmittancetothe Franciscanorderbecauseofhis"simplicity."HethereuponenteredaneighboringchurchandremainedforalongtimecontemplatingpicturesoftheApostles. Fromthenon,hestoppedshavingandlethishairgrowlong,soastoresembletheApostlesinthedepictionsofthetime,anddressedaccordingly.Hesold hishouse,wentoutintothetownsquareandthrewthemoneyfromthesaleontheground,saying,"Takeit,whoeverwantsto."Heleftthetownandbegan toliveonalms,gatheringaroundhimasmallbandoffollowers,whodressedandlivedashedid. Thetimeswerefavorableforthebirthofnewsects.Theyear1260wasapproaching,thetimeJoachimofFlorehadpredictedwouldbringworldcataclysms andtheappearanceoftheAntichrist.Furthermore,in1259,aterribleplaguehadbefallenItaly,strengtheningthebeliefinJoachim'sprophecy.Crowdsof penitentsledbymonksandpriestsmovedhalfnakedalongtheroads,scourgingthemselvesandleavingabloodytrailbehind.Singinghymns,thepenitents wouldenteratownandaceremonyofpurgingwouldbegin.Everyonewastorepent,tomakepeacewithhis

[46] enemiesandtogivebackanythinggainedbyunjustmeans.Amnestyforallexileswouldgenerallybeannounced.(38:pp.288289) Segarelli'ssectemergedfromthistroubledperiodwithaddedstrengthandinfluence.Itwassupportedbymanyrichandpowerfulmen.Segarellieven submittedarequesttothePopetorecognizehisorder,inthemanneroftheFranciscans.TheCuriarefused,butinanextremelybenevolenttone.Atthis point,SegarellisenthisApostlestoremotecornersofItalyandintoFrance.ItseemsthattheteachingoftheApostolicBrethrenatthetimedifferedlittlefrom thatofnumerousotherreligiousgroups.ThePopewasforcedtotoleratemostofthesesects,andSegarellihimselfcameundertheprotectionoftheBishop ofParma,inwhosepalaceheresidedfortwelveyears,playingtherole,ashisopponentsasserted,ofparasite,almostofajester. Littlebylittle,thesect'srelationswiththeCuriabegantosour.Thesectinsistedonexposingcorruptionamongpriestsandenumeratingthewaysinwhich theyhadstrayedfromApostolicideals.MeanwhiletheCuriapointedtothehereticaltrendsofthesect.Thisseemstohavecoincidedwithanincreased influenceoftheviewsoftheBrethrenoftheFreeSpiritupontheApostolicBrethren.Theimportancethesectattainedcanbejudgedbythefactthatitwas condemnedinEnglandbytheChichesterSynodin1286,andagaininWrzburg,in1289.(38:p.310)TheInquisitionfinallytookupthematter.In1294, Segarelliwasarrestedaftersixyearsofimprisonment,hewascondemnedandburnedatthestakein1300. Butbythistime,thesectwasheadedbyaleaderofanentirelydifferenttype.HisnamewasDolcino.Hewastheillegitimatesonofapriestandwasstudying forthepriesthoodwhenhewascaughtstealingmoneyfromhisteacherandforcedtoflee.HewasadmittedtoaFranciscanmonasteryasanovice,andit washerethatheapparentlybecameacquaintedwiththeteachingsoftheApostolicBrethren.HeleftthemonasteryandmetMargaret,anoviceintheSt. CatherineconventinTrento.Enteringtheconventasaworkman,Dolcinopersuadedhertorunawaywithhim.Thetwobecamewanderingpreachersofthe ApostolicBrethren.AcontemporarysaysthatDolcinotaughtthat"inloveeverythingmustbecommonpropertyandwives."Mosheimwrites:"Theycalled oneanotherbrothersandsisters,inthemannerofthefirstChristians.Theylivedinpovertyandcouldhaveneitherhousesnorprovisionsfortomorrowor anythingthatcouldserveasaconvenience.Whentheyexperiencedhunger,theyaskedforfoodofthefirstpersontheymetandatewhateverwasoffered. Welloffpeoplewhojoinedthemwereobligedtogivetheirpropertyovertobeusedbythesect....Brotherswhowentintotheworldtopreachpenitence

forthepriesthoodwhenhewascaughtstealingmoneyfromhisteacherandforcedtoflee.HewasadmittedtoaFranciscanmonasteryasanovice,andit washerethatheapparentlybecameacquaintedwiththeteachingsoftheApostolicBrethren.HeleftthemonasteryandmetMargaret,anoviceintheSt. CatherineconventinTrento.Enteringtheconventasaworkman,Dolcinopersuadedhertorunawaywithhim.Thetwobecamewanderingpreachersofthe ApostolicBrethren.AcontemporarysaysthatDolcinotaughtthat"inloveeverythingmustbecommonpropertyandwives."Mosheimwrites:"Theycalled oneanotherbrothersandsisters,inthemannerofthefirstChristians.Theylivedinpovertyandcouldhaveneitherhousesnorprovisionsfortomorrowor anythingthatcouldserveasaconvenience.Whentheyexperiencedhunger,theyaskedforfoodofthefirstpersontheymetandatewhateverwasoffered. Welloffpeoplewhojoinedthemwereobligedtogivetheirpropertyovertobeusedbythesect....Brotherswhowentintotheworldtopreachpenitence wereallowedtotakewiththemasister,astheApostlesdid.Butnotasawife,onlyasanassistant.Theycalledtheirfemalecompanions'sistersinChrist'and deniedthattheylivedwiththeminmaritalorimpureintimacy,eventhoughtheyslepttogetherinonebed."(Quotedin37) Krone,whowroteahistoryoftheApostolicBrethrenusingcontemporary

[47] sources,deniestheaccusationsofsacrilegiousviolationsofthecrossandofsexualexcesses,buthebelievesthatDolcino'spreachingdidincludeanappeal forcommunalityofpropertyandofwives.(37:p.224) AdescriptionoftheceremonyforadmissiontotherankofApostlehasbeenpreserved.Asatokenofhisrenunciationofhispreviouslife,theinitiatewould throwoffhisclothesandtakeanoaththathewouldalwaysliveinevangelicpoverty.Hewasforbiddentotouchmoneyandwastoliveexclusivelyonalms breadfromheaven.Anywork,anysubordinationtoothers,waslikewiseforbidden.LikethefirstApostles,hewastopayheedonlytoGod. ThenewApostlewasthensentoutintotheworldtospreadthesect'steachings,whichbythistimehadbecomevehementlyhostiletotheChurch.Thefalling awayoftheChurchfromthecommandmentsofChristandofthefirstApostleshadrenderedinvalidwhathadbeenprophesiedforit.TheRomanChurch, withitsPopeandcardinals,itsabbotsandmonks,wasnolongertheChurchofGodbuthadbecometheWhoreofBabylon.ThepowerthatChristhad giventotheChurchhadnowpassedovertotheApostolicBrethren.ThevalidityofChurchritualswasdenied.Aconsecratedchurchwasnobetterfor communionwithGodthanastableorapigsty.OathstakeninchurchorswornontheGospelneednotbebinding.Amanmighthidehisbeliefsorrenounce them,ifinhisheartheremainedfaithfultothem. ItisnotsurprisingthatsuchtenetsprovokedafiercepersecutiononthepartoftheInquisition.Duringhiswanderings,Dolcinofellintothehandsofthe Inquisitiononmorethanoneoccasion,buthealwaysdeniedhistieswiththesectandwasreleased.HefinallyfledfromItalyandtookrefugeinDalmatia. TherehewroteletterswhichhisfollowersdisseminatedinItaly.Threeoftheselettershavecomedowntousindetailedcitations.(37:p.32f.,38:p.342f.) Theletterscanbesummarizedasfollows:Dolcinoandhisfollowersarecalledtoproclaimthecomingofthefinaldaysandtourgerepentance.Inthisthey areopposedbythehostoftheAntichristthePope,thebishops,DominicansandFranciscans,allofthemservantsofSatan.Butthedayofvengeanceisat hand.ThePopeandtheprelateswillbekilled.Nomonk,nunorpriestwillsurviveexceptthosewhojointheBrethren.TheChurchwillbedeprivedofallits riches.ThewholelandwillbeconvertedtothenewfaithbytheApostolicBrethren,uponwhomtheLordwilllavishhisgrace.GodHimselfwillgivetothe worldanewandholyPopeinplaceofBonifaceVIII,whowillsurelybekilled.Inhisthirdletter,DolcinostatesthathehimselfwillbethisnewPope. VictoryinthewarswiththeAntichristPope,Dolcinoforetells,willbewonthankstotheinterferenceofaforeignmonarch.HepinshishopeonFrederick, theKingofAragonandSicily,whoatthetimewasengaginginafierceconflictwiththePope.(HehadjuststrungupallthemonksinSicilywhowere suspectedofsupportingthepapacy.) DolcinoderivedallthisfromhisinterpretationoftheBiblicalprophets

[48] andoftheApocalypse,where,heclaimed,thepastandthefuturewererevealed.Heappliedtohistime,forinstance,textssuchasthese: "Whathastthouhere?andwhomhastthouhere,thatthouhasthewedtheeoutasepulchrehere?... "Behold,theLordwillcarrytheeawaywithamightycaptivity,andwillsurelycoverthee. "Hewillsurelyviolentlyturnandtosstheelikeaballintoalargecountry."(Isaiah22:16,17,18) "ForthyviolenceagainstthybrotherJacobshameshallcoverthee,andthoushaltbecutoffforever."(Obadiah1:10) "AndIwillpunishBelinBabylon,andIwillbringforthoutofhismouththatwhichhehathswallowedup:andthenationsshallnotflowtogetheranymore untohim:yea,thewellofBabylonshallfall."(Jeremiah51:44) FromthesepropheciesDolcinoalsoextractedthedatesfortheirfulfillment:in1304,FrederickofAragonwouldkillthePopeandthecardinals,andthe commonpriestswouldbeexterminatedin1305.Thispredictionwasbasedonthetext:"ButnowtheLordhathspoken,saying,Withinthreeyears,asthe yearsofanhireling,andthegloryofMoabshallbecontemned,withallthatgreatmultitudeandtheremnantshallbeverysmallandfeeble."(Isaiah16:14) In1303orearly1304,DolcinoandhisfollowersenteredItaly.Freshadherentscameflockingtohimfromallsidesrichandpoor,nobleopponentsofthe Pope,villagersandtownfolk.ApartfromItaly,theycamefromFranceandAustriaaswell.Severalthousandgatheredinhiscamp.Contemporariescalled Dolcino"thefatherofanewpeople,"anditwasrumoredthatheworkedmiracles.Themembersofthesectdecidedtoestablishanewsettlementtheysold theirpropertyandgatheredaroundDolcino. Acampwasestablishedinamountainvalley.Provisionswereobtainedfromtheneighboringvillages,moreandmorebymeansofforce.Soonthenearby regionswereinpanic.Thecitizensofonetownwrote:"Thegodlessheretics,theGazars[Cathars?],haveseizedtheupperreachesofthevalleyoftheriver, fortifiedthemselvesthereandaregodlesslyplunderingtheneighboringregions,devastatingthelandwithfireandsword,committingallkindsof impieties."(38:p.364)TheforcesofthecitizenswerefarfromsufficientfordefenseagainstDolcino'sarmyofsomefivethousandmen,alargeforceforthat time.Soontheareawasplunderedandburnedfordozensofmilesaround. ThetownfolkraisedanarmyandcollectedfundstohiresoldiersforprotectionagainstDolcino'stroops.Whenplanningtheircampaign,theybroughtina localpriestwhosenose,earsandhandshadbeencutoff:Dolcinohadpunishedhiminthiswayonsuspicionoftreason.Finally,thearmywasready,but

regionswereinpanic.Thecitizensofonetownwrote:"Thegodlessheretics,theGazars[Cathars?],haveseizedtheupperreachesofthevalleyoftheriver, fortifiedthemselvesthereandaregodlesslyplunderingtheneighboringregions,devastatingthelandwithfireandsword,committingallkindsof impieties."(38:p.364)TheforcesofthecitizenswerefarfromsufficientfordefenseagainstDolcino'sarmyofsomefivethousandmen,alargeforceforthat time.Soontheareawasplunderedandburnedfordozensofmilesaround. ThetownfolkraisedanarmyandcollectedfundstohiresoldiersforprotectionagainstDolcino'stroops.Whenplanningtheircampaign,theybroughtina localpriestwhosenose,earsandhandshadbeencutoff:Dolcinohadpunishedhiminthiswayonsuspicionoftreason.Finally,thearmywasready,but Dolcino'sforcesdefeateditoverwhelmingly.Theyfellupontheneighboringtowns,plunderingthemandcarryingawaytheinhabitants.Theprisonerswere exchangedlaterforprovisions,buttortured

[49] ifnooneagreedtoransomthem(accordingtoonecontemporary,evenchildrenweretreatedinthisfashion).(38:p.374) Atlast,thePopecalledforacampaignagainsttheheretics.Butthis,too,endedinfailure.TheriveronthebanksofwhichthePope'sarmywasannihilated flowedredwithblood.Othercampaignsfollowedandthewarwentonforthreeyears.Dolcinoarmedwomen,whofoughtsidebysidewithmen.He nurturedthefaithofhissupportersbyevernewpropheciesthatvictorywasathand.IncamphewasreveredasasaintandasthePope,andthecustomof kissinghisslipperwasintroduced. ContemporaryaccountstelloftheferocitywithwhichDolcino'smenpersecutedpriestsandmonks.Hissoldiersviewedthemselvesasthe"avengingangels" mentionedintheApocalypse.Theybelievedthattheyhadbeencalledtoexterminatethepriesthoodinitsentirety.Churchesweredefiled,sacredvesselsand vestmentsstolen,sacredimagessmashed,priests'housessetonfire,belltowerspulleddownandbellsdestroyed.Aneyewitnessreported:"Nowherecould youseeaMadonnawhosehandshadnotbeenbrokenofforapicturenotbesoiled."(38:p.374) Afteraprolongedstruggle,inwhichDolcinorepeatedlyeludedhispursuers,hewasfinallysurrounded.Faminesetininhiscamp.Dantehintsatthisepisode intheInferno (Canto28,5560).Amongthe"sowersofdiscord"DantemeetsMohammed,who,wishingtoperpetuatedissentonearth,passesthisadvice toDolcino:"TellFraDolcino,then,youwhoperhapswillseethesunbeforelong,ifhewouldnotsoonfollowmehere,sotoarmhimselfwithvictualsthat stressofsnowmaynotbringvictorytotheNovarese,whichotherwisewouldnotbeeasytoattain."* In1307,Dolcino'scampwasoverrunandamajorityofthedefendersmassacred.Dolcinowassubjectedtohorribletorture.Margaretwasburnedbeforehis eyes,buthewasparadedaroundtown,scourgedwitharedhotironateverycrossroadandfinallyburned. ThomasMntzer. Mntzerwasbornin1488or1489offairlywelltodoparentsandreceivedatheologicaleducation.Heledarestlesslife,changingworkseveraltimesa yearhewasatvarioustimesteacher,preacherandchaplain.Finallyin1520,hewasappointedpreacherinZwickau,wherehemetthe"ZwickauProphets." ThesermonsofStorchhadalifelongimpactonhim.ThenotionofthepossibilityofdirectcommunicationwithGod,whichwasheldtobefarmoreimportant thantheletteroftheScripturesthecondemnationofpriestsandmonks,oftherichandthenoblethebeliefinthecomingoftheKingdomofGodonearth andintheimminentreignoftheelectthesesubjectsformedthebasisofMntzer'sworldoutlook,InhissermonshesupportedStorchandattackedthe monksandotherpreachers.Disordersbeganinthetown,andtheauthoritiesbanishedthe"Prophets"andMntzer. MntzerthentransferredhisactivitiestoPrague.Wenotethathe

*TranslationbyCharlesS.Singleton

[50] gravitatedtothetraditionalseatsofthechiliasticmovementfirsttoZwickauandthentothehomelandoftheTaborites.AsermondeliveredbyMntzerin Praguehasbeenpreserved.InitheassertsthatafterthedeathofthedisciplesoftheApostles,theChurch,whichhadbeenpure,becamealecherouswhore. TheprieststeachtheexternalformsoftheScriptures,whichtheystealfromtheBible"likethievesandmurderers."(28:p.59)Hethenproceedstothecore ofhisteachinghisconceptoftheChurchoftheChosen."Neverwillithappen,andforthisglorytoGod,thatpriestlingsandapesshouldrepresentGod's Church,buttheChosenofGodshallpreachHisword....TopreachthisdoctrineIamreadytosacrificemylife....GodhaswroughtmiraclesforHisChosen, especiallyinthiscountry.ForhereanewChurchwillarise,andthispeoplewillbethemirrorofthewholeworld.Therefore,Iappealtoeveryonetoprotect thewordofGod....Ifyoufailtodothis,GodwillgivetheTurkstheforcetoannihilateyoueveninthisyear."(28:p.61) Mntzer'steachingdidnotmeetwithsuccessinPrague,however,andheagaintookupavagrantandhungrylife.Atlast,in1523,hewasappointed preacherinthesmalltownofAllstedt,andhereheentereduponthefirstmemorablephaseofhiscareer. Mntzerrapidlygainedinfluenceinthetown.HeintroducedtheGermanlanguageinthereligiousservice(oneofthefirsttodosoinGermany)andhe preachednotonlyfromtheGospelbutfromtheOldTestament.Crowdsofpeopleflockedtohissermons,fromAllstedtandfromtheneighboringtownsand villages.ThemunicipalofficialZeisswroteinareport:"Someofthelocalnobleshaveforbiddentheirsubjectstoattendthesermonsherebutthefolkdonot comply.Theyarethrownintojailand,whenreleased,runhitheragain."Mntzergreweverbolder,callingthelordswhohadforbiddentheirpeopletoattend hissermons"biggeese."HewrotetoZeiss:"Thepoweroftheprinceswillcometoanendandsoonitwillpasstothecommonfolk."(28:p.66)Hisattitude ischaracterizedbythephrase:"WhoeverwantstobecomeabuildingblockinthenewChurchoughttoriskhisneckorthebuilderswillthrowhim away."(28:p.67) Soonmatterswereoutofhand.InstigatedbyMntzer,amobburneddownachapelatMllerbach(nearAllstedt)whichhousedamiracleworkingimageof theVirgin.Whenoneoftheparticipantsintheriotwasarrested,armedcrowdsofpeopleappearedonthestreets.Moresupportersarrivedfromthe neighboringtowns.Zeiss,whorepresentedtheDukeofSaxony,reportedtothedukethatMntzer'spreachingwasatfault.HesuggestedthatMntzerbe summonedtocourtandbanishediffoundguilty."Otherwise,hispreaching,sopopularwiththesimplefolk,willcauseusmuchtoilandtrouble." Atthispoint,Luther,whohadbeendisturbedbytheactionsandpreachingofMntzerforsometime,spokeoutagainsthim.HereproachedMntzerfor usingthesuccessoftheReformationtoattackit.HeconcludedbychallengingMntzertoadebateinWittenberg.Mntzeragreedto

neighboringtowns.Zeiss,whorepresentedtheDukeofSaxony,reportedtothedukethatMntzer'spreachingwasatfault.HesuggestedthatMntzerbe summonedtocourtandbanishediffoundguilty."Otherwise,hispreaching,sopopularwiththesimplefolk,willcauseusmuchtoilandtrouble." Atthispoint,Luther,whohadbeendisturbedbytheactionsandpreachingofMntzerforsometime,spokeoutagainsthim.HereproachedMntzerfor usingthesuccessoftheReformationtoattackit.HeconcludedbychallengingMntzertoadebateinWittenberg.Mntzeragreedto

[51] takepartinthedisputeonlyifthewitnesseswouldbe"Turks,RomansandPagans."Atthesametime,heprintedtwoworksintheneighboringtownof Eilenburg,wherehehadhisownprintshop:"ProtestationofThomasMntzer"and"ExposureoftheContrivedFaith."Thesetractsbitterlyattacked numerousaspectsofLuther'steaching,aswellasthatof"scholarsanderudites"whoconcoctfalsefaith. Strangely,westillhearnothingaboutmeasuresonthepartoftheauthoritiesagainstMntzer,despitewritingsinwhich,forexample,hecharacterizedthe KurfrstofSaxonyas"abeardedfellowwithlessbrainsinhisheadthanI'vegotinmybehind."Healsocallsupontheinhabitantsoftheneighboringtownof Sangerhausentoriseupagainsttheauthorities.Inspiteofsuchactions,KrfurstFrederickofSaxonyandhisbrotherJohannthemselvesdecidedtolistento therenownedpreacheronatripthroughAllstedt. Mntzertookthistobeasignofreadinessonthepartoftheprincestobecomeatoolinhishandsandintheirpresencedeliveredasermoninwhichhe expoundedhisviewsopenly.HeattackedLuther,whomhecalled"BrotherSwine"and"BrotherSluggard,"andattemptedtowintheprincestohiscause. Hetoldthemthattheywerecalledupontoannihilatethefoesofthetruefaith,thefaithoftheChosenwhoareguidedbyGod."Dearestandbelovedrulers, knowyourdestinyfromthemouthofGod,anddonotlettheboastfulpriestscheatyoubyimaginarypatienceandkindness.Forthestonethathasbeencast downfromthemountainnotbyhandshasgrownbig.Poorpeasantsandlaymenseeitfarbetterthanyou...."Thedayofthelastreckoningapproaches,and "Oh,howgloriouslywilltheLordsmashtheoldpotswithanironrod."(28:p.158)Inthisterriblehouronecanlearnthetruewayandforeseethefutureby onemeansonly:throughdreamsandrevelation."ThisisinthetruespiritoftheApostles,thePatriarchs,andtheProphetstowaitforvisionsandtotrustin them."(28:p.156)MntzercitesexampleafterexamplefromtheBible.Thechiefdifficulty,however,istodistinguishwhetheravisionisfromGodorfrom theDevil.Forthis,theprincesoughttohavefaithinthenewDaniel,theChosenman."Therefore,anewDanielmustriseandsetforthrevelationandmust marchatthehead."(28:p.159) Mntzerurgesrelentlessexterminationoftheenemiesofthenewteaching."ForthegodlesshavenorighttoliveexceptwhentheChosengivetheir permission....Ifyouwanttobetruerulers,driveouttheenemyofChrist,foryouaretheinstrumenttoachievethisend....Letthewickedwhodivertusfrom Godlivenolonger."(28:p.160)"ItwasnotinvainthatGodcommandedthroughMoses:'Youaretheholypeopleandmustnotpitythegodless.Smash theiraltars,smashtopiecestheiridolsandburnthem,lestIbewrathfulwithyou."(28:p.161) Atthispoint,Mntzer'ssermonbeginstoshadeintothreats.Justasfoodanddrinkprovidethemeansofliving,heasserts,so,too,"istheswordneededfor exterminationofthegodless.Butforthistobedonetrue,itmustbedonebyourdearfathers,theprinces,whoprofessChrist

[52] withus.Butiftheywillnotdoit,theirswordshallbetakenawayfromthem."(28:p.161)"IftheyfailtobelieveinGod'swords,theyoughttoberemoved, asPaulsaith:'Expelthedepravedfromamongstyou.'Andiftheybehaveincontraryfashion,killthemwithoutmercy....Notonlygodlessrulers,butpriests andmonksmustbekilledwhocallourHolyGospelaheresyandclaimtobethebestChristiansthemselves."(28:p.162) Itisaperplexingepisode.Howcouldaninsignificantpreacherundertaketolectureandthreatenthemostimportantprincesoftheempire?Someconsider thisproofofMntzer'sshortsightednessforothersittestifiestotheprinces'forbearance.Couldtherenotbeamoresubstantialexplanation?Mntzerwasa forcetobereckonedwithatthetime.Welearnthisfromothersourcesfromhislettersandfromthetestimonypresentedbeforehisexecution.Atthetime ofthesermontotheprinces,hehadorganizedaunion"fortheprotectionoftheGospel"and''asawarningtothegodless"inAllstedt.Hehadsome experienceatsuchactivities.Whilestillayoungman,MntzerhadfoundedasecretuniondirectedagainstthePrimateofGermany,ArchbishopErnst.Buthis newunionwasfarlargerinscope.Atonegatheringthreehundrednewmemberswereinductedatanother,fivehundred.Furthermore,Mntzeradvisedthe citizensofneighboringtownstoestablishsimilarunionsreportswerereceivedthatthisplanwasmeetingwithsuccess.Hiscontactswereveryextensive, reachingevenintoSwitzerland.LutheraccusedMntzerof"sendingtoallcountriesmessengerswhofearlight."Inhisletters,Mntzeremphasizedthepurely defensivenatureoftheunion"againsttheoppressorsoftheGospel."Butafterbeingcaptured,hetestifiedthathecausedthedisturbanceswiththeaimthat "allChristiansshouldbecomeequalandtheprincesandlordsreluctanttoservetheGospelbedrivenoutorputtodeath."(28:p.82)Themottoofthe Allstedtunionwas:Omniasuntcommunia (Everythingiscommon).Everyonewastosharewithothers''asmuchashecould."Andifaprinceoracount refusedtodoso,"hewastobebeheadedorhanged."(28:p.82)Mntzer'sunioncanbeseenastherealizationofhisdoctrineofthesupremacyofthe Chosen,ashecallsthemembersofhisunion. ThesituationinAllstedtgrewevermoreexplosive.TheneighboringknightvonWitzlebenforbadehissubjectstoattendMntzer'ssermonsanddisperseda crowdofthem,whoneverthelesssetoutforAllstedt.SomeofthemfledtoAllstedtandanorderwassentforthefugitivestobereturnedtotheirlord.Ina vehementsermon,MntzercalledWitzlebenan"archbrigand"andreferredtohisenemiesas"archJudases,"sayingthattheprinceswere"actingnotonly againstthefaithbutagainstnaturallaw,"andthatthey"mustbekilledlikedogs."CrowdsoflocalcitizensandnewarrivalsfilledthestreetsofAllstedt.The authoritieslostallcontroloverthetownandcouldonlyappealtoDukeJohannofSaxony,whosummonedMntzertoWeimarforquestioning. Theinterrogationtookplaceinthepresenceofthedukeandhis

[53] counselors.Mntzerdeniedhavingassailedtheauthoritiesanddescribedhisunionaslegalandpurelydefensive.Numerouswitnesses,however,spoke againsthim.Asaresult,hewasorderedtoclosehisprintshop,andthecitizensofAllstedtwereforbiddentoformunions.Acontemporarysourcedescribes howMntzer,paleandtremblingaftertheinquest,cameoutand,inreplytoaquestionbyZeiss,answered:"ItseemsthatI'llhavetolookforanotherstate." ButuponreturningtoAllstedt,Mntzertookheart,refusedtoclosetheprintshopandstartedwritingprotests.KrfurstFrederickofSaxonyintervenedat thispointandsummonedMntzertoWeimarforthesecondtime.AtfirstMntzersurroundedhimselfwitharmedguards,apparentlythinkingtoputup resistance,butinthenightheclimbedoverthetownwallandslippedaway,leavingbehindaletterinwhichhesaidthathewasgoingtoavillagebutwouldbe backsoon.Afterhisflight,Mntzerwrotehiscompatriotsanotherletter,callingforthemtostandfirmandbebravehepromisedthathewouldbetogether withthemsoon"towashhandsinthebloodoftyrants."

howMntzer,paleandtremblingaftertheinquest,cameoutand,inreplytoaquestionbyZeiss,answered:"ItseemsthatI'llhavetolookforanotherstate." ButuponreturningtoAllstedt,Mntzertookheart,refusedtoclosetheprintshopandstartedwritingprotests.KrfurstFrederickofSaxonyintervenedat thispointandsummonedMntzertoWeimarforthesecondtime.AtfirstMntzersurroundedhimselfwitharmedguards,apparentlythinkingtoputup resistance,butinthenightheclimbedoverthetownwallandslippedaway,leavingbehindaletterinwhichhesaidthathewasgoingtoavillagebutwouldbe backsoon.Afterhisflight,Mntzerwrotehiscompatriotsanotherletter,callingforthemtostandfirmandbebravehepromisedthathewouldbetogether withthemsoon"towashhandsinthebloodoftyrants." MntzerwentnexttoMhlhausen,atownincentralGermany.Thechoicewasnotaccidental.Forayearthisplacehadbeeninastateofparalysis,without authorityandonthevergeofrebellion.Acontemporaryaccountofwhatwascalledthe"MhlhausenDisturbances"isextant.(28:pp.85115)Itdescribes theeventspriortoMntzer'sarrivalandhisactivitiesthere.Thedisordersbeganwithassaultsonmonasteriesandchurches.Allthemonasterieswererobbed andreligiousobjectsinthechurchessmashed.Themovementwasheadedbyafugitivemonk,HeinrichPfeiffer,whourgedinhissermonsrejectionofthe authorityofthemunicipalcouncil.OnJuly3,1523,thealarmwassounded.Acrowdsurroundedthetownhallandshotswerefired.Thecouncilwas compelledtomakeconcessions,whichweresetforthinfiftythreepoints.Inparticular,completefreedomofpreachingwasannounced.Theinsurgentswere headedbya"councilofeight,"whichretaineditspoweronaparwiththemunicipalcouncilevenaftertheagreement.Dualauthorityruledinthetown peoplejailedbythemunicipalcouncilwerenotinfrequentlyreleasedbytheeight.Thesigningofthefiftythreepointsdidnot,however,pacifythetownin fact,itfurtheraggravatedthesituation.Manypriests'houseswererobbedleafletswerecirculatedtellingthatifthepriestsdidnotgetoutoftowntheirhouses wouldbeburned.Priestswhoventuredintothestreetswerekilled. SuchwasthesituationinMhlhausenwhenMntzerappearedthereonAugust24,1524.HejoinedwithPfeifferandtheiractivitytogethersoonbeganto bearfruit.Withinamonth,thetownwasinanuproar.Thistimetheinsurgents'demandsmirroredMntzer'sideasnoauthoritytobeobeyed,alltaxesand leviestobeabolished,prieststobeexiled.Theburgomasterandsomecouncillorsfledthetownandappealedforsupportfromthepeasantsofthe neighboringvillages.Atthistimefiressweptthevillages,inalllikelihoodsetbysupportersofMntzerandPfeiffer.Butthepeasantsstoodfirmonthesideof thecouncil.Promisesofsupport

[54] alsocameinfromtownsroundabout.Theinsurgentswereforcedtoyield.TheauthorityofthecouncilwasrestoredandPfeifferandMntzerwerebanished fromMhlhausen. MntzersetoffforNuremberg,whereheprintedtwoofhisworks.Oneofthese,"AnInterpretationoftheFirstChapterofSt.Luke,"hadbeenwritten towardtheendofhisstayinAllstedtandrevisedinMhlhausen.Theother,"DiscourseforDefense,"waswritteninreplytoLuther.Shortlybefore,Luther hadwrittenhis"LettertothePrincesofSaxonyAgainstaRebelliousSpirit,"inwhichhedrewtheirattentiontothedangerouslyaggressivecharacterof Mntzer'steaching."Itbeginstoseemtomethattheywishtodestroyallauthoritysoastobecomethelordsoftheworld....Theysaythattheyareledbythe Spirit...butthisisanillspirit,onewhichismanifestedinthedestructionofchurchesandmonasteries."(28:p.204)"ChristandhisApostlesneverdestroyed asingletemplenorsmashedasingleholyimage."Letthempreach,arguesLuther,"butthosearenotgoodChristianswhopassfromwordstofists."(28:p. 209) Inhisreply,MntzerbroughtdownaveritablecascadeofabuseonLuther.Hecalledhimabasilisk,adragon,aviper,anarchpagan,anarchdevil,abashful WhoreofBabylonandfinally,inafitofcannibalisticfrenzy,hepredictedthatthedevilwouldboilLutherinhisownjuiceanddevourhim."Iwouldliketo smellyourfryingcarcass."(28:p.200) ButMntzer'sNurembergworksareespeciallyinterestinginthattheydemonstratehissocialideasintheirmostmatureform.His"DiscourseforDefense" beginswithadedication"TotheSerenest,FirstbornPrince,theMightyLordJesusChrist,theGraciousKingofKings,theMightyDukeofAllthe Faithful."(28:p.187)HereMntzerexpressesoneofhisbasicconceptionsthatpoweronthisearthcanbelongonlytoGod.Themessageendswiththe followingwords:"Thepeoplewillbefree,andGodwillbethesoleLordoverthem."(28:p.201)PrinceshadusurpedpowerbelongingtoGod."Whydo youcallthemsereneprinces?ThistitlebelongsnottothembuttoChrist."And:"Whydoyoucallthemhighborn?IthoughtyouwereaChristian,butyouare aPagan!"(28:p.197)Mntzerhadforgottenthatonlyafewmonthsbefore,hehadlookedtotheprincesforaid.Nowhesays:"Princesarenotlords,but servantsofthesword.Theymustnotdowhattheydeemwellbutratherimplementthetruth."(28:p.192)Theroleassignedtotheprinceswasnomorethan thatofexecutioner.ItwasnotfornothingthatPaulsaid.thatprinceswerenotforthegoodbutforthewicked.However,inMntzer'sview,theyfailtofulfill eventhisfunction."ThosewhooughttosetanexampleforChristians,towhichendtheybearthenameofprinces,provetothehighestdegreebyalltheir deedstheirunfaith."(28:p.183)"Theirheartsarevainand,therefore,allthesemightyandarrogantgodlessonesmustbethrowndownfromtheirthrone. ...GodgavetheprincesandlordstomeninHiswrathandinHisbitternessHewilldestroythem."(28:p.171) Mntzeralsodoesnotrecallthatshortlybefore,hesawinpoverty

[55] andsufferingacrosssentfromabove.Nowthecalltoopposetheoppressorsbecomesoneofthechiefthemesinhisteaching:"Theverystuffofusury,theft androbberyareourlordsmadeof.Fishinthewater,birdsintheair,thefruitsoftheearththeywanttotakeeverything.Andbeyondthattheyorderthat God'swordbepreachedtothepoorthus:'Godhascommandedyounottosteal'...andifapoormantakesthesmallestthing,thenheishangedandDoctor Liarsays,'Amen.'Thelordsarethemselvesguiltyofmakingthepoortheirfoe.Theydonotwishtoremovethecauseoftheindignation.Howcanthematter besetright?SinceIspeakso,perhapsI,too,rebelwell,sobeit."(28:p.192)Byalltheirmisdeedstheprinceshavedeprivedthemselvesoftherighttothe sword."AtthesolicitationoftheChosen,Godwillnolongertoleratesuffering."(28:p.171)Inactuality,thepowerofGodonearthispicturedasthepower oftheChosen,whoareconceivedofasanarrow,closedunion."ItwouldbeawondrousChurchinwhichtheChosenwouldbeseparatedfromthe godless."(28:p.182)TheChosenreceiveGod'sbehestsdirectly,bywhichmeanstheyexecutehiswillonearth.(Invariousperiodsofhislife,Mntzer assertedthathehimselfcommunicateddirectlywithGod.) FromNuremberg,MntzersetoffforSwitzerlandandtheborderlandsofGermany,wherethePeasantWarwasalreadyraging.Whilehisroleofagitator seemstohavemetwithsuccess,hedidnotstaylonginthearea.Seidman,theauthorofoneofthemostcompletebiographiesofMntzer,suggeststhatsince disturbanceshadalreadybrokenout,Mntzerfearedthathewouldbeunabletogainanimportantenoughplaceforhimself.InFebruary1525,Mntzer returnedtoMhlhausen. Bythistime,thepeasantrebellionwasalreadyspreadingfromthesouthintocentralGermany,towardthetownofMhlhausen.Authorityhadbeguntoslip fromthehandsofthemunicipalcouncil.The"eight"demandedthekeystothecitygatesandthecouncilhadtocomply.AnyonewhodisagreedwithMntzer andPfeiffer'spartywasunderconstantthreatsofbeingbanished.Monasteriesandchurcheswererobbed,sacredobjectsdestroyedandmonksandnuns

seemstohavemetwithsuccess,hedidnotstaylonginthearea.Seidman,theauthorofoneofthemostcompletebiographiesofMntzer,suggeststhatsince disturbanceshadalreadybrokenout,Mntzerfearedthathewouldbeunabletogainanimportantenoughplaceforhimself.InFebruary1525,Mntzer returnedtoMhlhausen. Bythistime,thepeasantrebellionwasalreadyspreadingfromthesouthintocentralGermany,towardthetownofMhlhausen.Authorityhadbeguntoslip fromthehandsofthemunicipalcouncil.The"eight"demandedthekeystothecitygatesandthecouncilhadtocomply.AnyonewhodisagreedwithMntzer andPfeiffer'spartywasunderconstantthreatsofbeingbanished.Monasteriesandchurcheswererobbed,sacredobjectsdestroyedandmonksandnuns assaulted.Finally,allCatholicclergyweredrivenfromthetown. ThesermonsofMntzerandPfeifferrevolvedaroundtheideasoutlinedearlier:princesandlordshavenorighttotheirpower,authoritymustpasstothe societyoftheChosen,menhavebeencreatedequalbynatureandsomustbeequalinlife,allwhodonotcomplymustbeputtothesword.Theypreached thattherichcannotattainsalvationwhoeverlovesbeautifulchambers,richornamentsand,aboveall,moneycannotreceivetheHolySpirit. Finally,afterthecouncilrefusedtoadmitMntzerandPfeifferintotheirnumber,itwasdecidedatahugegatheringthatthecouncilbedismissed.Anew, "eternal"councilwaselected. The"HistoryofThomasMntzer,"acontemporaryaccountlongattributedtoMelanchthon,describesthesituationasfollows:

[56] ThiswasthebeginningofthenewKingdomofChrist.Firstofall,theydroveoutallmonks,tookoverthemonasteriesandalltheirproperty. TherewasamonasteryofJohanniteswithlargeholdings:itwastakenoverbyThomas. Andinordertotakepartinallproceedings,hecametothecouncilandannouncedthatallresolutionsmustbetakeninaccordancewithGod's revelationandonthebasisoftheBible.AndsowhateverhelikedwasdeemedjustandaspecialcommandmentofGod. Healsotaughtthatallpropertymustbecommon,asitiswrittenintheActsoftheApostles....Withthishesoaffectedthefolkthatnoone wantedtowork,butwhenanyoneneededfoodorclothinghewenttoarichmananddemandeditofhiminChrist'sname,forChristhad commandedthatallshouldsharewiththeneedy.Andwhatwasnotgivenfreelywastakenbyforce.Manyactedthus,includingthosewholived withThomasintheJohannitemonastery.Thomasinstigatedthisbrigandageandmultipliediteverydayandthreatenedalltheprinces.(28:p.42) Accordingtothesamedocument,Mntzer'steachingincludedthedestructionofauthorityandthecommunalityofproperty:"Accordingtotherequirements ofChristianlove,nooneoughttobesuperiortoanother,allmustbefreeandtheremustbecommunalityofallproperty."(28:p.38) LutherwrotethatMntzerhadbecomeakingandsovereignrulinginMhlhausen. Armswereproducedinthetown,thecitizensgivenmilitarytraining,andmercenaries(lansquenets)werehired.Bythistime,thepeasantrebellionhad envelopedalltheneighboringareas.LargegroupsofMhlhausencitizensandinhabitantsofnearbyvillagesassaultedcastlesroundabout.Thesetheyrobbed, burnedordestroyed.Mntzerorderedthat"allcastlesandhousesofnobilitybedestroyedandrazedtotheground."(20:p.519)Specialarsonunitswere organized.Bootywascarriedofftothetownbythecartload. Mntzersentoutmessengersandissueddetailedinstructionsonthetortureof"villains"apprehendedandthedestructionofmonasteriesandcastles.He calledonothertownstojointheuprising. HereiswhathewrotetothecitizensofAllstedt: DearBrethren,willyousleepevennow?Thetimeisripe.AllGerman,FrenchandItalianlandshaverisen....Bethereonlythreeofyou,butif youputyourhopeinthenameofGodfearnotahundredthousand....Forward,forward,forward!Itishightime.Letnotkindwordsofthese Esausarouseyoutomercy.Looknotuponthesufferingsofthegodless!Theywillentreatyoutouchingly,beggingyoulikechildren.Letnot mercyseizeyoursoul,asGodcommandedtoMosesHehasrevealedtousthesame....Forward,forward,whiletheironishot.Letyour swordsbeeverwarmwithblood!(28:pp.7475)

[57] Thoughnot"allGerman,FrenchandItalianlands"hadrisen,thewholeofcentralGermanyThuringia,SaxonyandHessenwasinrebellion. TowardthebeginningofMay1525,theprincesbegantogatherinforce.AmajorpartherewasplayedbyLuther'scommunication"OnDisorderlyand MurderousPeasantGangs."BymidMay,twoarmiesbegantoassembleintheenvironsofFrankenhausen.Theywereofapproximatelyequalsizeabout eightthousandmeneach. Mntzerrodeoutattheheadofhisarmy,surroundedbythreehundredbodyguardsandholdingaloftanakedsword,whichsymbolizedthegoalofthe rebelsannihilationofthegodless.Somenobleshadjoinedhiscamp.Mntzerwrotetoothers,threateningthemandurgingthemtoallythemselveswithhim. HewrotetoCountErnstMansfeld:"Sothatyouknowthatwehavethepowertocommand,Ispeak:Theeternal,livingGodhathcommandedthatyoube thrownoffthethroneandhathgiventousthemighttoaccomplishthis.ItisaboutyouandthoselikeyouthatGodsaith,'Yournestmustbetorndownand troddenunderfoot.'"Theletterendswiththewords:"Iammarchingafter.MntzerwithGideon'ssword."(28:p.78) Nevertheless,panicbegantospreadthroughMntzer'sarmy.Therewereattemptsatnegotiatingwiththeenemy,andexecutionsofthosesuspectedof treasontookplace.Mntzersoughttoencouragehisfollowers:"SoonerwillthenatureoftheearthorofheavenbechangedthanGoddesertus."(28:p.45) Hepromisedthathewouldcatchbulletsinhissleeves.Butwhenthefirstshotswerefired,therebelarmybrokeandran.Thousandsofthemwere slaughteredonthefieldofbattle. Inhishourofdefeat,"MntzerwithGideon'ssword"lostallpresenceofmind.(Fordetails,see22:p.225.Heisthefirstofalonglistofrevolutionary leaderstoactinthisfashion.)Mntzerranforthecity,foundanemptyhouseandgotintobed,feigningillness.Alootingsoldiercameuponapacketofletters addressedtoMntzerthatthelatterhaddroppedinhishaste,andMntzerwasseized.Attheinquest,whenaskedaboutacertainexecutionoffourmen, Mntzerreplied:"ItwasnotIwhoexecutedthem,mydearbrothers,butGod'struth." Mntzerwassubjectedtotorture,andwhenhecriedout,theinterrogatortoldhimthatthosewhohadperishedbecauseofhimhadsufferedworse.Mntzer

Inhishourofdefeat,"MntzerwithGideon'ssword"lostallpresenceofmind.(Fordetails,see22:p.225.Heisthefirstofalonglistofrevolutionary leaderstoactinthisfashion.)Mntzerranforthecity,foundanemptyhouseandgotintobed,feigningillness.Alootingsoldiercameuponapacketofletters addressedtoMntzerthatthelatterhaddroppedinhishaste,andMntzerwasseized.Attheinquest,whenaskedaboutacertainexecutionoffourmen, Mntzerreplied:"ItwasnotIwhoexecutedthem,mydearbrothers,butGod'struth." Mntzerwassubjectedtotorture,andwhenhecriedout,theinterrogatortoldhimthatthosewhohadperishedbecauseofhimhadsufferedworse.Mntzer burstoutlaughingandreplied:"Theywishedfornodifferentthemselves."HewassenttothecastleoftheveryCountMansfeldtowhomhehadwritten:"Iam marchingafter."Mntzerconfessedeverythingandbetrayedthenamesofhiscomradesinthesecretunion.Beforehisexecution,hewrotealettertothe citizensofMhlhausen,appealingtothemnottorebelagainstauthority,accordingtoChrist'scommandment."Iwishtosayinmyfarewelladdress,soasto unburdenmysoul,thatyoushouldavoidriot,lestinnocentbloodbeshedinvain....Helpmywifeifyoucan,andespeciallyavoidbloodshed,ofwhichIwarn yousincerely."(28:pp.8384)

[58] MntzertookcommunionanddiedasasonoftheCatholicChurch.Hisheadwasputonastakeforshow. ContemporariesconsideredMntzertobethecentralfigureinthePeasantWar.LutherandMelanchthonbelievedhimtobeitsmostdangerousleader. SebastianFranckreferredtothewarasthe"MntzerUprising,"andDukeGeorgofSaxonywrotethatwithMntzer'sexecutionthewarcouldbe consideredfinished.(20:p.257)ThisappreciationofMntzer'srole,however,couldhardlyhavebeenmeanttodescribehisactivitiesasorganizerrather, thecommentatorsmostlikelyhadinmindhisfunctionastheoriginatorofanideologyofhatredanddestruction.Luthermusthavebeenthinkingalongthese lineswhenhewrotetoHansRgel:"WhoeverhasseenMntzercansaythathehasseenthedevilintheflesh,athismostferocious."(28:p.222) JohannofLeydenandthe"NewJerusalem"inMnster. In15341535,thepersecutedAnabaptistsinSwitzerlandandsouthernandcentralGermanyflednorth,tonorthernGermany,Holland,Swedenand Denmark.ThecenteroftheiractivitybecamethetownofMnster,wheretheyestablishedthemselvesatthetimeofthestrugglebetweentheCatholicsand theLutherans.TheygainedastrongpositioninthetownbyallyingthemselveswiththeLutherans. ButwhentheLutheranswon,theyfoundtheyhadtoreckonwiththe"Prophets,"astheleadersoftheAnabaptistsdescribedthemselves.Thelatterhadeven succeededinwinningovertheheadoftheLutheranparty. Atthistime,anewandstrikingfigureappearedamongtheAnabaptistsJanMatthijs,aDutchbakerfromHaarlem.Inhispreaching,thechiliasticand militanttendenciesinAnabaptismwereresurrectedwiththeirpreviousforce.Matthijscalledforarmedrebellionandtheuniversalexterminationofthe godless."Apostles"sentbyhimwentinpairstoalllandsandprovinces.Theytoldaboutthemiracleswroughtbythisnewprophetandpredictedthe annihilationofalltyrantsandgodlesspeopleintheworld.InGermanyandinHolland,peopleunderwentthesecondbaptismandfoundednewcommunities. InMnster,fourteenhundredpersonswerebaptizedineightdays.InkeepingwiththegrowingsuccessoftheAnabaptiststhere,adherentsfromother countries,especiallyfromHolland,streamedintoMnster.TheDutcharrivalswereheadedbytheMnstercitizenKnipperdolling. OneofMatthijs'sApostlestoarriveinMnsterwasJanBokelson(Beukels),who,underthenameJohannofLeyden,wastobecomeacentralfigureinlater developments.Beginningasatailor'sapprentice,Bokelsonmarriedarichwidowbutsoonlostherfortune.Hehadtraveledmuch,havingbeentoEngland, FlandersandPortugal,hadreadfairlyextensivelyandknewtheHolyScripturesaswellasMntzer'swritings.InMnsterhetookupwithKnipperdolling andsoonmarriedhisdaughter,therebybringingtheAnabaptistcommunityundertheinfluenceofMatthijs.Bythistime,leadershipoftheAnabaptist movementinMnsterhadpassed

[59] overfromthelocalcitizensentirelyintothehandsoftheDutchProphets,preacherconspiratorswhohadbeenuprootedfromtheirhomeland. ClashesbetweenAnabaptistsandLutheransoccurredinMnster,andAnabaptistsraidedmonasteriesandchurches.Matthijs'sApostlesproclaimedthatthe thousandyearkingdomwasathandforthosewhohadacceptedthesecondbaptism:ahappylifewithcommunityofproperty,withoutauthority,lawsor maritalbonds.Asforthosewhoopposedthenewkingdom,theycouldexpectannihilationanddeathatthehandoftheChosen.TheChosenwereprohibited togreetthefaithlessortohaveanythingwhatevertodowiththem. ThemunicipalcouncilbanishedsomeAnabaptistpreachersfromthetownandarrestedonewhohadviolatedthebanimposedontheirsermons.Thiswas earlyin1534.CrowdsofAnabaptistsranthroughthecity,shouting:"RepentorGodwillpunishyou!Father,Father,annihilatethegodless."Ontheninthof February,armedmobsappearedinthetowntheyblockedoffstreetsandoccupiedpartofthecity.TheLutheransalsotookuparms,occupiedanotherpart oftownandbegantopushtheAnabaptistsback.TheirforcesprovedtobegreaterandtheysurroundedtheAnabaptistsandbroughtupcannon.Victory wasinthehandsoftheLutherans,buttheburgomasterTilbeck,whosympathizedwiththeAnabaptists,negotiatedanagreementonreligiouspeace:"Sothat everyonebefreeinhisfaithandeverymancomebacktohisownhouseandliveinpeace."(23:p.701)ThiswasthebeginningofAnabaptistruleinthe town.AnabaptistsflockedtoMnsterfromallsides.InanaccountthatoriginatedinAnabaptistcircles,weread:"ThefacesofChristiansagainblossomed forth.Everyoneinthemarketplace,evensevenyearoldchildren,beganprophesying.Thewomenmadeextraordinaryjumps.Butthegodlesssaidthatthey weredemented,thattheyweredrunkonsweetwine."(23:pp.707708) OnFebruary21,anewelectionwasheldforthemunicipalcouncil,inwhichtheAnabaptistswonamajority.Theytookoverthemunicipaladministrationand appointedtheiradherentsKnipperdollingandKibbenbrockasburgomasters. TheAnabaptistsmadeadisplayoftheirpoweralmostimmediatelyinaterribleoutburstofviolencethattookplaceonFebruary24,threedaysafterthe election.Monasteriesandchurchesweredestroyed,religiousobjectssmashedandsaints'relicsthrownintothestreets.Notonlyreligionbuteverything connectedwiththeoldcultureevokedtheirire.Statuesinthemarketsquareweresmashedtopieces.ApreciouscollectionofoldItalianmanuscriptswhich hadbeencollectedbyRudolfvonLangenwassolemnlyburnedinthesquare.PaintingsoftheWestphalianschool,famousatthetime,weredestroyedso thoroughlythatatpresentthisschoolofpaintingisknownonlybyreputation.Evenmusicalinstrumentsweresmashed. Threedayslater,onFebruary27,theAnabaptistsproceededtooneofthemajorpointsoftheirprogramtheexpulsionofthegodless,that

connectedwiththeoldcultureevokedtheirire.Statuesinthemarketsquareweresmashedtopieces.ApreciouscollectionofoldItalianmanuscriptswhich hadbeencollectedbyRudolfvonLangenwassolemnlyburnedinthesquare.PaintingsoftheWestphalianschool,famousatthetime,weredestroyedso thoroughlythatatpresentthisschoolofpaintingisknownonlybyreputation.Evenmusicalinstrumentsweresmashed. Threedayslater,onFebruary27,theAnabaptistsproceededtooneofthemajorpointsoftheirprogramtheexpulsionofthegodless,that

[60] is,ofthosecitizenswhorefusedtoaccepttheteachingsofthe"prophets."Matthijsinsistedthatallthegodlessbeputtodeath.ThemorewaryKnipperdolling objected:"Allpeopleswillthenuniteagainstustorevengethebloodofthosekilled."Finally,adecisionwastakentodriveoutoftownanyonewhorefused toacceptsecondbaptism.AmeetingofarmedAnabaptistswascalled.TheProphetsatinatrancewhileprayerswerebeingsaid.Atlast,Matthijsroseand calledfortheexpulsionofthefaithless:"DownwithEsau'soffspring!TheinheritancebelongstothechildrenofJacob."Ashoutof"Downwiththegodless!" rolledthroughthestreets.ArmedAnabaptistsbrokeintohousesanddroveouteveryonewhowasunwillingtoacceptsecondbaptism.Winterwasdrawing toacloseitwasastormydayandwetsnowwasfalling.Aneyewitnessaccountdescribescrowdsofexpelledcitizenswalkingthroughthekneedeepsnow. Theyhadnotbeenallowedeventotakewarmclothingwiththem,womencarryingchildrenintheirarms,oldmenleaningonstaffs.Atthecitygatetheywere robbedoncemore. Thenextactionwasthesocializationofallproperty.Achronicleofthetimereads:"Theydecidedunanimouslythatallpropertymustbeheldincommonand thateveryonemusthandinhissilver,goldandmoney.Intheendalldidso."(29:p.201)Itisknownthatthismeasurewasaccomplishedwithsomedifficulty andonlyinthecourseoftwomonths.Matthijsappointedsevendeaconstowatchoverthesocializedproperty. Tosuppressdiscontentarousedbythesemeasures,theAnabaptistsbegantoresorttoterroronaneverwiderscale.OnedayMatthijsgatheredallthemen inthetownsquareandorderedeveryonewhohadtakenbaptismonthelastday(massbaptismhadgoneonforthreedays)tostepforward.Therewere threehundredtheywereorderedtoputdowntheirarms.Matthijsspoke:"TheLordiswrathfulandcallsforsacrifice."Theaccusedmenprostrated themselvesbeforetheProphet,inthemanneroftheAnabaptists,andbeggedformercy.Buttheywerelockedinadesertedchurch,fromwhichtheirappeals formercycouldbeheardforhours.Finally,JanBokelsonappearedandannounced:"Mydearbrethren,theLordhastakenpityuponyou!"Andallwere released. Butthingsdidnotalwaysendsobenignly.Forexample,areportwasreceivedthattheblacksmithHubertRuscherhadspokenagainsttheactionsofthe Anabaptists.HewasbroughttoameetingMatthijsdemandedhisdeath.Someofthosepresentintercededforthemanandaskedthathebepardoned.But Bokelsonshouted:"TomethepoweroftheLordisgivensothatbymyhandeveryonewhoopposesthecommandsoftheLordbestruckdown."Andhe struckRuscherwithahalberd.Thewoundedmanwasledawaytojail.Disputationastohisfatecontinued.Finally,themanwasagainbroughttothetown square,whereMatthijskilledhimwithashotintheback. StreamsofincendiaryAnabaptistliteratureflowedfromMnster,callingthebrethrentocometogetherinthe"NewJerusalem."For:"Bedandshelterare readyforallChristians.Iftherewillbetoomanypeople,we

[61] shallusethehousesandthepropertyofthefaithless....Hereyouwillhaveeverythinginabundance.Thepoorestamongus,whoearlierwerescornedas paupers,nowwearrichclothinglikethehighestandthenoblest.Thepoorhavebecome,byGod'sgrace,asrichasburgomasters."(29:p.147)Itwas reportedthatatEastertheworldwouldbestruckbyaterribleplagueandthat,outsideMnster,onlyeverytenthpersonwouldbespared."Letnoonethink eitherofhusbandorofwifeorofchild,iftheyarefaithless.DonottakethemwithyoutheyareuselesstoGod'scommunity....Ifanyoneremainsbehind,I aminnocentofhisblood."Thusendsaleafletsigned"Emmanuel."(29:p.148)ThebookRestitutionorRevivaloftheTrueChristianTeaching wassent farandwide.ItassertsthattruthhadbeenonlypartlyopentoErasmus,ZwingliandLuther,butthatitshoneforthinMatthijsandJohannofLeyden.Much importanceisattachedtotheOldTestament.TheKingdomofChristonearthisconceivedofinapurelyphysicalfashion.Itincludescommunalityof propertyandpolygamy.Thebookendswiththewords:"Inourtime,Christiansareallowedtoturntheswordagainstgodlessauthorities."TheBooklet ConcerningVengeance wasanotherpopularwork.Itisnothinglessthanacalltomurderandrevenge.Onlyaftervengeancehadbeencarriedoutwould thenewearthandthenewheavenappeartoGod'speople."Rememberwhattheyhavedoneuntousallthismustbevisitedupontheminalikemanner. Heedthisanddonotconsiderasinwhatisnosin."(29:p.149) ApostlesweresentfromMnstertopropagandizeinsurrectionandtodrumupsupportforthenewJerusalem.TheywereparticularlysuccessfulinHolland. ErasmusSchetwrotetoErasmusofRotterdam:"Hardlyisthereatownoracitywheretheashesofrebellionarenotsmoldering.Thecommunismthatthey preachattractsmassesfromallsides."(29:p.153)Inmanytownstherebaptizedwerecountedinthehundreds,amongthemmanyinfluentialpeople.In CologneitwasreportedthatsevenhundredhadbeennewlybaptizedandinEssen,twohundred.Turbulencegrewapace.Onedayfivenakedmen,with swordsinhand,ranthroughAmsterdamforetellingtheimminentendoftheworld.LargecrowdsofarmedAnabaptistsweremovingtowardMnster. SixteenhundredgatheredinVollenhove.ThirtyshipswitharmedAnabaptistsaboardleftAmsterdamandlandednearGenemuiden.Thiswasfollowedby twentyonemoreshipswiththreethousandmen,womenandchildren.TheDutchauthoritieswereabletodispersethesecrowdsonlywithgreatdifficulty.In thetownofWarenburg,anAnabaptistcommunitybeganaccumulatingweapons,andtheburgomasterbecamesofrightenedthathewouldappearonly accompaniedbyahundredguards.InMnstertheProphetJohannDusentschurcompiledalistoftownswhichweresoontobecontrolledbythe"Children ofGod."FirstonthelistwasSoest.AdelegationofProphetssetoutforthiscity.Theyenteredthetownopenlyandsolemnly,preachinginsurrection.The authoritiesmanagedtooustthemwithgreatdifficulty. ItisnotsurprisingthatthismovementalarmedBishopFranzvon

[62] Waldeck,inwhosedomainMnsterwassituated,aswellastherulersoftheneighboringareas.SlowlyanarmywasraisedandMnsterbesieged.Thetown waswellfortifiedandhadlargestoresofprovisions.Thesiegewasahardone,lastingfourteenmonths.Oneofthefirstvictimsofthewarturnedouttobe theAnabaptistleaderMatthijs.Duringacommonmeal,heexclaimed:"LetThywillbedoneandnotmine!"Thenhebadetheothersfarewell,kissingthem.It appearsthathehadhadavisionthathewastochallengetheunfaithfultoafightinthemannerofSamson.Thenextdayheactuallywentoutsidethecitywall withasmallgroupofvolunteersandwashackedtopiecesbythelansquenets. HiscomradeinarmsBokelson(JohannofLeyden)thereupondeliveredasermon:"GodwillgiveyouanotherProphetwhowillbemorepowerful.God desiredthedeathofMatthijs,lestyoushouldbelieveinhimmorethaninGod."Withinseveraldays,BokelsonbecamethatnewProphet,theheirtoMatthijs.

waswellfortifiedandhadlargestoresofprovisions.Thesiegewasahardone,lastingfourteenmonths.Oneofthefirstvictimsofthewarturnedouttobe theAnabaptistleaderMatthijs.Duringacommonmeal,heexclaimed:"LetThywillbedoneandnotmine!"Thenhebadetheothersfarewell,kissingthem.It appearsthathehadhadavisionthathewastochallengetheunfaithfultoafightinthemannerofSamson.Thenextdayheactuallywentoutsidethecitywall withasmallgroupofvolunteersandwashackedtopiecesbythelansquenets. HiscomradeinarmsBokelson(JohannofLeyden)thereupondeliveredasermon:"GodwillgiveyouanotherProphetwhowillbemorepowerful.God desiredthedeathofMatthijs,lestyoushouldbelieveinhimmorethaninGod."Withinseveraldays,BokelsonbecamethatnewProphet,theheirtoMatthijs. (29:p.207)OncetheLordclosedJohann'slipsforthreedays.Uponrecoveringhisspeech,heproclaimedthathehadhadarevelationaboutaneworder forthetown.Thepowerofthecouncilwastobeabolished,andtwelveeldersweretogovernundertheleadershipoftheProphet.Thenamesoftheelders wereannouncedtheyturnedouttobethemostinfluentialDutchProphets,andtheywereinstalledwithoutanyelection. Nextcamewhatwasperhapsthemostradicalinnovationestablishmentofpolygamy.IdeasofthissortareencounteredearlierinAnabaptistpreachings. TheyweresupportedbyreferencetothecustomsofthepatriarchsoftheOldTestament.Thenewlawwasfacilitatedbythefactthatafterbanishmentofthe godless,thereweretwoorthreetimesasmanywomeninMnsterasmen.Theintroductionofpolygamywasaccompaniedbyaregulationinaccordance withwhichallwomenwhoseagedidnotpreventitwereobligatedtohaveahusband.Thesharingoutofwomenbegan.Eyewitnessestellofviolenceand suicides.Theatmosphereinwhichthelawwasimplementedisintimatedbyanotherlaw,whichforbadementobreakintohousesingroupstochoosewives. Onecanonlyimaginewhatlifewaslikeinthenewfamilies.Theauthoritiesalsointerferedbystagingfrequentpublicpunishmentofrecalcitrantwives. Thesocializationofpropertyandpolygamyevokedconsiderableoppositioninthetown.ThedisaffectedseizedthechiefProphetsanddemandedabolitionof theseregulations.ButtheyweresurroundedbyAnabaptistsstillloyaltoBokelsonmostlyDutchmenandFrisiansandcompelledtosurrender.Theywere tiedtotreesandshot."WhoeverfiresthefirstshotdoesaservicetoGod,"Bokelsoncried. Thedefeatoftheoppositionwithincoincidedwithamajormilitaryvictoryalargeforceassaultingthetownhadbeenbeatenback.Thearmyofthe attackerswasbadlyorganized,andapparentlytherewereAnabaptistsinitsranks,forthetimesetfortheassaulthadbecomeknowninMnster.Thelosses ofthebesiegingarmyweresuchthatadaringsallycouldhavedestroyeditentirely.

[63] TheseeventsstrengthenedJohann'spositionconsiderably.TheProphetDusentschurreportedthathehadhadavisionthatJohannwouldbecomekingofthe worldandtakethethroneandthescepterofhisfatherDaviduntilthecomingoftheLordHimself.Bokelsonconfirmedthathehadhadthesamevision.The electionofthekingculminatedinthesingingofpsalms. Bokelsonsurroundedhimselfwithasplendidcourt,createdcourtpostsofvariouskindsandadetachmentofbodyguards.Hetooknewwivesconstantly, amongwhomthefirstwas"themostlovelyofallwomen,"DivaraMatthijs'swidow.Twocrownsencrustedwithpreciousstonesoneroyal,theother imperialweremadeforBokelson.Hisemblemwastheglobewithtwoswordscrossed,asymbolofhispowerovertheworld. Thekingappearedwithafanfareandaccompaniedbyamountedguard.A Hofmeister marchedinfront,carryingawhitestaffsplendidlydressedpages followed,onebearingasword,theothertheOldTestament.Nextcamethecourt,dressedinsilk.Everyonetheymethadtokneel.Atthesametime,Johann hadavisionfromwhichhelearnedthatnooneshouldpossessmorethanonecoat,twopairsofstockings,threeshirtsandsoon.Everyoneoutsidetheroyal courtwasboundbythisrevelation. Oneday4,200citizenswerecalledtoaroyalbanquet.Thekingandqueenplayedhost,andeveryonesangthehymn"GlorytoGodintheHighest." SuddenlyJohannnoticedamongtheguestssomeonewhoseemedalientohim:"Hewasnotinnuptialdress."DecidingthatthismustbeJudas,thekingcutoff hisheadonthespot.Thereuponthebanquetresumed. Theatricalperformanceswerestagedforthetownspeoplesomeoftheseparodiedtheholyservice,otherstookasocialturnforinstance,thedialogueof therichmanwithLazarus. Streetsandallimportantbuildingsinthetownwererenamed.Babiesweregivennewlyinventednames. Meanwhileexecutionstookplacealmostdaily:forexample,onthethirdofJune,1535,fiftytwopersonswereexecutedonthefifthofJune,threeeighteen personsonboththesixthandtheseventh,etc.Obstinatewiveswereexecuted,aswellasawomanwhohadspokenagainsttheneworder.Onewomanwho refusedtobecometheking'swife,inspiteofhisseveralproposals,hadherheadchoppedoffinthetownsquarebytheking'sownhand,whilehisassembled wivessang"GlorytoGodintheHighest." Theentireepisodehastheappearanceofmasspathology,amadnesstowhichtheProphetsthemselveseventuallyfellvictim,whenwithblindfanaticismthey joinedtheirdestiniestoadoomedcause.Butwasitreally?TheMnsterepisodedemonstratesamultitudeoftraitstypicalofallrevolutionsbutwhere, confinedtoasingletownandcompressedintoasingleyear,tragedyturnsintoagrotesquefarce.TheSwiftiandeviceofattributingthevicesoftheworldto tinyLilliputianswashereemployedbyhistory.Inactualfact,themosteccentricofactionsprovetohavebeenentirelyconsistentwiththeinnerlogicofthe movement.ExtremefanaticismstirredtheAnabaptistmobandspreadtolargerandlargermasses

[64] ofpeople.BehindtheabsurdposturingsofJanBokelsonwecanoftendiscernaslyandcalculatingmind,examplesofwhichweshallencounterlater. Apparently,bothheandtheotherProphetshadaveryconcretegoalinmind"universal"rebellionandtheestablishmentofthemselvesinpower,ifnotover the"entireworld,"thenatleastoveralargepartofEurope.Althoughthesehopeswerenotrealized,theyshouldnotbedismissedashavingbeenentirely groundless.UnrestwasrampantinthewholeofnorthwesternGermanyandinHolland.ItwaswidelythoughtatthetimethatifJohannwouldsucceedin breakingthroughthesiege,hewouldfosterachangeinthecourseofhistorycomparabletothegreatmigrationofpeoples.Anabaptistemissarieswereactive asfarawayasZrichandBerninMnstertheyenticedlansquenetstotheirsidewithlargesalaries.Thebesiegingforcewasonceseizedbypanicoverthe rumorthattheAnabaptistshadtakenLbeck.Thisturnedouttobeuntrue,butitissymptomaticoftheprevailingsentiment. Therewas,apparently,aplantoraiserebellioninfourplacessimultaneouslyitwaspartiallyimplemented.InFrisia,Anabaptistsseizedandfortifieda monastery,wheretheyheldoutagainstaprolongedsiege.Victorycosttheimperialarmyninehundredmenkilled.AsquadronofAnabaptistships approachedDeventerintentontakingthetown,butitwasinterceptedbytheDukeofHeldern'sfleet.OutsideGroningen,anAnabaptistforceofsomeone thousandmengathered,intendingtobreakthroughtoMnster.It,too,wasscatteredbytheduke'smen. ButtheAnabaptistswerestrongestinHolland,thehomelandofMatthijsandJanBokelson.In1535,severallargedetachmentsofAnabaptistsassembled

rumorthattheAnabaptistshadtakenLbeck.Thisturnedouttobeuntrue,butitissymptomaticoftheprevailingsentiment. Therewas,apparently,aplantoraiserebellioninfourplacessimultaneouslyitwaspartiallyimplemented.InFrisia,Anabaptistsseizedandfortifieda monastery,wheretheyheldoutagainstaprolongedsiege.Victorycosttheimperialarmyninehundredmenkilled.AsquadronofAnabaptistships approachedDeventerintentontakingthetown,butitwasinterceptedbytheDukeofHeldern'sfleet.OutsideGroningen,anAnabaptistforceofsomeone thousandmengathered,intendingtobreakthroughtoMnster.It,too,wasscatteredbytheduke'smen. ButtheAnabaptistswerestrongestinHolland,thehomelandofMatthijsandJanBokelson.In1535,severallargedetachmentsofAnabaptistsassembled there.TheyevensucceededinseizingtheAmsterdamtownhallforatime,althoughtheauthoritiessoonhadthesituationinhand.Oneofthereasonsforthe movement'sfailurewasthatitsplansbecameknowntotheenemy.OneofJohann'sApostlesfellintothehandsofthebishopandpromisedtodisclosethe Anabaptists'battleplansinexchangeforhislife.HereturnedtoMnster,pretendingtohaveescaped,thensetoutagainonanApostolicmissionand informedthebishopofeverything. WecanconcludethatBokelson'saspirationswerefarfromillusory.Hehadamassedanarmyandwasreadytobreakthesiege,shouldtheDutchcometo hisaid.Hewasconstructingamobilebarricademadeofcarriages.Atnightheranaroundthetownbarefoot,wearingnothingbutashirtandshouting: "Rejoice,Israel,salvationisathand."Atonepointhesummonedtheentirearmytothesquareinordertomoveoutofthetown.Hethenappeared,wearing hiscrownandroyalgarments,anddeclaredthatthedayhadnotyetcomeandthathehadsimplywantedtocheckthereadinessofhisforces.Afeastwas preparedforthepopulacethereweresometwothousandmenandeightthousandwomenaltogether.AfterthemealJohannsuddenlyannouncedthathe wassteppingdown.ButtheProphetDusentschurproclaimedthatGodcalleduponhisbrotherJohannofLeydentoremainkingandtopunishtheiniquitous. Bokelsonwasreelected. Therewereapparentlyrealfrictionsbehindthismasquerade.On

[65] anotheroccasion,forinstance,Knipperdollingstartedtoleapanddanceaboutstrangelyheevenstoodonhishead.Butinthemidstoftheseanticshe suddenlycriedout:"Johanniskingoftheflesh,butIshallbekingofthespirit."Bokelsonorderedhimlockedinthetower,asaresultofwhichKnipperdolling soonthoughtbetterofthingsandthetwowerereconciled.Anotherpoliticalmoveinasimilarlyfantasticguisewasthe"election"ofdukes.Asecretvotewas takeninthetwelvedistrictsintowhichthetownhadbeendivided.Thenamesofcandidateswereputintoahatanddrawnoutbyspeciallyappointedyoung boys.ThedukeselectedinthismannerallturnedouttobeProphetsclosetoBokelson.Eachreceivedadukedomoftheempire,thatis,oneofthetown districts,togetherwithcontrolofthetowngatelocatedinthecorrespondingdistrict.Thislastpointwastherealmeaningofthewholeenterprise,forthe lansquenets,whomJohanncouldnolongertrust,weretherebyremovedfromstrategicpositionsindefenseofthetown. Thesepoliticalmaneuversweresupplementedbythesightoftheroyalguardsengagingindailymilitaryexercisesonthemainsquare. Intheend,however,thelargestockpileofprovisionsranoutandfaminesetin.Thehorseswereeaten,andthisdestroyedanyhopeofbreakingthesiege. Thedeaconsconfiscatedallstores,andunderthreatofdeathitwasforbiddentobakebreadathome.Allhousesweresearchedandnoonehadtherightto lockhisdoor.ThecitizensbegantoeatgrassandrootS.Thekingpronouncedthatthiswas"noworsethanbread."Atthismoment,hecalledtogetherthe dukes,thecourtandallhiswivestoaluxuriousfeastinthepalace.Aneyewitnesswholaterescapedfromthetownreported:"Theybehavedasthoughthey wereplanningtorulefortherestoftheirlives."(29:p.237) Fanaticismservedasalightningrod.Thekingcommandedthat"allthatishighshallbedestroyed."Andthecitizensbegantodestroybelfriesandthetopsof towers.Repressionwaspracticedevermorewidely.Newconspiracieswererevealedconstantly.Oneofthoseaccusedwashackedintotwelveparts,anda Dutchmanatehisheartandliver. Thetownwasdoomed.Moreandmoreofthedefendersfled,despitethefactthattrial,tortureandpossibleexecutionawaitedtheminthebesiegers'camp. Finally,onJuly25,1535,Mnsterwastaken.ThereignoftheAnabaptists,whohadcometopowerFebruary21,1534,hadlastedforayearandahalf. Manyofthemweremassacredbythelansquenetsduringthefinalassaultothersweretriedandmanyexecuted.Mnsterwasnolongeranevangeliccityit hadreturnedtotherealmoftheCatholicbishop. JanBokelsonhidinthemostimpregnabletowerbutlatergavehimselfup.Undertorture,herenouncedhisfaithandacknowledgedthathe"deserveddeath tentimesover."HepromisedthatifhislifewassparedhewouldbringallAnabaptiststoobedience.Buttonoavail.Inthesquarewhereoncehehadsatona throne,hewastorturedwithhotirons,andthenhisheartwaspiercedwitharedhotdagger.

[66]

2.ChiliasticSocialismandtheIdeologyoftheHereticalMovements
AbovewehavetriednottoyieldtothetemptationtoselectfromthesourcesonthehistoryofthehereticalmovementsoftheMiddleAgesandReformationonlythose passagesinwhichsocialistideasareexpoundedthecommunalityofproperty,thedestructionofthefamily,etc.Onthecontrary,wetriedtogiveafullreview,thougha necessarilyschematicone,ofthemajoraspectsofthehereticaldoctrines.Itwillnowbeourtasktodeterminethelinkbetweenthesetwophenomenai.e.,toascertainthe rolethattheideasofchiliasticsocialismplayedintheoverallideologyofthehereticalmovements. Todothis,itisfirstnecessarytodeterminewhetheritispossibletospeakofasingle,unifiedworldviewinthesemovements,whethertherearesufficientfeaturescommon tothechaoticmassofheresieswhichappearedoverthecourseofsomesevencenturies.Inotherwords,wearedealingwiththequestionoftheinterrelationshipamong differenthereticaldoctrines.Beginningwiththesecondhalfofthelastcentury,thisquestionbecametheobjectofmuchresearchwhichnotonlyshowedtheexistenceof closetiesbetweenvarioushereticalgro,upsbutalsogreatlyextendedthehistoryofheresiesintothepast.Itbecameclearthatthereisadirectcontinuitybetweenthe teachingsofthemedievalsectsandtheheresiesofthefirstcenturiesofChristianity. Inmostgeneralterms,itispossibletodividetheheresiesoftheMiddleAgesintothreegroups:(1)"Manichean"heresiestheCathars,Albigenses,Petrobrusians(from theeleventhtothefourteenthcenturies).(2)"Pantheistic"heresies:Amalricians,Ortliebarians,BrethrenandSistersoftheFreeSpirit,Adamites,theApostolicBrethren andtherelatedgroupsofBeghardsandBeguines(fromthethirteenthtothefifteenthcenturies).(3)Heresieswhich,longbeforetheReformation,developedideasthat wereclosetoProtestantismWaldensians,Anabaptists,MoravianBrethren(fromthetwelfthtotheseventeenthcenturies). ThemajorityofthesedoctrineshavethesamesourcethegnosticandManicheanheresieswhich,asearlyasthesecondcenturyA.D.,spreadthroughtheRomanEmpire andevenbeyonditsborders,forexample,intoPersia. [67]

theeleventhtothefourteenthcenturies).(2)"Pantheistic"heresies:Amalricians,Ortliebarians,BrethrenandSistersoftheFreeSpirit,Adamites,theApostolicBrethren andtherelatedgroupsofBeghardsandBeguines(fromthethirteenthtothefifteenthcenturies).(3)Heresieswhich,longbeforetheReformation,developedideasthat wereclosetoProtestantismWaldensians,Anabaptists,MoravianBrethren(fromthetwelfthtotheseventeenthcenturies). ThemajorityofthesedoctrineshavethesamesourcethegnosticandManicheanheresieswhich,asearlyasthesecondcenturyA.D.,spreadthroughtheRomanEmpire andevenbeyonditsborders,forexample,intoPersia. [67] Theheresiesofthe"Manichean"groupenteredWesternEuropeprimarilyfromtheEast.Verysimilardoctrines(dualism,beliefintheconnectionoftheOldTestamentwith theevilGod,thedivisionintonarrowesotericandbroadexotericcircles)canbefoundinthegnosticsectsofthesecondcentury,forexampleamongtheMarcionites,but theseviewsachievedtheirfullexpressioninManicheanism. ThePaulicians,whoappearedintheEasternRomanEmpireinthefourthandfifthcenturies,servedasalinkbetweentheearlygnosticheresiesandthemedievalsects. Theyprofessedpuredualism,consideringoriginalsintobeaheroicdeed:arefusaltoobeytheevilGod.Thisledtoarejectionofmorallawandthedenialofthe differencebetweengoodandevil.Thisinturnwasmanifestedinthevariousexcessesofthesectarians,asdescribedbytheircontemporaries.(OneofthePaulicianleaders wascalledBaantheDirty,forinstance,andthereareaccountsofbrigandage.)Intheninthcentury,PauliciansoccupiedanareaofAsiaMinor,fromwhichtheycarriedout raidsonneighboringtowns,lootingandsellingcaptivesintoslaverytotheSaracens.In867,EphesuswascapturedandsackedthetempleofSt.JohnWaSturnedintoa stable.DefeatedinthetenthcenturybythearmiesoftheByzantineemperor,thePaulicianswereresettledwholesaleinBulgaria.Heretheycameintocontactwiththe Bogomils,whoderivedfromtheMessaliansect(mentionedasearlyasthefourthcentury).BogomilteachingwasclosetotheviewsofthemonarchicCatharsitheldthat thephysicalworldwascreatedbyGod'sapostateeldestson,Satanael.PauliciansandBogomilsalikerejectedthebaptismofchildren,hatedanddestroyedchurches, sacredimagesandcrosses. FromtheEasternRomanEmpire,thePaulicianandBogomildoctrinespenetratedintoWesternEurope.(See10and12foramoredetailedaccount.) Thedoctrinesofthe"pantheistic"trendcanalsobetracedtothegnosticheresies.Epiphanes,aChristianwriterofthefourthcentury,describessectswhicharestrikingly similartothemedievalAdamites.(Hehimselfbelongedatonetimetosuchagroup.)Onehundredyearslater,Hyppolitusreportsananalogousteachingamongthesectof Simonians.Inbothcases,blackmasseswerepracticed,accompaniedbyanostentatiousdisregardformoralnorms,allofwhichwasmeanttorevealthesuperhuman characterof"thepossessorofgnosis."(16:p.77) Thereisampleevidenceofnumerouslinksamongthedoctrines [68] ofthedifferentsects.Wehavealreadymentioned,forexample,thatthenotionofthe"divinity"oftheFreeSpiritswasadevelopmentoftheexclusivepositionofthe perfecti amongtheCathars.SomehistoriansbelievethattheFreeSpiritsactuallyoriginatedamongtheCathars.InthisconnectionwealsonoteJ.VanMierlo'sargument thatthetermsbeginus andbegine derivefrom"Albigensis."(15:p.24.TheBeghardsandBeguineswerethemainsourcefromwhichfollowersofthe"FreeSpirits"were drawn.) IthasfurthermorebeenestablishedthattheFreeSpiritsinfluencedtheWaldenses,specificallyintheorganizationofthelatterintoanarrowcircleofleadersorApostles (who,accordingtothedoctrineofthesect,receivedtheirauthorityfromtheangels,regularlyvisitedparadiseandcontemplatedGod).Theclosenessofthetwosectsis illustratedbytheexampleofNicholasofBasel,whoisvariouslyassigned,byscholarsthoroughlyversedinthematerial,toeithertheFreeSpiritsortheWaldenses. ThePetrobrusiansectisanotherlinkbetweentheCatharsandtheWaldenses.DllingerandRuncimanconsiderthemtobepartoftheCatharmovement,whileother historiansrefertothemaspredecessorsoftheWaldenses.Finally,therearenumerousindicationsthatWaldensesandAnabaptistsaretwonamesgivenatdifferent periodstopeopleinthesamemovement.LudwigKellerdevotedanumberofworkstoelucidatingtheconnectionsbetweentheWaldensesandtheAnabaptists.He bringsforwardnumerousargumentstoprovethattheyareinfactthesame.(See24and26.) Theimpressionofdiversitycreatedbythegreatvarietyofnamescannotbetakenasproofofthesects'distinctness.Theirnameswere,forthemostpart,coinedbytheir enemiesafteraninfluentialpreacheratagiventime(PetrobrusiansfromPeterofBruysHeinrichiansfromHeinrichofToulouseWaldensiansfromValdesOrtliebarians fromOrtlieb,etc.,justasthetermLutheranlaterderivedfromLuther).Themembersofthesectscalledoneanother"Brethren,""God'speople,""friendsofGod."Thelast termwasused,forinstance,byWaldensesandAnabaptistsinGermanyaslateasthesixteenthcentury Gottesfreunde, whichalsohappenstobeanexacttranslationof theWord"Bogomil." Astrikingfeaturethatcharacterizesalmostallthegroupsinthehereticalmovementistherejectionofbaptismoftheyoungandtherelatedintroductionofasecondbaptism foradults.TheJustinianCode [69] (sixthcentury)alreadycontainsclausesagainsthereticswhopreachasecondbaptism.SecondbaptismismentionedrepeatedlyintheproceedingsoftheInquisitionandin thewritingsdenouncingtheCatharsandtheWaldenses.ThepracticegivestheAnabaptiststheirnameandsurvivestodayamongtheBaptists. Thesectariansthemselvesinsistedonthecontinuityofthehereticalmovement.Inthefirstplace,theyassertedtheirancientoriginsfromthedisciplesoftheApostlesor fromtheChristianswhorefusedobediencetoPopeSylvesteranddidnotacceptthebequestofEmperorConstantine.IntheannalsoftheToulouseInquisitionfor1311, thereisthetestimonyofaWaldensianweaverwhopresentedsuchaversionofthesect'sorigin,quitetraditionalalreadyatthattime.(24:pp.1819)Accordingtothe Waldensiantradition,Valdeswasnotthefounderoftheirchurch.Forexample,theycalledPeterofBruys,wholivedinthefirsthalfofthetwelfthcentury,"oneof ours."(Valdespreachedinthesecondhalfofthecentury.)ThispointofviewistypicalnotonlyfortheWaldensesforinstance,theAnabaptistlistofmartyrs(whichwas alsoacceptedbytheMennonitesasearlyastheseventeenthcentury)beginswithdescriptionsofthepersecutionofWaldenseswhichtookplacecenturiesbeforethe Reformation.(24:p.364) Finally,theheretics'enemies,thosewhoassailedtheirdoctrines,aswellastherepresentativesoftheInquisitors,allemphasizedtheunityofthehereticalmovement.St. BernardofClairvaux(twelfthcentury),whowaswellversedinthecontemporaryheresies,declaredthattheteachingoftheCatharscontainednothingnewbutmerely repeatedancienterrors.IntheworkofaRomanInquisitorknownasthe"pseudoRaynier"(1250),wereadthefollowing:"Amongthesectsthereisnonemoredangerous totheChurchthantheLeonites.Andforthreereasons:First,itisthemostancientofsects.SomesaythatitgoesbacktothetimeofPopeSylvester,otherstothe Apostles.Further,thereisnocountrywheretheyarenotmetwith."(24:p.5)Bullinger,whowroteabouttheAnabaptistsin1560,says:"Manybasicandgraveerrorsof theirstheysharewiththeancientsectsofNovatians,Cathars,withAuxentiusandPelagius."(25:p.270)CardinalHosius(15041570),whofoughtthehereticsofhisday, wrote:"StillmoreharmfulisthesectofAnabaptists,ofwhichkindweretheWaldensianBrethrenalso,whostillrecentlypracticedthesecondbaptism.Itisnotyesterday northedaybeforeyesterdaythatthisheresygrewupithasexistedsinceAugustine'stime."(25:p.267)Inthe Substantial [70]

totheChurchthantheLeonites.Andforthreereasons:First,itisthemostancientofsects.SomesaythatitgoesbacktothetimeofPopeSylvester,otherstothe Apostles.Further,thereisnocountrywheretheyarenotmetwith."(24:p.5)Bullinger,whowroteabouttheAnabaptistsin1560,says:"Manybasicandgraveerrorsof theirstheysharewiththeancientsectsofNovatians,Cathars,withAuxentiusandPelagius."(25:p.270)CardinalHosius(15041570),whofoughtthehereticsofhisday, wrote:"StillmoreharmfulisthesectofAnabaptists,ofwhichkindweretheWaldensianBrethrenalso,whostillrecentlypracticedthesecondbaptism.Itisnotyesterday northedaybeforeyesterdaythatthisheresygrewupithasexistedsinceAugustine'stime."(25:p.267)Inthe Substantial [70] andConciseHistoryoftheMnsterRebellion (1589),theAnabaptistsarereferredtobyseveralnames,includingCatharsandApostolicBrethren.(25:p.247)Inhis Chronicle (1531),SebastianFranckspeaksoftheconnectionamongtheBohemianBrethren,theWaldensesandtheAnabaptists:"Picards,whooriginatewithVaIdes, formaspecialChristianfolkorsectinBohemia....Theyaredividedintotwoorthreegroupsthelargest,asmalleroneandthesmallest.TheseresembleAnabaptistsin everything....Theynumberabouteightythousand."(26:p.57)Similarevidencecouldbecitedatlength. ThenotionofaunityamongorganizedhereticalmovementsisalsotemptinginthatitmakesmorecomprehensiblethemiracleoftheReformation,whenwithinafewyears organizations,leadersandwriterscropupallacrossEurope.LinksbetweentheleadersoftheReformation(initsearlyphase)andthehereticalmovementsarequite probable.ThiswasassertedbyopponentsoftheReformation.Forinstance,duringadisputationattheReichstaginWorms,thepapalnuncioreproachedLuther:"Mostof yourdoctrinesarethealreadydiscardedheresiesoftheBeghards,Waldensians,LyonsPaupers,WyclifitesandHussites."(25:pp.122123)Neitherdidtheleadersof theReformationdenytheseties.Forexample,intheepistle"TotheChristianNobilityoftheGermanNation"(1520)Lutherwrites:"Itishightimeforustotakeup seriouslyandfranklythecauseoftheBohemianssothatwecanunitewiththemandtheywithus."(25:p.126)AndZwingliwritestoLutherin1527:"Manypeople,even earlier,understoodtheessenceofevangelicreligionasclearlyasyoudo.ButofallIsraelnoonedaredtoenterthebattle,fortheyfearedthismightyGoliath."(26:p.9)It isthoughtlikelythatZwinglibelongedtothecommunityofBrethreninZrich,breakingwiththemaround1524.Lutherapparentlyalsohadcontactsinthesecircles.The firstimpetustohissubsequentrupturewiththeCatholicChurchwasgivenhimwhenhewasstillanunknownyoungmonk.JohannStaupitz,thegeneralvicarofthe AugustinianOrder,tooknoticeofhiminoneofhistoursofinspection.StaupitzwashighlyesteemedamongtheBrethren.Inaworkoftheday,forexample,itisevensaid thathemightbedestined"toleadtheNewIsraeloutofEgyptiancaptivity,"i.e.,tosavethesocietiesoftheBrethrenfrompersecution.Staupitz'sinfluenceonLutherwas exceptionalatthetime.Lutherlatersaidthatitwashewho"firstlitthelightoftheGospel"inhisheartandraisedhis"danderagainstthePope."LutherwrotetoStaupitz: "Youleaveme [71] toooften.Becauseofyou,Iwaslikeadesertedchildpiningforitsmother.Ibeseechyou,blesstheLord'screationinmealso,asinfulman."(25:p.133)Itwasonly beginningwith1522thatcertaindifferencesbetweenthetwocametolight,culminating,in15241525,inafinalbreak. AstrikingpictureemergesofamovementthatlastedforfifteencenturiesdespitepersecutionbythedominantChurchandbysecularauthorities.*Apreciselyfixedsetof religiousideasaffectingthegeneralattitudetowardlifewaspreservedvirtuallyunchanged,oftendowntothesmallestdetail.Throughoutthisperiod,thetraditionofsecret ordinationofbishopswasunbrokengeneralquestionsofimporttothemovementweredecidedat"synods,"andwanderingApostlestookthedecreestodistantsocieties. Onadmittancetothesect,theinitiatesweregivennewnamesknownonlytotheirclosedgroup.Secretsignswereused(forinstance,whenshakinghands)sothebrethren couldrecognizeoneanother.Houseswerealsomarkedbysecretsignssothattravelingmemberscouldfindaccommodationswiththeirkind.Amongthesectariansitwas saidthatyoucouldtravelfromEnglandtoRome,stayingonlyathousesoffellowsectariansalongtheway.Therewereclosetiesamongthenationalbranchesofthe movement.SynodswereattendedbyrepresentativesfromalloverWesternarIdCentralEuropeliteraturewassentfromcountrytocountry.Therewasmutualfinancial assistanceduringtimesofcalamitypeoplewouldstreaminfromothercountriestohelptheirbrethren. Thustherearegroundsforattemptingtoestablishacommonideologicalunderpinningfortheentiremovementinordertodeterminetheplaceoftheideasofchiliastic socialisminthesedoctrines. Oneofthefundamentaltraitsobservedthroughoutthehistoryofthesectswastheirhostilitytowardsecularauthoritythe"world"andespeciallytowardtheCatholic Church.Thiscouldbeactiveorpassive,andcouldfindexpressionincallsto"exterminatethegodless,"tokillthePopeorannihilatetheWhoreofBabylon(theChurch), orinprohibitionsofanykindofintercoursewiththeoutsideworld. ThiswastheissuethatledtothebreakbetweentheleadersoftheReformation,LutherandZwingli,andthe"Brethren."TheAnabaptist

*Ouraimistodeterminethefundamentalprinciplesthatrelatethedoctrinesofthevarioussects.Wemust,therefore,leavetoonesidetheinterestingquestionofpreciselyhow theresemblancecameintobeing:whereitwasamatterofdirectsuccession,whereofliteraryinfluenceandinwhatcasesitwasengenderedbysimilarityofhistorical circumstance.

[72] "Chronicles"for1525read:"TheChurch,longsuppressed,hasbeguntoraiseitshead....Asthoughtheyhadusedthunderbolts,Luther,Zwingliandtheirfollowershave destroyedeverything,buttheydidnotcreateanythingbetter....Theyletinalittlelight,buttheydidnotgoontotheendbutjoinedthesecularpowers....Andtherefore, althoughtherehadbeenagoodbeginningbyGod'swill,thelightofthetruthwasagainextinguishedinthem."(29:p.364) Thehereticalmovement,thoroughlyhostiletothesurroundingworld,flaresupfromtimetotimewithanallconsumingblazeofhatred.Suchoutbreaksareseparatedby intervalsofalittlemorethanacentury:themovementfosteredbyDolcinoaround1300,theHussitemovementthatstartedafterHuswasburnedatthestakein1415,the aggressiveformthatAnabaptismassumedinthe1520s,andtheEnglishrevolutionof16401660.Intheseperiodswealsoobservesocialistideasintheirstarkestforms. Atothertimesthesetendenciesaremuffled,andweencountersectsthatrejectviolenceandteachingsthatcontainnosocialistambitionswhatsoever.(TheWaldensian doctrineisanextremeexample.)Itisinteresting,however,thatthetwoextremesofthehereticalmovementwerecloselyinterwoventheycannotbeclearlydistinguished. Attimes,infact,asectswitchedfromoneextremetotheotherovernight.ThuswelearnthattheCathars,whosedoctrineforbadeanyviolence,in1174attemptedacoup inFlorence.Merelytouchingaweapon,evenforselfdefense,wasconsideredasin,yetatthesametimethereweregroupsamongtheCatharswhopermittedplunder andexpropriationofchurches.HistoriansexplaineventsforeshadowingtheAlbigensianwarsintermsofthissortofabruptreversal,asmorepeacefulgroupscomeunder theinfluenceofmoreaggressiveones:theCathars,whohadbeenforbiddeneventokillananimal,suddenlyeruptedinamilitantspiritthatsweptthemintoawarlasting morethanthirtyyears.Atcertainperiods,theWaldenses,consideredthemostpeacefulgroup,burnedthehousesofpriestswhopreachedagainsttheirdoctrine.They alsokilledindividualswholefttheranks,ortheyplacedpricesontheirheads.AsimilarabruptshiftcanbeseenintheApostolicBrethren.Amongtheteachingsascribed tothemisaprohibitionagainstviolencekillingamanWasconsideredamortalsin.Thisprinciplewassoontransformedsothatpersecutionofthesectwasthecapitalsin, whileanykindofactionagainstthefoesofthetruefaithwaspermitted.Andacallfor [73] thedestructionofthegodlesswasraisedaswell.(9:II:p.397)ThesameabruptshiftoccurredwiththeAnabaptistsinSwitzerlandandinsouthernGermanyatthe beginningoftheReformation.Apparentlyitwaspossibleforasecttoexistintwostates,"militant"and"peaceful,"andthetransitionfromonestatetotheothercould

tothemisaprohibitionagainstviolencekillingamanWasconsideredamortalsin.Thisprinciplewassoontransformedsothatpersecutionofthesectwasthecapitalsin, whileanykindofactionagainstthefoesofthetruefaithwaspermitted.Andacallfor [73] thedestructionofthegodlesswasraisedaswell.(9:II:p.397)ThesameabruptshiftoccurredwiththeAnabaptistsinSwitzerlandandinsouthernGermanyatthe beginningoftheReformation.Apparentlyitwaspossibleforasecttoexistintwostates,"militant"and"peaceful,"andthetransitionfromonestatetotheothercould happensuddenly,andforallpracticalpurposesinstantaneously. Thehereticalworldview,initshatredfortheChurchandthewayoflifeitengendered,canbeunderstoodultimatelyasanantithesistotheideologyofmedieval Catholicism.TheMiddleAgesrepresentastupendouseffortonthepartofWesternEuropeanhumanitytobuilditslifeonthebasisofloftyspiritualvalues,tocomprehend lifeasawaytowardachievingtheidealsofChristianity.Itwasaquestionofreforminghumansocietyandtheworld,withtheaimoftheirtransfigurationintoahigherstate. ThereligiousprinciplethatunderlaythisworldviewwasthedoctrineoftheincarnationofChrist,aneventthatilluminatedthephysicalworldbymeansofaunionofthe divineandthematerial.Inthisway,thecourseofhumanactionwasindicated.ActualdirectionwasinthehandsoftheCatholicChurchandresteduponthedoctrineofthe Churchasamysticalunionofthefaithful,embracingthelivingandthedead.Prayersforthedeadwerebasedonthisteaching,aswereappealsfortheintercessionofthe saints,sinceallthiswasseenasvariousformsofcommunicationbetweenmembersofoneChurch. ThegoalsWesternmanhadsetforhimselfwerenotachieved.Undoubtedly,inthiscaseaswithanyphenomenonofsuchscope,the basic causeoffailurewasinternal, a resultoffreechoice,ofthatwhichinrelationtotheCatholicChurchmaybecalleditssin.Muchhasbeensaidonthissubject,andweshallonlymentionthefrequently encounteredpointofviewaccordingtowhichthefatefuldecisionfortheChurchhadbeeninchoosingthe means forachievingthegoal.Theforcesoftheworldbecame suchmeanspower,wealth,coerciveauthority.Butitmustnotbeforgottenthatthischoicewasmadeinanatmosphereofunceasingstruggleagainstforceshostileto Catholicism.Furthermore,theseforceswere external, andservedasasubstantialthoughnotamaincauseofthefailurethathadovertakentheCatholicChurch.Among suchforces,nottheleastwerethehereticalmovements.Theiractivitiesbelongtothatborderareawhereitissodifficulttodistinguishbetweenthefreeseekingafter spiritualtruthandaconspiracyhavingasitsaimtheforciblediversion [74] ofmankindfromitschosenpath.Wehaveseeninstancesofthewaythatabstractmysticalteachingscouldbeinterpreted,evenasinglegenerationlater,asabasisforthe destructionofchurchesandcrucifixes,asalicenseforthekillingofmonksandpriests.Thecommonpeople,inturn,respondedtohereticalteachingwithoutbreaksof violenceagainsttheheretics.ThesewereatfirstcondemnedbytheChurch,butgraduallymutualbitterness,fearoftheheretics'growinginfluenceand,aboveall,the temptationofworldlypowerledtocampaignsagainstthehereticsandtheinstitutionoftheInquisition.Thecoursethatmedievalsocietyhadsetforitselfbecamemoreand moretwistedandtheidealsitheldbecameevermoreblurred. ThereisnodoubtthattheMiddleAgesprovidednolessreasonthanotherperiodsofhistoryfordissatisfactionwithlifeandforprotestagainstitsdarkeraspects.Buteven thoughcriticismofsocietyandoftheChurchplayedagreatroleintheheretics'message,itseemsimpossibletoregardtheheresiesasmerereactionstoinjusticeandthe imperfectionoflife.Inanycase,theheresiesthatwehavediscusseddidnotcallforthereformoftheChurchoranimprovementinworldlylife.TheAnabaptists,for example,didnotallythemselveseitherwiththeProtestantReformationortheCatholicCounterReformation(th'elatterwasquiteeffective).Instead,thedoctrineofthese sectscalledforthecompletedestructionoftheCatholicChurch,forthedestructionofsocietyasitwasknown,and,untilthisendcouldbeaccomplished,forwithdrawal fromtheworld. Itwasagainstthefundamental ideasoftheMiddleAges,whichwehaveoutlinedabove,thatalltheheresieswerecast.Theirteachingsamountedtoadownrightdenialof thepropositionsenumeratedabove,occasionallypresentedinmysticalform.TheCathardoctrineofthecreationofthematerialworldbyawickedGodorafallenspirit wasdesignedtodestroythebeliefthattheincarnationofChristhadblessedthefleshandtheworld.Theeffectwastocreateagapbetweenmaterialandspirituallifeand totearthemembersofthesectawayfromparticipationinlifeasitwasguidedbytheChurch.Inamoresymbolicform,thisjuxtapositionofGodandworldwas expressedinhatredformaterialrepresentationsofChristandGodtheFather.ItisinterestingthatoneofthemostancientoftheknownheresiesofWesternEuropeis connectedwiththis.Claudius,BishopofTurin(814839),orderedcrucifixesandsacredimagestoberemovedfromchurches.(9:II:p.50)Agobard,theBishopof Lyons,whodiedinA.D.842, [75] alsocalledforthedestructionofsacredobjects.(9:II:pp.4346)Undoubtedly,theiconoclastmovementwhichspreadthroughouttheByzantineEmpireintheeighth centurywasofthesameorigin.WementiononlyinpassingthataleadingroleinthismovementwasplayedbyPaulicians,theimmediatepredecessorsoftheCathars.The sametendencytoseverthetiesbetweenGodandtheworld,betweenspiritandmatter,ledtothedenialofresurrectionofthefleshtypicaloftheCathars.TheWaldensian hostilitytograveyardsandtheirtraditionofburyingtheirdeadinwastelandsorcourtyardsarealsorelevant. TheCathardoctrinethatgoodactsdonotleadtosalvationand,asasourceofpride,arepositivelyharmfulwasdirectedagainstindividualparticipationinlife.The prohibitionsagainstcarryingarms,takingoathsandgoingtocourt,whichwerecommonamongCatharsandWaldenses,hadasimilarfunction.Catharsofsomegroups wereforbiddenallcontactwithlaymen,exceptforattemptstoconvertthem. TheideasoftheFreeSpiritsandtheAdamiteswereevenmoreradicaldenialofproperty,family,stateandallmoralnorms.The"divine"leadersofthesectclearly pretendedtoamuchhigherpositioninlifethandidtheCatholicclergy.Atthesametime,theirideologydeniedallhierarchy,notonlyonearth,butinheavenaswell.The polemicaldeclarationsthattheywereequaltoGodinallthings,thattheycouldperformmiraclesandthatChristhadachievedastateof"godliness"onlyonthecrossareto betakeninpreciselythissense. Thedenialofbaptismforyoungchildren,commontoalmostallthesects,wasbasedontheirrejectioninprincipleoftheChurchasamysticunion.Initsplacetheyset theirownsect,admissionintowhichwasaccompaniedbybaptismpermittedsolelytoadultswhoconsciouslyaccepteditsprinciples.Thus,incontrasttotheCatholic Church,thesectwasaconsciousunionoflikemindedpeople. Alltheseindividualthesescanbereducedtooneaim:overcomingtheconjunctionofGodandtheworld,GodandMan,whichhadbeenaccomplishedthroughChrist's incarnation(thefundamentalprincipleofChristianity,atleastinitstraditionalinterpretation).Thereweretwowaystoachievethis:denialoftheworldordenialofGod.The firstpathwastakenbytheManicheansandthegnosticsects,whoseteachingsconcededtheworldtothedomainofanevilGodandrecognizedasthesolegoaloflifethe liberationfrommatter(forthosecapableofit).Thepantheisticsects,onthecontrary,notonlydidnotrenouncetheworld,butproclaimedtheidealofthedominion [76] overit(again,forachosenfew,whileothers,the"rude"folk,wereincludedinthecategoryoftheworld).Intheirteachingsitispossibletofindtheprototypeoftheideaof "subjugatingnature"whichbecamesopopularinsubsequentperiods.ThedominionovertheworldwasconsideredpossiblenotthroughthecarryingoutofGod'swill but bydenyingGodandbytransformationofthe"FreeSpirits"themselvesintogods.Thesocialmanifestationofthisideologycanbeseenintheextremetrendsofthe Taboritemovement.Finally,theAnabaptistsapparentlytriedtofindasynthesisofthesetendencies.Intheir"militant"phase,theypreachedthedominionoftheelectover theworldmoreover,theideasofdominioncompletelyovershadowedtheChristianfeaturesoftheirworldview(forexample,Mntzerwrotethathisteachingswere equallycomprehensibletoChristians,Jews,Turksandheathens).Intheir"peaceful"phase,ascanbeseenintheexampleoftheMoravianBrethren,withdrawalfromthe

overit(again,forachosenfew,whileothers,the"rude"folk,wereincludedinthecategoryoftheworld).Intheirteachingsitispossibletofindtheprototypeoftheideaof "subjugatingnature"whichbecamesopopularinsubsequentperiods.ThedominionovertheworldwasconsideredpossiblenotthroughthecarryingoutofGod'swill but bydenyingGodandbytransformationofthe"FreeSpirits"themselvesintogods.Thesocialmanifestationofthisideologycanbeseenintheextremetrendsofthe Taboritemovement.Finally,theAnabaptistsapparentlytriedtofindasynthesisofthesetendencies.Intheir"militant"phase,theypreachedthedominionoftheelectover theworldmoreover,theideasofdominioncompletelyovershadowedtheChristianfeaturesoftheirworldview(forexample,Mntzerwrotethathisteachingswere equallycomprehensibletoChristians,Jews,Turksandheathens).Intheir"peaceful"phase,ascanbeseenintheexampleoftheMoravianBrethren,withdrawalfromthe worldwaspredominant:acondemnationoftheworldandabreakingofalltieswithit. Theideasofchiliasticsocialismconstitutedanorganicpartofthisoutlook.Thedemandstoabolishprivateproperty,family,stateandallhierarchiesinthesocietyofthe timeaimedtoexcludetheparticipantsofthemovementfromthesurroundinglife.Thishadtheeffectofplacingtheminahostile,antagonisticrelationshipwiththe"world." Inspiteofthefactthatthesedemandsdidnotoccupyaquantitativelylargeplaceintheoverallideologyofthehereticalsects,theyweresocharacteristicofitthatthey couldservetoagreatextentasaninherentdistinguishingfeatureofthewholemovement.ThusDllinger,whomwehavealreadycited,characterizestheattitudeofthe sectstowardlifeasfollows:"EachhereticaldoctrinethatappearedintheMiddleAgesbore,inopenorconcealedform,arevolutionarycharacterinotherwords,hadit cometopower,itwouldhavebeenobligedtodestroytheexistingstatestructureandimplementapoliticalandsocialrevolution.Thegnosticsects,Catharsand Albigenses,whoprovokedthesevereandimplacablemedievallawsagainstheresiesbytheiractivities,andwithwhomabloodystrugglewascarriedon,Weresocialist andcommunist.Theyattackedmarriage,thefamilyandproperty.Hadtheybeenvictorious,theresultwouldhavebeenatraumaticsocialdislocationandarelapseinto barbarism.ItisobvioustoanyonefamiliarwiththeperiodthattheWaldenseswiththeirdoctrinaldenialofoathsandcriminallawcouldalsonothavefoundaplacefor themselvesintheEuropeansocietyoftheday."(41:pp.5051) [77] Intheperiodwhensocialistideasweredevelopingwithintheframeworkoftheideologyofthehereticalmovements,theyacquiredaseriesofnewfeatureswhichcannot befoundinantiquity.Inthisepoch,socialismturnedfromatheoretical,scholasticdoctrineintoarallyingpointandamotivatingforcebehindbroadpopularmovements. Antiquityknewharshnationalcatastrophesthatculminatedintheruinationofstates.Themostimpoverishedgroupsofthepopulationdidonoccasionseizepower,killthe richoroustthemfromtownspropertywastakenanddivided:inKerkirain427B.C.,inSamosin412andinSyracusein317.InSparta,KingNabis,in206B.C., dividedamonghisfollowersnotonlythepropertybutalsothewivesoftherich.However,thepopularmovementsofantiquitydidnotknowtheslogansof communality ofproperty, communality ofwives,andtheywerenotdirectedagainstreligion.AllthesetraitsemergeintheMiddleAges. Socialistdoctrinesthemselveschange,acquiringanintolerant,embitteredanddestructivecharacter. Theideaofdividingmankindintothe"doomed"andthe"elect"makesitsappearance,followedbycallstodestroythe"godless"orthe"enemiesofChrist,"i.e.,the opponentsofthemovement. Socialistideologyisimbuedwiththenotionofacomingfundamentalbreak,oftheendanddestructionoftheoldworldandthebeginningofaneworder.Thisconceptis interwovenwiththeideaof"imprisonment"and"liberation,"which,beginningwiththeCathars,isunderstoodasimprisonmentofthesoulinmatterandasliberationinthe otherworld.Later,theAmalriciansandtheFreeSpiritssawtheideaasspiritualliberationthroughtheachievementof"godliness"inthisworld.Andfinally,theTaborites andtheAnabaptistsconceivedofitasmaterialliberationfromthepowerofthe"evilones"andastheestablishmentofthedominionofthe"elect." Furthermore,socialistideasinthisepochmergewiththeconceptofuniversalhistoryderivedprincipallyfromJoachimofFlore.Therealizationofthesocialistidealis connectednotwiththedecisionofawiseruler,asinPlato'sconception,butisunderstoodastheresultofapredeterminedprocessencompassingallhistoryand independentofthewillofindividuals. Aneworganizationalstructureisevolvedaswellsocialistideasdevelopwithinitandattemptsaremadetoimplementthem.Thisisasectwiththestandard"concentric" structureanarrowcircleof [78] leaderswhoareinitiatedintoallaspectsofthedoctrineandawidecircleofsympathizerswhoareacquaintedonlywithsomeofitsaspects.Thelattergrouptendstobe linkedwiththesectbytiesofanemotionalcharacterwhicharedifficulttodescribeprecisely. Theleadingroleinthedevelopmentofsocialismpassestoanewtypeofindividual.Thehermeticthinkerandphilosopherisreplacedbytheferventandtirelesspublicist andorganizer,anexpertinthetheoryandpracticeofdestruction.Thisstrangeandcontradictoryfigurewillreappearinsubsequenthistoricalepochs.Heisamanof seeminglyinexhaustibleenergywhensuccessful,butapitifulandterrifiednonentitythemomenthisluckturnsagainsthim. Inclosingthischapter,weturnourattentiontoaninterestingandapparentlyessentialmattersomethingthereaderhasundoubtedlynoted:theprofounddependenceof socialistideology(intheformsitattainedintheMiddleAges)onChristianity.Inalmostallsocialistmovements,theideaofequalitywasfoundedontheequalityofall peoplebeforeGod.ItwasstandardpracticetorefertothecommunityofApostlesinJerusalemasamodelfoundedontheprinciplesofcommunality.ItistoChristianity thatsocialismowesitsconceptofahistoricgoal,theideaofthesinfulnessoftheworld,itscomingendandtheLastJudgment.Suchacloselinkcanhardlybeexplained bythedesiretobeinaccordwithacceptedauthorityor(asEngelshasargued)bythefactthatthelanguageofreligionwastheonlyavailableidiominwhichtoexpress generalhistoricalconceptions.ThefactthatsocialismborrowedsomeofitsfundamentalideasfromChristianityshowsthatthiswasamatternotofmeretransferencebut ofadeeperinteraction.TheexistenceofcertainrelatedelementsinChristianityandsocialismisindicated,forexample,bythephenomenonofthemonastery,whichseems torealizesocialistprincipleswithinChristianity(e.g.,theabolitionofprivatepropertyandofmarriage).Itwouldbeextremelyimportanttodiscerntheaspectssharedby Christianityandsocialism,totracehowtheChristianconceptsareredirectedwithinsocialismandultimatelyturnintoadenialofthefundamentalprinciplesofChristianity (forexample,whenGod'sjudgmentovertheworldisreinterpretedasthejudgmentofthe"elect"overtheirenemies,orwhentheresurrectionofthedeadistranslatedinto "deification"inthesectofFreeSpirits).Suchananalysiswouldundoubtedlyexplainagreatdealaboutsocialistideology. [79]

III. TheSocialism ofthePhilosophers


1.TheGreatUtopias
TheEnglishrevolutionoftheseventeenthcenturywasthelastoccasionwhenthehereticalmovementappearedasoneofthemajorforcesshapingthecourseofhistory. Inlateryears,thechiliasticsectsthathadshakenEuropebecametransformedintosuchpeaceablemovementsasthoseoftheMennonites,theBaptistsandtheQuakers. Thesocialistideasofthemedievalsectsliveon,albeitinpeacefulform,intheirsuccessors.ThemostgraphicmanifestationoftheseideasarethenumerouScommunist

ofthePhilosophers
1.TheGreatUtopias
TheEnglishrevolutionoftheseventeenthcenturywasthelastoccasionwhenthehereticalmovementappearedasoneofthemajorforcesshapingthecourseofhistory. Inlateryears,thechiliasticsectsthathadshakenEuropebecametransformedintosuchpeaceablemovementsasthoseoftheMennonites,theBaptistsandtheQuakers. Thesocialistideasofthemedievalsectsliveon,albeitinpeacefulform,intheirsuccessors.ThemostgraphicmanifestationoftheseideasarethenumerouScommunist settlementsfoundedbythesesectsinAmericaduringtheeighteenthandnineteenthcenturies.Hereweencounterattemptstoimplementfamiliarsocialistideals: communalityofproperty,thebanonmarriageandfamily(expressedeitherascelibacyorascommunalityofwivesandcommunalupbringingofchildren).Butthesocialist ideasthemselvesacquireanewcolorationtheylosetheiraggressiveness.Alesserroleisassignedtopropagandizingthedoctrine,andthecenterofgravityistransferred tothelifeoftheisolatedcommunity.Thankstothis,theinfluenceofthesocialistdoctrinedoesnotinthesecasesextendbeyondthelimitsofthecommunitiesthatprofess them.Inthisform,socialistideaslosetheirincendiaryforceandceasetoinspiremassivepopularmovements. Thedevelopmentofsocialistideasdidnotcease,ofcourse.Onthecontrary,intheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies,socialistwritingsliterallyfloodedEurope.But theseideaswereproducedby [80] differentcircumstancesandbymenofadifferentmentality.ThepreacherandthewanderingApostlegavewaytoapublicistandphilosopher.Religiousexaltationand referencestorevelationwerereplacedbyappealstoreason.Theliteratureofsocialismacquiredapurelysecularandrationalisticcharacternewmeansofpopularization weredevised:worksonthisthemenowfrequentlyappearundertheguiseofvoyagestounknownlands,interlardedwithfrivolousepisodes.Bythesametoken,the audiencetowhomthemessageisaddressedisalsodifferent.Itisnolongerpitchedtopeasantsorcraftsmenbuttothewellreadandeducatedpublic.Thussocialism renouncesforatimeadirectinfluenceonthebroadmasses.ItisasifafterfailinginitsdirectassaultonChristiancivilization,themovementlaunchesanevasivemaneuver whichlastsforseveralcenturies.Itisonlyattheveryendoftheeighteenthcenturythatsocialismonceagaincomesoutintothestreet,andwemeetwithafreshattemptto createapopularmovementbasedonitsideology.* ThisbreakinthedevelopmentofsocialistideashadbeguntotakeshapefarearlierthantheEnglishrevolutionoftheseventeenthcentury.Inthebeginningofthesixteenth century,atthetimeofthefirsttentativestepsoftheReformation,aworkappearedthatexhibitednumerousfeaturesofthenewsocialistliteratureThomasMore's Utopia. Inthisworkwefirstmeettheliterarydevicesthatarelatertobecomestandarde.g.,adescriptionoftraveltoafarofflandandthediscoveryofapreviously unknown,exoticplacewheretheidealsofsocialismhavebeenrealized.Notsurprisingly,thetitleofthisworkhasbecomeoneofthetermsdenotingtheteachingasa whole"utopiansocialism."

*Itwouldbeinterestingtoinvestigatetherelationbetweenthesetwoperiodsinthedevelopmentofsocialistideaswithinthehereticalmovementandwithintheframeworkof Enlightenmentliterature.Whatistheinfluenceoftheformerperiodonthelatter?Throughwhatchannelswasthetraditiontransmitted?Theauthorisawareofonlyonehistorian whohasstudiedthisquestionLudwigKeller,whodevotedaseriesofworkstoit.Kellerpointsouttwoavenuesbywhichthisoccurredthefirstbeingtheguildsand workshops,whichwerecloselytiedtothehereticalmovementsthroughouttheMiddleAgesandprovidedarefugeforpersecutedheretics.Thischannelofinfluenceleadstothe MasonicmovementandthroughittothewritersandphilosophersoftheEnlightenment.Thesecondinvolvestheacademiesof"poets"and"philosophers"oftheRenaissance andHumanism.OfparticularinterestarethecausesofsuchasharpandsuddenbreakinthecharacterofchiliasticsocialismandthedeclineofhereticalmOvementsingeneral. Asoneobviousexplanation,wecanpointtothevictoryoftheReformation,whichhadachievedmuchofthatwhichthesectshaddemanded(inparticular,itsatisfiedthose sectsthathadnotsetthemselvesthegoalofdestroyingtheentiresocialstructure)andtherebydecreasedthedestructiveforceofthesectarianmovement.

[81] Utopia byThomasMore. Thisbookwasfirstpublished(inLatin)in1516,anditscompletetitleis:"ATrulyGoldenHandbook,NoLessBeneficialthanEntertaining,AbouttheBestStateofthe CommonwealthandtheNewIslandofUtopia."Atthetime,itsauthorwasaninfluentialEnglishstatesmanwithabrilliantcareer.In1529,MorebecameLordChancellor ofEngland,thefirstofficebelowtheking.Butin1534heemergedasastrongopponentoftheChurchreformthatwasbeingcarriedoutbyHenryVIII.Herefusedto swearallegiancetothekingasheadofthenewlycreatedAnglicanChurch,wasaccusedofhightreasonandbeheadedin1535.Fourcenturieslater,in1935,hewas canonizedbytheCatholicChurch. Utopia iswrittenintheformofaconversationamongtheauthor,hisfriendPeterGiles,andthetravelerRaphaelHythloday(Hythlodaeus).Hythlodayhadseentheworld andwasakeenobserveroflife.TakingpartinthevoyageofAmerigoVespucci,hewasleft,athisownrequest,withafewcompanions"nearthelimitsofthelast voyage."Afterwanderingoverseasandwastelands,HythlodaycameupontheislandofUtopia,wherehefoundastateorganizedaccordingtothejustlawsestablished longagobythewiselegislatorUtopus.InordertoappraisecorrectlytheimpressionmadebyUtopia oncontemporaries,weoughttobearinmindthatitwaswrittenin theverybeginningoftheageofdiscovery,beforeDefoe'sandSwift'sgreatnovels. ThewholeofUtopia relatesonewayoranothertotwosubjects:criticismofcontemporaryEuropeansocietyandadescriptionoftheidealstateontheislandofUtopia. Thiscorrespondsroughlytothedivisionoftheworkintotwoparts.ThecentralthesisofthefirstsectionisthatcontemporaryEuropeanstatesaretoolsofthemercenary interestsoftherich: "WhenIweighinmymindalltheotherstateswhichflourishtoday,sohelpmeGod,Icandiscovernothingbutaconspiracyoftherich,whopursuetheirown aggrandizementunderthenameandtitleoftheCommonwealth."(42:p.138)* Thetruesourceofthissituationisprivatepropertyandmoney: "But,MasterMore,tospeakplainlywhatisinmymind,aslongasthereisprivatepropertyandwhilemoneyisthestandardofallthings,Idonotthinkthatanationcan begovernedeitherjustlyor

*QuotationsfromMorearebasedprimarilyontheEnglishtranslationofH.V.S.Ogden.PagereferencesaretotheRussianedition.

[82] happily."(42:p.73)"Aslongasprivatepropertyremains,thelargestandbyfarthebestpartofmankindwillbeoppressedwithaninescapableloadofcaresand

*QuotationsfromMorearebasedprimarilyontheEnglishtranslationofH.V.S.Ogden.PagereferencesaretotheRussianedition.

[82] happily."(42:p.73)"Aslongasprivatepropertyremains,thelargestandbyfarthebestpartofmankindwillbeoppressedwithaninescapableloadofcaresand anxieties."(42:p.74) Bywayofanexample,criminalbehaviorisdiscusseditisattributedentirelytoflawsinthesocialsystem."Whatelseisthis,Iask,butfirstmakingthemthievesandthen punishingthemforit?"(42:p.57)Thelawsofthedaywhichpunishedthieveswithdeathareconsideredtobenotonlyunjustbutineffectiveaswell.Instead,Hythloday offersthecustomshehadobservedamongpeoplelivinginthemountainsofPersia,thePolylerites."Icanfindnobettersysteminanycountry."(42:p.59)Thecustom callsforathieftobeturnedintoastateslave.Asasignofhisstatus,athief'searlobesarenotched.Thelazy"aresoonerpromptedwithblowsthanpunishmentwith fetters."(42:p.60)Finally,asameasureagainsttheescapeofslaves,informingisencouragedandrewardedbyliberty(forslaves)ormoney(forafreeman).Arunaway slavewhoiscaughtisexecutedandanyfreemanwhohelpedhimisturnedintoaslave."Youcaneasilyseehowhumaneandadvantageoustheselawsare,"concludesthe narrator.(42:p.61) ThegloomydepictionofcontemporaryEuropeiscontrastedwiththeidealstateontheislandofUtopia.More's Utopia isnodrytreatiseonpoliticalsystems,butavivid pictureoflife.Theclothingwornbytheinhabitantsisdescribed,asaretheiroccupationsandamusements,theappearanceoftheirtowns,housesandtemples.This enablesustodiscernthosetraitstheauthorwishestosingleoutasessential. Utopiaisarepublicgovernedbyelectedofficialswhoarecalled"Fathers"bytheirsubjects.Alloflifeisregulatedbythestate.Thereisnoprivatepropertyandnomoney. Theeconomyisbasedonuniversallaborconscription.Inthefirstplace,everyone(oralmostso)isobligedtoworkforacertainperiodoftimeinagriculture:"Forallmen andwomenthereisonecommonoccupationagriculture,fromwhichnooneisexempted."(42:p.83)Uponreachingacertainage,citizensaresenttoworkinthe countryside,wheretheylaborfortwoyearsbeforebeingtransferredbacktothecity.Apartfromthis,everyonelearnssomecraft,whichhepracticeswhenheisnotathis assignedwork.Workisdoneunderthesupervisionofofficialscalled"syphogrants.""Themainandsoleoccupationofthesyphograntsiscareandobservationlestanyone sitidle."(42:p.84)Thestatealsoregulatesthedistributionofthepopulationbymeansofmassresettlements. [83] "Eachcommunityconsistsofhouseholdsforthemostpartmadeupofkinsfolk....Inorderthattheircitiesmaynothavetoomanyortoofewinhabitants,theyallownocity tohaveoversixthousandhouseholds....Ifthepopulationofanyoftheircitieshappenstodeclinesomuchthatitcannotbemadegoodfromotherpartsoftheisland...the populationisbuiltupwithcitizensfromthecolonies.Thishashappenedonlytwiceinalltheirhistory,bothtimestheresultofadevastatingplague."(42:p.88) Thenarratornotesenthusiasticallytheuniformityandstandardizationofdressandwayoflife."Peoplewearthesamesortofclothesthroughouttheisland,exceptforthe distinctionswhichmarkthedifferencebetweenthemarriedandtheunmarried.Thefashionoftheclothingneverchanges."(42:p.83)"Thecolorofthecloakisthesame throughouttheisland.Furthermore,itisthenaturalcolorofwool."(42:p.87)Thereisuniformityinotherthingsaswell."Therearefiftyfourcitiesontheisland,alllarge andwellbuilt,andwiththesamelanguage,customs,institutions,andlaws.Allofthemarebuiltonthesameplan,asfarasthelocationpermits."(42:p.77)"Whoever knowsoneofthecities,willknowthemall,sincetheyareexactlyalikeinsofarastheterrainpermits."(42:p.80) Allproductsforconsumptionaredistributedatpublicstorehousesmoreover,everyonemaytakeasmuchasheneeds.Mealsaretakenincentralizedfacilities."Itisnot forbiddentoeatathome,thoughitisnotthoughtproper.Besidesnoonewouldbesofoolishastoprepareapoormealathomewhenthereisasumptuousonereadyfor himsonearathand."(42:p.90)Thedescriptionofthesecommonmealsrecallsfoodrationingmorethansimpledistribution."Thebestofeachkindoffoodisfirstserved totheelders,whoseplacesaredistinguishedbysomemark.Thentherestareservedalike.Theeldersdividethechoicebits,ofwhichthereisnotenoughtogoaround,as theywish.Thusduerespectispaidthem,yetalltherestfareaswellasthey."(42:p.91) CommonmealsaretypicalofthegeneraltendencyofthewholeoflifefortheUtopians."Soyouseenoloafingistolerated,andtherearenopretextsforlaziness,or opportunities.TherearenotavernSoralehouses,nobrothels,nochancesforcorruption,nohidingplaces,nosecretmeetings.Becausetheyliveinfullviewofall,they mustdotheiraccustomedlaborandspendtheirleisurehonorably."(42:p.92) [84] Everyhomehasfoldingdoorswhich,"easilyopenedbyhandandthenclosingofthemselves,giveadmissiontoanyone.Asaresult,nothingisprivatepropertyanywhere. Everytenyearstheyactuallyexchangetheirveryhomebylot."(42:p.81) Inordertotakeawalkoutsidethetown,itisnecessarytogetpermissionfromone'sfatherawifemustaskherhusbandandahusbandhiswife.Toleaveforanother town,permissionmustbeobtainedfromtheproperofficials."Severaltraveltogether,takingaletterfromtheprince,whichcertifiesthatpermissiontotravelhasbeen grantedandstatesthedayofreturn....Ifanymangoesoutsidehisdistrictwithoutleaveandiscaughtwithoutapassportfromtheprince,heistreatedscornfully,brought backasafugitiveandseverelypunished.Ifhedoesitagain,heismadeaslave."(42:p.93)(WeshallgivemoredetailsonslaveryinUtopiasomewhatlater.) InUtopiamarriageismonogamous,butthereisnothingtoindicatewhetheritiscontractedatthewillofthebrideandgroomorisdecidedbyparentsorofficials.Thestate doessupervisestrictlytheobservanceofchastitypriortomarriageandthefaithfulnessofthespousesafter.Anyoneguiltyofinfractionoftheserulesissoldintoslavery. Utopianscomparethecontractingofmarriagetothesellingofahorse,andforthisreason,priortoenteringintowedlock,thebrideisshowntothebridegroomnaked andhetoherfor,itisargued,isnottheblankettakenoffahorsebeforeitissold? Utopiansarenotburdenedwithheavyworktheyspendonlysixhoursadayonthejob,infact,devotingtherestofthetimetothesciences,theartsand"decent entertainment."Inspiteofthis,theyexperiencenomaterialneed.ThisisexplainedbythefactthatinEuropethelaborofthepoorcreatesricheswhichgotosupportthe idle,whileinUtopiaeveryoneworks.(TheenumerationofEuropeanidlefolkiscurious:"almostallthewomen"arefirstonthelist,nextcomepriestsandmonks,followed bylandlordsandtheirservants.) Utopiansseemtobeequalineverythinguniversalobligatorylabor,thecolorandcutofdress,housing.Butthisequalityisbynomeansabsolute.Officialsareexempted fromobligatorywork,aswellasthosewhohavebeenofficially"exemptedforprofoundstudyofthesciences."(42:p.86)Fromthisexemptedclassthescholars, ambassadors,priestsandhighofficials("tranibors")areselected.Yetelsewhereitisstatedthat"forthemostparteveryonegrowsuplearninghisfather'scraft."(42:p.83) Itseemstofollowthataclosedclass, [85] almostacaste,controlsthegovernment.Asfortherestofthecitizens,thenarratorhasthistosayofthem(speakingofthenecessityofmakinglawsthataresimpleand requirenocomplicatedinterpretation):"Thecommonfolkwiththeirslowwitsareunabletoarriveatsuchconclusions,andtheirwholelifewouldnotsufficeforit,asthey spenditearningtheirliving."(42:p.116)

[85] almostacaste,controlsthegovernment.Asfortherestofthecitizens,thenarratorhasthistosayofthem(speakingofthenecessityofmakinglawsthataresimpleand requirenocomplicatedinterpretation):"Thecommonfolkwiththeirslowwitsareunabletoarriveatsuchconclusions,andtheirwholelifewouldnotsufficeforit,asthey spenditearningtheirliving."(42:p.116) AndthepictureofequalityisutterlydestroyedwhenwelearnthatlifeinUtopiaislargelybasedonslavery.Slavesdoallthedirtywork.Butslaveryseemstohavemore thanjustaneconomicfunction.Slavesareobtainedfromtwosources:"Theirslavesareeithertheirowncitizenswhohavebeensentencedtobondageforsomecrime,or menofothernationswhohavebeencondemnedtodeath.TheUtopiansbuythesemenatalowprice,ormoreoftenobtainthemfreeofchargeandbringthem home."(42:p.110)"Allkindsofslavesarekeptconstantlyatworkandarealwayschained.TheUtopianstreattheirnativeslavesmoreharshlythantheothers,thinking thembaseranddeservingofgreaterpunishment."(42:p.Ill)Itisthoughtthatthelaborofsuchpeoplebringsmoreusethantheirdeathwould.Atthesametime,their exampledetersothers."Ifevenafterthistreatmenttheystillrebelandputupresistance,theyareslaughteredlikewildbeasts."(42:p.114) TheaccountoftheUtopiansincludesadescriptionoftheprevailingphilosophicalviewsofthecitizens,basedastheyareonthenotionthatpleasureisthesupremegoalof life.Butpleasurecanberenounced:"Finally,theybelievewhatreligioneasilypersuadesawelldisposedmindtobelieve,thatGodrepaysthelossofashortandtransitory pleasurewithgreatandendlessjoy."(42:p.107) PerfectfreedomofconscienceprevailsinUtopia,withonlythisonereservationinstitutedbyUtopus:"Hemadeasolemnandseverelawagainstanywhosinksofarbelow thedignityofhumannatureastothinkthatthesouldieswiththebody,orthattheuniverseiscarriedalongbychancewithoutanoverrulingprovidence.TheUtopians believethatafterthislifetherearepunishmentsforwickednessandrewardsforvirtue."(42:p.128)SomeUtopiansconsiderthesuntobeagod,othersthemoon,and stillothers,certainancientheroes.Buttheyallrecognizesome"universaldeity,unknown,eternal,unfathomable,inexplicable,exceedinghumanintelligence,penetratingall thisworldnotbyitsbulkbutbyitsforce.HimtheycallTheFather."(42:p.126) [86] TheholyservicesoftheUtopiansareinkeepingwiththiskindofabstracttheism.Thetempleshavenoimagesofdeities.Theserviceconsistsofthefaithfuljoiningthe priestsinsingingpraisetoGod,tomusicalaccompaniment.Womenandmarriedmenmaybecomepriests,andpriestsmaymarry. Oflate,thenarratorinformsus,ChristianityhasbecomeknowninUtopiaandhasfoundmanyadherentsthere.Itistrue,however,thatapreacherwhohadcalledother religionspaganandthreatenedtheiradherentswitheternalfirewasarrestedandconvicted.Ofparticularinterestisthenarrator'sopinionthattherapidspreadof ChristianityinUtopiaisexplainedbytheresemblancebetweenthecommuniststructureoftheUtopianstateandthepracticesoftheancientApostoliccommunitywhich "areretainedevennowinthepurestofChristiancommunities."(42:p.127) ThereferencetothecommunistcharacterofthecommunitydescribedintheActsoftheApostleswasafavoriteargumentofthehereticalsects.Itisdifficulttoimagine whattheauthorcouldhavehadinmindwhenhespokeofthe"purestofChristiancommunities,"exceptoneoranotherofthehereticalsects. IfwelookuponMoreasamartyrwhogavehislifefortheidealsoftheCatholicChurch,itisstrikinghowremotehisUtopiaisfromanysuchideals.Inadditiontothe sympatheticdescriptionofahedonisticworldviewandofacolorlesstheisticreligion,itispossibletofinddirect,ifdiscreet,attacksonChristianityandthePope. Apparentlynoonehasyetsucceededinexplainingawaythisdisparity. ButifUtopia isconsideredasaworkofchiliasticsocialistliterature,itseemssurprisinglymoderate.Thereisnomentionofanyabolitionofthefamilyorofcommunalityof wivesthereisnopublicupbringingofchildren.Itseemsthatthenewandsecularmovementinsocialismdidnotatfirstbaseitselfontheextremebeliefsthathadbeen formulatedwithinthehereticalmovement. CityoftheSun byTommasoCampanella. Almostacenturypassedafterthefirst"Utopia"beforeUtopiansocialismwasabletoabsorbandassimilatethemoreradicalprinciplesdevelopedinantiquityandthe hereticalmovements.Campanella'scelebratedworkillustratesthenewsynthesis. Campanellalivedattheendofthesixteenthandthebeginningoftheseventeenthcenturies.Uptotheageofthirtyfour,hewasa [87] Dominicanmonkhewasthenarrestedandspentthenexttwentysevenyearsinprison.TheremainingyearsofhislifehespentinFrance. Campanellawasaphilosopher,areligiousthinkerandapoet.Heproclaimed(earlierthanBacon)theempiricalnatureofscience,advocatedtheindependenceofscience fromChurchauthorityanddefendedGalileo(whilehehimselfwasimprisonedbytheInquisition).Inthetheoryofknowledgehewasinterestedinthequestionofthe meansbywhichhumanconsciousness,basingitselfsolelyonsubjectivesensations,arrivesatobjectivetruth.Hisviewsonthissubjectareclosetothoselaterelaborated byKant.Hisreligiousviews,affirmingthatallthingsarewithGod,werepantheisticincharacter. InCalabriain1597,CampanellaorganizedaconspiracyagainsttheSpaniards,towhomthecountrybelongedatthattime.Theconspiracyfailed,andin1599Campanella wasarrestedandputtotorturein1602hewascondemnedtolifeimprisonment.In1602,whileinprison,hewrotehisbookCityoftheSun. Theverytitleofthework CivitasSoli recallsSt.Augustine'sCivitasDei CityofGod.Itiswritteninasparsestyle,withoutanyembellishmentslikeexoticadventures instrangelands.Thebooktakestheformofadialoguebetweentwospeakerswhosenamesarenotevengiven:theChiefHost(apparentlyareferencetothe GrandmasteroftheKnightsHospitalers)andtheSeafarer(ofwhomitisonlysaidthatheisacitizenofGenoa).Thedialoguebeginswithoutanyexplanationwiththe wordsoftheHost:"Pleasetellmeofallyouradventuresduringyourlastvoyage."Inreply,theSeafarerrecountsthatonanislandintheIndianOceanhevisitedtheCityof theSun,thelifeofwhichhethereuponbeginstodescribe. ThepoliticalsystemoftheCityoftheSunexternallyresemblesatheocracy."TheirsupremerulerisapriestwhoiscalledHoh,meaning'Sun'intheirlanguage,butinour tonguewewouldcallhimthe'Metaphysic.'"(43:p.146)ThiscurioustranslationMetaphysicforSunisnotaccidental.TheroleoftheSunpriestcouldprofitablybe comparedtotheheadofatechnocratichierarchy.Thepostisoccupiedbythemosteruditeinhabitantofthecity.Heknows"thehistoryofallnations,theircustoms, religiousritesandlaws"andiswellversedinallcrafts,physical,mathematicalandastrologicalsciences,andisespeciallyknowledgeableinmetaphysicsandtheology.He holdshisofficeuntil"anothermanisfoundwiserthanhispredecessorandbettercapabletogovern."(43:p.153) [88] TheMetaphysichasthreecorulersPon,SinandMor,meaningMight,WisdomandLove.Eachpresidesoverthecorrespondingaspectsoflife.Insomeofits unexpecteddetails,thisdivisionisreminiscentofOrwell.Forinstance,theareaofLove'sresponsibilityincludesnotonlythesupervisionoftherelationsbetweenmenand women(ofwhich,later)butalso"agriculture,stockbreedingand,ingeneral,everythingwhichpertainstofood,clothingandsexualrelations."(43:p.149)TheMetaphysic

religiousritesandlaws"andiswellversedinallcrafts,physical,mathematicalandastrologicalsciences,andisespeciallyknowledgeableinmetaphysicsandtheology.He holdshisofficeuntil"anothermanisfoundwiserthanhispredecessorandbettercapabletogovern."(43:p.153) [88] TheMetaphysichasthreecorulersPon,SinandMor,meaningMight,WisdomandLove.Eachpresidesoverthecorrespondingaspectsoflife.Insomeofits unexpecteddetails,thisdivisionisreminiscentofOrwell.Forinstance,theareaofLove'sresponsibilityincludesnotonlythesupervisionoftherelationsbetweenmenand women(ofwhich,later)butalso"agriculture,stockbreedingand,ingeneral,everythingwhichpertainstofood,clothingandsexualrelations."(43:p.149)TheMetaphysic conferswithhisthreecorulers,butinmajorquestionshisdecisionisfinal.Numerousotherofficialsarealsomentionedtheyareappointedbythefourchiefrulersorother membersoftheadministration.ThereisalsoaCouncil,towhichallcitizensovertwentyyearsofagebelong,butitseemstopossessonlyanadvisoryfunction.Candidates forofficearenominatedbytheCouncilandconfirmedataconferenceofofficialsandfinallybythefourrulers.Inthisconnection,oneofCampanella'ssentencesremains unclear:"Officialsarereplacedaccordingtothewillofthepeople."(43p.175) Thesocialorganizationofthecityisbasedoncommunallife,theimplementationofwhichisdirectedbytheadministration. "Allthingsarecommonwiththem.Thedistributionofeverythingisinthehandsoftheofficials,butsinceknowledge,honorandpleasurearecommontoall,noonecan takeanythingforhimself.Theyassertthatamonguspropertyderivesfromandismaintainedbyoureachhavinganindividualdwellingandawifeandchildrenofhisown. Fromthisselflovearises."(43:p.149) Intheauthor'sopinion,thecommunalprincipleisatoddswithmanyotherrelationsbetweenmen:"Iampersuadedthatthefriarsandmonksandclergyofourcountry,if theywerenotseducedbylovefortheirkinandfriends,wouldbe...moreimbuedwiththespiritofcharity."IntheCityoftheSun,citizens"geteverythingtheyneedfrom thecommunity,andtheofficialstakecaretoseethatnooneshouldgetmorethanhedeservesandthatnooneberefusedanecessity."(43:p.150) "Houses,dormitories,bedsandallnecessitiestheyhaveincommon.Buteverysixmonthsthesuperiorsdecidewhoistosleepinwhatcircle,andwhointhefirst dormitory,whointhesecond..."(43:p.154) TheSolarians(citizensoftheCityoftheSun)taketheirmealstogether,asin"monasteryrefectories,"buttheofficialsget"largerandbetterportions."(43:p.155)The latterrewardthechildrenwho [89] excelinstudieswithpartofthemostdesirablerations. Productionisbasedonuniversalobligatorylabor."Therearenoslavesamongthem,"wereadinoneplace.Inanotherpassage,however,thereistheadditionalcomment that"slavestakenatwarareeithersoldawayorusedfordiggingditchesorotherheavyworkoutsidethecity."(43:p.169)Everyonehasthedutyofworkingfourhours perday.(LikeMore,theauthorbelievesthatwithuniversalobligatorylabor,thisamountofworkwouldsufficetoprovidethestatewithallthenecessities.)However,only meniallaborseemstobemeanthere,forlaterweread:"Theremaininghoursarespentinpleasantoccupationwiththesciences,indiscourseandinreading."(43:p.162) Thusscientificendeavorsarenotincludedinthefourobligatoryhoursof"work." Thatthislaboristrulyobligatorycanbeseenfromthefollowingdescription: "Butwhatisexcellentandworthyofimitationwiththemisthis:nobodilyflawcompelsthemtoidleness,exceptingadvancedage,when,however,theyarestillinvitedto consultations.Thelamestandonguardsincetheyhaveeyesight,theblindcardwoolandpluckfowlforcushionsandfeatherbedsthosewhoaredeprivedofbotheyes andhandsservethestatewiththeirears,voiceandsoon.Finally,ifsomeonepossessesbutasinglelimb,hemakesuseofitforworkinthecountryside,earningagood salaryandservingasaninformertoreporttothestateeverythingthathehears."(43:p.163) TheSolariansworkindetachmentsheadedbyacommander."Thecommandersofbothmen'sandwomen'sdetachments,thatis,theheadsoften,fiftyorahundred persons,"constitutetheadministrativebodyofthecityimmediatelybelowthefoursupremerulers.(43:p.175)Inthechapteronjudicialprocedures,wereadthatsince theSolarians"alwayswalkandworkindetachments,theremustbefivewitnessestoconvictacriminal."(43:p.177)Itseemstofollowthatdivisionintodetachments continuesevenafterwork.Atanyrate,thereisnoquestionthatSolarianlifeisregulatedafterworkaswell.Forinstance,duringhourssetasideforrest,evensedentary gamesareprohibited. Theuniformityoflifeiscarriedevenfurther.Menandwomenwearalmostidenticalattireonlythelengthofthecloakdiffersslightly.Theformandcolorofclothingis prescribed,whetherforwearinsideoroutofthecity.Eventhefrequencywithwhichclothesaretobe [90] changedisfixed.Violationofsuchprescriptionsisagravecrime:"Andtheywouldcertainlyputtodeathawomanwhoinordertoappearbeautifulstartedtorougeher faceorinordertoappeartallbegantowearshoeswithhighheels,ortooktowearinglongdressesinordertohideherunattractivelegs."(43:p.160) Theprescriptionsconcerningcelebrationoffeastsareequallydetailed,asarethosecoveringthearts.Atcelebrations,"poetshymnthegloriouscommandersandtheir victories,butifoneofthemaddssomethingofhisownevenifaddingtothegloryoftheheroheisliabletopenalty.Unworthyofthenameofpoetishewhoengagesin falsefabrications."(43:p.180) Therelationsofthesexesarekeptunderastillstrictercontrol."Theproductionofoffspringbearsdirectlyontheinterestsofthestate,andinvolvestheinterestsofprivate personsonlytotheextenttowhichtheyarepartofthestate.Andsinceindividualsforthemostpartbearoffspringwronglyandbringthemupbadly,totheperilofthe state,thesacreddutyofsupervisingthismatter,whichisconsideredthefundamentalprincipleofstatewelfare,isentrustedtostateofficials,foritisonlythecommunitythat canvouchsafethisandnotprivatepersons."(43:p.160) Theprocreationofchildreniscomparedtothebreedingoflivestock:"Andtheymockusinthatwezealouslycareforimprovedbreedsofdogsandhorsesbut,atthe sametime,neglectthehumanrace....Therefore,maleandfemalebreedersofthebestnaturalqualitiesarechoseninaccordancewiththerulesofphilosophy."(43:p.160)

Aseriesofofficialstheheadsoflaborbrigades,anastrologerandaphysiciandecidewhichmanshouldsharethebedofwhichwomanandhowoften.Copulationitself takesplaceunderthesupervisionofaspecialofficial.Inthisconnectionanumberofrulesaresetforthwhichwewillrefrainfromquoting.Relationsbetweenthesexesare consideredtohaveapartfromprocreationonlyoneotherfunction:satisfactionofapurelyphysiologicalneed.Therefore,incasesofextremeneed,menarepermittedto copulatewithsterileorpregnantWomen.Thisis,however,possibleonlywiththepermissionofaspecialChiefofChildbearingandonapplicationfromlowerofficialsof thesameagency,whokeepthisaspectoflifeinthecityunderconstantSupervision.Therightsofawomanaredeterminedbysimilarconsiderations:"Ifawomandoesnot conceivefromonemansheisjoinedwithanotherifsheturnsouttobesterileinthiscasetoo,shepasses [91]

consideredtohaveapartfromprocreationonlyoneotherfunction:satisfactionofapurelyphysiologicalneed.Therefore,incasesofextremeneed,menarepermittedto copulatewithsterileorpregnantWomen.Thisis,however,possibleonlywiththepermissionofaspecialChiefofChildbearingandonapplicationfromlowerofficialsof thesameagency,whokeepthisaspectoflifeinthecityunderconstantSupervision.Therightsofawomanaredeterminedbysimilarconsiderations:"Ifawomandoesnot conceivefromonemansheisjoinedwithanotherifsheturnsouttobesterileinthiscasetoo,shepasses [91] intocommonusebutnolongerenjoysrespect."(43:p.157) Itgoeswithoutsayingthattheupbringingofchildrenisalsointhehandsofthestate."Thechildren,onceweaned,areplacedinthechargeofthemistresses,iftheyare girls,orwiththemasters,iftheyareboys."(43:p.159)Childrenbeingeducatedarealsodividedintodetachments.Aftertheirseventhyeartheystartnaturalsciences, thenproceedtootherdisciplinesatthediscretionoftheadministration.Lesscapablechildrenaresenttothecountryside,butsomewhoprovetobemorecapableare acceptedbackinthecity.(43:p.152)Finally,educationendsandtheyoungindividualsarereadytoperformtheirbasicfunctiontobecomeofficialsinthestate: "Subsequently,theyallreceivepositionsintheareaofthosesciencesorcraftsforwhichtheyhavethegreatestaptitude,ineachcaseasadvisedbytheleaderor supervisor."(43:p.152) Inthissociety,naturally,therearenokinshiprelations."Allpersonsofthesameagecalloneanotherbrotherthosewhoaretwentytwoyearsoldertheycallfather,and thosewhoaretwentytwoyearsyounger,son.Andtheofficialsattendtoitcarefullythatnooneoffendsanotherinthisbrotherhood."(43:p.149) ThelastsentenceshowsthatinordertomaintaincommunallifeintheCityoftheSun,theabolitionoffamily,property,freedomofworkandcreativityareinsufficient. Campanellarealizesthisclearlyandgivesadetaileddescriptionofthesystemofpunishmentswhichguaranteethestabilityofthesocialstructure. Consideredascrimesare:"Ingratitude,malice,failuretogiveduerespecttoanother,sloth,despondency,anger,buffooneryandfalsehood,whichtheyhatemorethanthe plague.Andtheguiltyaredeprivedofthecommontable,orrelationswithwomen,orotherhonorsandadvantages."(43:p.151)Sodomyispunishedbyforcedwearing ofdisgracefulclothingand,ifrepeated,bydeath."Thoseguiltyofviolencearesubjecttoexecutionorpunishmentaccordingtotheprincipleofaneyeforaneye,atooth foratoothandsoon."(43:p.176) Thepunishmentsformilitarycrimesaresevere:"Thefirstmanwhotakesflightcanavoiddeathonlyiftheentirearmypleadsforhislifeandcertainsoldierstakeitupon themselvestosufferpunishmentfortheguiltyparty.Butthisindulgenceisgivenrarelyandonlywhenthereareextenuatingcircumstances.Amanwhofailedtobringhelp whenneededtoanallyoracompanionispunishedbytherod [92] forfailuretofolloworders,theculpritisthrownintoapit,tobetorntopiecesbywildbeastsheisgivenatruncheonandifhesucceedsinkillingthelionsandbearsthat attackhim,whichisalmostimpossible,heispardoned."(43:p.167)Particularlynoteworthyhereisthisearlyformulationoftheideathattheaccusedshouldbegranteda semblanceofrightsinordertogivetheappearanceofjusticetohissentence. Thereisnoseparationbetweenthejudicialandexecutivebranches:"Everyoneisjudgedbytheseniormasterofhisorhercraft.Thusalltheseniormastersarejudgesand cansentenceapersontoexile,flogging,reprimand,deprivationofthecommontableandexclusionfromthecompanyofwomen."(43:p.176)Therearenoprofessional executioners,either."Theyhavenohangmen...soasnottodefiletheirstate....Thedeathpenaltyiscarriedoutonlybythehandofthepeople,whokillorstonethe transgressor....Someareallowedtotaketheirownlives:suchpersonssurroundthemselveswithsmallbagsofpowderwhichtheysetonfireandburn,whilethosepresent encouragethemtodiewithdignity.AllcitizensmeanwhilelamentandbeseechGodtoappeaseHiswrath,grievingthattheyhavebeenbroughttothenecessityofcutting offarottenlimbofthestate.However,theypersuadeandcajolethetransgressoruntilhehimselfacquiescestohispunishmentandwishesforhisdeathotherwisehemay notbeexecuted.ButifthecrimeiscommittedeitheragainstthelibertyofthestateoragainstGodorthesupremeauthorities,thenthesentenceiscarriedoutwithoutdelay ormercy."(43:pp.176177) Punishmentisregardedasanelementintheeducationofcitizens."Thedefendantmakespeacewithhisaccusersandthewitnessesasthoughwithphysicianswhohad treatedhisdisease,embracingandkissingthem....Andthesentencesaregenuineandreliableremediesandareseenassomethingpleasantratherthanaspunishment."(43: pp.176,173) AreligionofthesunispracticedinCampanella'sstate:"AndintheSuntheyperceiveandrecognizeGod,callingtheSunanimage,alikenessandalivingeffigyofGod fromwhomproceedslight,warmth,vitalpowerandallthingsgood.Therefore,theyhaveerectedanaltarintheformoftheSunandtheirpriestsworshipGodintheSun andthestars,regardingtheseasHisaltarsandtheskyasHistemple."(43:p.182) Twospecificaspectsofthesereligiousbeliefscanbenoted.First [93] ofall,thisisastatereligion,andthegoverningofthestatecoincideswiththepriestlyfunction.Therefore,theheadofstateissimultaneouslythechiefpriest,andsinceheis called"Sun"heisapparentlyperceivedasanincarnationofGod."Oftheofficials,onlythesenioronesarepriests.Theirdutiesincludepurgingtheconsciencesofthe citizensthewholeCityinsecretconfession(whichisalsopracticedamongus)revealsitsoffensestotheauthorities,whothussimultaneouslypurifysoulsandcometo knowthesinstowhichthepeopleareparticularlygiven."(43:p.178)Henceadministrativeandpriestlyfunctionsareconcentratedinthesamehandswhich,aswehave seenearlier,possesstheauthoritytoimposeanykindofpenalty. Atthesametime,thereligionofthesuncanbeseenasvenerationoftheuniverse,rationalisticallyperceivedasanidealmechanism.Inotherwords,itisasynthesisof religionandnaturalscience(withanastrologicalbias).Thisaccordswithwhatwenotedearlier:thetitleofthechiefpriest,"Sun,"istranslatedas"Metaphysic,"andthe righttothispostisdeterminedbyvastscientificknowledge. AsimilarimpressionisproducedbythedescriptionoftheTempleoftheSun,whichoccupiesthecentralpositioninthecity.Itresemblesamuseumofnaturalhistoryfar morethanachurch."Atthealtaronlyalargegloberepresentingtheskyandanotherrepresentingtheearthareseen.Furthermore,onthevaultofthemaindomeall celestialstarsfromthefirsttothesixthmagnitudearedepicted,withtheirnamesandtheirpowertoinfluenceterrestrialeventsinscribedbeloweachinthreelinesof verse."(43:p.145)"Thesmallerdomeiscrownedonlybyakindofweathervaneshowingthedirectionsofthewind,ofwhichtheydistinguishuptothirtysix."(43:p. 146)Theword"only"seemstoemphasizethattheweathervaneoccupiestheplacegiventothecrossinChristianchurches.Ingeneral,onegetstheimpressionthat throughouthisworkCampanellascatteredremarksindicatinghostilitytotheCatholicChurchortoChristianitymoreover,theseseemcloseinspirittotheattitudeofsome hereticalsects.Thesehintsaretenderedobliquelyandcautiouslyandnecessarilyso,since CityoftheSun waswrittenintheprisonoftheInquisitionwhereCampanella wasbeingkeptinacagelikecell.Aveiledtauntofthistypeseemstohavebeenintendedbytheenumerationofstrangefishdepictedonthetownwalls:thelistbeginswith the"bishopfish"andendswiththe"malememberfish."Thefollowingpassageprobablyservesasimilarfunction:"Deadbodiesarenotburied,buttoprevent [94] pestilenceareburnedandturnedintofire,anobleandlivingelementthatcomesfromthesunandreturnstothesun.Bythismethodnochanceisgivenforidolatry."(43:p.

hereticalsects.Thesehintsaretenderedobliquelyandcautiouslyandnecessarilyso,since CityoftheSun waswrittenintheprisonoftheInquisitionwhereCampanella wasbeingkeptinacagelikecell.Aveiledtauntofthistypeseemstohavebeenintendedbytheenumerationofstrangefishdepictedonthetownwalls:thelistbeginswith the"bishopfish"andendswiththe"malememberfish."Thefollowingpassageprobablyservesasimilarfunction:"Deadbodiesarenotburied,buttoprevent [94] pestilenceareburnedandturnedintofire,anobleandlivingelementthatcomesfromthesunandreturnstothesun.Bythismethodnochanceisgivenforidolatry."(43:p. 180)Thelastsentenceisclearlydirectedagainstthevenerationofrelics.ThisisanearlyattempttoreinforcetheideologicalobjectionstoChristianritesbypurelyutilitarian andhygienicarguments. ThefollowingironicsentenceisalsointendedasathrustatChristianity:"Afterallissaidanddone,theyrecognizethathappyistheChristiansatisfiedwiththebeliefthat suchgreatconfusion[theappearanceofevilintheworld]happenedbecauseofAdam'sfall."(43:p.186)Andagnosticconceptinconcealedformseemstobepresented inthefollowingsentence:"Theyalsoconsidereditpossiblethattheactsofthelowerworldaregovernedbysomelowerdeityattheconnivanceoftheprimarydeitybut nowsupposethisopiniontoberidiculous."(43:p.185) ItisundoubtedlynoaccidentthatJesusChristisdepictedonawallofthecity,inagallerytogetherwith"alltheinventorsofthesciencesandofarmamentandthe legislators."True,Christoccupies"amosthonorableplace"nexttoMoses,Osiris,Jupiter,Lycurgus,Solonandothers. Severalyearsafter CityoftheSun, Campanellawroteanotherwork, OntheBestState, inwhichheanalyzescertainobjectionstothesocialconceptexpressedinhis firstbook.Hejustifies,inparticular,thecommunalityofpropertybyreferencetotheApostoliccommunity,andcautiouslydefendsthecommunalityofwivesbyquoting variousFathersoftheChurch.Especiallyinterestingisthepassagewhereheassertsthatthepossibilityofsuchastateisconfirmedbyexperience:"Andthis,moreover,has beendemonstratedbymonksandlatelybytheAnabaptistswholiveincommunesiftheypossessedthetruedogmaofthefaith,theywouldhavesucceededinthiseven more.Oh,weretheynothereticsandshouldtheydojusticeaswepreachit,thentheywouldserveasanexemplarofthistruth." "TheLawofFreedom"byGerrardWinstanley. Inthepreviouschapter,wespokeaboutthesocialistmovementoftheDiggersofthetimeoftheEnglishrevolution.Wealsoquotedfrompamphletsbythemostimportant theoreticianofthismovement,GerrardWinstanley."TheLawofFreedom"isthemostsystematicandcompleteexpositionofhisideas.Thisworkbelongstoutopian literatureandcontainsadetailed [95] planofthenewsocietythatisbased,toasignificantdegree,onsocialistprinciples. "TheLawofFreedom"waspublishedin1652.Itbeginswithasalutationto"HisExcellencyOliverCromwell,GeneraloftheCommonwealth'sArmyinEngland,Scotland andIreland."WinstanleypointsouttoCromwellthatdespitethevictoryoftherevolutionandtheexecutionoftheking,thepositionofthecommonfolkhasnotimproved. Theycontinuetobeburdenedwithtaxesandtosufferundertheswayoftherich,thelawyersandthepriests.Thepromisethat"allpoperyandepiscopacyandtyranny shouldberootedout"hasnotbeenkeptthesoldiersnowaskwhattheywerefightingfor.AndWinstanleyappealstoCromwelltogivetruelibertytotheoppressed commonpeople. Themainpartoftheworkbeginswithanattempt"tofindoutwheretruefreedomlies."Winstanleybelievesthatitresidesinthefreeuseofthefruitsoftheearth."Aman hadbettertohavehadnobodythantohavenofoodforit."(35:pp.295)Morespecifically,truefreedomconsistsofthefreeuseofland.Forthesakeofland,kings declarewars,ministerspreach,andtherichoppressthepoor.Andthis"outerbondage"engenders"innerbondage":"theinwardbondagesofthemind,ascovetousness, pride,hypocrisy,envy,sorrow,fears,desperationandmadness,arealloccasionedbytheoutwardbondagethatonesortofpeoplelayuponanother."(35:p.295) Proceedingfromthismaterialistviewofsociety,Winstanleydevelopsaplanforanewsocialstructureinwhichprivatelanduseisabolishedandwhere"external"and "internal"bondagedisappearasaresult.Subordinationofprivateintereststocommoninterestsisputforwardasthebasicprincipleofsocialorganization."Thereisbut bondageandfreedom,particularinterestorcommoninterestandhewhopleadstobringinparticularinterestintoafreecommonwealthwillpresentlybeseenandcast out,asonebringinginkinglyslaveryagain."(35:p.342) Morespecifically,accordingtoWinstanley'sscheme,privatelandownership,tradeandmoneyaredoneawaywith.Landistilledbyindividuallargefamiliesunderthe supervisionandcontrolofstateofficials.Implementsarekeptineachfamilybutnotasprivatepossessions:theheadofthefamilyisresponsiblefortheircare,under penaltyoflaw.Horsesareallottedbythestate.Aftertheharvest,allproduceisbroughttoastatewarehouse. [96] Craftsmenareinthesamepositiontheygetrawmaterialsfromstatestorehousesanddelivertheirproductsthere.Theyworkeitherinfamiliesorincommunalworkshops. Citizensaretransferredbytheadministrationfromonefamilytoanother,dependingonthedemandformanpowerortheirskillsforaspecificjob. Besidesfreecitizens,thosewhohavebeendeprivedoftheirfreedombythecourtsalsowork.SometimesWinstanleyreferstothemasbondsmen.Theyworkatthesame jobsasthefreemenbutgenerallydothemoremenialtasks.Theyaresupervisedbyofficialscalledtaskmasters. "Iftheydotheirtasks,[thetaskmaster]istoallowthemsufficientvictualsandclothingtopreservethehealthoftheirbodies.Butiftheyprovedesperate,wantonoridle, andwillnotquietlysubmittothelaw,thetaskmasteristofeedthemwithshortdiet,andtowhipthem,forarodispreparedforthefool'sback, tillsuchtimeastheir proudheartsdobendtothelaw.... "Andifanyoftheseoffendersrunaway,thereshallbehueandcrysentafterhim,andheshalldiebythesentenceofthejudgewhentakenagain."(35:p.335) Thestatusofslavedoesnotautomaticallyextendtorelatives,iftheyhavedonenowrong.Thepurposeofslaveryistoreeducatecitizenswhohavestrayedinorderto"kill theirprideandunreasonableness,thattheymaybecomeusefulmeninthecommonwealth."(35:p.386) Allnecessitiesareobtainedfromstateshopsfreeofcharge.Here,adifficultyclearlyarises,for"covetous,proudandbeastlymindedmendesiremore,eithertolieby themtolookupon,orelsetowasteandspoilitupontheirlustswhileotherbrethrenliveinstraitsforwantoftheusethereof.Butthelawsandfaithfulofficersofafree commonwealthdoregulatetheunrationalpracticeofsuchmen."(35:p.369)Indeed,accordingtothelaw,theheadofafamilythatconsumesmorethanitneedsis punishedfirstbypublicreprimandandthenbybeingmadeabondsmanforafixedterm.Thesamesolutionisproposedforanotherdifficultyhowtoprovidemotivation foreveryonetoworkthenecessarytimeandwiththenecessaryproductivityintheabsenceofamaterialincentive.Acitizenwhorefusestocarryoutassignedworkora youthavoidingapprenticeshipinacraftisfirstpunishedbypublicreprimand.Ifthisdoesnothelp,heisthenwhipped,andshouldherepeathisoffenseoncemore,heis madeabondsman. [97]

commonwealthdoregulatetheunrationalpracticeofsuchmen."(35:p.369)Indeed,accordingtothelaw,theheadofafamilythatconsumesmorethanitneedsis punishedfirstbypublicreprimandandthenbybeingmadeabondsmanforafixedterm.Thesamesolutionisproposedforanotherdifficultyhowtoprovidemotivation foreveryonetoworkthenecessarytimeandwiththenecessaryproductivityintheabsenceofamaterialincentive.Acitizenwhorefusestocarryoutassignedworkora youthavoidingapprenticeshipinacraftisfirstpunishedbypublicreprimand.Ifthisdoesnothelp,heisthenwhipped,andshouldherepeathisoffenseoncemore,heis madeabondsman. [97] Thebasiceconomicandadministrativeunitofthestateisthefamily.Itisheadedbya"father"or"master."Thelistoftheofficialsofthefreecommonwealthbeginsthus:"In aprivatefamily,afatherormasterisanofficer."(35:p.324)Regardinghisrelationshiptootherfamilymembers,heis"tocommandthemtheirworkandseetheydoit, andnotsufferthemtoliveidleheiseithertoreprovebywordsorwhipthosewhooffend,fortherodispreparedtobringtheunreasonableonestoexperienceand moderation."(35:p.325) Apparently,bloodrelationshipsdonotplayasubstantialrole.The"father"cangetdismissedforsomeoffenseandbereplacedbyanotherpersonfamilymemberscanbe transferredtoanotherfamilyifnecessary. Beginningwiththefamily,thestateisbuiltupofbiggerandbiggerunitsthatareadministeredbytheofficialslistedbyWinstanley.Thosewhogoverntheunitimmediately superiortothefamilyare:"apeacemaker,afourfoldofficeofoverseers,asoldier,ataskmaster,anexecutioner."Thepeacemakerisobligedtoappealtothe conscienceofoffendersortodispatchthemtoaprovinceorcountyatthediscretionofajudge.Thetaskmasterssuperviseproductionandconsumptionwithinthe families.Asforsoldiers,theauthorstatesthatinfact,"allofficialsaresoldiers."(35:p.333)Thefunctionofsoldiers(inthedirectsenseoftheword)istoofferassistance toofficialsandtoprovidedefenseforthemduringtimesofdisorder.Thetaskmasterisinchargeofthosesentencedtoforcedlabor.Theexecutionerisobligedto"cutoff thehead,hangorshoottodeath,orwhiptheoffenderaccordingtothesentenceoflaw."(35:p.335) Allposts,fromthelowesttothehighest,arefilledbyelectiononayearlybasis.Thecountryisgovernedbyaparliament,alsoreelectedannually.Allcitizensmayvote fromtheageoftwentyandareeligibleforelectionatforty.Manycitizens,however,aredeprivedofactiveparticipationingoverningsomeareevendisenfranchised."All uncivillivers,asdrunkards,quarrellers,fearfulignorantmen,whodarenotspeaktruthlesttheyangerothermenlikewiseallwhoarewhollygiventopleasureandsports, ofmenwhoarefulloftalkalltheseareemptyofsubstance,andcannotbeexperiencedmen,thereforenotfittobechosenofficersinacommonwealthyettheymayhave avoiceinthechoosing. "Secondly,allthosewhoareinterestedinthemonarchicalpowerandgovernmentoughtneithertochoosenorbechosenofficersto [98] managethecommonwealth'saffairs,forthesecannotbefriendstocommonfreedom."(35:p.321)Othersdeprivedofrightsinclude:"Allthosewhohavebeensohastyto buyandsellthecommonwealth'sland,andsotoentangleituponanewaccount....Thesearecovetousmen,notfearingGod,andtheirportionistobecastwithoutthe cityofpeaceamongstthedogs."(35:pp.322,323) Earlier,duringthefirstperiodoftheDiggermovement,Winstanleyhadbeenanopponentofallcoercionandstatepower.Hebelievedthatlawwasnecessaryforthose livingunderthecurseofpropertybutthatitbecomesunnecessaryforthosewholiveunderprinciplesofjusticeandcommunity.Inthepamphlet"LettertoLordFairfax," heassertsthatnoonewhoobeyedjustlawwoulddaretoarrestorenslaveaneighbor. Followingthelogicofallsuchmovements,however,Winstanley,inhis"LawofFreedom"(publishedjustthreeyearslater),readilygrantsthatinthestateheisplanningit willbepossibletoarrestand(literally)enslaveone'sneighbor.Hisworkcontainsadetailedaccountofthepunishmentstobeinvoked:"Hewhostrikeshisneighbourshall bestruckhimselfbytheexecutioner,blowforblow,andshallloseeyeforeye,toothfortooth,limbforlimb,lifeforlifeandthereasonisthatmenmaybetenderofone another'sbodies,doingastheywouldbedoneby."(35:pp.375380)Strikinganofficialispunishablebyayearofforcedlabor."Hewhoendeavourstostirup contentionamongneighbours,bytalebearingorfalsereport,"isatfirstreproved,thenwhippedthirdoffendersbecomeservantsforthreemonths,andiftheoffenseis reportedonceagain,"heshallbeaservantforever."(35:p.380)Forcedlaboristhepenaltyforfailingtorenderassistancetothetaskmasterorforattemptingtoengage inbuyingandselling.Anactualsaleorpurchaseoflandispunishablebydeath.Amanwhocallslandhisownistobe"setuponastool"andhelduptoridicule,andifhe becomesabusive,hecanbeexecuted. Thearmyisfundamentaltothestate.ItisdividedintotheofficersCorps,madeupofallofficials,andthesoldiers,madeupofthegeneralpopulation. "Theuseorworkofafightingarmyinacommonwealthistobeatdownallthatarisetoendeavortodestroythelibertiesofthecommonwealth."Itmustdefendthestate againstthosewho"seektheirowninterestandnotcommonfreedom,andthroughtreacherydoendeavortodestroythelawsofcommonfreedom,andtoenslaveboththe land [99] andpeopleofthecommonwealthtotheirparticularwillsandlusts."(35:p.357)Thearmyalsoopposesforeignenemiesithasonemorefunctiontheestablishmentofthe "LawofFreedom"inotherlands."IfalandbeconqueredandsoenslavedasEnglandwasunderthekingsandconqueringlaws,thenanarmyistoberaisedwithasmuch secrecyasmaybe,torestorethelandagainandsetitfree,thattheearthmaybecomeacommontreasurytoallherchildren."(35:p.358) Inmanyrespects,Winstanley'ssocialistconcepts,aswehaveseen,aremuchmoremoderatethanthoseofhispredecessorsMoreand,especially,Campanella.Only privateownershipofland,laborproductsand,partly,thatwhichlatercametobecalledthe"meansofproduction"areabolished.Thereisnomentionofcommunalwives orthecommunalupbringingofchildren.Infact,Winstanleyfrequentlyobjectstomoreextremeviews,obviouslyattackingothermoreradicaltrends.Inthesection"A shortdeclarationtotakeoffprejudice,"hewrites:"Some,hearingofthiscommonfreedom,thinktheremustbeacommunityofallthefruitsoftheearthwhethertheywork orno,thereforestrivetoliveidleuponothermen'slabor.Others,throughthesameunreasonablebeastlyignorance,thinktheremustbeacommunityofallmenand womenforcopulation,andsostrivetoliveabestiallife."(35:p.302)Theauthorassertsthat,onthecontrary,familieswillliveseparatelyandowntheirownfurnishingsin peace.(35:p.288)Lawsmustinsulatecitizensfromthosewhoholdsuch"falseopinions"andpunishsuch"ignorantandinsanebehavior." Inonearea,however,WinstanleywentmuchfurtherthanMoreandCampanellainhisattitudetowardreligion.ThelukewarmattitudetowardreligionandtheChurchof theearliertwowritersgoeshandinhandwiththeirslanttowardpantheismandtheirtendencytodeifythe"mechanismoftheUniverse."InWinstanley,ontheotherhand, wemeetwithanopenhostilitytotheChurchandacompletereplacementofreligionbyethicsandrationalscience.Heseesthechiefgoalofthereligionofhisdayas assistingtherichinexploitingthepoor."Thisdiviningdoctrine,whichyoucallspiritualandheavenlythings,isthethiefandtherobber."(35:p.351)"Thisdoctrineismade acloakofpolicybythesubtleelderbrother,tocheathissimpleyoungerbrotherofthefreedomsoftheearth."Winstanleyasserts:"Theywhopreachthisdiviningdoctrine aremurderersofmanyapoorheartwhoisbashfulandsimple."(35:p.352)"Sothatthisdiviningspiritualdoctrineisacheatforwhilemenaregazinguptoheaven, imagining [100] afterahappinessorfearingahellaftertheyaredead,theireyesareputout,thattheyseenotwhatistheirbirthright,andwhatistobedonebythemhereonearthwhile

acloakofpolicybythesubtleelderbrother,tocheathissimpleyoungerbrotherofthefreedomsoftheearth."Winstanleyasserts:"Theywhopreachthisdiviningdoctrine aremurderersofmanyapoorheartwhoisbashfulandsimple."(35:p.352)"Sothatthisdiviningspiritualdoctrineisacheatforwhilemenaregazinguptoheaven, imagining [100] afterahappinessorfearingahellaftertheyaredead,theireyesareputout,thattheyseenotwhatistheirbirthright,andwhatistobedonebythemhereonearthwhile theyareliving."(35:p.353)Buttheendofthisdeceptionisnear,accordingtotheauthor: "Andallthepriestsandclergyandpreachersofthesespiritualandheavenlythings,astheycallthem,shalltakeupthelamentation,whichistheirportion,'Alas,alas,that greatcityBabylon,thatmightycitydivinity,whichhathfilledthewholeearthwithhersorceryanddeceivedallpeople,sothatthewholeworldwonderedafterthisBeast howisitfallen,andhowisherjudgmentcomeuponherinonehour?'Andfurther,asyoumayread,Rev.18:10."(35:p.354) InWinstanley'sfuturesociety,ministersofreligionwillbeelectedforoneyear,justasalltheofficialsare.Thedutiesofthecommonwealth'sclergyconsistofcarryingout functionsthat,fromtheusualpointofview,havenothingwhatevertodowithreligion.Theministerisobligedtogivesermonson"theaffairsofthewholeland,asitis broughtinbythepostmaster"andon"thelawofthecommonwealth,"andtocommenton"theactsandpassagesofformeragesandgovernments,settingforththebenefits offreedombywellorderedgovernments,"aswellason"allartsandsciences...physic,chirurgery,astrology,astronomy,navigation,husbandryandsuchlike."Finally, speeches"maybemadesometimesofthenatureofmankind,ofhisdarknessandofhislight,ofhisweaknessandofhisstrength,ofhisloveandofhisenvy."(35:pp. 345346)Moreover,anyexperiencedpersonmaydeliverasermon,notonlyaminister. Thus,underthenameofclergy,Winstanleyintendsaclassofpeopleengagedinpropagandizingtheofficialworldviewandfulfilling,toanextent,theroleofeducators.To theobjectionsofahypothetical"zealousbutignorantprofessor,"Winstanleyreplies:"ToknowthesecretsofnatureistoknowtheworksofGodandtoknowtheworks ofGodwithinthecreationistoknowGodhimself,forGoddwellsineveryvisibleworkorbody."(35:p.348)

2.TheSocialistNovel
Inthesixteenthcenturyandthefirsthalfoftheseventeenthcentury,Weencounterseveralworksofsocialistthoughtseparatedbylengthyintervalsofseveraldecadesor evenlonger.Towardtheendoftheseventeenthcenturyandintheeighteenth,thesituationchangesasteadystreamofsocialistliteraturecomesintobeing.Socialist ideology [101] comesintofashionandacquiresaninfluenceinoneformoranother,amajorityofthethinkersofthetimeareaffectedbyit. Wecandistinguishtwotrendsinthegeneralcourseofthings:entertainingsocialistnovelsintendedforabroadaudienceandthedriersocialistliteratureofaphilosophical andsociologicalcharacter.ThesourcesofbothtypesofwritingareinMoreandCampanella,butbythelateseventeenthcenturythedifferencesbecomesubstantialand thetwocurrentseachattainadistinctcharacter. HistoryoftheSevarites(L'HistoiredesSvarambes) byDenisVairassemaybeconsideredthefirstofthetypicalsocialistnovels.VolumeI,particularlyinterestingasa specimenofthisnewliterature,waspublishedin1675.Adventuresatseaarerecounted,ashipwreck,landingonallunknowncontinentandthestoryofthetravelers'life onshore.Finally,thetravelersmeettheinhabitantsofthecontinentandbecomeacquaintedwiththeirstrangelife.InsteadofthedrydescriptionsofMoreandCampanella wearegivenvividtravelimpressionsrenderedbythenarrator,CaptainSiden.Almosttheentirebookisdevotedtotheaccountofhistravelsacrossthelandofthe Sevaritesandwhathesawthere.Onlythelasttenpagescontainadescriptionofthestateandeconomicstructureoftheplace. ThestatewasfoundedbyaPersiannamedSevarias,whodiscoveredthecontinentandencounteredthesavagetribeslivingthereinconditionsofprimitivecommunism withcommunalityofpropertyandwives.Byaseriesofruses,heconvincesthemthathehasarrivedfromthesuntotellthemthelawsandthewilloftheGodoftheSun. Theselawswereacceptedbythepeopleandhaveshapedthestructureoftheirstate. ThereligionoftheSunisacceptedandtheSunitselfisproclaimedkingoftheland.TheSunappointsaviceroyfromamongtheinhabitants.Inpractice,thepostofviceroy isfilledbylotfromamongfourcandidatesproposedbythecouncilofhighofficials.Theviceroyhasabsolutepower,limitedonlybytherightofthecounciltodeclarehim mentallyincapacitated.Beneaththeviceroythereisacomplexhierarchyofofficials,partlyelectedbythepeopleandpartlyappointedfromabove.Theseofficialsenjoy numerousprivileges:theyhavemorewivesthanothercitizens,personalslaves,betterhouses,foodandclothing. Thegreatmassofthepopulation(allhandsomeandwellbuiltpeople)liveacarefreeandhappylifeinwellorganizedcitiesandmagnificent [102] communalabodes.Athirdpartofthedaytheyworkunderthesupervisionofofficialsandspendtherestofthetimesleepingorenjoyingthemselves. Beneaththemonthesocialladderarethestateandprivateslaves,whoareobtainedastributefromconquerednations.Theydotheheavyworkandtheirwomenserveas concubinestocitizensandforeignguests. Theeconomyisbasedoncompletestateownership:Sevarias"abolishedtherightofproperty,deprivedprivatepersonsofitandwilleditsothatalllandandwealthshould belongexclusivelytothestatetodisposeofitinsuchawaythatsubjectscouldreceiveonlywhatwasgrantedthembyofficials."(44:p.422)Theentirepopulationlives andworksincommunesofathousandpersonsthesearelocatedinlargesquarehouses.Thecommunesturnintheproductsoftheirworktothestatewarehouses,where theyalsoreceivealltheirnecessities.Inparticular,theyareallissuedstandardclothingitvariesonlyincolor,dependingontheagegroupoftheowner. "Thestatetakescareofallthis,demandingneithertaxesnortolls,andthewholepeopleunderthegovernmentofthemonarchlivesinhappyaffluenceandwithwell securedrest."Allcitizensareobligedtoworktomaintainthestatewarehousesand"forfearlesttheygrowrestiveinplentyandentertainmentorbesoftenedby idleness."(44:p.423) Allthecitizensofthelandarebeautifulandoffinebearing.Cripplesareexiledtoremotetowns,asaresterilewomen. Thegovernmentpainstakinglyseestothecompleteisolationofthecountryfromtheexternalworld,buttheSevaritesareawareofthelatestdevelopmentsinengineering andthesciencesinEuropeandAsia.Thisispossiblebecausepeoplearesentregularlytoforeignlandsinordertolearnlanguagesandallotherusefulknowledge.When abroad,citizensareforbiddentotellanythingatallabouttheircountry.Toguaranteethattheyreturnhome,theyarenotpermittedtoleavetheirnativelanduntiltheyare abletoputupatleastthreechildrenasapledge. HistoryoftheSevarites givesusanotionofthesocialistnovelsthatfollowedit.Weshallthereforeonlybrieflynoteafewotherexamplesthatillustratevariousaspectsof thisgenre.

andthesciencesinEuropeandAsia.Thisispossiblebecausepeoplearesentregularlytoforeignlandsinordertolearnlanguagesandallotherusefulknowledge.When abroad,citizensareforbiddentotellanythingatallabouttheircountry.Toguaranteethattheyreturnhome,theyarenotpermittedtoleavetheirnativelanduntiltheyare abletoputupatleastthreechildrenasapledge. HistoryoftheSevarites givesusanotionofthesocialistnovelsthatfollowedit.Weshallthereforeonlybrieflynoteafewotherexamplesthatillustratevariousaspectsof thisgenre. TheSouthernLand(LaTerreaustraleconnue), ascribedbyBayletoGabrieldeFoigny,amonkfromLorraine,appearedin1676.Itis [103] thestoryofavoyagetothestillunknownfifthpartoftheglobe,intheSouthernHemisphere.Thelanddiscoveredbythetravelersisinhabitedbyanandrogynouspeople the"Australians."Theirlifeisfoundedoncompletefreedom.Everyoneactsashisreasondictates.Thereisonlyasinglelawaccordingtowhichallmustgivebirthtoat leastonechild. Theinhabitantsexistincompleteinnocence,knowingneitherclothingnorgovernmentnorthewords"thine"and"mine."Everyonereceivesanidenticalupbringing,which fromearlyinfancyinstillsintheinhabitanttheideathatallareequal.(45) TheAdventuresofTelemachus(LesAventuresdeTlmaque) byFenelonappearedin1699.Theinterestofthisbookliesinthefactthatitsurveysnotonlytheideal socialistsocietybutintermediateformsaswell.The"first"and"second"phasesofsocialismarediscussed.InquestofOdysseus,Telemachusvisitstwodifferent communities:BoeticaandSalentum.LandtenureinBoeticaiscommunal.AllpropertyIand,fruitoftheearthandtrees,cows'andgoats'milkisheldincommon.Most oftheinhabitantsaretillersorherdsmen.Theartsareconsideredharmfulandtherearealmostnocraftsmen.Thecitizensseetheirhappinessinsimplicity,thankstowhich noonefeelsanydeprivation.Theyliveinfamiliesinconditionsofperfectequality. SalentumhadbeenbroughttoeconomicruinbytheextravagantandproudKingIdomeneus.Mentor,thewiseoldmanwhoaccompaniesTelemachus,andwhoisin realitythegoddessMinervaindisguise,establishesanewregimewhichisanintermediatestageonthepathtocompletecommunality.Thepopulationisdividedintoseven classes,eachwithitsownprescribedtypeofdwelling,clothing,food,furnitureandparcelofland.Privateownershipispreserved,butinalimitedformnoonepossesses morelandthanisnecessaryforhissubsistence.Tradeisalsopermitted.(46) TheRepublicofPhilosophersortheHistoryoftheAjaoiens, attributedtoFontenelle,appearedin1768.Astormtossessometravelersontoanunknownshore,the islandofAjao.TheislandhadmanyyearsbeforebeenconqueredbytheAjaoiens,whoannihilatedalargepartoftheindigenouspopulationandmadeslavesoftherest. Productionisbasedonslavelabor.Theslavesliveinbarracks,wheretheyarelockedinatnight.Thenumberofslavesisstrictlycontrolledexcesschildren [104] wereoncekilled,butatpresenttheyaretakentotheshoreofChinaandabandonedthere. ThefreepopulationoftheislandtheAjaoiensliveincompletecommunality.Thewords"mine"and"thine"areunknowntothem.Theentirelandbelongstothestate, whichregulatesitscultivationanddistributesitsproducts.Everyoneisobligedtoworkinagricultureforacertainlengthoftime.Craftsareorganizedinthesameway. Itisthedutyofallcitizenstoenterintomarriagemoreover,everymanhastwowives.Childrenarebroughtupnotbytheirparentsbutinstateschools.TheAjaoienshave nocults,nopriestsorsacredbooks.Theyworshipnatureastheirgoodmother.Theyrecognizenosupremebeingbutbelievethateverythinglivinghasintelligence.They believethatthesoulismaterialandmortal.(47) TheSouthernDiscoverybyaFlyingManortheFrenchDaedalus:VeryPhilosophicalNovel byRestifdelaBretonneappearedin1781.Thecomplicatedplot(a lovestory,theinventionofameansofflyingwithartificialwings,thefoundingofanewstateintheSouthernHemisphere)leadstothediscoveryofMegapatagonia the antipodeofFrance.Thebasiclawofthiscountryiscommunality:"Withoutperfectequalitythereisneithervirtuenorhappiness....Leteverythingbeheldincommon amongequals....Leteveryoneworkforthecommongood."(48:p.133)Twelvehoursdailyaregivenovertoworkincommonandtheothertwelvetorelaxationand sleep.Mealsaretakenincommon.Allsocialdistinctionsaredeterminedsolelybyage:powerisinthehandsoftheoldmen. Marriageistemporary,contractedforoneyear.Emotionsarenotmuchtakenintoaccountonlyservicestothestateentitlesonetobeautifulgirls.Therightoffirstchoice thereforebelongstooldmenof150yearsormore. Whenthewifebecomespregnant,themarriageisdissolved.TheWomannursesherchildatfirst,thenhandsitovertoofficialtutors.Therelationsbetweenfathersand childrenare"essentiallythesameasbetweenpersonswhohardlyknowoneanother.Allchildrenarechildrenofthepeople."(48:p.138) Dramaticworksandpaintingareforbidden.TheMegapatagoniansassertthatthey"wishonlyrealthingsandonlyhavetimetoenjoythegenuinepleasures,neverthinking ofimaginaryones."However,thereismusicamongthem,andtheysingsongsglorifyinggreatmen, [105] pleasureandlove.Allothersubjectsarebannedfrompoeticexpression. Theethicsofthissocietyisbasedonobtainingthegreatestpossiblepleasure:"Getridofallunpleasantsensationsuseeverythingthatlegitimatelysuppliespleasure,but withoutweakeningoroverstrainingtheorgans."(48:p.149)"Whatespeciallystrengthenssoundmoralsamongusisthefactthatmoralquestionsarenotlefttothewhim ofprivatepersons.Thankstoourequalityandourcommunality,theacceptedmoralityisuniformandpublic."(48:p.151) Megapatagoniansdescribethecontentoftheirreligiousdoctrinethus:"Touseone'sorgansinaccordancewiththeintentionofnature,abusingnothingandneglecting nothing."(48:p.140)Inanswertothequestionoftemples,theypointtotheskyandtotheearth.Theyesteemthesunastheuniversalfatherandtheearthastheuniversal mother.

3.TheAgeofEnlightenment
Wenowturntosociologicalandphilosophicalsocialistliterature,onceagaintouchingonbutafewworkswhichexertedthegreatestinfluenceonthedevelopmentof chiliasticsocialism. JeanMeslier's Testament standsoutamongwritingsofthistypebymanyaspectsofitscomposition,byitsunusualfate,aswellasbytheastonishingfigureofitsauthor. Throughouthisadultlife,JeanMeslier(16641729)wasapriestinChampagne.His Testament becameknownincopiesandexcerptsonlyin1733,afterhisdeath. VoltaireandotherrepresentativesoftheEnlightenmentfoundthebookofgreatinterest,butsodangerousthattheyneverdaredtopublishitscompletetext.Thefirstfull editionappearedonlyin1864,inAmsterdam.

Wenowturntosociologicalandphilosophicalsocialistliterature,onceagaintouchingonbutafewworkswhichexertedthegreatestinfluenceonthedevelopmentof chiliasticsocialism. JeanMeslier's Testament standsoutamongwritingsofthistypebymanyaspectsofitscomposition,byitsunusualfate,aswellasbytheastonishingfigureofitsauthor. Throughouthisadultlife,JeanMeslier(16641729)wasapriestinChampagne.His Testament becameknownincopiesandexcerptsonlyin1733,afterhisdeath. VoltaireandotherrepresentativesoftheEnlightenmentfoundthebookofgreatinterest,butsodangerousthattheyneverdaredtopublishitscompletetext.Thefirstfull editionappearedonlyin1864,inAmsterdam. ThemaindistinguishingfeatureoftheTestament isthatitssocialistconceptionismerelyanoutgrowthofthecentralideaofthework:thestrugglewithreligion.Meslier sawnothinginreligionotherthanasocialrole,whichconsists,inhisopinion,ofthefurtheranceofviolenceandsocialinequalitybymeansofdeceitandpropagationof superstitions: "Inshort,allthatyourtheologistsandpriestspreachtoyouwithsucheloquenceandfervor...allthisisinrealitynothingbutillusion,error,falsehood,fabricationand deception:thesethingswerefirstinvented [106] byslyandcunningpoliticians,repeatedbyimpostorsandcharlatans,thengivencredencebyignorantandbenightedmenfromthecommonfolk,andfinallysupportedby thepowerofmonarchsandthemightywhoconnivedatthedeceitanderror,superstitionsandfraudulence,andperpetuatedthembytheirlawssoastobridlethemasses inthiswayandmakethemdancetotheirtune."(49:I:pp.6769) ThesetwopassionshatredforGodandforanykindofinequalityorhierarchyarethedrivingforcesofthe Testament. Meslierconsidersreligiontoberesponsiblefor themajorityofhumanmisfortunes.Inparticular,itsowsdissentandpromotesreligiouswars.Butatthesametime,hehimselfcallswithsincereconvictionforanuprising, thekillingofkings,andtheannihilationofallwhocouldbeconsideredmorefortunateandprosperous. "Inthisconnection,Iamremindedofthewishofonemanwhoexpressedthedesirethat'allthemightyofthisworldandthenoblelordsbehangedandstrangledwith loopsmadeofpriests'bowels.'Thisjudgmentiscertainlysomewhatcoarseandharsh,butthereissomenaivefranknessaboutit.Itisbriefbuteloquentandinafew wordsexpresseswhatpeopleofthiskindreallydeserve."(49:I:p.71) ToMeslierreligionwasanabsurdsuperstitionthatcannotsurvivetheslightestbrushwithreason.Ofallthereligions,themostabsurdisthereligionoftheChristians,whom hecallsChristworshipers.Butitwouldbewrongtoseekthereasonforthisattitudeinanoverlyrationalisticturnofmindoftheauthor.RefutingChristianity,Meslierisat thesametimereadytobelievethewildestsuperstitionsandtorepeatthemostabsurdrumors.Forinstance,itseemsnonsensicaltohimthatGodcouldhavehadbuta singleSon,whilemuchlessercreaturesaremuchbetterendowed.Manyanimalsbeartenortwelveoffspringatonce. "TheysaythataPolishcountessnamedMargarethasgivenbirthtothirtysixbabiesatonce.AndaDutchcountess,alsoMargaret,whohadlaughedatapoorwoman burdenedwithchildren,gavebirthtoasmanychildrenastherearedaysintheyear,thatis,365,andallofthemlatergotmarried.(SeetheAnnalsofHollandand Poland.)"(49:II:p.19) ItisclearthatMeslier'spointofdepartureisahatredforGodandthathisargumentsaremerelyanattempttojustifythissentiment. [107] ThepersonofChristisespeciallyhatefultohim,andhereheliterallyrunsoutoftermsofabuse."AndwhatofourGodandChristworshipers?Towhomdothey ascribedivinity?Tothepaltrymanwhohadneithertalent,norintelligence,norknowledge,norskill,andwasutterlyscornedintheworld.Whomdotheyascribeitto? ShallIsay?IndeedIshall:theyascribeittothelunatic,demented,wretchedbigotandillstarredgallowsbird."(49:II:p.25)Thechampionoftherightsofthepoor perceivesirrefutableproofofChrist'steachinginthefactthat"hewasalwayspoor,andwasmerelythesonofacarpenter."(49:II:p.26) Religionisthesourceofmostsocialevilsand,inparticular,ofinequality,whichismaintainedsolelybyitsauthority.Meslierrecognizestheneedfor"somedependenceand subordination"ineverysociety.Butatpresent,powerisbasedonviolence,murderandcrime.InhisTestament thereisnothingsaidaboutconcretemeasuresfor improvingthepositionofthepoornorabouttherichdoingsomethingtohelp.Thebookmerelyfansthehatredoftheformerforthelatter. "Youaretold,dearfriends,aboutdevilstheyfrightenyouwiththedevil'snamealoneyouareforcedtobelievethatdevilsarethemostevilandrepulsiveofcreatures,that theyaretheworstenemiesofhumankind,thattheystriveonlytoruinpeopleandrenderthemunhappyinhellforever....Butknow,dearfriends,thatforyouthemostevil andtruedevils,thoseyououghttofear,arethosepeopleofwhomIspeakyouhavenoworseandnomoreevilenemiesthanthenobleandtherich."(49:II:p.166) Theessenceandtruecauseofinequalityisprivateproperty,whichalsoisjustifiedbyreligion. "Forthisreasonsomedrinkandstuffthemselves,wallowinginluxury,whileothersdiefromstarvation.Forthisreasonsomearealmostalwayshappyandgay,while othersareeternallysadandgrieving."(49:II:p.201) Meslier'sentiresocialprogramcomesdowntoafewlines: "Whatagreathappinessitwouldbeforpeopleiftheyusedalllife'sblessingstogether."(49:II:p.209) Inajustsociety,Meslierfeels,productionandconsumptionmustbeorganizedaccordingtoprinciplesofcommunality. "Peopleoughttopossessallwealthandrichesoftheearthtogether [108] andonequaltermsandalsousethemtogetherandequitably."(49:II:p.198) Food,clothing,educationforchildren,oughtnottodiffergreatlyindifferentfamilies.Everyoneoughttoworkundertheguidanceofwiseelders(inanotherpassage, Meslierspeaksaboutelectedofficials). Thesemeasureswouldleadtomiraculousresults.Noonewouldbeinneedeveryonewouldlovehisneighbor.Heavywork,deceit,vanity,wouldalldisappear.Then, Mesliersays,"nounhappypeoplewouldbeseenonearth,whereasatpresentwecomeacrossthemoneveryhand."(49:II:p.217) Familyrelationswouldalsochange,foragreatevilintroducedbythechurchwouldfallawaytheindissolubilityofmarriage."Itisnecessarytoprovidetheidentical freedomtomenandtowomentocometogetherwithouthindrance,followingtheirowninclination,andthefreedomalsotoseparateandleaveoneanotherwhenlife togetherbecomesintolerableorwhenanewattractionmovesthemtocontractinganewunion."(49:II:p.214)

Thesemeasureswouldleadtomiraculousresults.Noonewouldbeinneedeveryonewouldlovehisneighbor.Heavywork,deceit,vanity,wouldalldisappear.Then, Mesliersays,"nounhappypeoplewouldbeseenonearth,whereasatpresentwecomeacrossthemoneveryhand."(49:II:p.217) Familyrelationswouldalsochange,foragreatevilintroducedbythechurchwouldfallawaytheindissolubilityofmarriage."Itisnecessarytoprovidetheidentical freedomtomenandtowomentocometogetherwithouthindrance,followingtheirowninclination,andthefreedomalsotoseparateandleaveoneanotherwhenlife togetherbecomesintolerableorwhenanewattractionmovesthemtocontractinganewunion."(49:II:p.214) Meslier's Testament leavestheimpressionofaprofoundlypersonalworkrevealingintimateaspectsofitsauthor'spersonality.Therefore,thepassagesthatbeardirectly onthispersonalityareespeciallyinteresting. ThebookopenswithMeslieraddressinghisparishioners: "Dearfriends,duringmylifetimeIwasunabletosayopenlywhatIhavethoughtabouttheorderandmethodofgoverningmen,oftheirreligionandtheirrights,forthis wouldhavebeenfraughtwithhighlydangerousandlamentableconsequences.Therefore,Idecidedtotellyouthisaftermydeath."(49:I:p.55)Mesliersaysofhimself:"I neverwassofoolishastoattachanysignificancetothesacramentsandabsurditiesofreligionIhaveneverfeltbenttotakepartinthemoreventospeakofthemwith respectandapproval."(49:II:p.73)"WithallmyheartIdetestedtheabsurddutiesofmyprofessionandespeciallytheidolatrousandsuperstitiousmassesand nonsensicalandridiculousholycommunionthatIwasobligedtoperform."(49:I:p.77) Thebookendswiththesewords: "AfterallIhavesaid,letpeoplethinkaboutme,letthemjudgemeandsayofmeanddowhatevertheyplease.Idonotcare.Letpeopleadaptthemselvesandgovern themselvesastheyplease,let [109] thembewiseormad,letthembekindorevil,letthemspeakofmeastheypleaseaftermydeath.Iwillhavenothingtodowithitatall.Ihavegivenupalmostany participationinthethingsoftheworld.ThedeadwithwhomIwilltravelthesameroadaretroubledbynothing,theycarefornothing.Andwiththis nothing Ishallend here.Imyselfamnotmorethannothingandsoonwillbe,inthefullsenseoftheword,nothing."(49:II:p.377) Thesewerenotidlewords:Mesliercommittedsuicideattheageofsixtyfive. ThehistoryoftheTestament iscurious.Itsfulltext(orperhapsaseriesofextracts)cameintothehandsofVoltaire,whowasgreatlyimpressed.Hewroteofthework: "Thisisacompositionofabsolutenecessityfordemons,anexcellentcatechismofBaalzebub.Knowthatitisararebook,aperfection."(49:III:p.405) Tothosehecalled"brethren,"Voltairewroterepeatedly,urgingthemtocirculateextractsfromtheTestament. "KnowthatGod'sblessingisonournascentchurch:Inoneoftheprovinces,threehundredcopiesofMeslierhavebeendistributed,whichhasproducedmanynew converts."(49:III:p.417) Theworkwasthoughttobedangerous.Inarguingforitspublication,Voltairewrote: "Isitimpossible,withoutcompromisinganyone,toturntothatgoodoldsoulMerlin?Iwouldnotwishforanyofourbrethrentotaketheslightestrisk."(49:III:p.416) "LetusthankthegoodpeoplewhodistributeitgratisandpraytotheLordtoblessthisusefulreading."(49:III:p.419) "Youhavecleverfriendswhowouldbenotunwillingtohavethisbookinasafeplacemoreover,itissuitablefortheedificationofyouth."(49:III:p.408) "JeanMesliermustconvincethewholeworld.WhyishisGospelsolittlecirculated?YouaretooretiringinParis!Youarehidingyourlamp."(49:III:p.410) "InaChristianfashion,IwishfortheTestament ofthepriesttobemultipliedlikethefiveloavestonourishfourorfivethousandsouls."(49:III:p.411) Later,in1793,whentheConventionwascarryingoutaprogramofdeChristianizationandintroducingthecultofReason,AnacharsisClootsproposedputtingupinthe templeofReasonastatueofthe [110] firstpriesttorejectreligiouserror"thebrave,magnanimousandgreatJeanMeslier." TheCodeofNatureortheTrueSpiritoftheLaw byMorellyappearedin1755.Almostnothingisknownabouttheauthorargumentsarestillgoingonastowhether heeverexistedorwhether"Morelly"issimplyapseudonym. AttherootofMorelly'ssystemisanotionaboutthenaturalstateorthe"codeofnature"towhichmankindshouldadhereinordertoliveamoralandhappylife.The breakingawayfromthenaturalstatewascausedbyprivateproperty,thecauseofallhumanmisery.Onlybyabolishingitwillmankindreturntoitsnaturalandhappystate. Partfouroftheworkcontainsasystemoflawswhich,accordingtoMorelly,oughttoserveasthefoundationofanidealsociety. Acentralplaceisoccupiedbythree"fundamentalandinviolablelaws."Thefirstabolishesprivateproperty.Anexceptionismadeonlyforthingswhichapersonuses"for hisneeds,hispleasures,orhisdailywork."Thesecondlawproclaimsallthecitizenstobepublicpersonswhomthestateprovideswithworkandmaintenance.Thethird lawproclaimsuniversalobligatoryservice"inconformitywiththeDistributiveLaws." Allcitizensfromtheageoftwentytotwentyfiveareobligedtobeengagedinagriculturetheyaretheneitherretainedintheirplaceormadeartisans.Attheageofforty, everyonehastherightoffreechoiceofprofession. Everythingproducedisdistributedthroughcommunalstorehouses.Tradeandbarterareforbiddenbythe"inviolablelaw." Thepopulationlivesintownsbrokenupintoequalblocks.Allbuildingsareofthesameshape.Everyonewearsclothingofthesamefabric. Onreachingacertainage,everyoneistomarry.Childrenarebroughtupinthefamilyuntiltheageoffive,thentheyareplacedininstitutionsdesignatedfortheirfurther upbringing.Thetraining(aswellasthefoodandclothing)ofallchildrenisabsolutelythesame.Attheageoften,childrenmovetoworkshopstocontinuetheirtraining.

Everythingproducedisdistributedthroughcommunalstorehouses.Tradeandbarterareforbiddenbythe"inviolablelaw." Thepopulationlivesintownsbrokenupintoequalblocks.Allbuildingsareofthesameshape.Everyonewearsclothingofthesamefabric. Onreachingacertainage,everyoneistomarry.Childrenarebroughtupinthefamilyuntiltheageoffive,thentheyareplacedininstitutionsdesignatedfortheirfurther upbringing.Thetraining(aswellasthefoodandclothing)ofallchildrenisabsolutelythesame.Attheageoften,childrenmovetoworkshopstocontinuetheirtraining. Thenumberofpersonswhodevotethemselvestoscienceandtheartsisstrictlylimited"foreachtypeofoccupationandforeachtownaswell." [111] "Moralphilosophy"islimitedonceandforalltothepropositionsworkedoutinMorelly'streatise: "Nothingwillbeaddedbeyondthelimitsprescribedbylaw."(50:p.202) Ontheotherhand,unrestrictedfreedomofinvestigationisgrantedintheareaofnaturalscience. ThelawssetforthbyMorellyaretobeengravedoncolumnsorpyramidserectedinthemainsquareofeachtown. Anyoneattemptingtochangethesacredlawsistobedeclaredmadandimmuredinacaveforlife: "Hischildrenandallhisfamilywillrenouncehisname."(50:p.238) WehavealreadycomeacrossallthesepropositionsinMoreandCampanella.ButMorelly'ssystemisofinterestinthatitcontainstheideaofthedevelopmentofsociety fromaprimitivestatetosocialism. Mankindoncelivedinanaturalstate,theGoldenAge,thememoryofwhichispreservedamongallpeoples.Butthisstatewaslostduetothemistakenintroductionof privatepropertybylegislators.Areturntoaconditionwherenoprivatepropertyexistswilltakeplacethankstoprogress,whichMorellyconsiderstobethebasicdriving forceofhistory. "ThephenomenathatIobservedemonstrateeverywhere,eveninagnat'swing,thepresenceofaconsistentdevelopment.Iexperience,Ifeeltheprogressofreason.Iam justified,therefore,tosaythatbysomemiraculousanalogytherealsoexistfavorabletransformationsinthemoralfield,andthatdespitetheirpowerandpleasantness,the lawsofnaturedoonlygraduallygaincompletepowerovermankind."(50:p.159) Onlyafterhavingexperiencedvariousformsofrulewillthepeopleunderstandwhatistrulygood.ThesocietydescribedbyMorellywillariseultimately,asaninevitable triumphofreason,andmankindwillcometotheendofitsjourneyfromtheunconsciousGoldenAgetotheconsciousone. ThespreadofsocialistideasintheAgeofEnlightenmentmaybejudgedbytheopensympathywithwhichtheyarereferredtointhemostinfluentialworkoftheday the famousEncyclopdie. Inanarticleon"TheLegislator"(IX,1765),theauthorofwhichisapparentlyDiderot,thefundamentalgoalofeverylegislatorisdescribedasthe replacementofthe"spiritofproperty"bythe"spiritofcommunity." [112] Ifthespiritofcommunityisdominantinastate,itscitizensdonotregretthattheyhaverejectedtheirownwillforthesakeofthecommonwilllovefortheirhomeland becomestheironlypassion.ThesesomewhatvaguepronouncementsarerenderedmoreconcretebyreferencestothelawsofPeruasmodelsoflawsbasedonthespirit ofcommunity.* "ThelawsofPerustrovetounitethecitizensbybondsofhumanitywhilethelegislationofothercountriesforbiddoingharmtoanother,inPeruthelawsprescribe tirelesslydoinggood.Lawsestablishing(totheextentpossibleinthelimitationsofanaturalstate)thecommunalityofpropertyweakenedthespiritofpropertythesource ofallevil.ThemostfestivedaysinPeruwerethosedayswhenthecommonfieldwasbeingtilled,thefieldofanoldmanoranorphan.Hewhowaspunishedbynotbeing permittedtoworkinthecommonfieldconsideredhimselfamostunhappyman.Eachcitizenworkedforallthecitizensandbroughtthefruitsofhislabortostategranaries andreceivedthefruitofothercitizens'laborasreward."(Quotedin51:p.127) Later,in1772,Diderotreturnedtothoughtsonthesocialistformofstateorganization.InhisworkSupplementauvoyagedeBougainville, hedescribesthelifeofthe peopleofTahiti,whoseislandthetravelerissupposedtohavevisited. Thesavageshaveeverythingincommon.Theyworktheirfieldstogether.Marriagedoesnotexistandchildrenarebroughtupbythecommunity.Addressingthetraveler, anoldTahitiansays: "Here,everythingbelongstoall,whileyouhavepreachedadifferencebetween'mine'and'thine.'"(52:p.43)"Leaveusourmorals.Theyarewiserandmorevirtuous thanyours.Wedonotwanttoexchangewhatyoucallignoranceforyouruselessknowledge.Wehaveeverythingthatweneedandwhateverisusefultous.Dowe deservecontemptmerelybecausewedidnotinventsuperfluousnecessities?Don'tinspireinuseitheryourfalsenecessitiesoryourchimericalvirtues."(52:p.44) "Ourgirlsandwomenbelongtoall....AyoungTahitiangirlgivingherselfuptothedelightsofayoungTahitianboy'sembracewouldwaitimpatientlyforhermotherto undressherandbareher

*Inthefirstchapterofthenextsectionofthisbook,thereaderwillfindinformationonthesocialandeconomicstructureoftheIncaempire,whichiswhatismeantherebyPeru.

[113] breasts....Withoutshameorfearsheacceptsinourpresence,surroundedbyinnocentTahitians,tothesoundofflutesandthedance,thecaressesofhimwhowaschosen byheryouthfulheartandthesecretvoiceofherfeelings.Areyoucapableofreplacingwithamoreworthyandgreaterfeelingthefeelingthatweinstilledinthemandwhich inspiresthem?"(52:pp.4345) Diderot'sattitudetowardsocialisttheoriesmayalsobejudgedbythefactthatwhenMorelly'sCodeofNature wasincludedinvariouscollectionsofhisworks,hedidnot protest.ThistestifiesnotonlytoDiderot'smoralprinciplesbuttohissympathyforsocialistideasaswell.

breasts....Withoutshameorfearsheacceptsinourpresence,surroundedbyinnocentTahitians,tothesoundofflutesandthedance,thecaressesofhimwhowaschosen byheryouthfulheartandthesecretvoiceofherfeelings.Areyoucapableofreplacingwithamoreworthyandgreaterfeelingthefeelingthatweinstilledinthemandwhich inspiresthem?"(52:pp.4345) Diderot'sattitudetowardsocialisttheoriesmayalsobejudgedbythefactthatwhenMorelly'sCodeofNature wasincludedinvariouscollectionsofhisworks,hedidnot protest.ThistestifiesnotonlytoDiderot'smoralprinciplesbuttohissympathyforsocialistideasaswell. Deschamps's TruthortheTrueSystem. Inconclusion,wewilltakenoteofoneofthetheoreticiansofsocialismintheeighteenthcentury,theBenedictinemonk Deschamps.Duringhislifetime,hepublishedLettersontheSpiritoftheTimes (1769)and TheVoiceofReasonAgainsttheVoiceofNature (1770),both anonymously.ButhismostoriginalideasarecontainedinhisTruthortheTrueSystem, whichremainedinmanuscriptandwaspublishedonlyinourcentury(andin completeformonlyinthelastfewyearssee53). Deschampsistheauthorofoneofthemoststrikingandinternallyconsistentsocialistsystems.Heisalsoaphilosopherofthehighestorder,andissometimesreferredtoas aprecursorofHegel.Thatisunquestionablycorrect,butwhilefollowingapathsimilartotheoneHegelwouldtakelater,Deschampsalsodevelopedmanyconcepts whichweretobeenunciatedbyHegel'sdisciplesoftheleftFeuerbach,Engels,andMarx.AndinhisconceptionofNothingnessheanticipatesinmanyrespectsthe contemporaryexistentialists. Deschamps'soutlookisveryclosetomaterialism,althoughitdoesnotcoincidewithmaterialismentirely.Heseesonlymatterintheworld,buthisunderstandingofitis unusual. "Theworldhasexistedalwaysandwillexisteternally."(53:p.317)Initthereisanunendingprocessgoingonoftheappearanceofcertainpartsoutofothersandtheir destruction."Allbeingsemergeoneoutoftheother,enteroneintotheother,andallthevariousspeciesareessentiallyonlyaspectsofauniversaltype....Allbeingshave lifeinthemnomatterhowdeadtheyseem,fordeathismerelyalessermanifestationoflifeandnotitsnegation."(53:p.127) LifeforDeschampsisequatedtovariousformsofmotion.Hesaysofnature:"Everythinginitpossessesacapacityforfeeling,life, [114] thought,reason,i.e.,motion.Forwhatdoallthesewordsmeanifnottheactionormotionoftheparticlesweconsistof?"(53:p.135) Thisdeterminesman'splaceintheuniverseand,inparticular,hisfreedomofaction:"Ifwebelievethatwepossessawillandfreedom,thatresults,first,fromtheabsurdity thatforcesustobelieveinaGodandconsequentlytobelievethatwehaveasoulwhichhasitsmeritsandfaultsbeforeGod,and,secondly,becausewecannotseethe innerspringsofourmechanism."(53:pp.136137) DeschampsconsidersGodtobeanideacreatedbymankind,aproductofdefinitesocialrelationsbasedonprivateproperty.Religiondidnotexistbeforetheserelations tookshape,anditwillnolongerexistwhentheyaredestroyed.Religionitselfisnotonlytheresultoftheoppressionofpeoplebutalsoameansfacilitatingthisoppression. Itisoneofthebasicobstaclestothetransitionofmankindtoahappiersocialcondition. Deschampssays:"Theword'God'mustbeeliminatedfromourlanguages."(53:p.133)Nevertheless,hewasapassionateopponentofatheism.Ofhissystemhehasthe followingtosay:"Atfirstglance,itmightbepossibletothinkthatitisaconciseformulationofatheism,forallreligionisdestroyedinit.Butuponconsideration,itis impossiblenottobeconvincedthatitisnotaformulationofatheismatall,forinplaceofarationalandmoralGod(whomIdosubjecttodestruction,forhemerely resemblesamanmorepowerfulthanothermen)Isetbeinginthemetaphysicalsense,whichisthebasisofmoralitythatisfarfromarbitrary."(53:p.154) Deschampshasinmindhisunderstandingoftheuniverse,towhichheascribedthreespecificaspects.Thefirstistotality[letout], thatis,theuniverseasaunityofallits parts.Thistotalityisthe"basiswhosemanifestationsareallvisiblebeings,"butwhichhasanother,nonphysicalnaturewhichisunlikeitsparts.Therefore,itcannotbeseen butcanbecomprehendedbyreason.Thesecondaspectis everything[tout], thatis,theuniverseasasingleconcept. "Totality presupposesthepresenceoftheparts. Everything doesnotpresupposethis....Iunderstand everything asexistenceinitself,existencebyitself...inother words...existencethroughnothingbutitself."(53:pp.8788) "Everything, notconsistingofparts,existsitisinseparablefrom totality, whichconsistsofpartsandof whicheverything issimultaneouslyaconfirmationandanegation."(53:p.124) ButperhapsthemoststrikingofDeschamps'sthreeaspectsofthe [115] universeisthethirditstressesthenegativecharacterofdefinitionsofeverything."Everything isnolongeramassofentitiesbutamasswithoutparts...notasingleentity existinginmanyentities...butasingularentitywhichdeniesanyexistenceapartfromitself...aboutwhichitispossibleonlytodenythatwhichisassertedintheother for itisnotsentientandnottheresultofsentiententitiesbut,rather, nothing[rien], nonbeingitself,whichalonecannotbeanythingbutthenegationofwhatissentient."(53: pp.125126) "Everything isnothing." (53:p.129)"Nodoubtnoonebeforemehaseverwrittenthateverything andnothing areoneandthesame."(53:p.130)For Deschamps,thisprincipleisbasictohisdoctrineonexistence:"Whatisthecauseofexistence?Answer:Itscauseresidesinthefactthatnothing issomething,inthatitis existence,inthatitiseverything." (53:p.321)HerehefindsaplaceforGodaswell:"Godis nothing, nonexistenceitself."(53:p.318)Apparently,theseprinciples, alongwiththedeductionsresultingfromthem,arewhatDeschampsopposestoatheism,whichhedeclaresapurelynegative,destructivedoctrine.Hecallsitthe"atheism ofcattle,"i.e.,ofbeingswhohavenotovercome religion,andwhohavenotevendevelopedtothelevelofreligion. Deschamps'sarrogantandscornfulattitudetowardcontemporaryphilosophersoftheEnlightenmentisconnectedwiththisview.Heaccusesthemofcreatingunscientific schemesbasedonfantasy. "LetourdestroyerphilosophersrealizehowfutileandworthlessweretheireffortsdirectedagainstGodandreligion.Thephilosopherswerepowerlesstocarryouttheir task,untiltheytouchedupontheexistenceofthecivilcondition,whichaloneisthecauseoftheappearanceoftheideaofamoralanduniversalbeingandofall religions."(53:p.107)"Theconditionofuniversalequalitydoesnotderivelogicallyfromthedoctrineofatheism.Italwaysseemed,toouratheistsaswellastothe majorityofpeople,tobeaproductoffantasy."(54:p.41) Andfantasiesofthissortarebynomeansharmless.Thereareonlytwowaysout:thepathproposedbyreligionandDeschamps'ssystem.Tounderminereligionbefore thegroundispreparedfortheauthor'ssystemistohastenthecomingofadestructiverevolution.In TheVoiceofReason, Deschampssays: "Thisrevolutionwillobviouslyhaveitssourceinthecontemporaryphilosophicaltrends,althoughthemajoritydoesnotsuspectthis.Itwillhavemuchmorelamentable consequencesandbringmuchmore [116]

thegroundispreparedfortheauthor'ssystemistohastenthecomingofadestructiverevolution.In TheVoiceofReason, Deschampssays: "Thisrevolutionwillobviouslyhaveitssourceinthecontemporaryphilosophicaltrends,althoughthemajoritydoesnotsuspectthis.Itwillhavemuchmorelamentable consequencesandbringmuchmore [116] destructionthananyrevolutioncausedbyheresy.Butisthisrevolutionnotalreadybeginning?Hasdestructionnotalreadybefallenthefoundationsofreligion,aretheynot readytocollapse,andalltherestaswell?"(Quotedin54:p.6) Tothenegativecharacterofthephilosophes' atheismDeschampsopposeswhatheseesasthepositivecharacterofhisownsystem: "ThesystemIamproposingdeprivesusofthejoysofparadiseandtheterrorsofhelljustlikeatheismbut,incontrasttoatheism,itleavesnodoubtastotherightness ofthedestructionofhellandparadise.Beyondthat,itgivesusthesupremelyimportantconviction,whichatheismdoesnotandcannevergive,thatforusparadisecan existonlyinoneplace,namely,inthisworld."(53:p.154) Deschamps'ssocialandhistoricaldoctrineisbasedonmetaphysics.Itisderivedfromaconceptionoftheevolutionofmankindinthedirectionofthegreatest manifestationoftheideaofoneness,of totality: "Theideaoftotality isequivalenttotheideaoforder,harmony,unity,equality,perfection.Theconditionofunityorthesocialconditionderivesfromtheideaof totality, whichisitselfunityandunionforpurposesoftheirownwellbeing,peoplemustliveinasocialcondition."(53:p.335) ThemechanismofthisevolutionisthedevelopmentofthesocialinstitutionswhichdetermineallotheraspectsofhumanlifeIanguage,religion,morality....Forexample: "ItwouldbeabsurdtosupposethatmancamefromthehandsofGodalreadymature,moralandpossessingtheabilitytospeak:speechdevelopedalongwithsocietyasit becamewhatitistoday."(53:p.102) Deschampsconsidersvariousmanifestationsofeviltobetheresultofsocialconditionsheincludesevenhomosexuality,forexample. Thesocialinstitutionsthemselvestakeshapeundertheinfluenceofmaterialfactorssuchasthenecessityofhuntingingroupsandtheguardingofherds,aswellasthe advantagesofman'sphysicalstructureinparticular,thatofhishand. Deschampsdividestheentirehistoricalprocessintothreestagesorstatesthroughwhichmankindmustpass: "Formanthereexistonlythreestates:thesavagestateorthestateoftheanimalsintheforestthestateoflaw,*andthestateofmorals.Thefirstisastateofdisunity withoutunity,withoutsocietythesecond

*ElsewhereDeschampscallsthisthecivilstate.

[117] stateoursoneofextremedisunitywithinunity,andthethirdisthestateofunitywithoutdisunity.Thislastiswithoutdoubttheonlystatecapableofprovidingpeople, insofarasthisispossible,withstrengthandhappiness."(53:p.275) Inthesavagestatepeoplearemuchhappierthaninthestateoflaw,inwhichcontemporarycivilizedmankindlives: "Thestateoflawforus...isundoubtedlyfarworsethanthesavagestate."(53:p.184)Thisistruewithrespecttocontemporaryprimitivepeoples:"Wetreatthemwith disdain,yetthereisnodoubtthattheirconditionisfarlessirrationalthanours."(53:p.185)Butitisimpossibleforustoreturntothesavagestate,whichhadtocollapse andgivebirthtothestateoflawbyforceofobjectivecausesfirstandforemost,bytheappearanceofinequality,authorityandprivateproperty. Privatepropertyisthebasiccauseofallthevicesinherentinthestateoflaw:"Thenotionsofthine andmine inrelationtoearthlyblessingsandwomenexistonlyunder coverofourmorals,givingbirthtoalltheevilthatsanctionsthesemorals."(53:p.178) Thestateoflaw,inDeschamps'sopinion,isthestateofthegreatestmisfortuneforthegreatestnumberofpeople.Evilitselfisconsideredanoutgrowthofthisstate:"Evilin manispresentonlyduetotheexistingcivilstate,whichendlesslycontradictsman'snature.Therewasnosuchevilinmanwhenhewasinasavagestate."(53:p.166) Butthoseveryaspectsofthestateoflawthatmakeitespeciallyunbearablepreparethetransitiontothestateofmoralswhichseemstobethatparadiseonearthabout whichDeschampsspokeinapassagequotedearlier.Hisdescription,repletewithvividdetail,containsoneofthemostuniqueandconsistentofsocialistutopias. Alloflifeinthestateofmoralswillbecompletelysubordinatedtoonegoalthemaximumimplementationoftheideaofequalityandcommunality.Peoplewilllivewithout mine andthine, allspecializationwilldisappear,aswillthedivisionoflabor. "Womenwouldbethecommonpropertyofmen,asmenwouldbethecommonpossessionofwomen....Childrenwouldnotbelongtoanyparticularmanor woman."(53:p.206)"Womencapableofgivingsuckandwhowerenotpregnantwouldnurseallchildrenwithoutdistinction....Buthowisit,youwillobject,thata womanisnottohaveherownchildren?No,indeed!Whatwouldsheneedthatpropertyfor?"(53:p.212)Theauthorisnotalarmedbythefactthat [118] suchawayoflifewouldleadtoincest."Theysaythatincestgoesagainstnature.Butinfactitismerelyagainstthenatureofourmorals."Allpeople"wouldknowonly societyandwouldbelongonlytoit,thesoleproprietor."(53:pp.211212) Fortransitionintothisstate,muchthatisnowconsideredofvaluewouldhavetobedestroyed,including"everythingthatwecallbeautifulworksofart.Thissacrifice wouldundoubtedlybeagreatone,butitwouldbenecessarytomake."(53:p.202)Itisnotonlytheartspoetry,painting,architecturethatwouldhavetodisappear, butscienceandtechnologyaswell.Peoplewouldnolongerbuildshipsorstudytheglobe."AndwhyshouldtheyneedthelearningofaCopernicus,aNewtonanda Cassini?"(53:p.224) Languagewillbesimplifiedandmuchlessrich,andpeoplewillbegintospeakonestableandunchanginglanguage.Writingwilldisappear,togetherwiththetediouschore

Fortransitionintothisstate,muchthatisnowconsideredofvaluewouldhavetobedestroyed,including"everythingthatwecallbeautifulworksofart.Thissacrifice wouldundoubtedlybeagreatone,butitwouldbenecessarytomake."(53:p.202)Itisnotonlytheartspoetry,painting,architecturethatwouldhavetodisappear, butscienceandtechnologyaswell.Peoplewouldnolongerbuildshipsorstudytheglobe."AndwhyshouldtheyneedthelearningofaCopernicus,aNewtonanda Cassini?"(53:p.224) Languagewillbesimplifiedandmuchlessrich,andpeoplewillbegintospeakonestableandunchanginglanguage.Writingwilldisappear,togetherwiththetediouschore oflearningtoreadandwrite.Childrenwillnotstudyatalland,instead,willlearneverythingtheyneedtoknowbyimitatingtheirelders. Thenecessityofthinkingwillalsofallaway:"Inthesavagestatenoonethoughtorreasoned,becausenooneneededto.Inthestateoflaw,onethinksandreasons becauseoneneedstointhestateofmorals,onewillneitherthinknorreasonbecausenoonewillhaveanyneedtodothisanylonger."(53:p.296)Oneofthemostvivid illustrationsofthischangeofconsciousnesswillbethedisappearanceofallbooks.Theywillfindauseintheonlythingthattheyareinrealitygoodforlightingstoves.All bookseverwrittenhadastheirgoalthepreparationforthebookwhichwouldprovetheiruselessnessDeschamps'sstudy.Itwilloutlivetherest,butfinallyit,too,willbe burned. People'sliveswillbesimplifiedandmadeeasier.Theywillscarcelyuseanymetalsinstead,almosteverythingwillbemadeofwood.Nolargehouseswillbebuiltand peoplewillliveinwoodenhuts."Theirfurniturewouldconsistonlyofbenches,shelvesandtables."(53:p.217)"Freshstraw,whichwouldlaterbeusedascattlelitter, wouldservethemasagoodbedonwhichtheywouldallresttogether,menandwomen,afterhavingputtobedtheagedandthechildren,whowouldsleep separately."(53:p.221)Foodwouldbeprimarilyvegetarianand,thus,easytoprepare."Intheirmodestexistencetheywouldneedtoknowveryfewthings,andthese wouldbejustthethingsthatareeasytolearn."(53:p.225)Thischangeoflifestyleisconnected [119] tofundamentalpsychicchanges,whichwouldtendtomake"theinclinationofeachatthesametimethecommoninclination."(53:p.210)Individualtiesbetweenpeople andintenseindividualfeelingswoulddisappear."Therewouldbenoneofthevividbutfleetingsensationsofthehappylover,thevictorioushero,theambitiousmanwho hadachievedhisgoal,orthelaureledartist."(53:p.205)"Alldayswouldbealike."(53:p.211)Andpeoplewouldevencometoresembleoneanother."Inthestateof morals,noonewouldweeporlaugh.Allfaceswouldbealmostidenticalandwouldexpresssatisfaction.Intheeyesofmen,allwomenwouldresembleallotherwomen andallmenwouldbelikeallothermenintheeyesofwomen!"(53:p.205)People'sheads"willbeasharmoniousastheynowaredissimilar."(53:p.214)"Muchmore thaninourcase,theywouldadheretoasimilarmodeofactionineverything,andtheywouldnotconcludethatthisdemonstratesalackofreasonorunderstanding,aswe thinkaboutanimals."(53:p.219) Thisnewsocietywillgiverisetoanewworldview."Andtheywouldnotdoubtandthiswouldnotfrightenthemintheleastthatpeople,too,existonlyasaresultofthe vicissitudesoflifeandsomedayaredestinedtoperishasaconsequenceofthesamevicissitudesand,perhaps,tobeeventuallyreproducedoncemorebymeansofa transformationfromoneaspecttoanother."(53:p.225)"Becausethey,likeus,wouldnottakeintoaccountthattheyweredeadearlier,thatis,thattheirconstituentparts didnotexistinthepastinhumanformtheywouldalso,beingmoreconsistentthanwe,notplaceanysignificanceontheterminationofthisexistenceinthisforminthe future."(53:p.228)"Theirburialswouldnotbedistinguishablefromthoseofcattle."(53:p.229)For:"theirdeadfellowswouldnotmeanmoretothemthandeadcattle. ...Theywouldnotbeattachedtoanyparticularpersonsufficientlysothattheywouldfeelhisdeathasapersonallossandmournit."(53:p.230)"Theywoulddieaquiet death,adeaththatwouldresembletheirlives."(53:p.228)

4.TheFirstSteps
WehaveseenhowsocialismwasnurturedbythephilosophyoftheEnlightenment.ThenewinfantcameintotheworldatthetimeoftheGreatRevolutionandwassuckled byMotherGuillotine.Butittookitsfirststepsdownlife'spathaftertheheroicepochoftheTerror [120] hadalreadypassed.Itistouchingtoseetraitsofthefutureshakerofkingdomsandshattererofthronesemergefromthecharminginfantileawkwardness. In1796,afterRobespierre'sfallandduringtheruleoftheDirectoire,asecretsocietywasfoundedinParis.Itplannedapoliticalcoupandworkedoutaprogramfora futuresocialistorganizationofthenation.ThesocietywasheadedbytheSecretDirectoryofPublicSalvation,whichreliedonanetworkofagents.Amongitsleading memberswerePhilippeBuonarrotiandFranoisEmile(wholatercalledhimselfCaiusGracchus)Babeuf.Amilitarycommitteewascreatedtopreparefortheuprising. Theconspiratorshopedforthesupportofthearmy.Accordingtotheircalculations,seventeenthousandmenwouldcometotheiractiveaid.Afteraninformer'stip,the leadersoftheconspiracywerearrestedtwoofthem,includingBabeuf,wereexiled. Whenhereturnedfromexile,Buonarroticontinuedtopropagandizehisviews.Themajorityofthesocialistrevolutionariesofthedaywereunderhisinfluence.In particular,hefoundedacircleinGenevawhichwastoexertagreatinfluenceonWeitling(whoseroleintheformationofMarx'sviewsiswellknown). Numerousdocumentsinwhichthesocietysetforthitsviewswerepublishedbythegovernmentimmediatelyaftertheconspiracywasuncovered.Adetaileddescriptionof theconspiracyanditsplanswaslatergivenbyBuonarrotiinhisbook ConspiracyofEquals. Thecentralprincipleofthissociety'sprogramwastheneedforequalityatanycost.Thiswasreflectedintheverytitleofthework.Theprincipleofequalitywaslaiddown intheir"Manifesto"withinvulnerableGalliclogic: "Allmenareequal,aretheynot?Thisprincipleisirrefutable,foronlyamanwhohaslosthisreasoncaninfullearnestnesscallnightday."(55:II:p.134) Havingestablishedthisunshakablefoundation,the"Manifesto"proceedstodrawconclusionsfromthisaxiom: "Wetrulywantequalityordeath.Thisiswhatwewant."(55:II:p.134)"Foritssake,wearereadyforanythingwearewillingtosweepeverythingaway.Letallthearts vanish,ifnecessary,aslongasgenuineequalityremainsforus."(55:II:p.135)"Lettherebeanend,atlast,totheoutrageousdifferencesbetweentherichandthepoor, thehighandthelow,thelordsandtheservants,thegovernorsandthegoverned."(55:II:p.136) [121] Thisleddirectlytothecommunalityofproperty: "Theagrarianlaw,thatis,thedivisionofarableland,wasatemporaryrequirementofunprincipledsoldiers,ofcertaintribes,whowerepromptedmorebyinstinctthanby reason.Weaspiretosomethingmoreloftyandjustthecommunityofproperty."(55:II:p.135) Therightofindividualpropertywastobeabolished.Thecountrywastobeturnedintoasingleeconomicunitbuiltexclusivelyonbureaucraticprinciples.Trade,exceptfor thesmallesttransactions,wastobestoppedandmoneywithdrawnfromcirculation.

"Theagrarianlaw,thatis,thedivisionofarableland,wasatemporaryrequirementofunprincipledsoldiers,ofcertaintribes,whowerepromptedmorebyinstinctthanby reason.Weaspiretosomethingmoreloftyandjustthecommunityofproperty."(55:II:p.135) Therightofindividualpropertywastobeabolished.Thecountrywastobeturnedintoasingleeconomicunitbuiltexclusivelyonbureaucraticprinciples.Trade,exceptfor thesmallesttransactions,wastobestoppedandmoneywithdrawnfromcirculation. "Itisnecessarythateverythingproducedonthelandorinindustrybekeptingeneralstorehousesforequitabledistributionamongcitizensunderthesupervisionofthe appropriateofficials."(55:II:p.309) Simultaneously,universalobligatorylaborisintroduced. "IndividualswhodonothingforthefatherlandcannotenjoypoliticalrightsofanykindtheyareasforeignersaffordedthehospitalityoftheRepublic."(55:II:p.206) "Todonothingforthefatherlandmeansnottoserveitbyusefullabor....Thelawtreatsasusefullaborthefollowingendeavors:agriculture,stockraising,fishing, navigation,mechanicalandartisancrafts,pettytrade,transportationofmenandgoods,militaryarts,educationandscientificactivities....Personsengagedinteachingor sciencemustsubmitcertificatesofloyalty.Onlyinthiscaseistheirlaborconsidereduseful....Officialssuperviseworkandseetoitthatjobsareequitablydistributed. ...Foreignersareforbiddentotakepartinpublicgatherings.Theyareunderthedirectsupervisionofthesupremeadministration,whichcandeportthemtoaplaceof correctivelabor."(55:II:pp.296297)Underpainofdeaththeyareforbiddentopossessweapons. Thecreatorsofthisplanwereawarethatcarryingitoutwouldentailanunprecedentedgrowthinthenumberofofficials.Theyposethisquestioninbroadterms: "Indeed,neverbeforehasanationpossessedtheminsuchgreatnumbers.Apartfromthefactthatincertaincircumstanceseverycitizenwouldbeanofficialsupervising himselfandothers,itisbeyonddoubtthatpublicofficeswouldbeverynumerousandthenumberofofficialsverygreat."(55:I:p.372) Hereishowtheinterrelationshipofindividualswiththebureaucracyisconceived: "InthepublicstructuredevisedbytheCommittee,thefatherlandtakescontrolofanindividualfromhisbirthtillhisdeath." [122] Theauthoritiesbeginbyeducatingthechild: "Protecthimfromdangerousfalsetendernessandbythehandofhismotherleadhimtoastateinstitutionwherehewillacquirethevirtuesandknowledgenecessaryfor thetruecitizen."(55:I:p.380) Youthsaretransferredfromstateschoolstomilitarycampsonlylater,undertheguidanceofofficials,dotheyundertake"usefullabor." "Themunicipaladministrationistobekeptconstantlyawareofthepositionoftheworkingpeopleofeveryclassandoftheassignmentstheyarefulfilling.Itistoinformthe supremeadministrationinthisregard."(55:II:p.304)"Thesupremeadministrationwillsentencetoforcedlabor...personsofeithersexwhosetsocietyabadexampleby absenceofcivicmindedness,byidleness,aluxuriouswayoflife,licentiousness."(55:II:p.305) Thispunishmentisdescribedlovinglyandingreatdetail: "TheislandsofMargueriteandHonor,theHyres,OlronandRaretobeturnedintoplacesofcorrectivelabor,whereforeignerswhoaresuspiciousandpersons arrestedforaddressingproclamationstotheFrenchpeoplewillbesent.Therewillbenoaccesstotheseislands.Theywillbeadministeredbyanorganizationdirectly subordinatetothegovernment."(55:II:p.299) Afterthesedarkpictures,thesectioncalled"FreedomofthePress"isapositivejoy. "Itwillbenecessarytodevisemeansbywhichalltheassistancethatcanbeexpectedofthepresscanbeextractedfromit,withouttheriskofonceagainendangeringthe justiceofequalityandtherightsofthepeopleorofabandoningtheRepublictointerminableandfataldiscussions."(55:I:p.390) The"means"turnouttoverysimple: "Noonewillbeallowedtoutterviewsthatareindirectcontradictiontothesacredprinciplesofequalityandthesovereigntyofthepeople....Thepublicationofanywork havingapsuedocriticalcharacterisforbidden....Allworksaretobeprintedanddisseminatedonlyiftheguardiansofthewillofthenationconsiderthatitspublication maybenefittheRepublic."(55:I:p.391) OnecannotbutadmirehowthecreatorsofthissystemmanagedtoConcernthemselveswiththeslightestneedofthecitizenofthefutureRepublic. "Ineverycommune,publicmealswillbetaken,withcompulsoryattendanceforallcommunitymembers....Amemberofthenational [123] communitywillbeabletoobtainhisdailyrationonlyinthedistrictofhisresidence,exceptwhenheistravelingwiththepermissionoftheadministration."(55:II:pp.306 307) "Entertainmentthatisnotavailabletoeveryoneistobestrictlyforbidden."(55:I:p.299)Thisisexplainedinanotherpassage:"...forfearlestimagination,releasedfrom thesupervisionofastrictjudge,shouldengenderabominablevicessocontrarytothecommonweal."(55:I:p.348) The"Equals"informusthattheyarefriendsofallnations.Buttemporarily, aftertheirvictory,Franceistobestringentlyisolated. UntilothernationswouldadheretothepoliticalprinciplesofFrance,noclosecontactswiththemcanbemaintained.Untilthen,Francewillonlyseeamenaceforherselfin theircustoms,institutionsand,especially,theirgovernments."(55:I:p.357) ItappearsthattherewasdisagreementamongEqualsoveronequestion.Buonarrotifeltthatadivineprincipleandimmortalityofthesoulshouldberecognized,sincefora society"itisessentialthatcitizensrecognizeaninfalliblejudgeoftheirsecretthoughtsandacts,whichcannotbepersecutedbylaw,andthattheyshouldbelievethata naturalresultoffaithfulnesstohumanityandthefatherlandwillbeeternalbliss."(55:I:p.348)"Allsocalledrevelationoughttobebanishedbylaw,togetherwithmaladies thegermsofwhichoughttobegraduallyeradicated.Untilthatoccurs,allweretobefreetogiveventtowhims,solongasthesocialstructure,universalbrotherhoodand

UntilothernationswouldadheretothepoliticalprinciplesofFrance,noclosecontactswiththemcanbemaintained.Untilthen,Francewillonlyseeamenaceforherselfin theircustoms,institutionsand,especially,theirgovernments."(55:I:p.357) ItappearsthattherewasdisagreementamongEqualsoveronequestion.Buonarrotifeltthatadivineprincipleandimmortalityofthesoulshouldberecognized,sincefora society"itisessentialthatcitizensrecognizeaninfalliblejudgeoftheirsecretthoughtsandacts,whichcannotbepersecutedbylaw,andthattheyshouldbelievethata naturalresultoffaithfulnesstohumanityandthefatherlandwillbeeternalbliss."(55:I:p.348)"Allsocalledrevelationoughttobebanishedbylaw,togetherwithmaladies thegermsofwhichoughttobegraduallyeradicated.Untilthatoccurs,allweretobefreetogiveventtowhims,solongasthesocialstructure,universalbrotherhoodand theforceofthelawwouldnotbedisrupted."(55:I:pp.348349)Buonarrotibelievedthat"theteachingofJesus,ifdepictedasflowingoutofthenaturalreligionfrom whichitdoesnotdiffer,couldbecomeasupportofareformbasedonreason."(55:I:p.168)ButBabeufheldamorenarrowview:"Iattackrelentlesslythemainidol, untilnowveneratedandfearedbyourphilosophers,whodaredtoattackonlyhisretinueandsurroundings....Christwasneithera sansculotte noranhonestJacobinnor awisemannoramoralistnoraphilosophernoralegislator."(55:II:p.398) AcademicianV.P.Volgin,aneminentspecialistontheliteratureofutopiansocialism,notestheimportantinnovationintroducedbyBabeufandtheEqualsincomparison withothersocialistthinkers.WhilepredecessorslikeMore,CampanellaandMorellyfocusedonapictureofafullyformedsocialistcommunity,Babeufponderedthe problemsofthetransitionalperiodaswell,suggestingmethodsfor [124] establishingandstrengtheningthenewlybornsocialistsystem.Indeed,therecordsoftheEqualsyieldmuchthatisfascinatingandinstructiveinthisconnection. Itgoeswithoutsayingthatinanalreadyestablishedsocialistsociety,legislativepoweristobeentirelyinthehandsofthepeople.Inalldistricts,"assembliesofpopular sovereignty"arecreatedeachismadeupofallthecitizensofagivendistrict.Delegatesappointeddirectlybythepeopleconstitutethe"CentralAssemblyof Legislators."(Theprocedurefor"appointment"isnotfurtherspecified.)Thelegislativepoweroftheseassembliesisrestricted,however,bycertainbasicprincipleswhich "thepeoplethemselvesarenotempoweredtoviolateortoalter."Inadditiontolegislativeassemblies,andparalleltothem,senatesconsistingofoldmenaretobe instituted.Supremepowerwastobegivenovertoacorporationof"GuardiansoftheNationalWill."Thiswasconceivedasakindof"tribunalresponsibleforoverseeing thelegislators,sothatthosewhoabusetherightofissuingdecreeswouldnotencroachuponlegislativepower."(55:I:p.359) Intheperiodimmediatelyfollowingtherevolution,however,adifferentstructureofgovernmentwasenvisaged."Whatkindofauthoritywouldthisbe? Suchwasthe delicatequestionthattheSecretDirectoryhassubjectedtothoroughscrutiny."(55:I:p.216)Theanswertothis"delicatequestion"couldbesummedupasfollows: powerwouldbeconcentratedinthehandsoftheconspiratorsorpartlysharedwithindividualsappointedbythem. "ItwillbeproposedtothepeopleofParistoinstituteaNationalAssemblyvestedwithsupremepowerandconsistingofdemocrats,onefromeverydepartment meanwhiletheSecretDirectorywillinvestigatethoroughlyastowhichofthedemocratsoughttobeputforwardaftertherevolutioniscompleted.TheDirectorywillnot ceasetoactbutwillcarryonsupervisionofthenewAssembly."(55:I:p.293)Afterprolongedhesitation,theconspiratorsalmostmadeuptheirmindsto"askthepeople foradecreewhichwouldentrustthelegislativeinitiativeandtheimplementationoflaws"tothemalone.(55:I:p.290) Inthesectionentitled"IntheInitialStageofReformtheAgenciesMustBeEntrustedOnlytoRevolutionaries,"weread: "AtrueRepublicshouldbefoundedonlybythoseselflessfriendsofhumanityandthefatherlandwhosewisdomandcourageexceedthewisdomandcourageoftheir contemporaries."(55:I:p.375) [125] Therefore,acommitteecomposedofthese"selflessfriendsofhumanity"wouldseetoitthat"publicinstitutionsconsistingsolelyofthebestrevolutionaries"shouldhave onlyaverygradualchangeofpersonnel.(55:I:p.375) Inmoreconcreteterms,sixtyeightdeputieschosenfromamongthoseservingintheConventionofthedayweredesignatedbytheCommitteetobeleftinplace.Tothese weretobeaddedanotheronehundreddeputies"selectedbyusjointlywiththepeople." Beginningwiththefirstdayoftherevolution,economicreformsweretobeundertaken,assetforthintheir"economicdecree."Howgoodtolearnthatimplementationwas tobeonapurelyvoluntarybasis.Allthosewhowouldrenouncetheirpropertyvoluntarilywouldmakeupalargenationalcommunity.Buteveryonewouldretaintheright nottojointhiscommunity.Thosewhodidnotwouldacquirethestatusof"foreigners"withalltheattendantrightsanddutiessketchedinabove.Theeconomicpositionof "foreigners"isdefinedinthe"DecreeonTaxation,"whichcontains,amongotherpoints,suchthingsas: "1.Thesoletaxpayersaretheindividualswhodonotjointhecommunity.... "4.Thesumoftaxpaymentsineachcurrentyearistwicetheamountoftheprecedingyear.... "6.Personsnotpartytothenationalcommunitymayberequired,incaseofnecessityandagainstpaymentoffuturetaxes,tosupplyproduceandmanufacturedgoodsto thestorehousesofthenationalcommunity."(55:II:pp.312313) Thedecree"OnDebts,"articlethree,statesthatdebtsowedby"anyFrenchmanwhohasbecomeamemberofthenationalcommunitytoanyotherFrenchmanare annulled."(55:II:p.313) Othermeasuresdesignedtostrengthenthenewlyestablishedregimeandtopromoteitsreformswereelaborated.Forinstance,"distributionofthepossessionsof emigrants,conspiratorsandenemiesofthepeopletodefendersofthefatherlandandtothepoor."(55:II:p.253) Itistemptingtothinkthatitwasprofoundknowledgeoflife,basedonpersonaltragicexperience,thatpromptedthe"selflessfriendsofhumanity"toplaninstitutingthe followinghighlyimportantreforms,ontheveryfirstdayoftherevolution: "Objectsbelongingtothepeople[!]andinhockwillbeimmediatelyreturnedwithoutcharge....Oncompletionoftheuprising,indigent [126] citizensnowresidinginpoorlodgingswillnotreturntotheirhabitualabodestheywillbeimmediatelyinstalledinthehousesoftheconspirators."(55:II:p.281)(The readershouldnotethattheparticipantsinthe"ConspiracyofEquals"usedtheterm"conspirator"nottorefertothemselvesbutrathertothegovernmentandto representativesofhostileclasses.) Unfortunately,thedisciplesoftheAgeofReasondidnotleaveamoredetailedaccountofthisoperation.Hadtheeconomyofthetimeattainedsohighalevelthatthe numberofindigentcitizensnolongersurpassedthatofthe"conspirators"?Or,ifthelodgingsofthe"conspirators"wouldnotsufficetoaccommodatealltheindigent,in whatwaywouldtheluckynewownersofapartmentsbechosen?Thedocumentsofthe"ConspiracyofEquals"areoflittlehelponthesepoints,*butwelearnsomeother

citizensnowresidinginpoorlodgingswillnotreturntotheirhabitualabodestheywillbeimmediatelyinstalledinthehousesoftheconspirators."(55:II:p.281)(The readershouldnotethattheparticipantsinthe"ConspiracyofEquals"usedtheterm"conspirator"nottorefertothemselvesbutrathertothegovernmentandto representativesofhostileclasses.) Unfortunately,thedisciplesoftheAgeofReasondidnotleaveamoredetailedaccountofthisoperation.Hadtheeconomyofthetimeattainedsohighalevelthatthe numberofindigentcitizensnolongersurpassedthatofthe"conspirators"?Or,ifthelodgingsofthe"conspirators"wouldnotsufficetoaccommodatealltheindigent,in whatwaywouldtheluckynewownersofapartmentsbechosen?Thedocumentsofthe"ConspiracyofEquals"areoflittlehelponthesepoints,*butwelearnsomeother interestingdetails. "Thefurnitureoftheabovementionedrichwillbeconfiscatedasnecessaryfortheadequatefurnishingofthedwellingsofthesansculottes. "(55:II:p.282) Finally,terrorwasenvisagedasoneofthemeasuresofstrengtheningtheregime.ThetribunalswhichhadactedduringtheJacobinterroruntiltheninthofThermidor, 1794,weretoberestored.And:"Onpainofbeingheldoutsidethelaw,returntoprisonallpersonswhowereheldthereuntiltheninthofThermidorofyearII,ifthey havenotcompliedwiththecalltolimitthemselvestothenecessitiesforthebenefitofthepeople."(55:I:p.404)"Anyresistancemustbeimmediatelysuppressedby forcethepersonsinvolvedaretobeexterminated.Alsoliabletocapitalpunishmentarepersonssoundinganalarmthemselvesorcausingotherstodosoandforeigners, nomatterwhattheirnationality,whoareapprehendedonthestreet."(55:II:p.232)MembersoftheexistinggovernmentmembersofthetwoCouncilsandofthe ExecutiveDirectorateweretobeexecuted."Thecrimewasevidentandthepunishmenthadtobedeathagreatexamplewasessential."(55:I:p.283) "IntheInsurgentCommittee,viewswerecurrenttotheeffectthatthecondemnedweretobeburiedundertherubbleoftheirpalaces,whoseruinswouldservetoremind futuregenerationsofthejustpunishmentmetedouton.theenemiesofthepeople."(55:I:p.284) Inelaboratingtheirsystemofreformsandpracticalmeasures,the

*Althoughthereisthefollowingremark:"Itwouldbeanerrortoconfusethesystematicdistributionoflodgingsandclotheswithpillage."(55:I:p.282)

[127] activistsofthe"ConspiracyofEquals"didnotclosetheireyestoobjectionswhichtheymightencounter:"Disorganizers,rebels,theysaytous,allyouwantismassacre andplunder."Suchchargesaresweptaside,however:"Neverhassobroadaplanbeenconceivedandbroughtintoexistence."(55:II:p.136)"Letthemshowus,"they wouldexclaim,"anotherpoliticalsystemwithwhichsuchgreatresultscouldbeobtainedwithmoreeasilyimplementedmeans."(55:I:p.339) Wenotewithsorrowhowsuchaperfectlyconceivedsystemwasconstantlyhamperedinpracticebyahostofpettyandsqualiddifficulties.Firstofall,theconspirators didnotavoidwhatRabelaiscalled"theincomparablegrief,"thatis,lackofmoney.Inthesectionentitled"TheParticipantsintheConspiracyDespisedMoney,"Buonarotti says: "Certainstepswereundertakentoobtainmeans,butthegreatestsumthattheSecretDirectoryeverhadatitsdisposalwas240francsincash,contributedbythe ambassadorofanallied[?]republic."(55:I:251) WecannothelpbutsympathizewhenBuonarottilaments:"Howdifficultitistodogoodarmedonlywithmeansacknowledgedbyreason."(55:I:p.251) Andasecondmisfortunebefellourheroesinternaldiscordoverdividingpowernotyetseized.TheCommitteewasatfirstjoinedbyasmallgroupthatcalleditselfthe Montagnards.Butsoon,"theCommitteewasinformedthattheyhadsecretlyundertakenmaneuverstogetaroundtheconditionswhichhadbeenagreeduponsoasto guaranteethatsupremepowerintheRepublicwouldbeintheMontagnards'hands.TheCommitteewassothoroughlyconvincedtheycoulddonogoodthatitconsidered theslightestmovementwhichgavethemanypowertobeanunforgivablecrime."(55:I:p.286) Andfinally,athirdmisfortune:TheCommitteeturnedouttobeundertheinfluenceofan agentprovocateur. Grisel,amemberofthemilitarycommittee,"hurriedhis trustingcolleaguesalong,overcameobstacles,suggestednewmeasuresandneverforgottoencouragethosearoundhimwithexaggeratedpicturesoftheloyaltyofthe Grenelledemocraticcamp."(55:I:p.265)AnditwasthisGriselwhowasdenouncingtheCommitteetotheauthorities! TheInsurgentCommitteewasalreadyworkingoutthedetailsoftheuprising.Oneofitsmemberswaswritingaproclamationcalled:"TheInsurgentCommitteeof PublicSalvation. ..Thepeoplehavetriumphed,tyrannyisnomore...."(55:I:p.400) [128] "Atthispoint,thewriterwasinterruptedandseized,"saysBuonarotti,whoseemsnottohavelosthisFrenchwit.Thearmyandthepeoplehadnotsupportedthe conspirators:"Thestandingarmy,withweaponsinhand,helpedthecampaignagainstdemocracy,whilethepopulationofParis,persuadedthatthosearrestedwere thieves,remainedapassivewitness."(55:I:p.417) Thecircumstancesofthisastonishingepisodepromptedustoresorttoaformofpresentationthatperhapsseemsoutofplaceinournarrative.Butthisdissonancereflects acuriousobjectivepropertyofthephenomenonunderstudy.Atthemomentoftheirinception,socialistmovementsoftenstrikeonebytheirhelplessness,theirisolation fromreality,theirnaIvelyadventuristiccharacterandtheircomic,"Gogolian"features(asBerdyaevputit).Onegetstheimpressionthatthesehopelessfailureshaven'ta chanceofsuccess,andthatinfacttheydoeverythingintheirpowertocompromisetheideastheyareproclaiming.However,theyaremerelybidingtheirtime.Atsome point,almostunexpectedly,theseideasfindabroadpopularreception,andbecometheforcesthatdeterminethecourseofhistory,whiletheleadersofthesemovements cometorulethedestinyofnations.(InthiswayafrightenedMntzerclimbedovertheAllstedtcitywall,havingdeceivedhissupporters,onlytobecome,soonthereafter, oneoftheleadingfiguresinthePeasantWarwhichshookGermany.)ItwouldseemthattherewasnocontradictionwhenDostoyevskypeopledhisnovelThePossessed with"threeandahalf'nihilistsincapableofmakingaseriousdisturbanceinaprovincialtown,whileatthesametimepredictinganimminentrevolutionthatwouldcarry awayonehundredmillionlives.

Summary
WeshallattempttosumupthosenewfeaturesofsocialistideologythatwehaveencounteredinutopiansocialismandinworksoftheEnlightenment. 1.IfintheMiddleAgesandduringtheReformationsocialistideasdevelopedwithinmovementsthatwerereligious,atleastformally,utopiansocialismtendstobreakwith religiousformandgraduallyacquireacharacterhostiletoreligion.InMoreandCampanellawewereabletopointoutanalienatedandattimesironicattitudetoward Christianity.Winstanleyisopenlyhostiletocontemporaryreligions. [129]

WeshallattempttosumupthosenewfeaturesofsocialistideologythatwehaveencounteredinutopiansocialismandinworksoftheEnlightenment. 1.IfintheMiddleAgesandduringtheReformationsocialistideasdevelopedwithinmovementsthatwerereligious,atleastformally,utopiansocialismtendstobreakwith religiousformandgraduallyacquireacharacterhostiletoreligion.InMoreandCampanellawewereabletopointoutanalienatedandattimesironicattitudetoward Christianity.Winstanleyisopenlyhostiletocontemporaryreligions. [129] Deschampsrejectsallreligion,declaringtheideaofGodtobeahumaninvention,theresultofmankind'soppressedstateandaninstrumentofoppression.Initsstead,he putsforwardtheenigmaticconceptionofGodwhoisNothing.Finally,MeslierbaseshisworldoutlookonahatredofreligionandChristianityandofChristinparticular. Thusonecanspeakofagradualmergingofsocialistideologyandatheism. 2.TheSocialismofthisepochborrowstheideaderivedfrommedievalmysticism(JoachimofFlore's,forinstance)thathistoryisanimmanentandorderlyevolutionary process.However,thegoalandthedrivingforceinvestedinthisprocessbythemysticsknowledgeofGodandmergingwithHimiseliminated.Instead,progress is recognizedasthemotivatingforceofhistory,andhumanreasonisseenasitssupremeproduct. 3.Socialistdoctrinespreservethenotionofthemedievalmysticsaboutthethreestages inthehistoricalprocess,aswellastheschemeofthefall ofmankindandits returntotheoriginalstateinamoreperfectform.Thesocialistdoctrinescontainthefollowingcomponents:
a.The myth ofaprimordial"naturalstate"or"goldenage,"whichwasdestroyedbythatbearerofevilcalledprivateproperty. b.A castigation ofthewaythingsare.Contemporarysocietyispronouncedincurablydepraved,unjustandmeaningless,readyonlytobescrapped.Onlyonitsruinscananew socialstructurebebuilt,astructurethatwouldguaranteepeopleeveryhappinessofwhichtheyarecapable. c.Theprophecy ofanewsocietybuiltonsocialistprinciples,asocietyinwhichallpresentshortcomingswoulddisappear.Thisistheonlypathformankindtoreturntothe "naturalstate,"asMorellyputit:fromtheunconsciousGoldenAgetotheconsciousone.

4.Theideaof"liberation,"whichwasunderstoodbythemedievalheresiestobeliberationofthespiritfromthepowerofmatter,istransformedintoanappealfor liberationfromthemoralityofcontemporarysociety,fromitssocialinstitutionsand,mostofall,fromprivateproperty. Atfirst,reasonisrecognizedtobethedrivingforceofthisliberation,butgraduallyitsplaceistakenoverbythepeople,thepoor.Intheworldviewoftheparticipantsin the"ConspiracyofEquals,"wecanseethisconceptioninfinishedform.Asaresult,newconcretefeaturesappearintheplanfortheestablishmentofthe"societyofthe future":terror,occupationoftheapartmentsoftherichbythepoor,confiscationoffurniture,abolitionofdebts,etc. [130]

PARTTWO STATESOCIALISM
[131]

IV. SouthAmerica
1.TheIncaEmpire
Inthefirstpartofthisstudy,wehaveseenhowthestablesetofsocialideasthatwehavecalledchiliasticsocialismwasexpressedinvariousperiodsofhumanhistory, overthecourseofatleasttwoandahalfmillennia.Weshallnowtrytotracetheattemptstoimplementtheseideasinparticularsocialstructures.Ourprimarygoalisto showthathere,justasinthecaseofchiliasticsocialism,wearedealingwithauniversalphenomenon,onebynomeanslimitedtoourcentury.Weshallreviewseveral examplesofstateswhoselifewasbuilt,ingreatpart,onsocialistprinciples. WeencounterhereafarmoredifficulttaskthantheonethatoccupiedusinPartIofthisstudy.Afterall,anauthorofaworkinwhichsocialistprinciplesarepropounded mustproceedfromthenotionthattheseideasarenovelandunusualtohisreader.Heisthereforecompelledtoexplainthem.Butinthescanteconomicandpolitical documentationthathasbeenpreservedfromremoteepochs(andsometimescultureswithoutwrittenlanguagesareinvolved),themeaningsofthetermsusedarenot elucidatedforthereaderofthefuture.Suchdocumentswereintendedforpeopletowhomtheterminologywouldhavebeenunderstandable.Toreconstructfrom scatteredhintsthewayoflife,tocomprehendthelegalandeconomicrelationsofthemembersofasocietyfarremovedintime,isthereforeataskofextremedifficulty, muchmoredifficultthantoreconstructtheappearanceandbehaviorofaprehistoriccreaturefromthefossilremains.Inmostcases,we [132] seethehistoriansofferingaseriesofopinionsratherthananydefinitiveformulation. Ifthepresentepochisexcluded,itwasonlyoncethatEuropeanswereabletoobserveatfirsthandastateofthistype.Manyintelligentandobservanttravelersleft accountsofthisstate,andcertainofitsnativesacquiredEuropeancultureandleftnarrativesaboutthewayoflifeoftheirfathers.Thisphenomenon,whichisfarmore importantforthehistorianofsocialismthandescriptionsoftheappearanceandbehaviorofadinosaurwouldbeforapaleontologist,isTawantinsuyutheIncaempire conqueredbySpanishinvadersinthesixteenthcentury. TheSpaniardsdiscoveredtheIncastatein1531.Atthattime,ithadexistedforsometwohundredyearsandhadachieveditspeak,encompassingtheterritoryof contemporaryEcuador,Bolivia,Peru,thenorthernhalfofChileandthenorthwesternpartofArgentina.Accordingtoseveralsources,itspopulationwastwelvemillion. Theempire,astheSpaniardsfoundit,wasaswellorganizedasitwashuge.Accordingtotheiraccounts,thecapital,Cuzco,rivaledthebiggestEuropeancitiesofthat time.Ithadapopulationofabout200,000.TheSpaniardswerestruckbythemagnificentpalacesandtemples,withfaadesasmuchastwohundredmeterslong,the aqueductsandthepavedstreets.Thehouseswerebuiltoflargestonessofinelypolishedandfittedtogetherthattheyseemedtobeofonepiece.Outside,Cuzco,there wasafortressthatwasbuiltofstonesweighingtwelvetonseachitsoamazedtheSpaniardsthattheyrefusedtobelieveitcouldhavebeenmadebymen,withoutthehelp

TheSpaniardsdiscoveredtheIncastatein1531.Atthattime,ithadexistedforsometwohundredyearsandhadachieveditspeak,encompassingtheterritoryof contemporaryEcuador,Bolivia,Peru,thenorthernhalfofChileandthenorthwesternpartofArgentina.Accordingtoseveralsources,itspopulationwastwelvemillion. Theempire,astheSpaniardsfoundit,wasaswellorganizedasitwashuge.Accordingtotheiraccounts,thecapital,Cuzco,rivaledthebiggestEuropeancitiesofthat time.Ithadapopulationofabout200,000.TheSpaniardswerestruckbythemagnificentpalacesandtemples,withfaadesasmuchastwohundredmeterslong,the aqueductsandthepavedstreets.Thehouseswerebuiltoflargestonessofinelypolishedandfittedtogetherthattheyseemedtobeofonepiece.Outside,Cuzco,there wasafortressthatwasbuiltofstonesweighingtwelvetonseachitsoamazedtheSpaniardsthattheyrefusedtobelieveitcouldhavebeenmadebymen,withoutthehelp ofdemons.(56:p.114,57:pp.7282) Thecapitalcitywasjoinedtotheoutlyingpartsoftheempirebyexcellentroadways,innowayinferiortoRomanroadsandfarbetterthantheonesinSpainatthetime. Theroadsranalongdikesinswampyterrain,cutthroughrockandcrossedgorgesbymeansofsuspensionbridges.(56:pp.106,113,57:pp.9396)Anefficiently organizedserviceoffootmessengersguaranteedcommunicationsbetweenthecapitalandtherestofthecountry.Aroundthecapitalandothertowns,aswellasalongthe roads,therewerestatestorehousesfullofproduce,clothing,utensilsandmilitaryequipment.(56:pp.6167,57:pp.100101,58:pp.6167) InstarkcontrasttothesuperborganizationoftheIncastate,itsleveloftechnicalknowledgewasastonishinglyprimitive.Mosttools [133] andweaponsweremadeofwoodandstone.Ironwasunknown,aswastheplow,andlandwastilledwithawoodenhoe.Theonlydomesticanimalwasthellama,from whichmeatandwoolwereobtainedbutwhichwasnotusedforfarmingortransportation.Allfarmworkwasperformedmanually,andtravelwaseitherbyfootorby palanquin.Finally,theIncashadnowritingsystem,althoughtheycouldtransmitgreatamountsofinformationbymeansofquipu,acomplexsystemofknottedstrings.* Hencethelowleveloftechnologyhadtobecompensatedforbyperfectorganizationofhugemassesofthepopulation.Asanaturalresult,privateinterestsweretoa considerableextentsubordinatedtothoseofthestate.Andso,aswemightexpect,weencountercertainsocialistfeaturesinIncasociety. Whatfollowsisabriefsketchofitsstructure.Fortunately,muchinformationisavailable.Theconquistadorsprovedtobemorethanmindlessmilitarymentheygrasped muchofwhattheysawandsomeoftheiraccountshavesurvived.IntheirwakecameCatholicpriests,whoalsoleftdetaileddescriptions.Finally,theconquistadors marriedgirlsfromtheIncarulingcircles,andthechildrenoftheseunions,whobelongedtotheSpanisharistocracy,atthesametimeretainedclosetieswiththelocal population.TothembelongthemostvaluabledescriptionsoflifeintheIncastatepriortotheSpanishconquest. ThepopulationoftheIncastatewasdividedintothreestrata:

1.Incastherulingclass,descendantsofatribethatinthepasthadconqueredanancientstatenearLakeTiticaca.Variousauthorsrefertothemasaristocracy,theelite, thebureaucracy.Fromthisclasscametheadministrators,thearmyofficercorps,priestsandscholarsandofcourse,theabsoluterulerofthecountry,theInca.Thisclass washereditary,butchiefsofconqueredtribesandevensoldiersdistinguishedinwarmightoccasionallyenterit. 2.Thebulkofthepopulationpeasants,herdsmen,artisans.Theyhadtwotypesofobligationtothestate:militaryandlabor.Bothofthesewillbedescribedbelow. Sometimestheywereutilizedinotherwaysbythestate,forinstancetosettleanewlyconqueredterritory,ortoprovidematerial(women)forhumansacrifices. 3.Thestateslavesyanacuna.Accordingtolegend,theydescendedfromatribethathadoncerebelledagainstthestate,had


*Cf.58:p.358.Accordingtolegend,writinghadbeenprohibitedbythefounderoftheIncaempire.

[134] beencrushed,andhadbeensentencedtoextermination.Butinresponsetoapleabyhiswife,theIncachangedthesentencetoperpetualslavery.Thereafterthemembers ofthisgroupoccupiedthelowestpositioninthecountry.Theyworkedthestatelands,herdedthellamasbelongingtothestateandservedasservantsinthehousesofthe Incas.(57:pp.124125) ThebasicformofpropertyintheIncaempirewasland.Theoretically,alllandbelongedtotheIncaandwasdistributedbyhimtotheIncasandpeasantsfortheiruse.The landsreceivedbytheIncaswerehereditary,buttheywereapparentlymanagedbyadministrators,whiletheIncasthemselvesmerelymadeuseoftheproduce.These landswereworkedbypeasantsinamannerdescribedbelow.Peasantsalsoreceivedlandforusefromthestate.Thebasicunitwasthe tupuaplotlargeenoughto sustainoneperson.EveryIndianreceivedonetupuatmarriage,anotherforeachsonandhalfatupuforeachdaughter.Afterthedeathofatenant,thelandrevertedtothe state.(56:pp.6869,57:pp.126127,58:p.274)LandnotdividedintotupuwastreatedasbelongingtotheSunGodandservedtosupportthetemplesandthe priests.TheremaininglandbelongedtotheIncaclassordirectlytothestate.Alltheselandswereworkedbypeasantsaccordingtoadetailedschedule.Controloverall farmworkwasexercisedbyclerks.Forexample,theygavethedailysignalforthepeasantstobeginworkbysoundingaconchfromaspeciallyconstructedtower.(56: pp.7071,58:p.247) ThepeasantswereliabletomilitaryserviceandtoobligatorylabortillingthelandofthetemplesandtheIncas,buildingnewtemplesandpalacesfortheIncaortheIncas, mendingroads,buildingbridges,workinginthegoldandsilverminesownedbythestate,andsoon.Someofthesedutiesrequiredmovingthepeasantstodistantareasof theempire,inwhichcasethestateundertooktofeedthem.(56:p.8889) Therawmaterialsforcraftswereprovidedbythestatefinishedproductsweredeliveredtoit.Forexample,llamaswereshornbystateslaves,thewooldistributedby officialstopeasantsforspinningandthefinishedmaterialsubsequentlycollectedbyotherofficials. Thelawdividedthelifeofamalepeasantintotenperiodsandprescribedtheobligationsofeachagegroup.Thus,fromageninetosixteen,thepeasantwastobea herdsman,fromsixteentotwenty,amessengeroraservantinthehouseofanInca,etc.Evendutiesof [135] thelastagegroup(oversixty)werespecified:spinningrope,feedingducks,andsoon.Cripplesformedaspecialgroup,buttheytoo,asGuamnPomadeAyalareports, weredesignatedforcertainwork.Similarprescriptionsexistedforwomen.Thelawrequiredconstantactivityfromthepeasants.Awomanonherwaytoanotherhouse wastotakewoolwithherandtospinontheway.(56:p.80,57:pp.129131)AccordingtothechronicleofCiezadeLen,peasantsweresometimesmadetoperform completelyuselessworksimplysoasnottobeidleforexample,theywereforcedtomoveahillofdirtfromoneplacetoanother.(56:p.81,57:p.132)Garcilasodela Vegainformsusthatworkwasfoundforcripples.(58:p.300)Healsocitesalawagainstidlersamanwhotilledhisfieldbadlywashitseveraltimeswithastoneinthe shouldersorfloggedwitharod.(56:p.276)Thecompletelyincapacitatedandtheagedweremaintainedbythestateortheruralcommunity. Forwork,thepeasantswerejoinedintogroupsoftenfamilies,fivesuchgroupsintoalargergroup,etc.,uptotenthousandfamilies.Therewasanofficialheadforeach

weredesignatedforcertainwork.Similarprescriptionsexistedforwomen.Thelawrequiredconstantactivityfromthepeasants.Awomanonherwaytoanotherhouse wastotakewoolwithherandtospinontheway.(56:p.80,57:pp.129131)AccordingtothechronicleofCiezadeLen,peasantsweresometimesmadetoperform completelyuselessworksimplysoasnottobeidleforexample,theywereforcedtomoveahillofdirtfromoneplacetoanother.(56:p.81,57:p.132)Garcilasodela Vegainformsusthatworkwasfoundforcripples.(58:p.300)Healsocitesalawagainstidlersamanwhotilledhisfieldbadlywashitseveraltimeswithastoneinthe shouldersorfloggedwitharod.(56:p.276)Thecompletelyincapacitatedandtheagedweremaintainedbythestateortheruralcommunity. Forwork,thepeasantswerejoinedintogroupsoftenfamilies,fivesuchgroupsintoalargergroup,etc.,uptotenthousandfamilies.Therewasanofficialheadforeach group.ThelowermembersofthishierarchywereappointedfromthepeasantryhigherpostswereoccupiedbyIncas.(57:pp.9697,59:p.77) Notonlyworkbutthewholelifeofthecitizenrywascontrolledbyofficials.Specialinspectorscontinuouslytraveledaboutthecountryobservingtheinhabitants.To facilitatesupervision,peasants,forinstance,wereobligedtokeeptheirdoorsopenduringmeals(thelawprescribedthetimeofmealsandrestrictedthemenu).(56:p.96, 57:p.132)Otheraspectsoflifewerealsostrictlyregimented.OfficialsissuedeveryIndiantwocloaksfromthestatestoresoneforworkandtheotherforfestivals. Withineachindividualprovince,thecloakswereindistinguishableinstyleandcoloranddifferedonlyaccordingtothesexoftheirbearers.Thecloakwastobeuseduntilit waswornout.Changesincutandcolorwereforbidden.Therewerelawsagainstotherextravagances:itwasforbiddentohavechairsinthehouse(onlybencheswere allowed),tobuildhousesofalargersizethanauthorized,etc.Eachprovincehadaspecialobligatoryhairstyle.(55:p.91,57:p.132)Suchprescriptionsextendedto otherclasses,forinstance,thequantityandsizeofgoldandsilvervesselsthatanofficialoflowerrankcouldpossesswerestrictlylimitedaccordingtohisstation.(56:pp. 9192) Theinhabitantsofnewlyconqueredareaswereunderespecially [136] severecontrol.Residentsfromcentralprovincesweredispatchedtonewregions,wheretheywereentitledtoenterthehousesofthesubjugatedpeopleatanytimeofday ornightandwereobligedtoreportonanysignofdiscontent. Peasantswerenotallowedtoleavetheirvillageswithoutspecialpermission.Controlwasmadeeasierbythedifferencesinthecolorofclothingandthevariedhairstyles. Specialofficialssupervisedtrafficonbridgesandatgates.Thestateitself,however,carriedoncompulsoryresettlementonalargescale.Resettlementsometimeswas occasionedbyeconomicfactorspeopleweremovedtoaprovincedevastatedbyanepidemicortransferredtoamorefertilearea.Occasionally,thereasonwas political,aswiththeresettlementofinhabitantsfromtheoriginalprovincesoftheempiretonewlyconqueredlandsor,onthecontrary,thedispersionofanewlyconquered tribethroughoutthemoreloyalpopulationoftheempire.(56:pp.99100,59:p.58) Familylifewasalsounderthecontrolofthestate.Allmenwereobligedtoenterintomarriageuponreachingacertainage.Onceeachyear,everyvillagewasvisitedbya specialofficialwhoconductedapublicmarriageceremony,inwhicheveryonewhohadcomeofagethepreviousyeartookpart.Spaniardswhodescribedthecustomsof theIncastateoftenassertedthatthepreferenceofthepersonbeingmarriedwasnotaskedfor.AndSantillan,writingattheendofthesixteenthcentury,reportsthat objectionswerepunishablebydeath.Ontheotherhand,FatherMorareportsthatamancouldindicatethathehadalreadypromisedtomarryanothergirl,andthe officialwouldthenreviewthematter.Itisclear,however,thattheopinionofthebridewasneversolicited.(57:pp.158,160) MembersofthetopsocialgrouptheIncashadtherighttoseveralwives,ormoreprecisely,concubines,sincethefirstwifehadaspecialpositionwhiletheotherswere relegatedtotheroleofservants.Marriagewiththefirstwifewasindissolubleconcubinescouldbedrivenoutandwouldthereafternotbeallowedtomarryagain.(57:p. 156)Thenumberofconcubinespermittedbylawdependedonthesocialstatusofthemanitcouldbetwenty,thirty,fifty,etc.(57:p.134)FortheIncaandhis immediatefamily,therewasnolimitationwhatever.Themultitudeofwivesandtheconsequentlylargenumberofoffspringresultedinaneverincreasingproportionof Incasinthegeneralpopulation. Therewasaspecialcategoryofwomenthesocalledelect.Each [137] year,officialsweresenttoallsectionsofthecountrytoselectgirlseightornineyearsold.Thesewerecalledthe"elect."Theywerebroughtupinspecialhouses(called "convents"insomeSpanishaccounts).Everyyearduringaspecialcelebration,thosewhohadreachedthirteenyearsofageweresenttothecapital,wheretheInca himselfdividedthemintothreecategories.Some,calledSolarMaidens,werereturnedtothe"convent,"wheretheyweretoengageinactivitiesassociatedwiththe worshipofthegodsofsun,moonandstars.Theyhadtoobservechastity,althoughtheIncacouldgivethemtohiscircleasconcubinesortakethemforhimself.Girlsfrom thesecondgroupweredistributedbytheIncaaswivesorconcubines.AgiftofthiskindfromtheIncawasregardedasahighdistinction.Finally,athirdgroupwas intendedforthehumansacrificesthattookplaceregularly,butonaparticularlylargescaleatthecoronationofanewInca.Thelawprovidedforthepunishmentofparents whoshowedtheirgriefwhentheirdaughterswerechosenforthe"elect."(57:pp.161162) Apartfromthe"elect,"allunmarriedwomenwerealsoatthedisposaloftheIncas,butnotasprivatepropertyrather,theywereallottedtothembygovernmentofficials foruseasconcubinesandservants.TheoppressedstatusofwomenintheIncastateisparticularlynotableagainstthebackgroundoftheneighboringIndiantribes,where womenenjoyedmuchindependenceandauthority.(57:p.159) Itisclearthatsuchtotalregulationoflifeandtheomnipresentstatecontrolwouldhavebeenimpossiblewithoutamultifacetedbureaucraticapparatus.Thebureaucracy wasbuiltonapurelyhierarchicalprinciple.Everyofficialhadcontactonlywithhissuperiorandhissubordinatesofficialsofthesamerankcouldcommunicateonlythrough theircommonchief.(56:p.96)Themainfunctionofthisbureaucracywasthekeepingofaccountsbymeansofthesophisticatedandasyetundecipheredsystemof knottedstrings. Theideaofthequipuwasacuriouslyaccuratereflectionofthehierarchicalstructureofthestatemachinery.Ahierarchywasintroducedintothematerialareaaswellfor instance,alltypesofarmswerearrangedby"seniority."Thelancewasconsideredtobeseniortootherweaponsnextcamethearrow,thenthebow,andsoon. Accordingtotheseniorityoftheseobjects,theyweredenotedbyknotstiedhigherorloweronastring.Learningtheartofquipubeganwithlearningtheprinciplesof "seniority"byrote. Informationencodedinthiswaywaspassedupthebureaucratic [138] laddertothecapital,whereitwasexaminedandpreservedbytypes:military,population,provisions,etc.IntheSpanishchroniclesitisassertedthateventhenumberof stonesforslings,thenumberofanimalskilledinhuntingandothersuchdatawerekept.GuamnPomadeAyalawrites:"Theykeepanaccountofeverythingthatoccursin theirstate,andineveryvillagetherearesecretariesandtreasurersforthat....Thestateisgovernedwiththehelpofquipu."(56:pp.9495) Thereareaccountsoftrulyremarkableadministrativeachievements,suchasthecreationofarmiesofworkersnumbering20,000menoranoperationinwhich100,000 bushelsofmaizearedistributedamongapopulationofalargeregionaccordingtostrictlyfixednorms.(56:p.102) TheworkersinthebureaucracyweretrainedinschoolsthatonlychildrenoftheIncaswerepermittedtoattend.(Thelawforbadeeducationforthelowerlevelsofthe

stonesforslings,thenumberofanimalskilledinhuntingandothersuchdatawerekept.GuamnPomadeAyalawrites:"Theykeepanaccountofeverythingthatoccursin theirstate,andineveryvillagetherearesecretariesandtreasurersforthat....Thestateisgovernedwiththehelpofquipu."(56:pp.9495) Thereareaccountsoftrulyremarkableadministrativeachievements,suchasthecreationofarmiesofworkersnumbering20,000menoranoperationinwhich100,000 bushelsofmaizearedistributedamongapopulationofalargeregionaccordingtostrictlyfixednorms.(56:p.102) TheworkersinthebureaucracyweretrainedinschoolsthatonlychildrenoftheIncaswerepermittedtoattend.(Thelawforbadeeducationforthelowerlevelsofthe population.)Teachingwasperformedbythe amautas or"scholars."Theirdutiesincludedthewritingofhistoryintwoversions:one,objectiverecordsintheformof quipu,whichwerepreservedinthecapitalandintendedonlyforspecialauthorizedofficials,andtheotherintheformofhymnstobenarratedtothepeopleatfestivals.Ifa dignitarywasdeemedunworthy,hisnamewasremovedfromthe"festival"history.(56:pp.7576,78) ThelawsregulatinglifeintheIncastatereliedonasophisticatedsystemofpunishment.Penaltieswereseverealmostalwaysdeathortorture.Thisistobeexpected: whenalllifeisregulatedbythestate,anyinfringementofthelawisacrimeagainstthestateand,inturn,affectstheveryfoundationofthesocialsystem.Thusamanguilty ofcuttingdownatreeorstealingfruitinastateplantationwassubjecttothedeathpenalty.Abortionwaspunishedbydeathforthewomanandforanyonewhomayhave assistedher.(59:p.173) Thesystemprovidedforanextraordinaryvarietyofcapitalpunishments:thevictimcouldbehangedbythefeetorstonedorthrownintoagorgeorhangedbythehair overaclifforthrownintoapitwithjaguarsandpoisonoussnakes.(57:p.42)Forthemostseriousoffenses,therewereprovisionsfortheexecutionofallrelativesofthe accused.GuamnPomadeAyala'smanuscriptcontainsadrawingoftheslaughterofawholefamilywhosechiefmemberhadbeendeterminedtobeasorcerer.Burying thebodiesofexecutedcriminalscouldbeprohibitedasafurtherpunishment.Burialofthebodiesofmutineers [139] wasforbidden,forexample.Theirfleshwasthrowntowildbeasts,anddrumsweremadeoftheirskin,bowlsoftheskullsandflutesofthearmandlegbones.Finally,a victimcouldbeputtotorturebeforeexecution."Hewhokillsanothertorobhimwillbepunishedbydeath.Beforetheexecutionhewillbetorturedinjailsothatthe penaltyshouldbeharder.Thenhewillbeexecuted."(57:p.143) Manyformsofpunishmentdifferedlittlefromexecution.Forinstance,CiezadeLen,Cobo,MoraandGuamnPomadeAyaladescribejailsinundergroundcavesin whichjaguars,bears,venomoussnakesandscorpionswerekept.Incarcerationinthistypeofprisonwasusedasatestofguilt.Generally,thisformoftrialwasusedinthe caseofpeoplesuspectedofplottingrebellion.Personssentencedtolifeimprisonmentwerekeptinotherundergroundjails.(57:p.142)Apenaltyoffivehundredlashes (providedbylawasapunishmentfortheft)probablywastheequivalentofadeathsentence.Therewasapunishmentcalledthe"stoneexecution,"whereahugestonewas tossedontothevictim'sshoulders.AccordingtoGuamnPomadeAyala,thiskilledmanyandcrippledothersforlife. Otherpunishmentsconsistedofforcedlaborinstategoldandsilverminesoroncocaplantationsindifficulttropicalclimates.Forcedlaborcouldbeeitherforlifeorfora fixedterm.Finally,minoroffendersweresubjecttovariouscorporalpunishments.(57:p.144) Itgoeswithoutsayingthatequalitybeforethelawdidnotexist.Foroneandthesamecrimeapeasantmightbeexecuted,whileanIncawouldgetoffwithapublic reprimand.AsCoboreports:"ThepremiseherewasthatforanIncaofroyalblood(allIncasweretheoreticallyrelated),apublicreprimandwasaheavierpenaltythan deathforapleebeian."(56:p.79,57:p.143) Seductionofanother'swifewasaccordedcorporalpunishment.ButifapeasantseducedanIncawoman,bothwereexecutedasGuamnPomadeAyalarecounts,both werehangednakedbythehairoveracliffuntiltheydied.(57:p.146) Acrimeagainstpropertywasalsopunisheddifferentlydependingonwhethertheinterestsofthestateoraprivatepartywereinvolved.Someoneguiltyofpickingfruitona privateestatecouldavoidpunishment,ifhecouldprovethathehaddonesooutofhunger.ButiftheownerwasanInca,theguiltypartywassubjecttodeath.(57:p. 145) Thecompletesubjugationoflifetotheprescriptionsofthelaw [140] andtoofficialdomledtoextraordinarystandardization:identicalclothing,identicalhouses,identicalroads.Repetitionofthesamedescriptivedetailsischaracteristicofthe oldSpanishaccounts.Thecapitalcity,builtofidenticalhousesmadeofidenticalblockstoneanddividedintoidenticalblocks,undoubtedlycreatedtheimpressionofa prisontown.(56:p.117) Asaresultofthisspiritofstandardization,anythingtheleastbitdifferentwaslookeduponasdangerousandhostile,whetheritwasthebirthoftwinsorthediscoveryofa strangelyshapedrock.Suchthingswerebelievedtobeamanifestationofevilforceshostiletosociety.Eventsweretoshowthatthefearofunplannedphenomenawas quitejustified:thehugeempireprovedpowerlessagainstlessthantwohundredSpaniards.Neithertheirfirearmsnortheirhorses(animalsunknowntotheIndians)can explainthisextraordinaryturnofevents.ThesamedifferenceinarmamentswasafterallinvolvedinthesubjugationoftheZulus,buttheywereabletomountalongand successfulresistancetolargedetachmentsofEnglishforces.ThereasonforthecollapseoftheIncaempiremustapparentlybesoughtelsewhereinthecompleteatrophy ofindividualinitiative,intheingrainedhabitofactingonlyatthedirectionofofficials,inthespiritofstagnationandapathy. Ondegardo,aSpanishjudgewhoservedinPeruinthesixteenthcentury,notedasimilarphenomenon.Inhisbooks,heconstantlylamentsthecompleteregimentationof lifeandtheremovalofallpersonalstimuliwhichledtoaweakeningofand,sometimes,thecompletedestructionoffamilyrelationships.Grownchildren,forinstance,often refusedtotakecareoftheirparents.(56:p.127)Baudin,aFrenchstudentofLatinAmericanhistory,seesinmanytraitsofthecontemporaryIndianstheaftermathofInca ruleindifferencetothefateofthestate,lackofinitiative,apathy.(56:pp.124125) TowhatextentisitpossibletocalltheIncastatesocialist?Withoutanydoubt,itismuchmoreentitledtothisdesignationthananyofthecontemporarystatesthatregard themselvesasbelongingtothiscategory.SocialistprincipleswereclearlyexpressedinthestructureoftheIncastate:thealmostcompleteabsenceofprivateproperty,in particularofprivatelandabsenceofmoneyandtradethecompleteeliminationofprivateinitiativefromalleconomicactivitiesdetailedregulationofprivatelifemarriage byofficialdecreestatedistributionofwivesandconcubines.Ontheotherhand,wedonotencounter [141] eithercommunalwivesorcommunalupbringingofchildren.Awife,thoughgivenbythestatetothepeasant,washisalone,andchildrengrewupinthefamily(ifthespecial classofgirlschosentobe"elect"isexcluded).Nevertheless,theIncastateseemstohavebeenoneofthefullestincarnationsofsocialistidealsinhumanhistory. ThisisindicatedbythestrikingsimilaritybetweentheIncawayoflifeandnumeroussocialistutopias,sometimesdowntothesmallestdetail.Inhiswork TheIncasof Peru, BaudintellsthatduringareportontheIncastateattheParisAcademyofSciences,amemberaskedwhetheritwouldnotbepossibletoshowaninfluenceofthe IncasonThomasMore's Utopia. (56:p.165)Thiswouldhavebeenquiteimpossible,ofcourse:More's Utopia waswrittenin1516,whilePeruwasdiscoveredbythe Spaniardsin1531.Thesimilaritiesare,therefore,allthemorestrikingandshowhowsocialistprinciplesinevitablyledtothesameconclusionsinthecenturieslong

eithercommunalwivesorcommunalupbringingofchildren.Awife,thoughgivenbythestatetothepeasant,washisalone,andchildrengrewupinthefamily(ifthespecial classofgirlschosentobe"elect"isexcluded).Nevertheless,theIncastateseemstohavebeenoneofthefullestincarnationsofsocialistidealsinhumanhistory. ThisisindicatedbythestrikingsimilaritybetweentheIncawayoflifeandnumeroussocialistutopias,sometimesdowntothesmallestdetail.Inhiswork TheIncasof Peru, BaudintellsthatduringareportontheIncastateattheParisAcademyofSciences,amemberaskedwhetheritwouldnotbepossibletoshowaninfluenceofthe IncasonThomasMore's Utopia. (56:p.165)Thiswouldhavebeenquiteimpossible,ofcourse:More's Utopia waswrittenin1516,whilePeruwasdiscoveredbythe Spaniardsin1531.Thesimilaritiesare,therefore,allthemorestrikingandshowhowsocialistprinciplesinevitablyledtothesameconclusionsinthecenturieslong practiceoftheIncaadministratorsandinthemindoftheEnglishphilosopher. Butlatersocialistwritersundoubtedlywereunderthestronginfluenceofwhattheyhadheardofthe"PeruvianEmpire."Inoneofhisworks,Morellydescribesasociety thatlivesin"naturalconditions"andwithoutdistinctionbetween"thine"and"mine,"andsaysthatthe"Peruvians"hadlawsofthiskind.Wehavealreadyquoted(inPartI) asimilarpassagefromthearticle"TheLegislator"inthe Encyclopdie, andweinvitethereadertocompareDiderot'sdescription(pp.112114above)withthehistorical facts.ItisquitepossiblethattheIncamodelprovidednumerousdetailsinthedepictionofthefuturesocietybythewritersoftheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies.Itis easyenoughtoimaginehowreadilytheyabsorbedthestoriesthencurrentinEuropeofarealsocietysocloseinspirittotheirideals.Thisleadstoageneralproblemof greatinterestthatoftheinfluenceexertedonthesocialistliterature,beginningwithPlato,bythe"socialistexperiment,"thatis,bythepracticalimplementationofsocialist idealsinEgypt,MesopotamiaandPeru.

2.TheJesuitStateinParaguay
AlthoughonewouldhavethoughtthattheSpanishconquistadorshadwrittenanendtosocialisminSouthAmerica,ithadacontinuationnevertheless.Someonehundred toonehundredfiftyyearslater,inanareanotfarfromtheformerIncastate,apoliticalsysteminthe [142] IncatraditionwasestablishedinParaguaybytheJesuits. ThehistoryofSpanishpenetrationintoParaguaybeginsin1516,whenDonJuanDazdeSolsdiscoveredthemouthoftheParanriverandconqueredthesurrounding territories.In1537,JuandeSalazardeEspinozafoundedAsuncin,thecapitalofthenewprovinceofParaguay. ThenativeinhabitantsofParaguaywereIndiansoftheGuaranitribe.MissionaryworkamongthemwasfirstundertakenbytheDominicanmonkLasCasas.TheJesuits tookpartinthiseffortlater.Withtherealisticapproachsotypicaloftheirorder,theydecidedtomakeacceptanceofChristianitypracticallyadvantageousandso attemptedtoprotecttheirconvertsfromtheIndians'mainenemy,theslavetraderscalledpaulistas(fromthestateofSaoPaulo,thecenteroftheslavetradeatthetime). SuppressionoftheslavetradehadbeenbeyondtheSpanishcrown'scapabilitiesforyears.YettheJesuitssucceededinprovidingsecurityagainstraidsforIndiansinlarge areasofParaguay.Toachievethis,theyaccustomedtheIndianstoasedentarylife,placingtheminlargesettlementscalledreductions.Thefirstreductionwassetupin 1609.ItseemsthataplanexistedatfirstforthecreationofagreatstatewithaccesstotheAtlanticOcean,butpaulistaraidsmadethisimpossible.Beginningin1640,the JesuitsarmedtheIndiansandfoughtthroughtoanareawheretheysettledtheirflock.Itwasalmostinaccessible,borderedononesidebytheAndesandontheotherby therapidsoftheriversParana,LaPlataandUruguay.Theentireterritorywascoveredwithanetworkofreductions.Asearlyas1654,theJesuitsMachetaand CataladinoobtainedfromtheSpanishcrownanexemptionoftherealmoftheSocietyofJesusfromsubordinationtotheSpanishcolonialforcesandfrompayingtithesto thelocalbishop.TheauthorizationtoarmtheIndianswasafurtherexceptiontotheabsolutebanintroducedbytheSpanishgovernmentinallpartsofSouthAmerica.The Jesuitssoonhadastrongfightingforceattheirdisposal. IntheirdealingswiththeSpanishgovernment,theJesuitssteadfastlydeniedthattheyhadcreatedanindependentstateinParaguay.Itistruethatcertainaccusationswere exaggerated,asforexamplethebookaboutthe"EmperorofParaguay,"whichincludedhisportrait,aswellascoinsallegedlymintedatcourt,bothbeingnothingbuta contrivanceoftheJesuits'enemies.ButitisalsoafactthattheareacontrolledbytheJesuitswassoisolatedfromtheexternalworldthat [143] itcouldinfactbeconsideredanindependentstateoradominionofSpain.JesuitsweretheonlyEuropeansintheregion.Theyprevailedonthegovernmenttopassalaw thatallowednoEuropeantoentertheterritoryofthereductionswithouttheJesuits'permission.Inanycase,novisitorwasallowedtostaylongerthanthreedays.The IndianswerenotabletoleavetheirreductionsexceptinthecompanyoftheFathers.Inspiteofnumerousgovernmentdemands,theJesuitsrefusedtoteachtheIndians theSpanishlanguagetheydevisedawritingsystemforthelocalGuaranilanguage.TheJesuitswholivedintheareawerenotSpaniardsforthemostpart,butincluded Germans,ItaliansandScots.Theterritoryhadanarmyofitsownandengagedinindependentforeigntrade.Allthisdoestendtojustifytheterm"Jesuitstate,"whichis usedbymostscholarswhohavewrittenonthesubject. ThepopulationoftheJesuitstateattheheightofitsdevelopmentwas150,000to200,000inhabitants.MostofthesewereIndiansinaddition,thereweresometwelve thousandblackslavesandbetweenonehundredfiftyandthreehundredJesuits.Thestatecametoanendin17671768,whentheJesuitsweredrivenoutofParaguayas partofthegeneralcampaignoftheSpanishgovernmentagainstthemovement.In1773,theSocietyofJesuswasabolishedaltogetherbyPopeClementXIV. ThemainorganizationalprinciplesofthereductionswereworkedoutbyFatherDiegodeTorres.ItissignificantthathebeganhismissionaryworkinPeru,wheretheInca statehadnotyetbeenentirelyforgotten.TheSpanishauthoritieswereexploitingtherichsilverminesinthearea,andtheywereconcernedaboutkeepingtheIndiansin oneplace.Tothisend,itwasproposedthatthesocialstructureoftheIncaperiodbemaintainedinitsessentials.AshecalledforthesettingupofreductionsinParaguay, DiegodeTorreswrotethat"thelocalitymustbegovernedbythesamesystemasinPeru."(61:p.117)ManyobservershavecometotheconclusionthattheJesuits consciouslycopiedthestructureoftheIncaempire. Asalreadymentioned,theentirepopulationofJesuitParaguaywasconcentratedinthereductions.TheseusuallynumberedsometwOthousandtothreethousandIndians, withthesmallestonescontainingaboutfivehundredinhabitantsandthebiggestmission(St.Javier)numberingthirtythousand.EachreductionwasrunbytwoJesuit Fathers,onebeingasarulemucholderthantheother.ThereweregenerallynootherEuropeansinthesettlement.TheseniorFather,or"confessor," [144] devotedhimselfprimarilytoreligiousfunctions,whiletheyoungeractedashisassistantanddirectedeconomicmatters.Togetherthetwopossessedabsolutepowerinthe reduction.AstheJesuitJuandeEscadnstates,inaletterwrittenin1760:"SecularpowerbelongstotallytotheFathers,asmuchasorevenmorethanspiritual power."(61:p.146) ThepriestsnormallyappearedbeforetheIndiansonlyatdivineservices.Atothertimes,theycommunicatedwiththemthroughintermediariesdrawnfromthelocal population.Theselocalofficials,calledcorregidorsandalcaldes,wereselectedannuallyfromalistcompiledbytheFathers.Electionwasbyashowofhands.The corregidorsandalcaldeswerecompletelysubordinatetotheFathers,whocouldabolishorchangeanyoftheformers'orders.DeEscadnwritesthatthecorregidorsand alcaldesreportedtooneoftheFatherseverymorningtogettheirdecisionsapprovedandtoreceiveinstructionsastotheworkorderoftheday."Thiswasaccomplished asinagoodfamily,wherethefathertellseveryonewhathemustdofortheday."(61:p.148)"ThelimitedintelligenceoftheIndianscompelledthemissionariestotake careofallaffairsandtoguidetheminsecularaswellasinspiritualmatters,"astheJesuitCharlevoix(in HistoryofParaguay) quoteshiscontemporaryAntoniodeUlloa.

ThepriestsnormallyappearedbeforetheIndiansonlyatdivineservices.Atothertimes,theycommunicatedwiththemthroughintermediariesdrawnfromthelocal population.Theselocalofficials,calledcorregidorsandalcaldes,wereselectedannuallyfromalistcompiledbytheFathers.Electionwasbyashowofhands.The corregidorsandalcaldeswerecompletelysubordinatetotheFathers,whocouldabolishorchangeanyoftheformers'orders.DeEscadnwritesthatthecorregidorsand alcaldesreportedtooneoftheFatherseverymorningtogettheirdecisionsapprovedandtoreceiveinstructionsastotheworkorderoftheday."Thiswasaccomplished asinagoodfamily,wherethefathertellseveryonewhathemustdofortheday."(61:p.148)"ThelimitedintelligenceoftheIndianscompelledthemissionariestotake careofallaffairsandtoguidetheminsecularaswellasinspiritualmatters,"astheJesuitCharlevoix(in HistoryofParaguay) quoteshiscontemporaryAntoniodeUlloa. TherewerenolawsonlythedecisionsmadebytheFathers.Theyheardconfession,whichwasobligatoryfortheIndians,andassignedpenaltiesforalloffenses. Penaltiesincluded:facetofacereprimand,publicreprimand,flogging,imprisonment,andbanishmentfromthereduction.Manyauthorsassertthattherewasnocapital punishment,althoughCharlevoixwritesaboutacertainunsubmissivelocalofficialwhowasburnedupinafiresentbyGod.(62:p.13)Anoffenderwasfirstmadeto repentinchurch,wasdressedasaheretic,andwasthensubjectedtothepunishment.DeUlloawrites:"Theyhadsuchgreatconfidenceintheirpastorsthattheyregarded evenanunprovokedpenaltyasdeserved."(60:p.140,62:p.31) TheentirelifeofthereductionwasbasedontheprinciplethattheIndiansweretopossesspracticallynothingoftheirownneitherlandnorhousesnorrawmaterialsnor handicrafttools.TheIndiansdidnotevenbelongtothemselves.Thus,deEscadnwrites:"Theseplots,aswiththeotherlandsofthemission,belongtothecommunityand noinhabitanthasmorethantherighttousethem.Therefore,theyneversellanythingtooneanother.Thesameistrueofthehouses [145] inwhichtheylive....Thecommunitytakescareofallthehouses,makesrepairsandbuildsnewonesasneeded."(61:p.148) Thereductionwasdividedintotwoparts:tupamb(God'sland)andabamb(privateland).Thedifferencewasnotintheformoftenure,sincebothtypesbelongedtothe mission,butsimplythattupambwastilledcollectively,whileabambwasdividedintoplotsanddistributedamongindividualfamilies. Muratoriwritesthatabambwas lent totheIndiansforworking.(60:p.145)AplotoflandwasgrantedtoanIndianwhenhemarried.Itwasnothereditary,andifthe mandied,hiswidowandchildrendidnotretaintheplot.Thelandrevertedtoacommonfundandthedependentsbecamewardsofthemission.Charlevoixsaysthat workonindividualplotswasregulatedbytheadministrationinthesamewayasoncommonland.(60:p.145)InthemonthlyCatholicMissions, itwasreportedthat seedsandtoolsforworkingtheindividualplotswerelentbythecommunity.Inthemajorityofmissions,familieslivedoncropsharvestedfromtheirindividualplots. However,incertainreductionstheywererequiredtodeliverapartoftheirharvesttothemission,withrationslaterdispensedinreturn.Inanycase,workontheindividual plotsandthecropsproducedonthemwereunderstrictcontroleverywhere.Charlevoixwrites:"Itwasknownhowmuchaplotoflandyieldedandthecropsfromitwere underthesupervisionofthosewhowereparticularlyconcernedwithlookingafterit.AndiftherehadbeennostricthandovertheIndians,theywouldsoonhavefound themselveswithnomeansofsubsistence."(62:p.37) WorkonthecommunallandwasobligatoryforallIndians,includingadministratorsandartisans.Beforework,oneoftheFathersdeliveredasermon.TheIndiansthenset outforthefieldsincolumns,tothesoundofdrumandflute.Theyreturnedfromworksingingupliftingsongs.Workwassupervisedatalltimesbyinspectorsandspies whoapprehendedidlers."Culpritswereseverelypunished,"writesMuratori.(60:p.159) Allcropsessentialtothemission'seconomyweregrownoncommunalland.Eyewitnessesareunanimousinpointingoutdifferencesinthecultivationofindividualand communallands:whilecommunallandswerecarefullytilled,theindividualplotslookedneglected.TheJesuitsconstantlycomplainedoftheindifferenceoftheIndiansto working [146] theirownfieldstheypreferredtobepunishedforabadlycultivatedplotandtoliveonthecommunalstores.TheIndianswerecapableofeatingtheseedgraindistributed tothemandcomingbackformoreandasoundfloggingseveraltimesover.TheJesuitssawthereasonforthisnotinthepeculiaritiesofthesocialsystemtheyhad establishedbutinthe"childish"natureoftheIndians.FatherJ.Cardielwrotein1758:"For140yearswehavebeenfightingthis,buttherehashardlybeenany improvement.Andsolongastheyhavebutachild'sintelligence,thingswillnotgetbetter." Thecommunitiespossessedhugeherdsofhorsesandoxenthatwerepasturedinthepampas.CommunaloxenweregiventotheIndianstoworktheirplots."Sometimes theIndiankillsoneorbothoxentoeatmeatathispleasure.Helaterreportsthattheyhavebecomelostandpaysforthelosswithhisback."(Escadn,61:p.149) Themeatofcommunaloxenwasdistributedamongtheresidentstwoorthreetimesaweek.Ontheappointedday,theinhabitantscametothestorehouse,wherethe storekeepercalledeveryone'snameanddispensedastandardportionofmeat.Indiansalsoreceivedarationoflocaltea. Variouscraftswereencouragedinthereductions,andahighlevelofworkmanshipwasachieved.Woolwasdispensedtothewomentobespunathome,thefinished clothbeingcollectedonthefollowingday.Alltoolsandrawmaterialsbelongedtothereductionandnottotheindividualcraftsman.Moreover,alargepartofthe craftsmenworkedincommunalworkshops.JosCardielwrites:"Allcraftworkisdonenotinthehome,sincethatwouldbeveryineffectiveitisperformedinthe courtyardsofthecollegium."(61:p.164)Themissionshadstonemasons,brickmakers,armsmakers,millers,clockmakers,artists,jewelersandpotters.Construction includedbrickfactories,kilnsforproducingquicklime,millspoweredbyhorsesandbymen.Organsweremade,bellscast,booksprintedinforeignlanguages(for export).Bythebeginningoftheeighteenthcentury,everyreductionhadaSundialoramechanicalclockoflocalmanufacture,accordingtowhichtheworkdaywas regulated. Allproductsweredeliveredtothestorehouses,whereIndianswhocouldwriteandkeepaccountswereemployed.PartoftheproductionWasdistributedtothe population.Fabricsweredividedintoequalpiecesanddistributedbyname,onedaytogirls,thenexttoboys, [147] thentomenandfinallytowomen.Eachmanwasgiven5.5metersofcanvasforclothingayearandeachwoman,4.5meters.Eachreceivedaknifeandanaxoncea year. Themajorportionofthearticlesproducedinthereductionwasforexport.Giventhelargeherds,vastamountsoftannedskinswereproducedthereweretanningand shoemakingshopsinthemissions,withtheentireproductionbeingexportedIndianswerenotallowedtowearshoes. TheartisanskillsoftheIndiansamazedmanyobservers.CharlevoixwritesthattheGuaranisucceeded"asthoughinstinctivelyinanycrafttheyundertook....Forinstance, itwasenoughtoshowthemacrucifix,acandlestick,anamuletandtogivethemthenecessarymaterialforthemtomakeanidenticalcopy.Theirworkcouldbe distinguishedfromtheoriginalmodelonlywithdifficulty."(60:pp.115116)OtherobserversalsostresstheimitativecharacteroftheIndiancraftsmanship. Tradedidnotexisteitherwithinreductionsorbetweenthem.Therewasnomoney.EachIndianheldacoininhishandsonlyonceinhislifetimeduringthewedding ceremony,whenhehandeditasagifttohisbride,thecoinbeingreturnedimmediatelythereaftertothepriest.

TheartisanskillsoftheIndiansamazedmanyobservers.CharlevoixwritesthattheGuaranisucceeded"asthoughinstinctivelyinanycrafttheyundertook....Forinstance, itwasenoughtoshowthemacrucifix,acandlestick,anamuletandtogivethemthenecessarymaterialforthemtomakeanidenticalcopy.Theirworkcouldbe distinguishedfromtheoriginalmodelonlywithdifficulty."(60:pp.115116)OtherobserversalsostresstheimitativecharacteroftheIndiancraftsmanship. Tradedidnotexisteitherwithinreductionsorbetweenthem.Therewasnomoney.EachIndianheldacoininhishandsonlyonceinhislifetimeduringthewedding ceremony,whenhehandeditasagifttohisbride,thecoinbeingreturnedimmediatelythereaftertothepriest. Ontheotherhand,foreigntradewasconductedonalargescale.Reductionsexported,forinstance,morelocalteathanalltherestofParaguay.TheJesuitstatewasalso compelledtoimportsomeitemsaboveall,saltandmetals(especiallyiron). Allreductionswerebuiltaccordingtooneplan.Inthecentertherewasasquareplazaonwhichachurchwassituated.Thesquarewasborderedbythejail,the workshops,storehouses,thearmory,aweavingshopinwhichwidowsandfemaleoffendersworked,ahospitalandaguesthouse.Therestoftheterritorywasbrokenup intoequalsquareblocksofhouses. ClayplasteredcanecabinsservedasdwellingsfortheIndians.Ahearthwaslocatedinthemiddleofthestructuresmokewasallowedtogooutthroughthedoor.People sleptwithoutbeds,eitheronthefloororinahammock.TheAustrianJesuitSepp,whocametoParaguayin1691,describesthesehousesasfollows:"Thedwellingsofthe nativesaresimpleoneroomcabinsmadeofearthandbrick.Theyhavelittletorecommendthem.Inside,father,mother,sistersandbrotherscrowdtogetherwiththedog, cats,mice,rats,etc.Therearecockroaches [148] everywhere.Thestenchisunbearabletosomeoneunaccustomedtoit."Funeswritesin TheCivilHistoryofParaguay that"thehouseshadneitherwindowsnorany meansofventilationtherewasalsonofurnitureallresidentsofthemissionssatonthegroundandateontheground."(63:p.26)Itwasonlyshortlybeforetheywere drivenoutofParaguaythattheJesuitsbegantobuildmoresuitablequartersfortheIndians.Thedwellingswerenotconsideredprivateproperty,andanIndianwasnot permittedtogivehishouseaway. IncontrasttotheIndiandwellings,thechurcheswereimpressiveintheirsplendor.Theywerebuiltofstoneandrichlydecorated.ThechurchinthemissionofSt.Javier accommodatedbetweenfourthousandandfivethousandpersonsitswallswereoverlaidwithshinyplatesofmica,thealtarswerecoveredwithgold. AtdawnabellwasrungtowakeuptheIndiansandtocallthemtoprayers(obligatoryforall).Theythenwenttoworktoanotherpealofthebells.Theyretiredtobedon signalalso,andafterdarkthesettlementwaspatrolledbydetachmentsofthemostreliableIndians.Specialpermissionwasrequiredtobeoutsideatnight.(61:p.176,62: p.29) Thereductionwassurroundedbyawallandamoat.Gateswereguardedcarefullyentryandexitwasforbiddenwithoutapass.ContactamongIndiansfromdifferent reductionswasnotpermitted.NoneoftheIndians,exceptforsoldiersandherdsmen,hadtherighttoridehorseback.Allmeansofconveyanceboats,canoes,carriages belongedtothecommunity.(63:p.44) AllIndiansworeidenticalclothingmadefrommaterialobtainedfromthecommunalstores.Onlyofficialsandofficersdresseddifferently,butonlywhenonduty.Atother times,theiruniformsandtheirarmswerekeptinastorehouse. Marriageswerecontractedtwiceayearatsolemnceremonies.Thechoiceofawifeorhusbandwasundercontrolofthepriests.Ifayouthtookalikingtoagirlorvice versa,thiswastakenintoaccountandthepartyconcernedwasinformed.ButtheFathers,apparently,alsofunctionedindependentlyanddecidedonmarriages themselves,regardlessoftheyoungpeople'spreferences.Inatleastonerecordedinstance,alargegroupofyoungmenandwomentookflightinprotestoverthese practices.Afterprolongednegotiations,theyreturnedtothereduction,buttheFatherswereforcedtosanctionthemarriagestheydemanded.(63:p.43) [149] Childrenbeganworkingatanearlyage.Charlevoixwritesthat"assoonasachildreachedtheageatwhichhecouldwork,hewasbroughttoaworkshopandassignedto acraft."(60:p.116)TheJesuitswereconcernedthatthepopulationofthereductionsgrewverylittle,despiteunusuallygoodconditionsfromtheIndianpointofview, suchasmedicalaidandsafeguardsagainstfamine.Tostimulatethebirthrate,theydidnotallowIndianmalestowearlonghair(asignofadulthood)untilthebirthofa child.Thesamepurposewassoughtbyringingabellatnightsummoningthemtoperformtheir"maritalduties."(64:p.31) TheJesuitsjustifiedtheircontroloverallaspectsoftheIndians'livesbyreferencetothelatter'slowdevelopment.ThefollowingjudgmentbyFunesistypical:"Never actingaccordingtoreason,theyoughttohaveseveralcenturiesofsocialchildhoodbeforereachingthatmaturitywhichisthepreliminaryconditionofthefullenjoymentof liberty."(62:p.371)Intheletterquotedearlier,theJesuitEscadnwrites:"Intruthandwithouttheslightestexaggeration,noneofthemhasgreaterfaculty,intelligenceand capacityofcommonsensethanasweobserveinEuropeinchildrenwhocanread,writeandlearn,butwhoareneverthelessinnoconditiontodecidefor themselves."(61:p.146)MeanwhiletheJesuitsthemselvesweredoingeverythingpossibletostifletheIndians'initiativeandinterestintheresultsoftheirlabor.Inthe Reglamentoof1689,wefindthefollowingadvice:"Itispermissibletogivethemsomethingtomakethemfeelsatisfied,butthisneedstobedoneinsuchawaythatthey donotdevelopasenseofinterest."OnlytowardtheendoftheirruledidtheJesuitstry(nodoubtforeconomicreasons)topromoteprivateinitiative,forinstance,by turningovercattletoindividuals.Buttheseexperimentsfailedtobringanyresults.Oneexception,recordedbyCardiel,wasacaseinwhichasmallherdwasbuiltup, thoughitsownerwasamulatto.(60:p.146) TheJesuits'enemies,theanticlericalwriterAsarainparticular,reproachedthemforhavingstarvedtheIndiansandburdenedthemwithwork.Buttheimpressiongained fromJesuitsourcesseemsmoreconvincingandlogical:hungerfreeexistence,resteverySunday,guaranteeddwellingandacloak....Yetthisalmostsuccessfulattemptat reducinghundredsofthousandsofpeopletoalifeaslivedinananthillseemsfarmoreterribleapicturethanthatofahardlaborcamp. [150] TheJesuitsinParaguay(andelsewhereintheworld)fellvictimtotheirownsuccess.Theybecametoodangerous:inthereductions,theyhadcreatedawellequipped armyofuptotwelvethousandmen,whichwasapparentlythepredominantmilitaryforceintheregion.TheyinterferedininternalconflictsandtookthecapitalofAsunci n byassaultonmorethanoneoccasion.TheydefeatedPortuguesetroopsanddeliveredBuenosAiresfromaBritishsiege.Duringamutiny,theviceroyofParaguay,Don JosdeAntequera,wasdefeatedbythem.SeveralthousandGuariniparticipatedinthebattles,equippedwithfirearmsandincludingsomecavalryunits.TheJesuitarmy begantoinspiremoreandmoreapprehensionintheSpanishgovernment. ThefalloftheJesuitswasgreatlyhastenedbythewidespreadrumorsoftheenormousrichestheyweresupposedtobeaccumulating.Therewastalkofgoldandsilver minesandoffabulousrevenuefromforeigntrade.ThelatterrumorseemedparticularlyplausibleinviewofcheapIndianlaborandtheunusualfertilityoftheland. AfterdrivingtheJesuitsout,governmentofficialsrushedintolookforhiddentreasureanddiscoverednothing.Thestorehousesinthereductionsprovedbitterly disappointingandcontainednoneoftherichesthattheyweresupposedtoyield:theeconomyhadnotbeenprofitable! AfterthecollapseoftheJesuitstate,mostoftheIndiansdriftedawayfromthereductionsandreturnedtotheirformerreligionandtheirnomadicwayoflife.

ThefalloftheJesuitswasgreatlyhastenedbythewidespreadrumorsoftheenormousrichestheyweresupposedtobeaccumulating.Therewastalkofgoldandsilver minesandoffabulousrevenuefromforeigntrade.ThelatterrumorseemedparticularlyplausibleinviewofcheapIndianlaborandtheunusualfertilityoftheland. AfterdrivingtheJesuitsout,governmentofficialsrushedintolookforhiddentreasureanddiscoverednothing.Thestorehousesinthereductionsprovedbitterly disappointingandcontainednoneoftherichesthattheyweresupposedtoyield:theeconomyhadnotbeenprofitable! AfterthecollapseoftheJesuitstate,mostoftheIndiansdriftedawayfromthereductionsandreturnedtotheirformerreligionandtheirnomadicwayoflife. ItisinterestingtonotetheappraisalgiventoJesuitactivityinParaguaybythespokesmenoftheEnlightenment.AlthoughtheJesuitswereconsideredtheirgreatest enemies,thephi1osophes couldnotfindloftyenoughtermstocharacterizetheParaguayanstate.In TheSpiritoftheLaws (Book4,Chapter6),Montesquieuwrites: "TheSocietyofJesushadthehonor...ofproclaimingforthefirsttimeevertheideaofreligionincombinationwiththeideaofhumanity....TheSocietyattractedtribes scatteredinvillages,providedthemwithsecurelivelihoodandclothedthem.Itwillalwaysbeadmirabletogovernpeoplesoastomakethemhappy." AndVoltaire,inthiscasespeakingabout"l'infme," expressedevengreaterrespectinhis EssayonRights: "ThespreadofChristianityinParaguaybytheeffortsofthe Jesuitsalonewas,inacertainsense,atriumphofhumanity." [151]

V. TheAncientOrient
TheIncaempire(aswellastheotherstatesofpreColumbianAmerica,theAztecsandtheMayans)developedincompleteisolationfromtheOldWorldandexertedno appreciableinfluenceonourcivilization.Therefore,itismuchmoreimportantforustostudythemanifestationofsocialisttendenciesinthoseancientcivilizationswhichare directlylinkedtoourculturaltradition.Inthischapter,wepresentcertainfactsthatbearonancientMesopotamiaandEgypt.

1.Mesopotamia
ThestatestructureinMesopotamiadevelopedoutoftheholdingsofindividualtemplesthatwereabletogathertogethergreatnumbersoffarmersandartisansthanksto thewidespreaduseofirrigation.ThissocialpatterntookshapeinancientSumertowardtheendofthefourthandthebeginningofthethirdmillenniaB.C.Extant inscriptions(mostofthemwerepictographspredatingcuneiformwriting)providelittleinformationaboutthissociety.Itwasheadedbyapriestsanguwhilethemain workforceconsistedofpeasantswhoweretenantsonthelandaroundthetemple,whichprovidedthemwithdraftanimalsandseedgrain. TowardthemiddleofthethirdmillenniumB.C.,anewtypeofsocialorganizationemergedsmallregionscoalescedintoseparate"kingdoms"headedbyakingcalledensi orpatesi.Theeconomicsystemofthisperiodisusuallycalledroyalorensial.Insideeachkingdom,thetemplesremainedthebasiceconomicunits.Aclassicexample [152] ofaneconomiccenterofthiskindistheestateofthetempleofthegoddessBauinLagash(twentyfifthandtwentyfourthcenturiesB.C.).Detailedaccountsandrecords havebeenpreservedintheformofahugenumberofcuneiformtablets.Thedatapermitsareconstruction'ofmanyfeaturesoflifeinSumerduringthisepoch. ThereweretwomeansofprovidingforthepeopleemployedinthedomainofthegoddessBau:allowancesinkindandthegrantingoflandplotsfor"sustenance."The lesserpartofthetemple'slandwasgivenovertothelatterfunctionthebulkofthelandwastilledbypartiesofworkersunderthesupervisionofthetemple.These workerswerelookeduponaspartoftheestateandwerecalled"peopleoftheestateoftheBaugoddess."(65:p.142)Theyreceivedamonthlyallowanceinkindfrom thetemplestores.Inthetemple'srecordsnumerouslistsoftheseworkershavebeenpreservedsomelistswerereproducedyearafteryear.Herewemeetsuchgroupsas "porters"and"menwhodonotraisetheireyes"(interpretedasunskilledlaborers),"slavewomenandtheirchildren,""menwhoreceivetheirallowancesaccordingto separatetablets."Allreceivedapproximatelythesameallowance.Inthelists,workersfigureinpartiesheadedbyaforeman"thechieffarmer."Mendidnotreceive subsistencefortheirfamilies,butappearedonlyasindividuals.Womenandchildrenarementionedseparatelyorphansformedaspecialcategory.(65:p.166)The workersseemtohavehadnoprivateholdingstheycouldnotstoreprovisionsforthemselves,butneitherweretheyobligedtobuywhattheyneededelsewhere.The templestorehousesprovidedthemwithallthenecessities.Tabletsrecordthenamesofthepartychief,therecipientandthedispensingofficial.Evidently,workers(usually everymonth)cametothestorehousesinpartiestogettheirrations,whichconsistedprimarilyofgrain.(65:p.151) Anothergroupconsistedof"mengettingsustenance."Theyreceivedallowanceslessfrequently(threeorfourtimesayear),butasaruletheamountwasproportionally larger.Inaddition,theyreceivedplotsofland,whichinmostcasesweretiny.Theseplotswereredistributedfrequently.(65:p.174)Themostnumerouscategoryinthis groupconsistedof"shubIugal,"whoalsoworkedonthetempleestateunder"chieffarmers."Theycarriedoutirrigationworkandperformedmilitaryduties.They receivedplowsandgrainforworkingtheallottedplotsfromthetemplestorehouses.Theirpositionchangedfromtimetotime.Thus,forexample,the"reformerking" Urukaginagranted [153] themtherighttohavetheirownhousesandcattle.Thegroupof"mengettingsustenance"alsoincludedclerksandofficialswhosupervisedtheagriculturalworkinthe fields.Theirplotswerefrequentlymanytimeslarger(65:pp.154155) Acertainamountoflandwasrented.Howevermostofitwastilledbytheworkforceofthetempleestate.(65:p.175)Themanagementofagriculturalworkwasinthe handsoftheensialadministration.Workersdidnottillseparateplotsindividually,butworkedinpartiesunderthesupervisionofachieffarmer.Theplotsallottedto individualswerealsoworkedinthismanner.(65:pp.170171)WenotethatthesamesystemwasemployedintheIncastate.Workersdeliveredallproducetothe administration.Allimplementsofproduction,includingdraftanimals,wereissuedtotheforemenoftheworkingpartiesfromthestorehousesonadailybasis.Plows,hoes, flails,packs,collarsandyokesforoxenwereallkeptinthestores.Skinsofanimalsthathaddiedweredeliveredbythe"chieffarmers"tothestorehouse.Thecentralstore providedfodderfortheoxenanddonkeys.Allthesetransactionswererecordedingreatdetail.(65:pp.176177) Theharvestedgrainwasdeliveredbytheindividualchieftotheadministrationoftheestate,andaftermilling,itwasbroughttothestorehousefordistribution.Accounts werekeptofeverything,includingthesizeofthefieldsfromwhichthegrainhadbeenreceived. Dateplantationsandvineyardswerecultivatedinthesamemanner.Itseemsthatfixednormsexisted.Onedocumentlistsanamountofdatesreceivedinexcessofthe normas"arrears"fromthepreviousyear.(65:p.179)Theforesters,whogotsustenanceinkind,workedindetachmentsinwoodlots,fromwhichtimber(highlyvaluedin alightlyforestedcountry)wasbroughttothestorehouses.Livestockwasraisedinthesameway,herdsmenoftemplecattlereceivingfoodrationsforthemselvesand fodderfortheanimalsaccordingtofixednorms.(Fishermenalsoworkedinpartiesandhadnormstofillandtheobligationofdeliveringtheirentirecatchtothe storehouses.)(65:p.184)

Dateplantationsandvineyardswerecultivatedinthesamemanner.Itseemsthatfixednormsexisted.Onedocumentlistsanamountofdatesreceivedinexcessofthe normas"arrears"fromthepreviousyear.(65:p.179)Theforesters,whogotsustenanceinkind,workedindetachmentsinwoodlots,fromwhichtimber(highlyvaluedin alightlyforestedcountry)wasbroughttothestorehouses.Livestockwasraisedinthesameway,herdsmenoftemplecattlereceivingfoodrationsforthemselvesand fodderfortheanimalsaccordingtofixednorms.(Fishermenalsoworkedinpartiesandhadnormstofillandtheobligationofdeliveringtheirentirecatchtothe storehouses.)(65:p.184) Artisansworkedinthesamefashion.Animalskins,metal(copperandbronze),andwoolwerereceivedfromthestoresmanufacturedarticleswereinturndeliveredthere. They,too,receivedfoodsuppliesfromtheestate.(65:p.187) AllworkersemployedbythetempleofthegoddessBauwereguaranteedclothingormaterialforclothing.(65:p.192) [154] Inthedocumentationonthetempleestates,prisonerofwarslavesarerarelymentioned.Inscriptionsspeakingofvictoriesinbattletellofenemieskilledbutnotof prisonerstaken.AndthenamesofthefarmworkersareofpurelySumerianorigin.Slavesareseldomtreatedasaseparategroup,andwhentheyare,womenare generallymeant. Apartfromworkerspermanentlyemployedonthetempleestate,therewasanothergroupofinhabitantswhowererecruitedforirrigationandfarmworkormilitaryservice onlyoccasionally.Itispossiblethattheseweresemiindependentfarmworkers.Sincethecharacteroftheirworkoutsidethetempleestateisnotrecorded,weknow nothingaboutit.Thenumberoftheseworkersisestimateddifferentlybyvarioushistorians.A.Deimel,whohastranslatedandcommenteduponagreatnumberof cuneiforminscriptionsfromthisperiod,believesthatthetempleeconomywastypicalofthe"entireeconomiclifeofthattime....Almostallpropertywasinthepossession ofthetemple....AlmosttheentirelittlekingdomofUrukagina*was,inalllikelihood,dividedamongtemples."(67:p.78)Manyhistorianstodaydonotsharethisview. (66,68,69)I.M.Diakonovcitesanumberofcalculationsestimatingtheamountoftemplelandintheentirestate.(66:Chapter1)Hebelievesthat"inthetimeof Urukagina,thetempleeconomycomprisedperhapshalfthetotalterritoryofthestate."(66:p.251)Thesizeofthepopulationsofthisepochcanalsonotbedetermined exactly.TheworkforceoftheBauestateisestimatedat1,200persons.(67:p.78)ButthiswasonlyasinglesmalltempleestateinthekingdomofLagash.Thekingof Lagash,Urukagina,washimselftheheadofafarlargertempleestatebelongingtothegodMingirsu.Usingdeliveriesasameasurement,itmaybeassumedthatthistemple alonehaddozensoftimesmoreworkersthanthetempleofthegoddessBau. TheepochofsmallstatesandroyalhouseholdsinMesopotamia(thetwentyfifthandtwentyfourthcenturiesB.C.)wasfollowedbyaperiodoffiercewarfarewhich endedintheconquestofMesopotamiabytheAkkadiankingSargon,whosubjugatedtheensioftheothercities.Itwasaboutthistime,apparently,thattheideaofa "worldempire"firstarose,somethingwhichlaterinspiredCyrus,AlexanderandCaesar.Sargon'sstatewastrulyhugeincomparisonwiththesmallcitystatesofthe precedingepoch.ItextendedfromthePersianGulf
*ThetempleofthegoddessBauwaspartofthiskingdom.

[155] totheMediterranean.Ahighpricehadtobepaidforthecreationofthisempirefaminespreadinthelandandtherewerenumerousrebellionswhichdidnotceaseeven underSargon'ssuccessors.ThestateultimatelydisintegratedundertheimpactofthemountaintribeofGutiyas,whoseizedpartofMesopotamia. Inthetwentysecondcentury,MesopotamiawasagainunitedunderUtuchegal,therulerofthecityofUruk,whotookthetitle"KingoftheFourLandsoftheWorld." Afterhisdeath,anewdynastywasestablishedbyKingUrNammuthisisreferredtoasthethirddynastyofUr.Mesopotamia,ElamandAssyriacameunderitsrulein thetwentysecondandtwentyfirstcenturies.Itwasacentralizedstatewithasingleeconomymanagedbyanimperialbureaucracy. Thekingheadedthestateasanabsolutesovereign.Hewassurroundedbyabureaucracyof"king'smen"or"slavestotheking,"amongwhomthehighestpostbelonged tothe"greatemissary."(66:pp.256,259,262)Inthisepoch,wenolongerencounteranobilityawareofitsgenealogyandtracingitsrootstoadeity.Thetopelementin thestateconsistedofbureaucrats,administrators,royalwarchiefs,priests,alllivingongovernmentallowances.Thegoverningbodyitselfdidnotreflecttheformercity states.Theensi,althoughretainingtheirtitle,weremergedwiththeroyalofficialstheywereappointedbytheking,sometimesonlyforalimitedperiod,andwereshunted aboutfromonetowntoanother.Theirprimarydutywastomanagetheroyalestatesandperformadministrative,judicialandreligiousfunctions.Templesbegantolose theireconomicindependenceandcameundertheprotectionoftheking.(65:pp.247,250) Productionwascentralizedtothesamedegreeastheadministrationofthecountry.Formerensialestatesenteredintothestateeconomyassubordinateunits.Partiesof workers,incasesofnecessity,wereshiftedfromonetowntoanother.Numerousrecordshavebeenpreservedconcerningthedistributionofallowancestosuchnewly arrivedparties(fromLagashtoUr,fromUrtoUruk,etc.)(65:pp.248,264)Alllinesofauthoritycametogetherinthecapital,Ur.Controlwasaccomplishedbymeans ofenvoys,inspectorsandmessengersofvariousranks.Theseobtainedsuppliesinthetownsthroughwhichtheypassed.Asmalltablet,forinstance,recordsaroutine transactioninwhichamessengerwassuppliedwithprovisions.Localrecordswerekeptbyscribes,whoaffixedtheirsignaturetoalmostallarchivaldocuments:"Scribeat theStorehouse,""ScribeattheGranary,"etc.(65:p.251) [156] Thesystemofaccountingdevelopedtothepointofvirtuosity.Thechiefsoflarge(formerensial)estatessubmittedannualreportstothecapital,whilecertainartisan workshopshadtopresentreportsseveraltimespermonth.Descriptionsofallfieldsandhouseholdswerekept,togetherwithmapscharacterizingindividualplots:stony, fertile,clayey,etc.Dateplantationswereregistered,withindicationsoftheyieldofeachtree.Therewereinventoriesofthegoodsinthestorehousesgrain,rawmaterials, finishedarticles.(65:p.249,pp.253254,255)Anequallydetailedrecordofmanpowerwaskept:therewereseparatelistsofworkersoffullstrength,oftwothirds strength,ofonesixthstrength.Normsfortheirallowanceswereadjustedaccordingly.Listsofthesick,thedeceasedandthoseabsentfromwork(includingthecauseof absence)weresubmittedregularly.(65:pp.256257) Stateagriculturewasbasedalmostexclusivelyoncultivationoflandbypartiesofworkersreceivingpermanentallowancesfromthestate.Rentalofplotsismetwithonly asanexception.(65:pp.339,312313)Thefactthatcertainfieldsareidentifiedwithaparticularpersonorgroupindicatesonlythatcropsharvestedfromthefieldsin questionsupportedthesepersonsnotthattheyweretheownersofthem.Thustherewerefieldsforsupplyinghighpriests,scribes,foremenofworkers,diviners(alower orderofpriests),craftsmen,herdsmen,etc.Alltheselands,aswellaslandintendedforsustainingfarmworkers,wereunderthedirectionofsupervisors.(65:pp.301, 316317,398,411) Groupsoftentotwentymenworkedinthefieldsallyearround.Theworkersweresometimestransferredfromonesupervisortoanotherorevenfromonecitytoanother orsenttotheworkshops.Withtheworkquotas,thenotionofa"manday"ofworkwasintroduced(itwasdeterminedbydividingtheworkdonebythenorms).These figureswerereportedinaccounts.Therationallowancedependedontheamountofworkperformed.Foremenreceivedseed,draftanimals,plows,hoesandothertools fromthecentralstores.(65:pp.271,273,274,275,299300,302)

orderofpriests),craftsmen,herdsmen,etc.Alltheselands,aswellaslandintendedforsustainingfarmworkers,wereunderthedirectionofsupervisors.(65:pp.301, 316317,398,411) Groupsoftentotwentymenworkedinthefieldsallyearround.Theworkersweresometimestransferredfromonesupervisortoanotherorevenfromonecitytoanother orsenttotheworkshops.Withtheworkquotas,thenotionofa"manday"ofworkwasintroduced(itwasdeterminedbydividingtheworkdonebythenorms).These figureswerereportedinaccounts.Therationallowancedependedontheamountofworkperformed.Foremenreceivedseed,draftanimals,plows,hoesandothertools fromthecentralstores.(65:pp.271,273,274,275,299300,302) Thesamesystemexistedincattlebreeding.Dairyproducts,cattleandhidesdeliveredbyherdsmentothestorehouseswererecorded.Abasketoftabletshasbeen preservedthatcontainstherecordsonacertainestate'sanimalsthathaddiedorhadbeenslaughteredoveraperiodofthirteenyears.Feedforlivestockalsowas dispensedatthestorehouses. Inthecrafts,anewformoflargestateworkshopappeared.In [157] Ur,eightbigworkshopswereunitedunderthesupervisionofasingleperson.Thismanagerinscribedallaccounts(submittedseveraltimesamonth).Theproductsofthe workshop'swenttothestatestores,fromwhichthemanagerreceived,inturn,rawmaterialsandhalffinishedgoods,aswellasthecraftsmen'sprovisions.(65:p.286, 343)Forinstance,woolandlinenfabricsfromtheweaverswenttosewersforbordersandhems,thentofullersandfinallytothestorehouses.Plainclothingwasmadefor theworkersandabettersortofdressforadministrators.Reportsfromtheworkshopscontaindataontheoutput,expenditureonlinen,expenditureongrainforthe sustenanceofthecraftsmenandfiguresonnumbersabsentanddeceased.(65:pp.349,350) Fordispensingmetalsandreceiptofmetalarticlestherewerespecialofficialswhoweighedthegoodsandinscribedtherecords. Craftsmenweredividedintopartiesheadedbyforemen.Workerscouldbetransferredfromoneforemantoanother.Theallowanceacraftsmanreceiveddependedonhis production(relativetothenorm)andhisskill.Chiefsofworkshopscouldobtainmanpowerfromoutsideincaseofnecessity.Bythesametoken,craftsmenfromthestate workshopscouldbesenttoworkontheland,inrivertransportation,etc.Thesameterm(gurushi)wasoftenusedtodenotecraftsmenandfarmworkers.(65:pp.267, 299300,346) Theconstructionofshipswasorganizedonthesameprinciplesasthecrafts. Likethecrafts,tradewasamonopolyofthestate.(66:p.262)Inbothstateandtemplerecords,slavesarementionedbutslavewomenappearmuchmorefrequently. Atfirsttheseweremostlyweavers,butlatertheycametobeemployedinotherworkaswell.Maleslavesarementionedalmostexclusivelyinreferencetothecapital. Evidently,thechildrenofslavewomenwereabsorbedintothegeneralmassofunskilledlabor.(65:pp.279280) Asearlier(forexample,intheestateoftheBautemple),thereexistedworkerswhowerenotfullytiedtothestatebutwererecruitedonlyfortheheightoftheworking seasonandpaidingrain.Theirproportionintheoverallpopulationisunclear. A.I.Tiumenevcitesdataaccordingtowhichhiredworkersconstitutedfrom5to20percentoftheworkforce.(65:p.362)I.M.Diakonovbelievesthatthe"percentage ofthelandseizedfortheking'shousehold(includingthetemplehousehold)wasenormous."Forthethird [158] dynastyofUr,heargues,wemusttake60percentasaminimumfigure.(66:p.151)Diakonovdoesnot,however,substantiatethiscalculation. Aseriesofextantdocumentstestifiestothefactthatprivatepropertyplayedacertainroleineconomiclife:forexample,certainbillsofsaleforchildrensoldintoslavery. Butinthemainsphereofeconomiclife,agriculture,thesignificanceofprivatepropertycouldnothavebeengreat.Amongthehugenumberofsurvivingrecordsofbusiness transactionsofthatepoch,thereisnotasingleoneextantthatdealswithlandsales.(66:p.250)Specializedhandicraftexistedonlywithintheking'shouseholdI.M. Diakonovassertsthatthereexistednotradeworkshopsotherthanthoseofthestate.(66:p.262) DuringthethirddynastyofUr,materialinequalityreachedextraordinaryproportions.Theallowancesforadministratorsexceededthoseoftheworkersbyafactoroften ortwenty.(65:p.405)Thedifficultexistenceledbythelowersegmentsofthepopulationisreflectedinthegreatnumberofrecordsdealingwithescapes.Wehave reports(withanindicationofthenamesoftherelativesoftheescapee)ontheflightofagardener,afisherman'sson,aherdsman'sson,abarber,apriest'sson,apriest, etc.(65:pp.367368) Anotherindexoftheconditionsisthestrikingmortalityfigurespreservedinthearchives.Inconnectionwiththeapportioningofgrain,itisrecordedthat,inoneparty,10 percentofallworkersdiedinoneyear'stimeinanotherparty,14percentinathird,28percent.Onetabletstatesthattwowomenoutofseventeendiedduringacertain month,andinayear'stime,eighteenof134.Inonelistthedeathofmorethan100womenoutof150isreported.Stillhigherwasthemortalityrateforchildren,who (togetherwithwomen)wereemployedinheavywork,suchasbargehauling.Ingeneral,thenotation"deceased"isencounteredwithextraordinaryfrequency.Thegeneral mortalityrateisestimatedat20to25percent,andinfieldworkitisthoughttohavebeenevenhigherupto35percent.(65:pp.365367) Thissystemofexploitationunderminedthefoundationsofthestate,whichabruptlybegantodisintegrateundertheonslaughtoftheAmoritetribes.ThefallofUrisdated 2007B.C.Ahymndescribingthiseventwaslaterincorporatedintoaliturgyittellsofcorpsesrottinginthestreets,ofguttedstorehouses,oftownsturnedtoruins,andof womenabductedtoforeigncities.ThedestructionoftemplesinNippur, [159] Kish,Uruk,Isin,Eridu,LagashandUmmaisalsomentioned.Thecatastrophewasallinclusive.Thestatecrumbledintosmallprincipalities,andtherefollowedaperiodof internecineconflictwhichcametoanendonlyin1760B.C.withtheaccessiontothethroneofHammurabiinBabylon.(65:pp.269271) ThequestionofthesocialstructureinancientSumerandofthesocialpositionofitsruralpopulationhaslonginterestedhistorians.TheviewofSovietscholarsthatSumer belongedtoaslaveowningtypeofsystemisnotgenerallyacceptedelsewhere,noristheusualSovietdesignationofSumerasakindofpatriarchal slavestatewithtwo economicsectors(astatesector,whereslavesbelongedtothestate,andanindependentsectorbasedonfamilymembership).(See,forexample,69.)Themostwidely acceptedpointofviewassignsthemainpartoftheworkforcetothestatusofthehalffreegurushi.AccordingtoI.J.Gelb,thesewerenativeinhabitantswhowere "undoubtedlyfreeatfirstbutgraduallylosttheirmeansofsustenanceforsomereasonorotherandasaresultofdirectorindirectforcewerecompelledtowork continuallyorperiodicallyinotherhouseholds."(69:p.84)Theywerenotslavesandcouldnotbesoldtheyhadfamiliesoftheirown.Buttheyhadnorighttomovefreely fromplacetoplaceandwereobligedtoworkonstatelands,fortemplesorforthearistocracy(inthelatter'scapacityasstateofficials).Alongwiththese,therewas anothercategoryofworkers(mentionedinthe"gemduma"texts),whoapparentlyhadnofamiliesandwerepermanentlyemployedintemplehouseholds.Thegreat majorityofwarprisonerscouldnothavebeeneffectivelyutilizedintheeconomy.Thegapbetweenthelargefiguresreportedforprisonerstakenandthesmallnumberof suchpersonsinthehouseholdrecordsleadsGelbtotheconclusionthatmost capturedenemysoldierswerekilled.Onthebasisofacertaintext,I.J.Gelbevenargues thatwarprisonersweredriventospecial"deathcamps"andkilledlater.(70:p.74)Thosewhomanagedtosurvivewereturnedintostateslaves,buttheirstatusgradually

"undoubtedlyfreeatfirstbutgraduallylosttheirmeansofsustenanceforsomereasonorotherandasaresultofdirectorindirectforcewerecompelledtowork continuallyorperiodicallyinotherhouseholds."(69:p.84)Theywerenotslavesandcouldnotbesoldtheyhadfamiliesoftheirown.Buttheyhadnorighttomovefreely fromplacetoplaceandwereobligedtoworkonstatelands,fortemplesorforthearistocracy(inthelatter'scapacityasstateofficials).Alongwiththese,therewas anothercategoryofworkers(mentionedinthe"gemduma"texts),whoapparentlyhadnofamiliesandwerepermanentlyemployedintemplehouseholds.Thegreat majorityofwarprisonerscouldnothavebeeneffectivelyutilizedintheeconomy.Thegapbetweenthelargefiguresreportedforprisonerstakenandthesmallnumberof suchpersonsinthehouseholdrecordsleadsGelbtotheconclusionthatmost capturedenemysoldierswerekilled.Onthebasisofacertaintext,I.J.Gelbevenargues thatwarprisonersweredriventospecial"deathcamps"andkilledlater.(70:p.74)Thosewhomanagedtosurvivewereturnedintostateslaves,buttheirstatusgradually changedfromthatofslavestothatofthesemifreeworkers.(70:pp.9596)McAdamsalsobelievesthattheeconomyofancientSumerwasakindofamalgamof severalkindsofdependencefromanobligationtoworkonstatefieldspermanentlytoadependencebasedonallowancesofwater,grainandtoolswithonlyasmall contingentofactualslaves. [160] Therewerefewslavesintheserviceoftheelite,andtheirconditiondidnotdiffersubstantiallyfromthenumerousotherformsofdependence.(68:p.117)Thebulkofthe workforce,atleastinthelargerestates,consistedofthesemifreegurushi.Eventhesmallplotsoflandnotbelongingtothetempleortothestatewerenevertheless subjecttocontrols.Purchaseshadtobesanctionedbytheadministrationcultivationdependedonobtaininggrainandplowsfromthecentralstorehouses.(68:pp.105 106)Themajorityofrecordsdealingwithlandtransactionsconsistsofnotationsoftransferofsmallplotsoflandtothelargeestatesbelongingtorepresentativesofruling families.(68:p.106)

2.AncientEgypt
Theperiodofhistorytowhichtheprecedingsectionisdevotedwasnotananomalyoraparadoxdiscontinuouswiththebasicdevelopmentofhistory.Onthecontrary, wehaveseenanexample,perhapsthemoststrikingone,ofastyleoflife typical ofthethirdandsecondmillenniaB.C.intheregionthattakesinCrete,Greece,Egypt andAsiaMinor.Thesewerethemostdevelopedcountriesoftheancientworld.Toagreatextent,thesametendencieswereapparentinthestatesoftheIndusbasin. Thisepochmarkstheriseofa newsocialstructure whichwasdestinedtoplayadecisiveroleinthefuturehistoryofmankind:the state. Thebasicsocialunitofthe earlierperiodwasasettlementaroundatempleoravillagecloselytiedtoterritoryfamiliartothefathersandgrandfathersoftheinhabitants.Allthiswasnowreplacedby thestate,whichfrequentlyunitedheterogeneousethnicgroupsandcontrolledvastterritories,whichitconstantlystrovetoincreasestillfurther."Worldempires"appeared, pretendingtohegemonyoverthe"whole"worldandactuallysucceedingingainingcontroloveraconsiderablepartofthecivilizedworldofthetime. ThefirstsuchempirewasthatofSargon.Insteadofcomparativelysmallgroupsinwhichmostmemberskneweachotherpersonally,asocietyappearedforthefirsttime inhistorythatunitedhundredsofthousandsormillionsofindividualswhowereruledfromasinglecenter. Thisupheavalinthecourseofhistorycannotbeexplainedbytechnologicalorculturalprogress,despitesuchachievementsastheinvention [161] ofwriting,thewidespreaduseofirrigation,theconstructionofcities,theuseoftheplowandthepotter'swheel,andthesystematicuseofmetals.Inspiteofthese advances,thenewepochwasbasedchieflyonthemassapplicationoftheachievementsoftheneolithicandbronzeages.Theforcethatprovokedthechangesmustbe soughtelsewhere:itresultedfromtheunitingofhumanmassesonanunprecedentedscaleandthesubjugationofthesemassestothewillofacentralpower.The "technologyofpower"andnotthe"technologyofproduction"wasthefoundationuponwhichthenewtypeofsocietywasbased.(68:p.12)Thestate,bymeansofits bureaucracyofscribesandclerks,tookcontrolofthefundamentalaspectsofeconomicandspirituallife,justifyingthisbytheideaoftheking'sabsolutepoweroverhis subjectsandoverallsourcesofincome. Toillustratethegeneraltendenciesofthisepoch,weshallcitesomedataontwoperiodsinthehistoryofancientEgypt. TheAncientKingdom(FirstSixthDynasties).* Alllandwasconsideredtobethepharaoh's.Partwastransferredtotemporaryindividualuse,butmostofitmadeup theking'sdomaini.e.,itwasuseddirectlybythestate.Thepeasantswerelookeduponforthemostpartasfruitoftheearthandweretransferredtogetherwithland. Actsoftransfertypicallycontainformulationslike"thelandwithmenisgiven,"or"landwithmenandcattle."Peasantsworkedunderthesupervisionofofficials.The officialsdeterminedthenormsfordelivery(calculatedaneweachyear,dependingontheharvestandtheannualflood).Moreover,thepeasantsweresubjectedto obligatorylabor("thehours")forbuildingandotherstatework,mostnotablyforconstructionofthepyramids.AccordingtoHerodotus(laterconfirmedbyF.Petri's research),thescaleofbuildingwassuchthattoconstructtheCheopspyramid,100,000menworkedfortwentyyears.Thepeasantsdidmandatoryworkfortheking's relativesaswell,andforthenobility.Allthese"hours"andnormswereregulatedandrecordedineachregionbyfourdepartments,whichwereinturnsubordinatedtothe centralstorehousesandcentraloffices. Itseemsthatthecategoryofagriculturalworker,denotedbythewordmrt, wasespeciallycommon.PharaohPepiIIdecreedtheremovaloftheseworkerstoother regionstoprovideforthefulfillment
*Asurveyoftheperiodcanbefoundin71,whichisthesourceofmostofourinformation.

[162] oftheirstateduties.Accordingtosomesources,theselaborerslivedinspecialworkers'houses. Thecraftswereconcentrated,forthemostpart,instateandtempleworkshops,wheretheworkersweresuppliedwithtoolsandrawmaterial,whilethefinishedproducts wereturnedovertostorehouses.Shipbuilders,carpenters,joiners,masons,potters,metalworkers,glassandceramicsworkers,eitherworkedinpalaceandtemple shopsordependedonthemforrawmaterialsandorders.Highlyskilledartisanswiththestatusofhiredfreeworkerswereintheminority.Anumberofimportant branchesofcraftproductionweremonopolizedbyroyalandtempleworkshops.Forexample,thetemplesmanufacturedpapyrusforwritingmaterialaswellasformats, ropes,footwearandshipbuilding. WhileMeyer(72)considersitpossiblethattheAncientKingdomhadanumberofindependentartisansandtraders,Kees(73:p.164)thinkstherewasnosuchcategory. Tradewasexclusivelyintheformofbarter.Gold,copperandgrainwereusedsometimesasameasureofvalue,buttheentireprocessofexchangewasbasedonreal value.Exchangeofthissortisdepictedinnumeroustombfrescoes.Andamongtheobjectsdonatedtothecultforthereposeofthedead,noneseemstohaveamonetary character.Thefamous"PalermoStone"enumeratesthepharaoh'sdonationstothetemples.Theseincludeamostdiverselistofvaluables,includingland,people,rationsof beerandbread,cattleandfowl. Officialsalsowerepaidinproduce.Atcourt"theylivefromtheking'stable"intheprovinces,onthedeliveriesduetothem,inkeepingwiththeirrank.

Tradewasexclusivelyintheformofbarter.Gold,copperandgrainwereusedsometimesasameasureofvalue,buttheentireprocessofexchangewasbasedonreal value.Exchangeofthissortisdepictedinnumeroustombfrescoes.Andamongtheobjectsdonatedtothecultforthereposeofthedead,noneseemstohaveamonetary character.Thefamous"PalermoStone"enumeratesthepharaoh'sdonationstothetemples.Theseincludeamostdiverselistofvaluables,includingland,people,rationsof beerandbread,cattleandfowl. Officialsalsowerepaidinproduce.Atcourt"theylivefromtheking'stable"intheprovinces,onthedeliveriesduetothem,inkeepingwiththeirrank. Certainpersonsofhighstandingreceivedgrantsofland.Butsuchlandsdidnotformsingleholdings(withtheexceptionofinstancesneartheendoftheperiod)theywere scatteredinvariouspartsofthecountry.Thepersonstowhomlandswereassignedhadnopoliticalrightswithintheseterritories. Thesocialstructurewasbuiltaroundthebureaucracy.BeginningwiththeSecondDynasty,aninventoryofallpropertyinthestatetookplaceeverytwoyears.(Itwas calledthe"inventoryofgoldandfields"orthe"inventoryoflargeandsmalllivestock.")Toaccomplishthistask,theking'sscribesweresentfromhousetohouse, accompaniedbyadetachmentofsoldiers.Normsfordeliveriesandtaxeswereestablishedonthebasisoftheinventory.Therepresentativesofcentral [163] authorityinthevillageswerethe"villagejudge"andthe"villagescribe." Themultitudeoftitlesfortheofficialsisanindicationofthedegreeofbureaucraticcontroloverlife:villagescribe,villagejudge,chiefofcanals,lakescribe,chiefofsea construction(thefleet),builderofpalaces,overseerofgrainsandgranaries,etc.BeginningwiththeFourthDynasty,theeconomiclifeofthecountrywasregulatedbytwo departments:oneforfields,theotherforpersonnel. Theofficialswhogovernedseparateregionswerenotitsrulersinthefeudalsense.Althoughtheyusuallycamefromthe"aristocracy"bybirth,andtheirofficialtitlewasnot infrequentlypassedfromfathertoson,neverthelessthepositionofanofficialwasdeterminednotbyhisbirthrightbutbytheking'sgraceinotherwords,bythegiven official'spositioninthebureaucratichierarchy.Noonepossessedtheautomaticrighttorulebybirth.Servicebeganusuallyinthelowerranks,andasuccessfulofficial movedfromoneprovincetoanotherfrequently,withoutacquiringstableconnectionsanywhere.Onofficialseals,thenameofanofficialwasneverindicatedonlyhis positionandthepharaoh'sname.Inscriptionsfoundintombsmakenoreferencetothesocialoriginofthedeceasedoreventohisfather'sname(exceptinthecaseof princesoftheblood).Anofficial'scareerandmaterialwelfaredependedentirelyonthestateaspersonifiedbythepharaoh,whocouldevengrantimmortality(byallowing constructionofatombnearhisownburialplace).AsMeyersays:"EgyptbythetimeofMena[creatorofaunitedstatecomprisingUpperandLowerEgypt]wasnotan aristocraticstatebutabureaucraticstate."(72:p.156)Furthermore:"TheAncientKingdomisanextremeexampleofacentralizedabsolutemonarchyruledbya bureaucracythatdependedonlyontheroyalcourtandwaseducatedinstateschoolsforthetrainingofofficials."(72:p.193) TheEighteenthDynasty(SixteenthFourteenthCenturiesB.C.) *Morethanamillenniumlater,weobserveasystemofeconomicrelationsbasedonalmostidentical principles.Thestate,inthepersonofthepharaoh,ownedallsourcesofincome,andanyonemakinguseofthemwasunderhispermanentcontrol.Periodiccensuseswere usedtokeeptrackofland,property,occupations,positions.Allactivitywastobesanctionedbythestateanychangeofoccupationcouldtakeplace
*Basedonthesurveypresentedin74.

[164] onlywithofficialauthorization.Withtheexceptionofthepriestsandthemilitarynobility,thepopulationbothurbanandruralwasunitedintocommunitiesorguilds controlledbystateofficials. LandrelationsduringthisepochwereshapedbytherecentwarfortheliberationofthecountryfromtheHyksosinvaders.Themilitarynobility,whicharoseduringthis struggle,possessedasmallportionoftheland.Theirholdingswerepasseddown,asarule,byrightofprimogeniturefromfathertoson,butultimatecontrolofeventhese landsbelongedtothepharaoh.Thusheirsassumedpossessionoflandonlyafterthiswasconfirmedbythecentralauthorities. Withtheexceptionoftheselandsandthetemplelands,otherlandbelongedtothestateinthepersonofthepharaohandwastilledbypeasantsunderstatecontrol.Inthe tombofVizierRekhmara,forexample,theagriculturalworkersareshownalongwiththeirwivesandchildrengettingsacksofgrainandreturningemptyonesinexchange, underthesupervisionofanofficial. ThenormsfordeliveryofagriculturalgoodsweredeterminedinadvanceonthebasisoftheNilefloods. Cattlebreedingwasalsosubordinatedtoabroadgovernmentaladministrationheadedbythe"overseerofhornedcattle,hoofedandfeatheredlivestock." Withtherareexceptionofindividualsinsomecraftsthatrequiredspecialskill,allartisanswereunitedinguildsandcontrolledbyofficials.Theheadsofagricultural communitiesandcraftworkshopswereresponsibleforthetimelyfulfillmentoftheplanforstatedeliveries.Iftheplanwasnotcarriedout,thoseresponsiblewerepunished bybeingsenttoagriculturalandconstructionwork. Merchantssentabroadactedasthestate'sagents.Allimportswerealsocontrolledbytheadministrationoftenforeignmerchantswereobligedtodealonlywithstate officials.Theadministrationcontrolledinternaltradeaswellallmarketswereunderitssupervision. Despitethefactthatalmosttheentirepopulationwastoagreatextentdirectlydependentonthestate,thesocietyofthetimecannotbecalledeitheraslavesystem,asin classicalantiquity,orafeudalsystem.Writtenrecordscontainnumeroustermsindicatingdependenceonthestatei.e.,peoplesenttocompulsoryworkorwarprisoners usedinbuildingandotherstateworks.However,notoneofthesetermscanbeinterpretedasslaveunderthepersonalcontrolofanotherindividualandemployedin economicactivity. [165] Appendix ReligioninAncientEgyptandMesopotamia WhilethereissomedocumentationthatthrowslightontheeconomicstructureoftheancientstatesofEgyptandMesopotamia,itismuchmoredifficultto formanideaoftheintellectuallifeandgeneraloutlookofthesesocieties.Theonlysourcesofinformationatourdisposalbearonreligion. CharacteristicofthereligionsoftheancientEastisthespecialrolethatthekingplayedbothinagivencultitselfandinallreligiousnotionsofthetime.Not onlywasheanearthlyincarnationofagod,butgodhoodwastheking'ssecond,heavenlynature,hissoul.Hence,religionwastoalargeextenttransformed

ReligioninAncientEgyptandMesopotamia WhilethereissomedocumentationthatthrowslightontheeconomicstructureoftheancientstatesofEgyptandMesopotamia,itismuchmoredifficultto formanideaoftheintellectuallifeandgeneraloutlookofthesesocieties.Theonlysourcesofinformationatourdisposalbearonreligion. CharacteristicofthereligionsoftheancientEastisthespecialrolethatthekingplayedbothinagivencultitselfandinallreligiousnotionsofthetime.Not onlywasheanearthlyincarnationofagod,butgodhoodwastheking'ssecond,heavenlynature,hissoul.Hence,religionwastoalargeextenttransformed intoworshipofadeifiedking.* Hocart(75)hasamassedagreatamountofmaterialonthecultofkingworship.However,hisobservationsrefertomoreprimitivesocietieswhenthedeified kingplayedanalmostexclusivelycultrole.ItwascharacteristicofMesopotamiaandEgypttomergethisfunctionwiththeroleofanabsoluterulerofthe country. AgreatnumberoffactssupportingthispointofviewareavailableinJ.Engnell'sstudy(76),fromwhichweshallquoteseveralexamples. Egypt. Thekingisheldtobedivinefrombirthandevenbeforebirthheisconceivedbygodwhobecameincarnatedinhisearthlyfather.Thegodsformthe childinthemother'swomb.Hehasnoearthlyparents.Asonehymnreads:"Amongthepeoplethouhastnofatherthatconceivedthee,amongthepeople thouhastnomotherthatconceivedthee."(76:p.4) Themainfunctionofthekingistobethehighpriestallotherpriestsareonlyhissurrogates.Themaingoalofthecultistheidentificationofthekingwithgod. ThekingisidentifiedwithRatheSun.ThisidentificationisreflectedinthesocalledroyalnameHorus.Thatwhichischaracteristicofthesupremegodis relevanttothekingbythemightofhiswordshecreatestheworld,heisthesupportofworldlyorder,heisallseeingandallhearing."Thouartlikefather Raarisinginthefirmament.Thyraysoflightpenetratetocaves,andthereisnoplaceonearthnotlitbythybeauty."(76:p.6)Tothepharaohisattributed thedualnatureofthesupremegod,bothgoodandwrathful. ThekingisalsoidentifiedwithHorus,thesonofOsiris,hencewithOsirisaswell.HorusisthelivingkingOsirisisthedeadking.Osirisisthepersonification ofthefunctionoffecundityinthesupremegodandinthatcapacitywasincarnateinthepharaoh.ThedeathofOsiriswasdepictedinritualfestivitieshis passagethroughtheunderworldandhisresurrection,hisincarnationinHorus,theearthlyking.Thiswassimultaneouslythefestivityofthepharaoh's coronation.
*Atleastthisistrueoftheofficialreligion.Touchinginscriptionsuncoveredinbarracksoccupiedbythebuildersofthepyramidsshowthattherealsoexisteda popularreligionbasedondeepfeelingsofpersonalmergingwiththedeity.

[166] TheidentificationofthepharaohandOsirishasevengivenrisetospeculation(Sothe,Blackman)thatOsirisisthedeifiedimageofarealkingwhose archetypalactivitiesanddeathserveasthebasisofthecultofOsiris.(76:p.8) Thepharaoh'sfunctionasdefenderofthestateagainstitsenemiesisidentifiedwithamythicalstrugglebetweenRaandadragon.Thepharaoh'svictoriesare describedinvividmetaphors:heattackslikeastorm,likeadevouringflame,dismemberinghisenemies'bodiestheirbloodflowslikewaterduringtheflood, theirbodiesareheapedhigherthanthepyramids,etc.Thepharaoh'senemiesarecalledchildrenofdestruction,thecondemned,wolves,dogs.Theyare identifiedwiththedragonApopi. Inhisstateactivitiesthepharaohislikenedtoagoodshepherd,shelter,arock,afortress.Theverysameepithetsareappliedtothesupremegod. Hymnsaddressedtothepharaohincludesuchsentimentsas: "Hehathcometous,hehathmadethepeopleofEgypttolive,hehathopenedthethroatsofthepeople." "Rejoice,thouentireland:thegoodlytimehathcome,theLordhathappearedintheTwoLands."(76:p.13) "Thewaterstandeth,andfailethnot,theNileisrunninghigh. "Thedaysarelong,thenightshavehours,themonthscomearight. "Thegodsarecontentandhappyofheart,andlifeisspentinlaughterandwonder."(76:pp.1314) Mesopotamia. ThekingwasconsideredtobebornofagoddesshisfatherwasAnu,Enlilorsomeothergodwhowascalledthe"fatherconceiver."Inhis mother'swomb,theking'sbodyandsoulareendowedwithdivinequalities.(76:p.16) Duringtheritualcelebrationofthecoronation,thekingdiessymbolicallyandisrebornasagod. Itisinterestingthatthemoreancienttextsarethemoredefiniteaboutthedivinityoftheking.Invisualrepresentations,thekingoftencannotbedistinguished fromagodhemighthavethesamehairstyle,forinstance.Theking'snamehasadivinecharacterandisusedasanoath.(76:p.18)Inthegodkingidentity therearetwoaspects.Thekingisthesupremesungodand,atthesametime,thegodoffertility. ThusthekingPursinofUriscalledthe"truegod,"thesunoverhisland.Hammurabisays:"IamthesungodofBabylon,whocauseslighttoriseoverthe landofSumerandAkkad."(76:p.23)DuringritualceremoniesthekingactedasthegodofthesunMarduk.Thisidentificationwasproclaimedasdogma inrelationtotheroleofthekinginthecult,butinanearlierperioditevidentlywasseeninliteralterms. Ontheotherhand,thenotionofthekingasanembodimentofthegodoffertilityTammuzseemssofundamentalthatscholarslikeFeiginconsiderTammuza historicalkingwhosedeificationinitiatedthecult.(76:p.24) InthereligionofMesopotamia,theimageofatreeoflifethatgrants

[167]

historicalkingwhosedeificationinitiatedthecult.(76:p.24) InthereligionofMesopotamia,theimageofatreeoflifethatgrants

[167] thewateroflifeplaysagreatrole.Thekingisoftenidentifiedwithit.ThusitissaidofKingShulgi:"ShepherdShulgi,thouwhohastthewater,shed water...GodShulgiistheseedoflife...thearomaticplantoflife."Thelivesofpeoplearefromtheking:"TheKinggiveslifetomen...lifeiswiththeKing."(76: p.28) Inacertainhymnthekingspeaks:"Iamtheking,myreignisendless....Iamhewhorulesoverallthings,themasterofthestars."(76:p.29) Identicalepithetsareusuallyappliedtokingandtogod:master,ruler,shepherd,lawfulshepherd,ruleroflands,ruleroftheuniverse. Wequoteseveralmorefragmentsfromthehymns: "Hethatoverfloweththefaceofthelandwiththeflood..."(76:p.39) "Hewhomthegreatgodslookuponwithbrightregard..."(76:p.42) "Whobringsbacklifetothosewhohavebeensickformanydays..."(76:p.44) Andinconnectionwithnature: "Thecorngrewfiveellshighinitsears."

3.AncientChina
ThehistoryofChinaisanextraordinarilyinterestingexampleofhowthetendenciesofstatesocialismfindexpressioninamultitudeofformsoveratremendousspanof time.BelowweshallcitesomedatabearingontheperiodbetweenthethirteenthandthethirdcenturiesB.C.Thisepochisdividedintotwoparts:theancient(theYinand theearlyChouofclassicalChinesehistoriography)andthelateChunChiuandCh'in.TheboundarybetweenthemliesinthefifthcenturyB.C. TheYineracomprisestheearliestnonmythicperiodinChinesehistory.Songsandchroniclessupplysomeinformationonit,inadditiontoarchaeologicalevidence.Some ofthemostimportantknowledgeabouttheYincomesfrominscriptionsonbonesandtortoiseshellsusedfordivining.TheseinscriptionsareassignedbyMaspero(77)to thetwelfthtoeleventhcenturiesB.C.andbyKuoMoJo(78)tothefourteenthtothirteenthcenturies.Thesourcespointtoasocietybasedonhuntingandagriculture. Cultivationwasbyandlargeconfinedtoriverbanksartificialirrigationwaslittleused.Themanufactureofbronzeutensilsandspinningandweavingachievedahighlevelof technicalproficiency.Awritingsystemhadbeendevelopedandthecalendarwasinuse. Powerbelongedtothekingorwang.Inalaterchroniclealegendary [168] king,PanKeng,inorderinghispeopletopopulatenewareas,says:"Youareallmycattleandpeople."(78:p.22)Hewarnsthatincaseofdisobediencetheywillhave theirnosescutoffandalltheirdescendantswillbedestroyed"sothatbadseedshouldnotgetintothecity."(78:p.22)Thecommentarytoanancientchronicle(sixth fifth centuriesB.C.)statesthat"Chou[thewangofYin]hadhundredsofthousands,millionsofpeople."(78:p.22)ThatthewangoccupiedacentralplaceinYinsocietyis indicatedbythehugenumberofhumansacrificesthataccompaniedhisburial.Thegraveofawangwassurroundedbyuptoonethousandcorpses.Ontheotherhand, suchmassslaughter,apparentlyofwarprisoners,madethespreadofslaveryratherimprobable. Inagriculturenotraceofindividuallandallotmenthasbeenfound.Controloverworkonthelandwasinthehandsofagriculturalofficials.Thebureaucraticnatureof agricultureissuggestedbyinscriptionsondiceusedinfortunetelling.Forexample,theaugurydirectsthewang"toorderthecommonfolktogotothefieldsforthe harvest."Or:"Thecommonfolkaretobeorderedtosowmillet."(79:p.125) TheconquestoftheYinempirebythenomadicChoutribetransformedthelatterintoaprivilegedclassofsociety,butlittlechangedinthegeneralstructureoflife.As before,workonthelandwascontrolledbyofficialssubordinatetotheking.Numeroussongsdescribeagriculturebasedontheuseoflargegroupsofpeasantsdirectedby officialswhoindicatewhere,whenandwhattosow.Forexample,landofficialswereinstructedasfollows:"ourrulersummonsusall...ordersyoutoleadtheplowmento sowgrain...quicklytakeyourinstrumentsandbegintoplow....Lettenthousandpairsgoout...thiswillbeenough."(79:p.125)Elsewhereasimilarsceneispictured:"A thousandpairsofpeopleontheplainandonthemountainslopeweedandplowthefield."(79:p.129)Oftheharvestitissaid:"Therearelargegranarieseverywhere. ...Inthem,millionsoftan ofgrain...Athousandgranariesmustbeprepared....Tenthousandgrainbasketsmustbeprepared."Finally,thewanggiveshisapprovalthe ultimategoaloflabor:"Allthefieldsarecompletelysown....Thegrainistrulygood....Thewangwasnotangryhesaid,'Youpeasantshavelaboredgloriously.'"(79:pp. 128,134) Thehistoricalbook HanShu, writteninthefirstcenturyA.D.,describestheorganizationofagriculturalworkthus:"Beforethepopulationwentouttowork,thevillage headtookuphisplaceontheright [169] oftheexit,theagriculturalofficialsonthelefttheylefttheirplacesaftereveryonehaddepartedforthefields.Intheevening,thesamethingwasrepeated."(78:p.31) Alineinasongruns:"Rainfallsonourcommonlandandonourownfields."(79:p.135)Thus,apartfromthefieldsinwhichthousandstoiledunderthesupervisionof officials,therewereindividualplotsanalogoustothosethatexistedinPeruandintheJesuitstate. Historicalsourcespointtothestatedistributionofland."Atdefinitetimesthepopulationwascountedandthelanddistributed."(80:p.149)And:"Theindividualattheage oftwentyreceivedafield,attheageofsixtyreturnedit,atanageoverseventylivedinstatedependency,uptotenyearsofagewasbroughtupbyelders,onreachingage elevenwasforcedtoworkbytheelders."(78:p.31) Alllandandallpeoplewereconsideredtobethewang'sproperty:"Undertheheavens,thereisnolandthatdoesnotbelongtothewang,inthewholeworldfromone endtotheothertherearenopeoplewhoarenotthewang'sunderlings."(78:p.29) Landandfolkweregrantedbythewangtothearistocracyfortemporaryuse,withouttherightofsaleortransferevenbyinheritance.Manycasesarerecordedofland

Historicalsourcespointtothestatedistributionofland."Atdefinitetimesthepopulationwascountedandthelanddistributed."(80:p.149)And:"Theindividualattheage oftwentyreceivedafield,attheageofsixtyreturnedit,atanageoverseventylivedinstatedependency,uptotenyearsofagewasbroughtupbyelders,onreachingage elevenwasforcedtoworkbytheelders."(78:p.31) Alllandandallpeoplewereconsideredtobethewang'sproperty:"Undertheheavens,thereisnolandthatdoesnotbelongtothewang,inthewholeworldfromone endtotheothertherearenopeoplewhoarenotthewang'sunderlings."(78:p.29) Landandfolkweregrantedbythewangtothearistocracyfortemporaryuse,withouttherightofsaleortransferevenbyinheritance.Manycasesarerecordedofland beingconfiscatedandevenofaristocratsbeingreducedtotherankofthecommonpeople.Officials,scholarsandartisansgottheirsustenancefromspecificplotsofland tilledbythepeasantswholivedonthem. Besidestheirimmediateobligations,peasantshadanumberofotherduties.Incaseofwar,theywereto"putonarmorandtakepoleaxesinhand."(78:p.32)Theywere obligedtoworkonconstructionprojects.Inonesong,itissaid:"Tillers!...Thisyeartheharvestisalreadyin....Itistimetobuildapalace....Bydaymakereadyreeds. ...Intheeveningweaverope....Hurryandfinishthebuilding."(79:p.147) Thecraftswerepartlythepeasants'obligationaswell.Inthe HanShu itissaid:"Inwinter,whenthepopulationreturnedtothevillage,thewomengatheredtogetherinthe eveningsandwereengagedinspinning.Inonemonththeyfulfilledthenormsetforfortyfivedays."(78:p.31) Therewere,however,professionalartisansalso.Theybelongedtoaspecialorganizationinwhichtheartisansofsimilarspecialtiesformedclosedcorporationsdirectedby overseers.Artisansandoverseers,aswellasmerchants,receivedallowancesfromthestate. [170] Alltheessentialaspectsoflifewereunderthecontroloftheking'sadministration.Therewerethreebasicareasofsupervision:agriculture,warandpublicworks.The headsofthesethreedepartmentswerecalledthethreeeldersandwereregardedasthehighestrankingofficialsoftheempire.Allagriculturalproductionwas subordinatedtothedepartmentofagricultureor"plenty."*Itsofficialsscheduledtherotationofcrops,thetimeofsowingandofharvesting.Theyassignedthedutiesto groupsortoindividualpeasantsandsupervisedtheprivateexchangeofagriculturalproductsatthemarkets.Thelifeofthepeasantwasalsoundertheircontrol:marriage, villageholidaysandlitigation. Theprimarytaskofthemilitarydepartmentwasthesuppressionofuprisings.Alsoamongitsfunctionswererecruitingandtrainingandallquestionsoftheconductofand preparationforwarthearsenal,foodstores,horses.Thisdepartmentalsoorganizedthehugehuntingexpeditionsthattookplacefourtimeseachyear.Thedepartmentof publicworkshadauthorityovertheland(whilethepeoplewhoworkedthelandweremanagedbythedepartmentof"plenty").Itestablished"boundarylines,"thatis, undertooktheperiodicredistributionoflanditdirectedirrigationwork,thebuildingofroads,thecultivationofvirginlands.Artisans,architects,sculptorsandarmorers wereatitsdisposal.(77:pp.7375) Althoughtherewereobjects(shells,copperbars)thatwereusedasconvenientmeansofexchange,alldeliveriestothestateconsistedofproduce:grain,canvas,etc. Privatetransactions,inmostcases,alsohadthecharacterofexchangeinkind. Inmanyrespects,marriagehadnontraditionalforms.AmongtheinscriptionsfromtheYinperiod,wefindlistingsofwivesbelongingtotwohusbands.(81:p.12)Inthe Chouepoch,marriageamongthepeasantswastoalargeextentregulatedbythestate.Forexample,inonesourceweread:"Menareorderedtomarrybyagethirty, girls,byagetwenty.Thismeansthatthedeadlineformarriagebothformenandforwomencannotbeextended."(80:p.147)Ataspecifictimeinspring,theemperor announcedthedayforweddings.Aspecialofficialcalledamediatorinformedthepeasantsthatthetimefor"thejoiningofyouthsandgirls"hadcome.TheFrench SinologistMasperobelievesthatmarriageinthetruesenseexistedonlyforthearistocracy,forwhichithadtheeffectofsustainingthereligiouscult.Common
*ThistranslationwassuggestedbyMaspero(77)in1927,longbeforeOrwell's1984.

[171] folkdidnotestablishclansandthefamilydidnothaveareligiouscharacter.MarriagewasdenotedbydifferenttermsforthearistocracyandthepeasantryMaspero translatestheformertermas"marriage"andthelatteras"union."(77:p.117) Legalfunctionsweredividedbetweentheciviladministrationandthelegaldepartment.Civilauthoritiesassignedpenaltiesforminorcrimesaspecificnumberofblows withastick.Incasesofrepeatedoffense,theguiltypartywashandedovertothelawdepartment.Fivekindsofpunishmentwereprovidedforbylawforseriousoffenses: capitalpunishment,castration(or,forwomen,incarceration),cuttingoffoftheheel,cuttingoffofthenose,branding.AcodexattributedtoKingMuofthebeginningofthe Chouperiodcontainsalistofthreethousandoffenses,ofwhichtwohundredwerepunishablebydeath,threehundredbycastration,fivehundredbycuttingofftheheel, onethousandbycuttingoffthenoseandonethousandbybranding.Thecodexfromtheendofthisepochlists2,500offenses,fivehundredineachofthefivecategories ofpunishment.(77:p.77) Inmanyrespects,thesocietyoftheChouperiodresemblesthatoftheIncaempireatthetimeoftheSpanishinvasion.ButinChina,historymadepossibleafurther elaborationofthesocialstructure.TheChoustatedidnotfallvictimtoaforeigninvader,butratherdevelopedundertheinfluenceofinternalfactors.Andquiteunexpected featuresappeared.BythefifthcenturyB.C.,theempire,officiallyunderthedominionoftheChouking,brokeupintowhatwereinrealitysmallindependentstatesthat engagedinpermanentwarfare.(Thisageis,infact,calledthe"epochofthefightingkingdoms.")Butthecollapseofthemonolithicstatemechanismwascompensatedfor bythedevelopmentofindividualfactors.TheteachingsofConfuciusproclaimedman'sprimarygoaltobethemoralandethicalperfectionofhispersonalityandthe integrationofculturewithsuchspiritualqualitiesasjustice,loveofmankind,loyalty,nobility.Amultitudeofphilosophicalschoolscameintobeingvagrantscholarsbegan toplayagreatroleinthelifeofsociety. Thisisaperiodofrapidculturalandeconomicgrowth.Thelanguageandwritingsystemsofthedifferentkingdomswascodified.Thenumberofcitiesandtownsincreased rapidly,andtheybegantoplayagreaterroleinthelifeofthecountry.Thechroniclestellofcitiesinwhichcarriagescollidedinthestreetsandthecrowdsweresuchthat clothingputoninthemorninggotwornoutbyevening.Largeirrigationsystemswereconstructed.Anetworkofcanalswas [172] built,connectingallthekingdomsofChina.Implementsmadeofironcameintowideuse.Almostallagriculturalinstruments,suchashoes,spades,axes,sickles,were madeofiron.ThroughoutChinalargeirondepositswerebeingworkedtherewerehugesmeltingfurnacesrunbycrewsofhundredsofslaves.Citiesandwholeregions specializedinproducingdifferentarticles:silk,arms,salt.Undertheinfluenceofincreasingtradelinks,almostallkingdomsbegantomintidenticalcoins.(83:pp.24 32) Somewhatlater,however,anewtendencyappeared:thedesiretomakeuseofthehighertechnicalandintellectuallevelinordertocreateastrictlycentralizedsocietyin whichtheindividual,toafargreaterdegreethanbefore,wouldbeundercontrolofthestate.Itseemsthatthisisnottheonlytimeinhistorythatdevelopmentshavetaken suchaturn.Forexample,H.Frankfort(83)believesthatthefirststatesinMesopotamiaandEgyptaroseinananalogousfashion,i.e.,asaresultofsubjectingthe

built,connectingallthekingdomsofChina.Implementsmadeofironcameintowideuse.Almostallagriculturalinstruments,suchashoes,spades,axes,sickles,were madeofiron.ThroughoutChinalargeirondepositswerebeingworkedtherewerehugesmeltingfurnacesrunbycrewsofhundredsofslaves.Citiesandwholeregions specializedinproducingdifferentarticles:silk,arms,salt.Undertheinfluenceofincreasingtradelinks,almostallkingdomsbegantomintidenticalcoins.(83:pp.24 32) Somewhatlater,however,anewtendencyappeared:thedesiretomakeuseofthehighertechnicalandintellectuallevelinordertocreateastrictlycentralizedsocietyin whichtheindividual,toafargreaterdegreethanbefore,wouldbeundercontrolofthestate.Itseemsthatthisisnottheonlytimeinhistorythatdevelopmentshavetaken suchaturn.Forexample,H.Frankfort(83)believesthatthefirststatesinMesopotamiaandEgyptaroseinananalogousfashion,i.e.,asaresultofsubjectingthe economicandintellectualachievementsofthetempleeconomiestothegoalsofacentralgovernment. AuniqueplaceinthethoughtandactivityoftheChinaofthe"fightingkingdoms"periodisoccupiedbyKungsunYang,betterknownasShangYang.Hewastherulerof ShangprovinceinthemiddleofthefourthcenturyB.C.andhistheoreticalviewsaresetforthinTheBookoftheRulerofShang. (84)Thisworkisbelievedtohavebeen writteninpartbyShang,inpartbyhisdisciples. AccordingtoShang'steaching,twoforcesdeterminethelifeofsociety.OneofthemShangcallstherulerorthestate,evidentlyregardingthemasdifferenttermsfor essentiallythesamething.Shangidentifieshimselfwiththisforce.Theaimofthewholetreatiseistopointoutthebestpathsandmeansforachievingthegoalsofthisforce inthemostperfectfashion.Thegoalconsistsessentiallyofincreasingtothemaximumdegreepossibletheruler'sinfluenceandpowerbothinsidethecountryandbeyond itsbordersthroughexpansion.Theidealisfulldominionundertheheavens.Theotherforceisthepeople.Theauthordescribestheinterrelationsbetweentherulerandthe peopleasanalogoustothosebetweentheartisanandhisrawmaterial.Thepeoplearelikenedtooreinthehandsofametalworkerortoclayinthehandsofapotter. Andevenmoretheaspirationsofthetwoforcesarediametricallyopposedtheyareenemies,theonegettingstrongeronlyattheexpenseoftheother."Onlyhewhohas conqueredhisownpeoplefirstcanconquerastrongenemy."(84:p.210)"Whenthepeopleareweakthestateisstrongwhenthestateisweakthe [173] peoplearestrong.Hencethestatethatfollowsatruecoursestrivestoweakenthepeople."(84:p.219)ThesectioninShang'sbookfromwhichthelastquotationistaken isinfactentitled:"HowtoWeakenthePeople." Inordertotransformhispeopleintoclayinhishands,therulerisadvisedtorenounceloveofman,ofjusticeandofthepeoplequalitiesthattheauthorcategorizes collectivelyasvirtue.Thesequalitiesshouldnotbeassumedamongthepeopleeithertheymustberuledlikeacollectionofpotentialcriminalswithanappealmadeonlyto fearandselfishadvantage."Ifthestateisgovernedbyvirtuousmethods,largenumbersofcriminalsaresuretoappear."(84:p.156)"Inastatewherethedepravedare treatedasiftheywerevirtuous,seditionisinevitable.Inastatewherethevirtuousaretreatedasiftheyweredepraved,ordershallreignandthestatesurelyshallbe powerful."(84:p.163)"Whenthepeoplederiveprofitfromthewaysinwhichtheyareused,theycanbemadetodoanythingtherulerwishes....However,shouldthe rulerturnawayfromthelawandbegintorelyuponhisloveforthepeople,therewillbeanoutbreakofcrimeintheland."(84:p.220) Thelawisatthebasisoflifeitrulesoverthepeoplethroughfearand,toalesserextent,throughtheprofitmotive:"Thelawisthebasisforthepeople....Asituationis consideredjustwhendignitariesareloyal,whensonsarerespectfultotheirparents,whenjuniorsareobservantoftheirseniors,whenthedistinctionbetweenmanand womanisestablished.Butallthisisachievednotthroughjusticebutbymeansofimmutablelaws.Andthen,evenastarvingmanwillnotstraintoreachforfood,justasa condemnedmanwillnotclingtolife.Hewhoisperfectlywisedoesnotvaluejustice,buthevalueslaws.Ifthelawsareabsolutelyclearanddecreesareabsolutely obeyed,nothingmoreisneeded."(84:pp.215216) Ofthetwokeyfactors,punishmentandreward,withthehelpofwhichthelawgovernsthepeople,considerablepreferenceisgiventothefirst:"Inastatestrivingfor dominionundertheheavens,thereareninepunishmentstoonereward,andinstatesdoomedtodisintegrate,thereareninerewardstoonepunishment."(84:p.165)Itis onlypunishmentthatbreedsmorality:"Virtueoriginatedwithpunishment."(84:p.165)Speakingofhowtoapplypunishment,theauthorseesonlythefollowing alternatives:masspunishmentappliedacrosstheboardorthelessfrequentlyusedbutparticularlyharshpunishment.Hedefinitelyrecommendsthesecondcourse:"People canbemade [174] worthywithoutmasspunishment,ifthepunishmentissevere."(84:p.212)Inthisheevendiscernsamarkoftheruler'sloveforhispeople:"Shouldpunishmentsbesevere andrewardsfew,therulerloveshispeopleandthepeoplearereadytogiveuptheirlivesfortheruler.Shouldrewardsbeconsiderableandpunishmentsmild,theruler doesnotlovehispeople,andthepeoplewillnotgiveuptheirlivesforhissake."(84:pp.158159) Theprimarygoalofpunishmentistoseverthetiesthatbindpeopletogethertherefore,awholesystemofinformersmustsupplementpunishment."Ifthepeopleareruled asvirtuous,theywilllovethoseclosesttothemiftheyareruledasdepraved,theywillbecomefondofthissystem.Unityamongpeopleandtheirmutualsupportspring fromthefactthattheyareruledasvirtuousestrangementamongthepeopleandmutualsurveillancespringfromtheirbeingruledasdepraved."(84:pp.162163)The ruler"shouldissuealawonmutualsurveillanceheshouldissueadecreethatthepeopleoughttocorrecteachother."(84:p.214)"Regardlessofwhethertheinformeris ofthenobilityorofloworigin,heinheritsfullythenobility,thefieldsandthesalaryoftheseniorofficialwhosemisconducthereportstotheruler."(84:p.207) Denunciationistiedtoasystemofextendedmutualliability."Afathersendinghissontowar,theeldersendinghisyoungerbrother,orthewifeseeingoffherhusband, shallallsay:'Don'tcomebackwithoutvictory!'Andtheywilladd'Shouldyoubreakthelawordisobeyanorder,weshallperishtogetherwithyou.'"(84:p.211)"Ina wellregulatedcountry,husband,wifeandtheirfriendswillnotbeabletoconcealacrimeonefromtheotherwithoutcourtingdisasterfortherelativesoftheculpritthe restwillnotbeabletocovereachothereither."(84:p.231) Theauthorpicturesthisentiresystemasamoreprofoundandsignificantformofhumanity,apathtowardthedyingawayofpunishment,executionanddenunciation, almostawitheringawayofthestatethroughitsmaximumincreaseinstrength."Ifpunishmentbemadesevereandasystemofmutualresponsibilityforcrimeis established,peoplewillnotdaretoexposethemselvestotheforceoflaw.Andwhenpeoplebegintofeartheresults,theverynecessityofpunishmentwilldisappear."(84: p.207)"Therefore,ifbywar,warcanbeabolished,thenevenwarispermissibleifbymurder,murdercanbeabolished,thenevenmurderispermissibleifby punishment,punishmentcanbeabolished,thenevenharshpunishmentispermissible."(84:p.210)"Suchismymethodofreturningtovirtue,bythepath [175] ofcapitalpunishmentandreconciliationofjusticeandviolence."(84:p.179) WhatisthesocialstructurethatShangYangproposestoachievebythesemeans?Hesinglesouttwoconcernsforthesakeofwhichotherhumaninterestsshouldbe suppressedandtowhicheverythingshouldbesubordinated:agricultureandwar.Heascribessuchexclusiveimportancetotheseentitiesthatheintroducesaspecialterm todefinethem,translatedas"concentrationontheOneThing"or"unification."Thewholefutureofthecountrydependsuponthisfactor:"Thecountrythatachieves unification,beitforoneyear,willbepowerfulfortenyearsthestatethatachievesunificationfortenyearswillbepowerfulforahundredyearsthestatethatachieves unificationforahundredyearswillbepowerfulforathousandyearsandwillachievedominionundertheheavens."(84:p.154)Onlythefollowingactivitiesmustbe encouragedbythestate:"Hewhowantsthefloweringofthestateshouldinspireinthepeopletheknowledgethatofficialpostsandranksofnobilitycanbeobtainedonly byengagingintheOneThing."(84:p.148) Alleconomicactivitywastohaveasinglegoalagriculture.Twoexplanationsaregivenforthis:inthefirstplace,"whenallthoughtsareturnedtoagriculture,peopleare

todefinethem,translatedas"concentrationontheOneThing"or"unification."Thewholefutureofthecountrydependsuponthisfactor:"Thecountrythatachieves unification,beitforoneyear,willbepowerfulfortenyearsthestatethatachievesunificationfortenyearswillbepowerfulforahundredyearsthestatethatachieves unificationforahundredyearswillbepowerfulforathousandyearsandwillachievedominionundertheheavens."(84:p.154)Onlythefollowingactivitiesmustbe encouragedbythestate:"Hewhowantsthefloweringofthestateshouldinspireinthepeopletheknowledgethatofficialpostsandranksofnobilitycanbeobtainedonly byengagingintheOneThing."(84:p.148) Alleconomicactivitywastohaveasinglegoalagriculture.Twoexplanationsaregivenforthis:inthefirstplace,"whenallthoughtsareturnedtoagriculture,peopleare simpleandeasilygoverned."(84:p.153)Secondly,agriculturehelpsfeedthearmyduringprolongedwars.Colonizationandcultivationofvirginlandsisproposed peasantsaretobeattractedfromotherlandstothisendbypromisesofreleasefromlaborandmilitarydutiesforthreegenerations.Itseemsthatthepeasantswhosettled onvirginlandswereusuallyundergreatercontrolandbelongedtoa"royaldomain."Thustheproposaltobefreeforthreegenerationsmusthavesoundedespecially attractive.Overandover,proposingthisorthatofficialmeasure,ShangYangconcludesthepassagewiththewords:"Andthenthevirginlandsarecertaintobe cultivated." Forthenobility,theonlywaytorichesandacareermustbethroughmilitaryservice:"Allprivilegesandsalaries,officialpostsandranksofnobility,mustbegivenonlyfor serviceinthearmytheremustbenootherway.Foronlybythispathisitpossibletotakeaclevermanandafool,noblesandcommonfolk,bravemenandcowards, worthymenandthosegoodfornothing,andextractallthatisintheirheadsandtheirbacksandforcethemtorisktheirlivesforthesakeoftheruler."(84:p.204) Inmilitaryactivitythereisnoplaceformoralconsiderations.On [176] thecontrary:"Ifthearmycommitsactionsthattheenemywouldnotdaretocommit,thenthismeansthatthecountryisstrong.Ifinwarthecountrycommitsactionsthe enemywouldbeashamedofcommitting,thenitwillhavegainedanadvantage."(84:p.156) Theruler,too,isreleasedfrommoralobligationstowardhissoldiers.Herulesoverthem,asoverallpeoplebymeansofrewardsandpunishments.Threeenemyheads cutoffresultsinapromotiontotherankofnobility."Ifafterthreedaysacommanderhasnotconferredthistitleuponanyone,heissentencedtotwoyearshardlabor....A warriordisplayingcowardiceistorntopiecesbycarriages,awarriordaringtodisapproveofanorderisbranded,hisnoseiscutoffandheisthrowndownatthecity wall."(84:pp.218219)Aswiththegeneralpopulation,thewarriorisboundbyextendedresponsibility.Soldiersaredividedintofivesandforailoffensebyoneallare executed. Thus:"Itisnecessarytodrivepeopleintosuchastatethattheyshouldsufferifnotengagedinagriculture,thattheyshouldliveinfeariftheyarenotengagedinwar."(84: p.234)Therefore,all"external"occupations(thatis,notpartoftheOneThing)aresystematicallysuppressed.Asaresult,activitiesoutsidedirectstatecontrol,thosein whichpersonalinitiativeandindividualityweredisplayed,werethefirsttobecutoff.Hencetheabolitionofprivatetradeingrainisproposed.Thenmerchantswillbe compelledtoturntoworkingtheland,and"wastelandsarecertaintobecultivated."Taxesweretoberaisedsharplysoastomaketradeunprofitable.Andingeneralthe roleofgoldwastobediminishedsothatitshouldplaytheleastpossiblerole."Whengoldappears,graindisappearsandwhengrainappears,golddisappears."(84:p. 161)Merchantsandtheirpeopleshouldbedrawnintoperformingstatelaborduties.Thecraftsarealsonottobeencouraged:"Commonpeopleareengagedintradeand aremastersofvariouscraftssoastoavoidagricultureandwar.Ifsuchthingstakeplace,thestateisindanger."(84:p.148)Hiredlaborshouldbeabolishedsothat privatepersonswouldnotbeabletoundertakeconstructionwork.Miningandwatertransportationshouldbecomestatemonopolies:"Iftherightofownershipto mountainsandreservoirsisconcentratedinthesamehand,thenlandslyingfallowwillcertainlybecultivated."Andinhabitantsshouldbeattachedtotheland."Ifthe peoplearedeprivedoftherightoffreemigration,thenlandslyingfallowwillcertainlybecultivated."(84:pp.144145)Allthesemeasurescanbesummedupinone generalprinciple:"Undertheheavenstherehardlywaseveracasewhereastatedidnotperish [177] wheninfestedwithwormsorwhenacrackappeared.Thatiswhyawiserulermakeslawseliminatingprivateinterests,therebydeliveringthestatefromwormsand cracks."(84:p.198) Theimplementationoftheseprinciples,however,ispreventedbyaforcewhichthebookdealswithatlength.TodenotethisforceShangYangusesatermthatis translatedas"parasites"or(literally)"lice."Sometimessixparasitesareenumerated,sometimeseight,instillotherinstancesten.ThesearetheShihChing andthe Shu Ching(TheBookofSongs andTheBookofHistory, thesourcesofartisticandhistoricaleducation),music,virtue,venerationofoldcustoms,loveofmankind, selflessness,eloquence,wit,etc.Elsewhere,knowledge,talentandlearningareadded.Whatseemstobemeantiscultureinitsbroadestunderstandingandinvolvinga certainlevelofethicalandmoraldemands.Theexistenceofsuch"parasites"isincompatiblewiththeOneThingthattheauthorelaborates,aswellaswithhiswhole program."Iftherearetenparasitesinastate...therulerwillnotbeabletofindasinglemanwhomhemightusefordefenseortowagewar."(84:p.151)"Whereverthere existtheseeightparasitessimultaneously,theauthoritiesareweakerthantheirpeople."(84:p.162)Inthiscase,thestatewillbetornapart."Ifknowledgeisencouraged andnotnippedinthebud,itwillincrease,andwhenitwillhaveincreased,itwillbecomeimpossibletoruletheland."(84:p.182)"Iftheeloquentandtheintelligentare valued,ifvagrantscholarsarebroughtintotheserviceofthestate,ifamanbecomeswellknownthankstohislearningandpersonalglory,thenwaysareopenintheland totheunrighteous.Ifthesethreekindsofpersonsarenotcheckedintheirpath,itwillbeimpossibletoengagethepeopleinwar."(84:p.224)AndShangYangwarns darkly:"Thepeopleinthewholecountryhavechanged,theyhavetakentoeloquenceandfindpleasureinstudytheyhavestartedtoengageinvariouscraftsandtrade theyhavebeguntoneglectagricultureandwar.Ifthistrendcontinues,thehourofdeathisnearfortheland."(84:p.152)Inoldentimes,hesays,thingswerenotthisway: "Thegiftedwereofnouseandtheungiftedcoulddonoharm.Therefore,theartofrulingwellconsistspreciselyintheabilityofremovingthecleverandthegifted."(84:p. 231)Finally,thisideaisexpressedinitsmostnakedform:"Ifthepeoplearestupid,theycanbeeasilygoverned."(84:p.237) ShangYang'steachingisreminiscentofasocialutopia,adescriptionofan"idealstate,"inwhich"privateinterestsareeliminated,"love [178] forkindredbeingsisreplacedbyloveforstateorder,allaspirationsareconcentratedontheOneThingandtheentirestructureismaintainedbyasystemofinformers,guilt byassociationandharshpunishments.ButinonerespectShangYangoccupiesaspecialplaceamongauthorsofsuchtreatises.Manyofthemmadeattemptsto implementtheirideals.Plato,forinstance,soughtarulerwhowouldorganizeastateinthespiritofhisteaching.Plato'sattemptsendedwhentheSyracusetyrant Dionysius,uponwhomhehadsethishopes,soldhimintoslavery.ShangYang,however,foundhisrulerandhadtheopportunitytorealizehisideals.Theprinceofthe stateofCh'inmadehimfirstministerandShangYangsucceededincarryingoutanumberofreforms.HereiswhatisknownofShangYang'slegislation: 1.Farmers("thoseengagedintheessentialthing")werefreedfromobligatoryservice. 2.Thosediscoveredengagingin"nonessential"activitieswereturnedintoslaves. 3.Ranksofnobilitywereobtainableonlythroughmilitaryservice.Highpositionsinthegovernmentcouldbegivenonlytothosewhohadalreadyearnedtherankof nobility.Thosewithoutrankwereforbiddentodisplayluxuries.(Inthisway,therulingclasswastransformedfromahereditaryaristocracyintoofficialsdependentonthe favoroftheirsuperiorsandthemonarch.) 4.Thestatewasdividedintoprovincesruledbystateofficials.

2.Thosediscoveredengagingin"nonessential"activitieswereturnedintoslaves. 3.Ranksofnobilitywereobtainableonlythroughmilitaryservice.Highpositionsinthegovernmentcouldbegivenonlytothosewhohadalreadyearnedtherankof nobility.Thosewithoutrankwereforbiddentodisplayluxuries.(Inthisway,therulingclasswastransformedfromahereditaryaristocracyintoofficialsdependentonthe favoroftheirsuperiorsandthemonarch.) 4.Thestatewasdividedintoprovincesruledbystateofficials. 5.Largefamiliesweresplitup,andgrownsonswereforbiddentolivewiththeirfathers.(Thismeasureisseenasanattempttodestroythevillagecommunity.) 6.Fieldsweremarkedoffwithboundarylines.Anumberofhistoriansseeinthisthedestructionofcommunityandthesubordinationofthepeasantrydirectlytoofficials othersviewitasindicativeofthefreedomtobuyandsellland.(ThespiritofShangYang'sbookwouldseemtorenderthelatterinterpretationquiteunlikely.) 7.Capitalpunishmentwasintroducedforthetheftofahorseoranox. 8.Everyfivehouseholdswereunitedintoaunitofsharedresponsibilityandlinkedtoanotherfive.Ifonememberofthegroupoftenhouseholdscommittedacrime,the othersweretoreporthimotherwisetheyweretobecutinhalf.Theinformerwastoberewardedinthesamemannerasonewhohadkilledanenemy. Theselawsmetwithgreatresistance,butShangYangmanaged [179] tocopewiththeopposition.Individualsexpressingtheirdiscontentwereremovedtothefrontierregions.Dangerstruckfromquiteadifferentquarter.Hispatrondiedand theheirtothekingdom,whohatedShangYang,executedhimalongwithhisentirefamily.ButShangYang'sreformswereleftineffectandled,ashehadasserted,tothe achievementofhegemonyundertheheavensbytheCh'inkingdom.InthethirdcenturyB.C.,ChinawasunitedinthehighlycentralizedCh'inempireinwhichtheideasof ShangYangwereimplementedevenmoreconsistentlyandonagreaterscale. Attheheadofthestatestoodtheruler,whotookthetitleHuangti,atermwhichexistedrightupuntil1912.Itistranslatedas"emperor,"althoughithasmoreelevated connotations,somethinglike"DivineSovereignoftheEarth."ThefirstemperorproclaimedthatheshouldbecalledShihHuangtihisheirsweretobecalledtheSecond shih,theThirdshih,andsoonuptotenthousandgenerations.(Infact,thedynastywasoverthrowninthereignofhisson.)Theemperorwasproclaimedthesolehigh priestofthestate.Inscribedonasteleerectedbytheemperorarethewords:"Withinthelimitsofthesixpoints[thefourdirections,plusupanddown]everywhereisthe landoftheEmperor.Whereverman'sfoothastroddentherearenopeoplewhodonotsubmittotheEmperor."(82:p.162) Ahistoricalconceptcurrentatthetimeheldthatthehistoryofundertheheavensconsistedofasuccessionoffiveepochs,correspondingtothefiveelements:earth, wood,metal,fireandwater.Blackwasdesignatedthestatecolor,correspondingtowater,andtheword"people"wasreplacedbytheterm"theblackheaded."The numbersix,whichindicatedwater,wasdeclaredtobesacred,andcountingwastobebasedonthisnumber.The"responsibleunit,"whichhadcontainedfivepeople,now includedsix. Thehistoricallyproduceddivisionofthecountrywasabolished.Instead,theempirewasdividedupintothirtysixregions,andthoseintheirturnintodistricts.Thecountry wasrunbyacentralizedbureaucracy.Inspectors,whoweredirectlyresponsibletotheemperor,supervisedtheworkofallofficialsandreportedonittothecapital. Duringcriticalperiodssuchinspectorswerealsoappointedtothearmy.Districtauthoritieswereinchargeoftheruralelders,ofthekeepersofpublicmorals,ofthe keepersofbarnsandgranaries,ofwatchmenandpostmasters.Cultsandritualswereunifiedandlocalobservancessuppressedtemplesdirectlysubordinatedtothestate werebuilt.Officials [180] ofspecialdepartmentswerechargedwithkeepingtrackoftheseactivities.Otherspecialofficialswereinchargeofmilitaryandeconomicaffairs,orofservicetothe personoftheemperor.Theoverwhelmingmajorityofofficialsreceivedregularallowancesingrain.Onlyhighofficialsandtheemperor'ssonsutilizedtheincomeofcertain regions,inwhich,however,theydidnotenjoyanypoliticalrights. InaccordancewithShangYang'steaching,agriculturewasproclaimedtobethe"essentialthing."Ontheemperor'ssteleitsaid:"Theemperor'smeritconsistsinhishaving forcedthepopulationtoengageintheessentialthing.Heencouragedagricultureanderadicatedthesecondary."(82:p.161) Theemperorwasconsideredtobetheownerofallland.ItseemsthatwhentheEmperorWangMangproclaimedalllandtobelongtothecrown(firstcenturyA.D.),he wasonlycallingtomindanalreadyestablishedtradition.Thisarrangementwasreflectedinobligatorydeliveriesandaseriesofmilitaryandlabordutiesthepeasants performed.Nevertheless,thereexistsinformationconcerningthebuyingandsellingoflandbyprivatepersons.Still,agriculturewasapparentlybasedonthecommune, whichwasusedasameansofsubordinatingthepeasantrytothestate.Communeofficialswereobligedtoseethatthepeasantswenttothefieldsontimeandwerenotto allowbackintothevillageapeasantwhohadnotfulfilledhisnorm.OnetreatiseofthedayrelatesthatduringanillnessofoneoftheCh'inkings,communesthatsacrificed oxenforhisrecoverywerepunished.Evidently,thecentralauthoritiesdidnotconsiderthatcommuneshadtherighttodisposeoflivestockinanyway.Ahistoricalrecord oflatertimestellsaboutaninscriptionsomeonecutonastone:"WhenEmperorCh'inShihHuangdies,thelandwillbedivided."Theguiltypartywasnotfound,butthe stonewasgroundtopowderandallinhabitantsofthevicinitywereexecuted.(82:p.180)ThisincidentsuggeststhatinCh'inShihHuang'sreigncertainmeasurestakento socializethelandprovokeddiscontentamongthepopulace. Animportantmeansbywhichsubordinationofagriculturetostatecontrolwasimplementedwastheemperor'smonopolyonwater.Aspecialdepartmentoversawsluices, dikesandirrigationcanals.(ItshouldbekeptinmindthatintheCh'inepoch,irrigationbegantoplayanextremelyimportantroleinagriculture.)Anothermeasurethat servedthepurposeofextendingtheauthorityofthestatewastheresettlementofgreatmassesofpeasantstonewlyconqueredterritories, [181] wheretheywereevidentlyundermoredirectcontrol. LittleinformationaboutprivatecraftsintheCh'inempirehassurvived.Therearereferencestoownersofironsmeltingworkshopswhobecameextremelyrich.Onthe otherhand,therearedescriptionsoflargestatearmsmanufacturingworks,whoseentireproductionwenttostatestorehouses.Itisknownthatthestateconfiscatediron armsfromthepopulace,anditisthereforelikelythatallproductionofarmswasconcentratedinthehandsofthestate.Animperialstelereads:"Allimplementsandarms weremadeafteronepattern."(82:p.161)Thestatehadamonopolyontheminingofsaltandore.Wholearmiesofworkerslaboredinstateworkshopsandonstate constructionsites.Itisknownthatsomeofthemwerestateslavesthestatusofothersisunclear.Thestatecarriedoutconstructionprojectsonanunprecedentedscale. Immenselylongroads,thesocalledimperialhighways,werebuilt,crisscrossingthecountryfromoneendtotheother.Thewidthoftheseroadsreachedfiftypaces,and therewasaraisedsectioninthemiddlesomesevenmeterswide.Thislatterwasintendedforusebytheemperorandhiscourt.Thefortificationserectedearlierbythe variousstatesweredemolishedandthecelebratedGreatWallofChinaconstructedtodefendthenorthernfrontier.TheregionoftheWallwasconnectedwiththecapital byaroadthatwentdirectlyfromnorthtosouthwithoutattemptingtobypassthenaturalobstacles.("Mountainsweredugthroughvalleysfilledin,andastraightroadwas built.")(82:p.171)Tremendousresourceswereexpendedonthebuildingofpalaces(inthevicinityofthecapital,270wereerected)andonconstructingtheemperor's

armsfromthepopulace,anditisthereforelikelythatallproductionofarmswasconcentratedinthehandsofthestate.Animperialstelereads:"Allimplementsandarms weremadeafteronepattern."(82:p.161)Thestatehadamonopolyontheminingofsaltandore.Wholearmiesofworkerslaboredinstateworkshopsandonstate constructionsites.Itisknownthatsomeofthemwerestateslavesthestatusofothersisunclear.Thestatecarriedoutconstructionprojectsonanunprecedentedscale. Immenselylongroads,thesocalledimperialhighways,werebuilt,crisscrossingthecountryfromoneendtotheother.Thewidthoftheseroadsreachedfiftypaces,and therewasaraisedsectioninthemiddlesomesevenmeterswide.Thislatterwasintendedforusebytheemperorandhiscourt.Thefortificationserectedearlierbythe variousstatesweredemolishedandthecelebratedGreatWallofChinaconstructedtodefendthenorthernfrontier.TheregionoftheWallwasconnectedwiththecapital byaroadthatwentdirectlyfromnorthtosouthwithoutattemptingtobypassthenaturalobstacles.("Mountainsweredugthroughvalleysfilledin,andastraightroadwas built.")(82:p.171)Tremendousresourceswereexpendedonthebuildingofpalaces(inthevicinityofthecapital,270wereerected)andonconstructingtheemperor's mausoleum. Theseactivitiesofthestate,aswellasthewarsthatwerebeingconstantlywagedonthesouthernandnorthernfrontiers,requiredtheemploymentofcolossalmassesof people.ThestateresortedtoapolicyofresettlementonawidescaleunreliablesegmentsofthepopulationweremovedtotheformerCh'inkingdomandmorereliable groupssenttothenewlyconqueredregions.Theresettlementof120,000familiesisrecordedinoneplace50,000inanothercase,30,000elsewhere. Theentirepopulation,exceptofficialdom,wassubjecttoinnumerablemilitaryandlaborduties.Militaryserviceincludedanobligatorymonthoftrainingforallmenatage twentythree,oneyearofserviceintheregulararmy,andborderpatrolapartfrommobilization.Thenumberofmenemployedinmilitaryservicewasimmense:armies [182] of500,000and300,000arementioned.Evenmorepeoplewereinvolvedinlaborduties.Inthebuildingofasinglepalace,700,000wereemployed.Thebasiclabor obligationsincludedthebuildingofcanals,palaces,theGreatWall,etc.thetransportationofgoodsforthestate(mainlymilitarysupplies),transportationworkoncanals andrivers.Militaryandlabordutieswerenotalwaysdistinguishedonefromtheother.Inthesouth,thearmybuiltcanalsfortransportofsuppliesinthenorth,a300,000 manarmy,alongsidemobilizedinhabitantsandstateslaves,wereengagedinthebuildingoftheGreatWall.Onesourcegivesthefollowingpicture:"Menwhohadcomeof agewerebeingdriventowork....Alongtheroadstherelaysomanycorpsesthattheycouldhavefilledtheditches."(79:p.395) Suchmeasuresevokedmassflightofthepopulationtoforests,mountainsandmarshyregions.Othersjoinedthenorthernnomads,ormigratedtotheKoreanstate.Anew termappearsinthesourcesthecategoryof"peopleinhiding."Itwasnotonlythepoorwhofled.TheemperorwhocametopoweraftertheoverthrowoftheCh'in Dynastydecreedthatthosewhoreturnedtotheirdistrictswouldgetbacktheirfieldsandranks. TheCh'inpenalcodewasconsistentwiththeideasofShangYang.Itisbasedontheprincipleofguiltbyassociation.Sixrelativesansweredforeachperson.Thecriminal wasexecutedtheothersmadeintostateslaves.Officialswereboundbyanotherformofmutualliability:theofficialwhohadappointedaguiltypartyandanyotherswho knewofthecrimebutdidnotreportitweresubjectedtothesamepunishmentastheculprit.Inothercases,executionof"relativesofthethreebranches"couldbecarried outi.e.,relativesonthefather'sside,themother'sandthewife's.Thisedictreads:"First,brandallthecriminal'srelativesofthethreebranchesofrelationship,cutofftheir leftandrightheelsandbeatthemtodeathwithsticks.Theirheadsarethentobecutoffandtheirfleshandbonesthrownonthecitysquare.Ifthecriminalwasaslanderer oraconjurer,histongueisfirstcutout.Thisisknownasexecutionthroughthefivepunishments."(79:p.379)Amilderformofpunishmentwastheexterminationofthe criminal'simmediaterelativesonly. Thereexistedanextraordinaryvarietyofexecution:quartering,cuttingintohalves,cuttingintopieces,decapitationwithexhibitionoftheheadonthesquare,slow strangulation,buryingalive,boilinginacauldron,breakingofribs,smashingofthecrownofthehead. [183] Otherkindsofpunishmentincludedthecuttingoffofthekneecaporofthenose,castration,brandingandbeatingwithsticks.Convictiontohardlaborforfromseveral monthstoseveralyearswaswidelyused,aswasenslavement.Onechroniclerecounts:"Alltheroadswerecrowdedwiththecondemnedinscarletshirts.Andthejails werefilledtooverflowinglikemarketscrowdedwithpeople."(85:p.58) PerhapsthemostnotoriouseventinthereignofCh'inShihHuangisthesocalledbookburning.Theideawastosuppressanythoughtindependentofthestateandto obliteratehistoricalsourcesthatdifferedfromofficialones.Theemperor'schiefcounselorproposedtheformofthedecree.Inhisletterhewrote:"Atpresent,Your Majestyhasperformedgreatdeedswhoseglorywillspreadthroughtenthousandgenerations.This,ofcourse,cannotbeunderstoodbyfoolishscholars....Atpresent, whenYoutheEmperorhaveunitedthecountry,separatedblackfromwhiteandestablishedunity,theyhonortheirscienceandassociatewithpeoplewhodisapproveof lawsanddirectives.Whentheylearnofanedicttheydiscussitinaccordancewiththeirscholarlyprinciples.Whentheyenterthepalacetheydisapproveintheirsouls whentheycomeoutagaintheyengageinopendiscussion....Andifthisisnotforbidden,thentheconditionoftheruleratthetopwillbecomeworse,andatthebottomthe partieswillgainstrength.Itwouldbeusefultoforbidit."(81:pp.150152) Therefollowsuggestionsforconcretemeasuresthatwere,infact,acteduponbytheemperor.Theedictinquestionreads:"Allbookswhicharenotconcernedwiththe officialhistoryoftheCh'instate,exceptbookswhichareunderthekeepingofhighofficials,aretobeburned....Allwhostilldareundertheheavenstoconceal[books deemedseditious]aretobebroughttothechiefsandtheguardsandburnedtogetherwiththeirbooks.Allwhodiscusstheseworksaretobepubliclyexecuted.Allwho usetheexamplesofthepasttocondemnthepresentaretobeexecuted....Officialsseeingorknowinganythingaboutthehidingofbookswhodonottakemeasuresare tobetreatedlikethosewhoconcealbooks....Thosewhodonotturninbookswithinthirtydaysaftertheproclamationofthisedictaretobebrandedascriminalsand exiledtothebuildingoftheWall....Booksonmedicine,divinationandplantgrowingarenotsubjecttodestruction."(79:p.381) Thepointofthesemeasureswastodeprivethepopulationofthemeansofindependentstudy.Privatepersonshadnorighttopossessanybooksexceptthosedevotedto verynarrowutilitarianproblems. [184] Manybookswerepreservedinstatedepositoriestowhichonlyspecialofficialshadaccess.ButhistoricalworksonkingdomsotherthantheCh'inempirewere completelydestroyed. Bookswerenottheonlyvictimsofpersecution.Attheorderoftheemperor,460Confucianscholarswereburiedalive,andafargreaternumberwereexiledtofrontier regions. Subsequently,whenConfucianismbecametheofficialideologyoftheChineseempire,Ch'inShihHuang'spersecutionscametobeseenasanepitomeofbarbarism.But hostilitytowardConfucianteachingsonthepartofrulersmanifesteditselfinthelaterperiodsaswell.ItissaidofthefounderofadynastythatsucceededtheCh'inthathe "doesnotlikeConfucianscholars.Whenamanintheheaddressofa'guest'oraConfucianenters,hequicklytearstheheaddressoffandurinatesintoitonthespot."(79: p.389) Inourday,theCommunistPartyofChinahascalledthepeopletoastruggleagainstthe"followersofConfuciusandLinPiao."Andbackin1958,atthesecondplenary meetingoftheCentralCommitteeoftheChineseCommunistParty(EighthCongress),MaoTsetungsaidofEmperorCh'inShihHuang: Heissuedanorderthatread:"Thekinofhimwhoforthesakeofantiquityrejectsthepresentwillbeeradicatedtothethirdgeneration."Ifyouadhereto

"doesnotlikeConfucianscholars.Whenamanintheheaddressofa'guest'oraConfucianenters,hequicklytearstheheaddressoffandurinatesintoitonthespot."(79: p.389) Inourday,theCommunistPartyofChinahascalledthepeopletoastruggleagainstthe"followersofConfuciusandLinPiao."Andbackin1958,atthesecondplenary meetingoftheCentralCommitteeoftheChineseCommunistParty(EighthCongress),MaoTsetungsaidofEmperorCh'inShihHuang: Heissuedanorderthatread:"Thekinofhimwhoforthesakeofantiquityrejectsthepresentwillbeeradicatedtothethirdgeneration."Ifyouadhereto antiquityanddonotrecognizethenew,allyourfamilywillbeslaughtered.Ch'inShihHuangburiedonly460Confuciansalive.However,hehasalongway togotocatchupwithus.Duringthepurge,wedidawaywithseveraltensofthousandsofpeople.WeactedliketenCh'inShihHuangs.Iassertthatweare betterthanCh'inShihHuang.Heburiedalive460people,andwe,46,000onehundredtimesmore.Indeed,tokill,thentodigagraveandburysomeone thisalsomeanstoburyalive.WeareabusedandcalledCh'inShihHuangsandusurpers.Weacceptthisandconsiderthatwehavestilldonelittleinthis respectmuchmorecanbedone. Appendix WasThereSuchaThingasan"AsiaticSocialFormation"? Everyonewhohaseverpassedanexaminationon"historicalmaterialism"isfamiliarwiththebasicoutlineofhumanhistory.Historyisseenasasequenceof socialformations:primitivecommunal,slaveowning,feudal,bourgeoisandcommunist.Thisfundamentalhistoricallaw,however,didnotcrystalizewith perfectclarityatonceandcertaincomradesstillhaveconfusedideasonthequestion. TheproblemisthattheFoundersoftheScientificMethodofHistoryoccasionallyreferredtooneothertypeofinformationthe"Asiatic,"

[185] elsewherereferredtoasthe"AsiaticModeofProduction."(SeethecorrespondencebetweenMarxandEngels,Marx'sessay"BritishRuleinIndia"andhis prefaceto"TowardaCritiqueofPoliticalEconomy.")Thedistinguishingfeatureofthisformation,thetraitthatconstitutesthebasisofthepoliticaland religioushistoryoftheEastandthe"keytotheEasternsky,"wasidentifiedastheabsenceofprivateownershipofland. TherewaslivelydiscussionofthisquestioninSoviethistoricalscholarshipinthetwentiesandthirties,especiallyinconnectionwiththehistoryoftheancient NearEast.TheargumentwaswonbyacademicianV.V.Struveandhisfollowers,whomaintainedthecorrectMarxistpointofview,accordingtowhichthe ancientkingdomsoftheNearEastwereslaveowningsocieties.ThequestionmighthavebeenconsideredcompletelyclosedwiththepublicationofStalin's famousChapter4ofthe ShortCourseontheHistoryoftheCPSU (1938),whereinthenowuniversallyfamiliar"fivefold"schemeofhistoricaldevelopment wasenunciated:itdidnotincludeany"Asiaticformation." Thisatmosphereofperfectclaritywascloudedbytheappearanceinprint,in1939,ofamanuscriptbyMarxthattheauthorhadnotoriginallyintendedfor publication:"TheFormsPrecedingCapitalistProduction."(86)Marxhereplaces"Asiatic,ancient,feudalandmodernbourgeoismodesofproduction"ina singlelineofdevelopmentasthe"progressiveepochsofeconomicsocialformation."Soonafterthispublication,anarticledesignedtopreventany misinterpretationappearedin Vestnikdrevneiistorii. (87)ItwasbyacademicianStruve,whowrote:"Bythis,onceandforall,anendisputtotheattempts ofcertainhistorianstoascribetoMarxtheideaofaspecial'Asiatic'socioeconomicformation."Hewarnssternly:"Asiaticsocietyisaslaveowningsociety." WhatMarxsaysabout.slaveryintheEastintheworkinquestionisofcourseverygood,butheunfortunatelyusestherathervagueconceptof"universal slavery,"whichisdifficulttofitintoahistoricalframeworkthatisbasedontheideaofclass. Representativesofvariousotherschoolsofthoughtwerequicktorespond.TheCommunistrenegadeandreactionaryK.Wittfogelstoopedtofilthy insinuationsaboutanallegedanalogybetweenthe"Asiatic"and"socialist"formations.HeevenattemptedtousethisanalogytoexplainwhyMarxandEngels, bytheendoftheirlives,hadstoppedmentioningthe"Asiaticmodeofproduction."*Needlesstosay,theslanderouscharacter
*ReferencetoWittfogel'sargument(in89)thatMarxborrowedthenotionofaspecific"Asiatic"typeofstatefromtheworksofAdamSmith,JamesMill,John StuartMill,RichardJones(theconceptitselfgoesbacktoMontesquieuandBernier),anduseditinhisschemeofthedevelopmentofsocietyonthebasisof production.Fromthe1860son,however,MarxandEngelsengagedinsharppolemicswithBakuninandhisadherents.BakuninassertedthatMarxandEngels' idealofstatesocialismwould"engenderdespotismatoneextremeandslaveryattheother."Inthiscontext,theanalogytoAsiaticdespotismbecametooobvious forcomfort.Hereisthereason,Wittfogelbelieves,whyMarxandEngelsrefrainedfrommentioningthe"Asiaticmodeofproduction"intheirlaterworks.

[186] ofWittfogel'sstatementswasthoroughlyexposedbyMarxisthistorians,althoughanumberofthemalsostartedtoshowaninterestinthisquestion,which, onewouldhavethought,hadbeenfullysettled.InforeignMarxistjournals,dozensofauthorstookpartinthediscussion.Theresponsecameintheformofa collectionofarticles.(88)(Inthiscollectionseethesurveyentitled"DiscussionoftheAsiaticModeofProductionintheForeignMarxistPress,"whichisthe sourceoftheinformationgivenbelow.) Oneofthefirstcontributionstothisdiscussionwasanarticlepublishedin1957byB.WeIskopf,ahistorianfromtheGermanDemocraticRepublic.She expressestheopinionthattheancientOrientcannotbeadequatelycategorizedbyeithertheconceptof"classical"slaveryortheconceptof"patriarchal" slavery.Thosesocieties,theauthorbelieves,fittherubricof"Asiaticmodeofproduction"inthesamewayasancientChina,IndiaandAmerica.In1958,F. Tkei,reviewingpropertyrelationshipsintheChouepoch,cametotheconclusionthattherewasnoprivateownershipoflandatthetime.Andinstudies publishedin1963,hecharacterizesthisepochasaperiodof"Asiaticmodeofproduction."R.Pokoracomestothesameconclusionregardingancient China. Studiesinwhichthe"Asiaticmodeofproduction"isdiscoveredinevernewcountriesandnewhistoricalperiodshavebeenmultiplyingrapidly.J.Suret Canale,a"MarxistAfricanist"(andtheauthorofthesurveyunderreviewhere)seesthisformationinprecolonial,tropicalAfrica.P.Boiteaudiscernsiton MadagascarR.Gallissot,inprecolonialMaghrebandAlgiers(inthelatter,however,inanimperfectform)M.Tchechkov,inprecolonialVietnamK. Manivanna,inLaosofthefourteenthtotheseventeenthcenturiesM.Olmeda,inpreColumbianMexicoS.Santis,inInca,AztecandMayanstatesS. Divitcioglu,intheOttomanempireofthefourteenthandfifteenthcenturies.Itturnsoutthattracesofthe"Asiaticmodeofproduction"canbefoundinpresent states(butofcoursenotinthesenseproposedbytherenegadeWittfogel).J.Chesneauxwritesofthe"Asiaticmodeofproduction": "Itdoesnotbelongonlytothepast,however.Nodoubtithasleftdeeptracesonsubsequenthistory.Thetraditionof'supremeunity'isanexample.Hasit not,innumerousAfroAsiancountries,promptedtheestablishmentofasystemcontrolledbyanallpowerfulheadofstatewhoalsoenjoystheconfidenceof themasses?"(88:p.55)

Divitcioglu,intheOttomanempireofthefourteenthandfifteenthcenturies.Itturnsoutthattracesofthe"Asiaticmodeofproduction"canbefoundinpresent states(butofcoursenotinthesenseproposedbytherenegadeWittfogel).J.Chesneauxwritesofthe"Asiaticmodeofproduction": "Itdoesnotbelongonlytothepast,however.Nodoubtithasleftdeeptracesonsubsequenthistory.Thetraditionof'supremeunity'isanexample.Hasit not,innumerousAfroAsiancountries,promptedtheestablishmentofasystemcontrolledbyanallpowerfulheadofstatewhoalsoenjoystheconfidenceof themasses?"(88:p.55) Thesehistoriansacribethefollowingnewfeaturestothe"Asiaticmodeofproduction": 1.Aspecialconceptofproperty.Firstofall,thisisexpressedintheabsenceofprivateownershipofland,asnotedinWeIskopf'sfirststudy.Tkeieven assertsthatnoprivatelandownershipeverexistedinAsia.Gallissotspeaksabout"publicproperty."AndL.Sedovwrites:"Thatwhichdistinguishesall stagesinthedevelopmentoftheAsiaticmodeofproduction...isanalmostcompleteabsenceofprivatepropertyasasystemofrelations." 2.Aminorrolefortrade.Chesneauxbelievesthatcommercialturnover

[187] andcommercialexchangeplayedonlysecondaryrolesandwerelimitedto"additionalfoodstuffs"intheconsumptionofthecommunities. 3.Aspecialmeansofexploitationthatwas,asChesneauxputsit,"fundamentallydifferentfromclassicalslaveryorfromserfdomuniversalslavery."C. Perrinsinglesoutthebasicfeaturesofthismeansofexploitation: a.Useofalargemassofessentiallyunpaidpeasantstemporarilycutofffromtheirfarmsandfamilies. b.Extravagantuseofthelaborforcenotonlyonthebuildingofcanals,dikes,andsoon,butonconstructionofthedespot'spalaces,pyramids, etc. c.Themassesforcedintohard,unskilledphysicallabor. d.Peasantcommunitiescompelledbythedespottoprovidelaborforpublicworksonagrandscale. e.Suchexploitationisimplementedbymeansofcollectivesformedfromtheruralcommunitiesthisrequiresadespotic,centralizedrule. 4.Aspecialroleforthestatewhenitactsas"supremeunity"toexploitruralcommunities(WeIskopf,Perrin)and"controlsdirectlythebasicmeansof production"(Gallissot). The"Asiaticformation"presentsextraordinarydifficultiesforscientificMarxiststudy.Inparticular,ithasprovedalmostimpossibletosubjectittoclass analysis.Chesneaux,forinstance,iscompelledtocometotheconclusionthatclasscontradictionsarepresenthere"inanoriginalway,"viz.,theyexist withoutanyclearappropriationbytherulingclassoftheownershipofthemeansofproduction.Therulingclassturnsouttobenotagroupofpeople(!)but "thestateitself,initsessence." Tkeiwrites:"Ofalltherelatedproblems,themostfrequentlydiscussedisthequestionofhowsocietiesoftheAsiaticmodeofproductionweredividedinto classes."(88:p.62)TkeiandChesneauxcometoa"functionalclasstheory,"accordingtowhichthedivisionintoantagonisticclassesisbasednotonthe exploiters'ownershipofthemeansofproductionbutratheron"sociallyusefulfunctions"definedbytherulingclass.Sedovsharesthisviewandadvocatesa theoryofa"stateasaclass."Finally,Tchechkovassertsthattheterm"class"isnotapplicableatalltotherulingsocialgroupinprecolonialVietnam.There wasinsteadahierarchyof"functionaries,"withtheemperoras"firstamongfunctionaries."Thiselitewasconstantlyreplenishedthroughasystemof examinationsandtests.Forthisgroupofelite"scholarfunctionaries,"ownershipofthemeansofproductiondidnotdeterminetheirplaceinthehierarchy,but onthecontrary,theirrankinthehierarchydeterminedtheireconomicposition.Theruling"stateasaclass"exploitedthepeasantmembersofthecommunity notbyowningthemeansofproductionbutbyvirtueofitsfunctionalroleingoverningsocietyandtheeconomy. ThetriedandtestedtoolofscientificresearchquotationfromtheMarxistclassicsprovedtobeofnohelpinsolvingthisextremelydifficultproblem:

[188] "WhatwasMarx'sopiniononsocialstratificationandtheclassstructureunderthe'Asiaticmodeofproduction'?WesearchtheworksofMarxinvainfora formulaorasimpleandclearanalysisbearingonthisquestion.Duetothepressoftime,Marxdidnotevengiveacompleteanalysisoftheclassstructure undercapitalism.InChapter52,VolumeIII,ofhisCapital, Marxbegantoexpoundhisideasonthesubject*butwasabletowriteonlythefirstlinesofa preface."(88:p.63)OnecannothelpsharingTkei'ssadthoughtsonthisscore. WhyisthemattersocomplicatedthatitdoesnotyieldeventotherefinedtooloftheMarxistscientificmethod? Apparentlythisistobeexplainedbythefactthatwearespeakingaboutphenomenathataresoremoteintimeandsoalientoourwayofthinkingthatthe modernMarxisthistorianfindsitexceptionallydifficulttovisualizealltheseunknownandstrangesocialrelations.

Summary
Wehavebroughtforwardaseriesofexampleswhichallowustodrawsomeconclusionsonthecharacterofsocialisttendenciesintheeconomics(andtoanextent,inthe ideologies)ofcertainstatesofSouthAmericaandtheancientEast.Allthesestateswereofaveryprimitivetype,moresothantheancientclassicalcivilizationsorthe medievalandcapitalistsocieties.(Wedidnottouchonthesocialiststatesofthetwentiethcentury,assumingthemtobefamiliartothereader.)Intheliteratureonthe subjectwefindindicationsofanalogousstateselsewhere(forexample,theancientstatesoftheIndusvalleyorofpreColumbianMexico).Wenowwishtosummarizethe basicfeaturesofthistypeofsociety,relyingmainlyonHeichelheim(90). Alleconomicrelationshipswerebasedontheassumptionthatthestate,inthepersonoftheking,wastheproprietorofallsourcesofincome.Anyuseofthesesources wastoberedeemedbydeliveriestothestateorbyperformanceofobligatorywork.Laborconscriptionbythestatewasconsideredjustasnaturalasuniversalmilitary conscriptionistoday.Laborerswereorganizedintodetachmentsandarmies(oftenunderthecommandofofficers)andweresettoworkontremendousconstruction projects.Theyworkedstatefields,repaired,dugandcleanedirrigationandnavigationsystems,builtroads,bridges,citywalls,palacesandtemples,pyramidsandother tombs.Theywereusedintransportingthegoodsofthestate.Sometimessuchdutieswereimposedonconqueredpeoples,and,asHeichelheimbelieves,

subjectwefindindicationsofanalogousstateselsewhere(forexample,theancientstatesoftheIndusvalleyorofpreColumbianMexico).Wenowwishtosummarizethe basicfeaturesofthistypeofsociety,relyingmainlyonHeichelheim(90). Alleconomicrelationshipswerebasedontheassumptionthatthestate,inthepersonoftheking,wastheproprietorofallsourcesofincome.Anyuseofthesesources wastoberedeemedbydeliveriestothestateorbyperformanceofobligatorywork.Laborconscriptionbythestatewasconsideredjustasnaturalasuniversalmilitary conscriptionistoday.Laborerswereorganizedintodetachmentsandarmies(oftenunderthecommandofofficers)andweresettoworkontremendousconstruction projects.Theyworkedstatefields,repaired,dugandcleanedirrigationandnavigationsystems,builtroads,bridges,citywalls,palacesandtemples,pyramidsandother tombs.Theywereusedintransportingthegoodsofthestate.Sometimessuchdutieswereimposedonconqueredpeoples,and,asHeichelheimbelieves,


*I.e.,theclassstructureofcapitalistsociety.

[189] itwaspreciselythisthatgaverisetothewholesystemofdutiesi.e.,thestatebegantotaketheexploitationofconqueredpeoplesasamodelinthetreatmentofitsown subjects.(90:p.176) Mostlandeitherbelongedtothestateorwascontrolledbyit.Templelandswereusuallyunderthecontrolofthestateofficialswhodirectedworkonthem.Thepeasants gottools,seedsandcattlefromthestateandwereoftentoldexactlywhattosow.Theywereobligedtoworkthestateandtemplefieldsonasetschedule.Thebulkof theagriculturalpopulationdependedtoalargedegreeonthestate,butinmostcasesthepeasantswereneitherslavesnorprivatechattel.I.J.Gelb(69)appliestheterm "serfs"tothemi.e.,"attached"and"protectedpeasants."Hewrites:"TheproductivelaborpopulationofMesopotamiaandtheancientEastingeneral,inMycenaeanand HomericGreece,laterinSpartaandonCrete,inThessaliaandinotherpartsofGreece(withtheexceptionofAthens),aswellasinIndia,China,etc.,isthebasicwork forceemployedeitherallthetimeorpartofthetimeonthepubliclandsofthestate,ofthetempleorofthelargelandowners,whoasaruleactedsimultaneouslyasstate officials.Thisworkforce washalfindependent."(69:p.83) Slavesinthemajorityofcaseswerehouseservants.InconnectionwiththeclassicalEast,Meyersays:"Itishardlypossiblethatslavery...playedabasicroleinthe economy."(91:p.190,quotedin89) Tradeandhandicraftswerecontrolledbythestateinananalogousway.Toagreatextent,thestatesuppliedartisanswiththeirtoolsandrawmaterials,andmerchants withmoney.Bothartisansandmerchantswereorganizedintoguildsheadedbystateofficials.InEgypt,forinstance,allforeigntradewasmonopolizedbythestate,right uptothetimeoftheMiddleKingdom.Internaltradewasstrictlycontrolledbythestate,includingthepettiestdealings.Mostgoodsweredistributeddirectlybythestate. Moneydidnotplayanysignificantroleintrade.Evenquitevaluableobjectswerefrequentlyexchangedwithoutmoneypayment,althoughapricewasmentionedinthe records.M.Webercallsthis"exchangewithmoneyvaluation."Fromtwelvetotwentyformsofprimitivemoneywereusuallyemployed,theirvaluestrictlyregulatedbythe state.Thiswasonemoreimportantleverincontrollingtheeconomy. Theking'shouseholdwasthebasiceconomicforceinthecountry.Weberdescribesthisstructureastheking'soikos, underliningthefactthattheentirestatewasruled fromonecenterastheestateof [190] asinglemaster.InEgypt,thenamePharaoh("bighouse")correspondsliterallytotheword oikos. Heichelheimassertsthatthestatecontrolledabout90percentofthe wholeeconomy.Hewrites: "ThekingsoftheancientOrientwereeconomicallythecenterpointsfromwhichthegreaterpartofthecapitalinvestmentandtheeconomiclifeoftheempiresradiated. Fromhereonlycapitalsurpluswhichhadbeenamassedbythepeoplecouldbereinvestedordistributed,forproductivepurposes,amongindividualsortowholegroups ofpeople.Scholarshaveattempted,andnotwithoutsomejustification,todescribethesystemofgovernmentoftheancientOrientasapatriarchalsocialism."(90:pp. 169170) Justaseconomiclifewasdirectedbythestate,asembodiedintheking,sotoothedominantpatterninideologywastheconceptofadeifiedking,seenasthebenefactor andsaviorofmankind.InanotherpassageHeichelheimcharacterizesthisconcept: "Hesavedthehumanracebybecomingahumanbeing,aneschatologicalbreakthroughforeachgenerationwhichmadethekingcompletelydifferentfromeventhemost powerfulhighpriestornoble.Thekingsavedmankindbyhisoverpoweringmysticalstrengthinpeaceandwar,byhisjusticeinupholdingafairandbenevolentlaw,and bysharingandinvestingtheenormouscapitalathisdisposaltothebenefitofhispoorersubjects."(90:p.166) Naturally,suchanideologicalandeconomiccentralizationmadethemostdrasticmeasuresofsuppressionofthepopulationbothmorallypermissibleandtechnically necessary.ThusinIndia,inthelawsofManu,itissaid:"Orderintheworldismaintainedthroughpunishment....Punishmentistheking."(Quotedin89:p.138)InEgypt everyofficialhadtherighttoimposephysicalpunishmentonhissubordinates.Theaweinspiredbythepharaohissymbolizedbythesnakeinhiscrownheissometimes depictedaskilling,dismemberingandboilingpeopleinthenetherworld.(Citedin89:p.142)Theritualnameofoneofthefirstpharaohswas"TheScorpion." SocialisttendenciesintheancientstateswerestudiedindetailbyWittfogel(89),fromwhomwehavealreadyborrowedanumberofspecificfacts.Theauthor'sgeneral approachinvolvesunitingaseriesofstates(intheancientOrient,preColumbianAmerica,EastAfricaandsomeregionsofthePacific,particularlytheHawaiianIslands) intoaspecialhistoricalformationthathecalls"hydraulicsociety"or"hydrauliccivilization."AccordingtoWittfogel,artificialirrigationplayed [191] afundamentalroleinallthesesocieties.*Theauthordefinestheconceptofa"hydraulicsociety"verybroadly,includinginthiscategoryalmostallnoncapitalistcountries, withtheexceptionofGreece,RomeandthestatesofmedievalEurope.ButhesinglesouttheIncastate,Sumer,ancientEgyptandtheHawaiianIslandsas"primitive hydraulicsocieties"inotherwords,almostthesamegroupofstatesthatinterestsus.Wittfogelpointsoutnumerousfeaturesthesesocietieshaveincommonwiththe socialiststatesofthetwentiethcentury.Thushenotesthesimilarrolesplayedbyirrigationandheavyindustry.Bothareactivitiesthatdonotdirectlyproduceanygoods butconstituteanecessarybasisforproduction.(89:pp.2728)Thiskeysectoroftheeconomyisthepropertyofthestate,whichinthiswayachievescompletecontrol overtheeconomicandpoliticallifeofthecountry. Heichelheimpointstosimilarparallels: Forscholarswhohavestudiedthisdevelopmentindetail,itisnosecretthattheplannedeconomyandthecollectivismofourmodernAgeofMachineshas returnedsubconsciouslytoancientOrientalconditionswhereverwetrytoabolishortomodifytheindividualisticandlibertarianformsofsocietywhichhave beencharacteristicfortheIronAgeofthelastthreegloriousmillennia.Insteadourturbulenttwentiethcenturyshowsatendencytolinktogetherourown traditionalstateorganization,society,economicandspirituallifewiththerudimentsofancientOrientalcollectivistformsoforganizationastheyhavesurvived

overtheeconomicandpoliticallifeofthecountry. Heichelheimpointstosimilarparallels: Forscholarswhohavestudiedthisdevelopmentindetail,itisnosecretthattheplannedeconomyandthecollectivismofourmodernAgeofMachineshas returnedsubconsciouslytoancientOrientalconditionswhereverwetrytoabolishortomodifytheindividualisticandlibertarianformsofsocietywhichhave beencharacteristicfortheIronAgeofthelastthreegloriousmillennia.Insteadourturbulenttwentiethcenturyshowsatendencytolinktogetherourown traditionalstateorganization,society,economicandspirituallifewiththerudimentsofancientOrientalcollectivistformsoforganizationastheyhavesurvived subconsciouslyinthelifeandcustomsofmanymodernnations....Themoderngreatpowersarecloserinanalogytothegreatempiresofthecuprolithicand bronzeagesthanisgenerallyrealized,ortosimilarlaterformsofrulewhichdevelopedfromancientOrientalfoundationseitherdirectlyorindirectly. Wheneverourcenturyshowssomeattempttoachievenotpersonallibertybutwidespreadcontrolithasstrongaffinitiestotheplannedcitylifeofthekingsof MesopotamiaandAsiaMinor,theruleofthepharaohsinEgypt,theearlyChineseemperors....Thespiritualtieswhichthenineteenthcenturyhadwith. ..Israel,GreeceandRomearemoreoftenreplaced,toagreaterdegreethanweknow,byareturntoancientOrientalfoundations.(90:pp.99100)
*McAdams(68)citestheexamplesofancientMesopotamiaandpreColumbianMexicotoassertthatirrigation,contrarytoWittfogel'sopinion,didnotplayadeterminingrolein theformationofsuchsocieties(pp.6768).Itshouldbenoted,however,thatWittfogeldoesallowthatan"agrodespoticstate" could comeintoexistencewithoutaneconomy basedonirrigation.(89:p.3)

[192]

PARTTHREE ANALYSIS
[193]

VI. TheContours ofSocialism


Intheprecedingsectionsofthisbookwehavegatheredtogethercertaindatainordertoindicatewhenandinwhatformssocialismhasappearedinhumanhistory.The datapresenteddonot,ofcourse,constituteasystematichistoryofsocialism.Itisratheradottedoutline,acollectionofdisparatefactsselectedinamannerthatmakes possibleajudgmentaboutsomegeneralfeaturesoftheentirephenomenon.Utilizingthesefacts,wecannowapproachthemainsubjectofourinvestigationsocialismasa historicalconcept. Itisnaturalenoughtobeginwithanattempttoformulatea definition ofsocialism,ifnotaformaldefinitionthenatleastanexplanationingeneraltermsofthemeaningthat weattributetothisconcept.Itisofcoursenotsimplyamatterofprovidingempiricaldatainthefirstpartofthebook,andthenextractingcommonunifyingfeatures.After all,thematerialwasselectedonthebasisofspecificindicators,aswepointedoutinthebeginning.Nevertheless,thereisnothingcircularhere.*Wehavedrawnattention tosimilarfeaturesinaseriesofhistoricalphenomena.Nowwemusttrytodeterminewhetherthesephenomenapossesssufficientunitytomakeitpossibletolookonthem asamanifestationofthesamegeneralconcept.Inthisway,theproblemofdefinitionconvergeswiththequestionofthe existence ofsocialismasahistoricalcategory. Suchanapproachseemstobeappropriateintheconsiderationofanygeneralconcept,asforexampleintheidentificationofanewbiologicalspecies. Webegin,therefore,withanenumerationofthebasicprinciples

*Althoughwedidusetheterm"socialism"longbeforeundertakingtodefineit.

[194] manifestedintheactivitiesofsocialiststatesandinthesocialistideologiesdescribedearlier.

1.TheAbolitionofPrivateProperty
Thefundamentalnatureofthisprincipleisemphasized,forinstance,byMarxandEngels:"ThetheoryofCommunismmaybesummedupinasinglesentence:'Abolitionof privateproperty,'" (CommunistManifesto). Thisproposition,initsnegative form,isinherentinallsocialistdoctrineswithoutexceptionandisthebasicfeatureofallsocialiststates.Butinitspositive form,asan assertionabouttheactualnatureofpropertyinasocialistsociety,itislessuniversalandappearsintwodistinctvariants:theoverwhelmingmajorityofsocialistdoctrines proclaimthecommunalityofproperty (implementedinmoreorlessradicalfashion),whilesocialiststates(andsomedoctrines)arebasedon stateproperty.

2.TheAbolitionoftheFamily
Themajorityofsocialistdoctrinesproclaimtheabolitionofthefamily.Inotherdoctrines,aswellasincertainsocialiststates,thispropositionisnotproclaimedinsuch radicalform,buttheprincipleappearsasadeemphasisoftheroleofthefamily,theweakeningoffamilyties,theabolitionofcertainfunctionsofthefamily.Again,the negativeformoftheprincipleismorecommon.Asapositivestatementaboutspecificrelationshipsbetweenthesexesorbetweenparentsandchildren,itappearsin severalvariantsasthetotalobliterationofthefamily,communalityofwivesandthedestructionofalltiesbetweenparentandchildtothepointwheretheymaynoteven knoweachotherasanimpairmentandaweakeningoffamilytiesorasthetransformationofthefamilyintoaunitofthebureaucraticstatesubjectedtoitsgoalsand control.

Themajorityofsocialistdoctrinesproclaimtheabolitionofthefamily.Inotherdoctrines,aswellasincertainsocialiststates,thispropositionisnotproclaimedinsuch radicalform,buttheprincipleappearsasadeemphasisoftheroleofthefamily,theweakeningoffamilyties,theabolitionofcertainfunctionsofthefamily.Again,the negativeformoftheprincipleismorecommon.Asapositivestatementaboutspecificrelationshipsbetweenthesexesorbetweenparentsandchildren,itappearsin severalvariantsasthetotalobliterationofthefamily,communalityofwivesandthedestructionofalltiesbetweenparentandchildtothepointwheretheymaynoteven knoweachotherasanimpairmentandaweakeningoffamilytiesorasthetransformationofthefamilyintoaunitofthebureaucraticstatesubjectedtoitsgoalsand control.

3.TheAbolitionofReligion
Itisespeciallyeasyforustoobservesocialism'shostilitytoreligion,forthisisinherent,withfewexceptions,inall contemporary socialiststatesanddoctrines.Onlyrarely istheabolitionofreligionlegislated, [195] asitwasinAlbania.Buttheactionsofothersocialiststatesleavenodoubtthattheyareallgovernedbythisveryprincipleandthatonlyexternaldifficultieshaveprevented itscompleteimplementation.Thissameprinciplehasbeenrepeatedlyproclaimedinsocialistdoctrines,beginningwiththeendoftheseventeenthcentury.Sixteenth and seventeenthcenturydoctrinesareimbuedwithcoldskepticalandironicattitudestowardreligion.Ifnotconsciously,then"objectively,"theypreparedhumanityforthe convergenceofsocialistideologyandmilitantatheismthattookplaceattheendoftheseventeenthcenturyandduringthecourseoftheeighteenth.Theheretical movementsoftheMiddleAgeswerereligiousincharacter,butthoseinwhichsocialisttendencieswereespeciallypronouncedweretheonesthatwereirrevocably opposedtotheactualreligionprofessedbythemajorityatthetime.CallstoassassinatethePopeandtoannihilateallmonksandpriestsrunlikearedthreadthroughthe historyofthesemovements.TheirhatredforthebasicsymbolsofChristianitythecrossandthechurchisverystriking.Weencountertheburningofcrossesandthe profanationofchurchesfromthefirstcenturiesofChristianityrightuptothepresentday. Finally,inPlato'ssocialistsystem,religionisconceivedasanelementinthestate'sideology.Itsroleamountstoeducation,theshapingofcitizens'opinionsintotheforms necessarytothestate.Tothisend,newreligiousobservancesandmythswereinventedandtheoldonesabolished.Itseemsthatinmanyofthestatesoftheancient Orient,officialreligionplayedananalogousrole,itscentralfunctionbeingthedeificationoftheking,whowasthepersonificationoftheallpowerfulstate.

4.CommunalityorEquality
Thisdemandisencounteredinalmostallsocialistdoctrines.Itsnegativeformisseeninthestrivingtodestroythehierarchyofthesurroundingsocietyandincalls"to humbletheproud,therichandthepowerful,"toabolishprivilege.Thistendencyfrequentlygivesrisetohostilitytowardcultureasafactorcontributingtospiritualand intellectualinequalityand,asaresult,leadstoacallforthedestructionofcultureitself.ThefirstformulationofthisviewcanbefoundinPlato,themostrecentin contemporaryleftistmovementsintheWestwhich [196] considerculture"individualistic,""repressive,""suffocating,"andcallfor"ideologicalguerrillawarfareagainstculture." Weseethatasmallnumberofclearcutprinciplesinspiredthesocialistdoctrinesandguidedthelifeofthesocialistsocietiesinthecourseofseveralmillennia.Thisunity andinterrelatednessofvarioussocialistdoctrineswasfullyrecognizedbytheirrepresentatives:ThomasMntzercitesPlatoasanauthorityJohannofLeydenstudies Mntzer,CampanellaconsiderstheAnabaptistsasanexampleoftheembodimentofhissystem.Morellyandtheanonymousauthorofthearticleinthe Encyclopdie pointtotheIncastateasacorroborationoftheirsocialviews,andinanotherarticlefromthe Encyclopdie ("TheMoravians,"writtenbyFaiguet),theMoravianBrethren arecitedasanexampleofanidealcommunalorder.Amonglatesocialists,SaintSimoninhislastwork, NewChristianity, declares:"TheNewChristianitywillconsistof separatetendencieswhichforthemostpartwillcorrespondtotheideasofthehereticalsectsofEuropeandAmerica."Furtherexamplesofthissenseofkinshipamong thesocialistcurrentsofdifferentepochscouldeasilybeproduced.WeshallonlypointheretothenumerousworkswithtitlessuchasForerunnersofScientific Socialism producedbyspokesmenofthesocialistcamp,whereamong"forerunners"onecanfindPlato,Dolcino,Mntzer,MoreandCampanella.... Itisofcoursetruethatindifferentperiodsthecentralcoreofsocialistideologywasmanifestedindifferentforms:wehaveseensocialismintheformofmysticalprophecy, ofarationalisticplanforahappysocietyorofascientificdoctrine.Ineachperiod,socialismabsorbscertainoftheideasofitstimeandusesthelanguagecontemporaryto it.Someofitselementsarediscardedothers,onthecontrary,acquireespeciallygreatsignificance.Thisisnotunusual:suchapatternappliestoanyotherphenomenonof suchhistoricalscope. Inanotherworkonsocialism,Ireferredtoreligionasanexampleofthesamekindofhistoricalphenomenonwhichistransformedinthecourseoftimejustassocialism hasbeen.Now,however,itseemstomethatthisjuxtapositionratherunderscorestheuniquecharacterofsocialistideologyitsunprecedentedconservatism.Sincethe timewhensocialism'sbasicprincipleswereformulatedinPlato'ssystem,thereligiousconceptsofmankindhavebeencompletelytransformed: [197] theideaofmonotheismhasacquireduniversalsignificanceintheworldtheconceptofasingleGodinthreeessences,Godmanhood,salvationbyfaithandaseriesof otherfundamentalideashavearisen.Atthesametime,thebasicprinciplesofsocialismhavenotchangedtothisdayithasonlyaltereditsformandmotivation. Theunityandcohesivenessofthesystemofsocialistconceptionsbecomesapparent,togetherwithanastonishingconservatism,inthewaythatcertaindetails recuragain andagaininsocialistsocietiesanddoctrinesthatarelittlerelatedonetotheotherandsometimeswidelyseparatedintime.Theprobabilityofaccidentalrecurrenceis negligible,unlessweassumethatthesimilaritiesareinexorablydeterminedbytheirexceptionalspiritualcloseness.Weshallciteonlyfourexamplesfromthelargenumber ofsuchcoincidences: a.ThecoincidenceofmanydetailsinMore'sUtopia andtheaccountsoftheIncastate,whichleadtothequestionposedintheFrenchAcademyconcerningtheinfluence oftheseaccountsonMore(whichwouldhavebeenchronologicallyimpossible). b.Thecustomofmummificationoftheheadsofstateandburialinsteppedtombsofpyramidlikedesign,whichismetwithinstateswithstrongsocialisttendencies (althoughthestatesinquestionmaybeseparatedbymanythousandsofyears). c.InDeschamps's TrueSystem wefindthisvividdetail:Describingthefuturesocialistsociety,hesaysthat"nearlyallpeoplewillhavealmostthesameappearance." Dostoyevskyexpressesthesamethoughtinthenotebooksto ThePossessed. ThecharacterwhoiscalledPyotrVerkhovenskyinthenovelandNechayevinthe notebookshasthistosayaboutthefuturesociety:"Inmyopinionevenmenandwomenwithparticularlyattractivefacesshouldbeprohibited."(92:XI:270)Dostoyevsky gatheredmaterialforhisnovelfromtheideologicalpronouncementsofthenihilistsandthesocialists,butneitherhenortheycouldhaveknownDeschamps'swork,which waspublishedonlyinourcentury. d.In TheRepublic, Platowrotethat,amongtheguardians,"nonehaveanyhabitationorstorageareawhichisnotopenforalltoenteratwill."Aristophanesspeaksabout thisinalmostthesamewordsinhisEcclesiazusae: "I'llknockoutwallsandremodelthecityintoonebighappyhousehold,whereallcancomeandgoastheychoose."

notebookshasthistosayaboutthefuturesociety:"Inmyopinionevenmenandwomenwithparticularlyattractivefacesshouldbeprohibited."(92:XI:270)Dostoyevsky gatheredmaterialforhisnovelfromtheideologicalpronouncementsofthenihilistsandthesocialists,butneitherhenortheycouldhaveknownDeschamps'swork,which waspublishedonlyinourcentury. d.In TheRepublic, Platowrotethat,amongtheguardians,"nonehaveanyhabitationorstorageareawhichisnotopenforalltoenteratwill."Aristophanesspeaksabout thisinalmostthesamewordsinhisEcclesiazusae: "I'llknockoutwallsandremodelthecityintoonebighappyhousehold,whereallcancomeandgoastheychoose." Thisparticularcoincidencemaybeexplainedbythefactthattheauthorslivedduringthesameepoch,butthemotifisencountered [198] againinMore,who,inordertounderscorethekindofcommunalityinwhichtheUtopianslived,describestheentrancestotheirdwellings: "Thedoorsaremadewithtwoleavesthatareneverlockedorboltedandaresoeasytoopenthattheywillfollowtheslightesttouchandshutagainalone.Whoever wishesmaygoin,forthereisnothinginsidethehousethatisprivateoranyman'sown." More,ofcourse,hadreadPlatoandcouldhaveborrowedthethoughtfromhim.ButwemeetwithalawagainsttheclosingofdoorsintheIncastateaswell.Stilllater,in CrimeandPunishment, thecharacterLebeziatnikovexpoundsonthequestionoffreeentryintoroomsinthefuturesociety:"Ithasbeendebatedoflatewhethera memberofthecommunehastherighttogointotheroomofanothermember,maleorfemale,atanytime...well,itwasdecidedthathedoes."(92:VI:p.284)Thisisnot merelyanartisticcontrivance.Dostoyevskyunderstoodthenatureofsocialismandanticipateditsfutureroleperhapsmoreastutelythananyotherthinkerofthelast century.Ofthemultitudeofpettydetailsthatheknewaboutnihilistcircles,heselectedsomeofthemostcharacteristic,amongthesetheverysamefreeentranceinto dwellingsmentionedalmosttwoandahalfthousandyearsearlierbyPlato. Andfinally,weencounterthismotifinthefirstyearsaftertherevolutioninRussia.Theforceoftheexplosionexperiencedthendislodgedandthrewtothesurfacedeeply buriedelementsofsocialistideologythathadearlierremainedalmostunnoticedandthatwerelateragaindisplacedfromview.Wewillthereforebeturningfrequentlyto thisperiod,whichpresentsmultiplefacetsofsocialisminanentirelynewlight.Inparticular,thereappearedatthetimenumerousideasonhowthenewformsoflifecould overcometheoldwaysandmakelifemorecollectiveforexample,byreplacingindividualkitchenswithhugefactorylikekitchenfacilities,orbyhousingthepopulationin dormitoriesinsteadofapartments.Oneenthusiastpublishedabookbased,asheclaims,onTrotsky'sideas(93):"ItshouldbemadeclearthatIdonotconsidertheidea ofroomsnecessaryIbelievethatitwillbepossibletoconsideraroomonlyasthelivingspaceofanindividualperson.Afterall,isolationinaroomisquiteunnecessary forcollectiveman....Theisolationneededincertainhoursoflovecanbehadinspecialpleasuregardenswherethemanandhisfemalecompanionwillbeabletofindthe necessarycomforts." [199] Itwouldseemthatsocialistideologyhastheabilitytostampwidelyseparatedorevenhistoricallyunlinkedsocialistcurrentswithindelibleandstereotypedmarkings. Itseemstousquitelegitimatetoconcludethatsocialismdoesexistasaunifiedhistoricalphenomenon.Itsbasicprincipleshavebeenindicatedabove.Theyare:
l l l l

Abolitionofprivateproperty. Abolitionofthefamily. Abolitionofreligion. Equality,abolitionofhierarchiesinsociety.

Themanifoldembodimentsoftheseprinciplesarelinkedorganicallybyacommonspirit,byanidentityofspecificdetailsand,frequently,byaclearlydiscernibleoverall thrust. Ourperspectiveonsocialismtakesintoaccountonlyoneofthedimensionsinwhichthisphenomenonunfolds.Socialismisnotonlyanabstractideologicalsystembutalso theembodimentofthatsystemintimeandspace.Therefore,havingsketchedinitsoutlinesasanideology,wenowoughttobeabletoexplaininwhatperiodsandwithin whatcivilizationsocialismarises,whetherintheformofdoctrine,popularmovementorstatestructure.Butheretheanswerturnsouttobefarlessclear.Whilethe ideologyofsocialismissharplydefined,theoccurrenceofsocialismcanhardlybelinkedtoanydefinitetimeorcivilization.Ifweconsidertheperiodinthehistoryof mankindwhichfollowedtheriseofthestateasaninstitution,wefindthemanifestationsofsocialism,practicallyspeaking,inallepochsandinallcivilizations.Itispossible, however,toidentifyepochswhensocialistideologymanifestsitselfwithparticularintensity.Thisisusuallyataturningpointinhistory,acrisissuchastheperiodofthe Reformationorourownage.Wecouldsimplynotethatsocialiststatesariseonlyindefinitehistoricalsituations,orwecouldattempttoexplainwhyitwasthatthesocialist ideologyappearedinvirtuallyfinishedandcompleteforminPlato'stime.Weshallreturntothesequestionslater.ButinEuropeanhistory,wecannotpointtoasingle periodwhensocialistteachingswerenotextantinoneformoranother.Itseemsthatsocialismisaconstantfactorinhumanhistory,atleastintheperiodfollowingtherise ofthestate.Withoutattemptingtoevaluateitforthetimebeing,wemustrecognizesocialismasoneofthemostpowerfulanduniversalforcesactiveinafieldwhere historyisplayedout. [200] Inageneralsense,suchanapproachisnotnew.Booktitlesalonetestifytothat:TheSocialistEmpireoftheIncasTheHistoryofCommunismandSocialismin AntiquityStateSocialismintheFifteenthCentury B.C.,andsoon.Wittfogel(intheworkquotedabove,89)gathersvastamountsofmaterialaboutthestatesofthe ancientOrient,preColumbianAmerica,EastAfricaandcertainareasofthePacific,forexampletheHawaiianIslands,characterizingthestateshedescribesas"hydraulic societies"andtracingthemultitudeofparallelsbetweenthemandthecontemporarysocialiststates.Thehistoryofthesocialistdoctrinesisnolessthoroughlyresearched, ascanbeseenfromthenumerous"HistoriesofSocialistIdeas,"whichusuallybeginwithPlato.Koigenhasevenremarkedironically:"Socialismisasoldashumansociety itselfbutnotolder."(94) Itwouldseemthatthisshouldbetakenasthestartingpointofanyattempttounderstandtheessenceofsocialism.Despitebeingquitegeneral,suchapointofviewstrictly limitstherangeofthoseargumentsthatareapplicable:anyexplanationsbasedonthepeculiaritiesofagivenhistoricalperiod,raceorcivilizationmustbediscarded.Itis necessarytorejecttheinterpretationofsocialismasadefinitephaseinthedevelopmentofhumansocietywhichissaidtoappearwhenconditionsareripe.Onthe contrary,anyapproachtosocialismoughttobebasedonprinciplesbroadenoughtobeapplicabletotheIncaempire,toPlato'sphilosophyandtothesocialismofthe twentiethcentury. [201]

VII. SurveyofSomeApproaches toSocialism

VII. SurveyofSomeApproaches toSocialism


Beforeweapplytheconclusionsformulatedintheprecedingsectiontofurtheranalysisofsocialism,theycanbetestedinasimplerprocedureofapurelycriticalcharacter. Weshallexaminethosepointsofviewwhicharerepresentativeofthemajorityofconceptionsofsocialismthathavebeenformulatedinthepast. 1. TheMarxiststandpoint Socialismasastatesystemisaspecificphaseinthehistoricaldevelopmentofmankinditinevitablyreplacescapitalismwhenthelatterreachesadefinitelevel ofdevelopment.Socialismasadoctrineconstitutestheworldviewoftheproletariat(itselfengenderedbycapitalism),andatthesametimeitistheresultof scientificanalysis,ascientificproofofthehistoricalinevitabilityofthesocialiststatesystem. Thisviewiscontradictedbytheknownfacts.Ifasocialiststatecomesintobeingonlyundertheconditionscreatedbythedevelopmentofcapitalism,if,asLeninwrote, "socialismoriginatesincapitalism,developshistoricallyfromcapitalism,andresultsfromtheactionofasocialforcethatisengenderedbycapitalism,"thenwhencedidit comeandasaresultofwhatsocialforcediditdevelopintheIncaempireorthestatesoftheancientOrient?Historyonlyreinforcesthedoubtsengenderedbythe contemporarysituation:socialiststateshaveariseninChina,NorthKoreaandCubathatis,inthecountrieswheretheinfluenceofcapitalismcaninnowaybeconsidered adeterminingfactor. Itisjustasdifficulttoseeanyconnectionbetweentheideology [202] ofsocialistmovementsandtheproletariat:forexample,inthemovementofMazdakortheTaborites.Furthermore,thelinkbetweentheproletariatandsocialismwasnot atallstronginthenineteenthcenturyeither.Bakunin,forexample,feltthatsocialismwasmostcongenialtothepeasantryheconsideredpeasantsandbrigands(atleastin Russia)tobethemainrevolutionaryforce."ThebrigandisthetrueandonlyrevolutionaryinRussia."(95:p.353)"Andwhenthesetwokindsofrebellion,therebellionof thebrigandsandofthepeasants,arejoinedtogether,apopularrevolutiontakesplace."(95:p.354)InreplyingtoBakunin,theprominentMarxisthistorianM.N. Pokrovskyrefers,strangeasitmayseem,nottotheimmanentlawsofhistorywithwhichheisfamiliar,buttofarmoreconcretecircumstances:"Ofcourse,thiswas outdatedforthesixties,theepochoftherailroads....Itwasextremelydifficulttocommitrobberiesontherailroads."(96:p.65)ButwheneventhefoundersofMarxism, recognizingtheproletariatasthemainforceofthefuturesocialupheaval,stressedthattheproletariathad"nothingtolosebutitschains,"theirdifferenceswithBakunin weremoretechnicalthantheoretical.Andinfact,sometimelatertheroleoftheproletariatwasreconsideredwithoutanychangeofbasichistoricalconcepts.Theneo MarxistswhomakeuptheNewLeftbelievethattheworkingclasshasceasedtobearevolutionaryforce,thatithasbeen"integratedintothesystem"andthatthe"new workingclass"isthe"favoritechildofthesystemandideologicallysubjugatedtoit."(4:p.57) Hopeforthefuturehasbeentransferredtothepeoplesofthedevelopingcountries,todisaffectednationalminorities(forexample,theblacksintheU.S.A.)andto students.Ontheotherhand(orperhapsitcomestothesamething),theproletariatisapparentlyassignedaverymodestroleinChairmanMao'sconceptofthe confrontationofthe"worldcity"withthe"worldvillage." ThethirdpropositionintheMarxistviewofsocialismisthatsocialism(intheformofMarxism)isascientifictheory. 2. Socialistteachingsasscientifictheory Theevidentweaknessofsuchapointofviewisthatitisapplicableonlytoafewsocialistdoctrines.Mostofthemneverpretendedtobeapartofscienceandassumed insteadtheformofphilosophicalsystems,divinerevelationortheoriesonthemostreasonablesocialstructure.Butthenineteenthcenturywassoimbuedwiththecult [203] ofsciencethatevenanadventurenovelcouldcountonsuccessonlyif,asintheSherlockHolmesstories,the"scientificmethod"wasused.Onlyinthesecircumstancesdid "scientificsocialism"appear. Henceweneedonlyconsidertowhatextentthesocialistdoctrinesofthenineteenthcenturywereaproductofscientificactivity.Theassertionsaboutthescientific characterofitsconclusionsplayanespeciallylargeroleinMarxism,butothersocialistteachings,asthoseofFourier,forexample,hadsimilarpretensions.WhileMarx andEngelsmockFourierasa"utopiansocialist"andapplytheterm"scientificsocialism"onlytotheirowndoctrine,Fouriermaintainedthathehadmadeananalysisof socialphenomenathatwasaspreciseasNewton'sphysicsand,infact,constructedinitsimage.Hewrote:"Thetheoryofpassionateattractionandrepulsionissomething stabletowhichgeometrictheoremsarewhollyapplicable....Andthus,oftheconnectionamongstthenewsciences:Isoonunderstoodthatthelawsofpassionate attractioncorrespondatallpointstothelawsofmaterialgravitationdiscoveredbyNewtonandLeibnitz,andthat thereexistsaunityinthemovementofthematerial andthespiritualworlds." (97:p.43) JuxtapositionofthesetwoteachingsFourier'sandMarx'smayhelpustounderstandwhatrolethethemeofscienceplayedinboth. Strictlyspeaking,thefoundersofMarxismdidnotalwaysdenythesignificanceofFourier'sscientificconstructions.Forexample,comparingthemwithSaintSimon's doctrine,Engelswrote: "Itistruethatthereisin[Fourier'stheories]noshortageofmysticismaswell....Still,ifwesetthataside,somethingremainswhichcannotbefoundamongthefollowersof SaintSimonscientificinquiry,sober,boldandsystematicthinking,inaword:socialphilosophy." (3:II:p.395) Itisverydifficulttodaytounderstandsuchapointofview.Fourier'ssystemisfarremovedfromanycontemporarynotionofwhatconstitutesascientifictheory.Heheld thatplanetsandothercelestialbodiesarelivingbeings,thattheylive,dieandcopulate."Aplanetisabeing,havingtwosoulsandtwosexes.Intheactofconception,just aswithanimalsandplants,twoproductivesubstancesarejoinedtogether....Aheavenlybodymaycopulate:(1)Withitself,thesouthpolewiththenorthpole,aswith plants.(2)Withanotherheavenlybodythroughtheemissionoffluidsfromtheoppositepoles.(3)Withsomethingintermediate."(97:p.69) [204] Thelifeoftheplanetearth,alsoperceivedasasingleorganism,isinherentlylinkedwiththelifeofmankind.Thereisacorrespondencebetweenthevariousepochsoftheir respectivedevelopments.Therehadbeensevenepochsuptothen,andFourierspeaksofaneighthepochwhichisonthevergeofbeingborn:"Meanwhile,theearth thirstsforcreationthefrequentemissionofnorthernlightiswitnesstothis,anindicationthattheplanetisinheat,andasignofauselessemissionofitsfertilefluid.It cannotcopulatewiththefluidofotherplanetsuntilthehumanraceaccomplishescertainpreliminarytasks.Thesetaskscanbeperformedonlybytheeighthsociety,which

[204] Thelifeoftheplanetearth,alsoperceivedasasingleorganism,isinherentlylinkedwiththelifeofmankind.Thereisacorrespondencebetweenthevariousepochsoftheir respectivedevelopments.Therehadbeensevenepochsuptothen,andFourierspeaksofaneighthepochwhichisonthevergeofbeingborn:"Meanwhile,theearth thirstsforcreationthefrequentemissionofnorthernlightiswitnesstothis,anindicationthattheplanetisinheat,andasignofauselessemissionofitsfertilefluid.It cannotcopulatewiththefluidofotherplanetsuntilthehumanraceaccomplishescertainpreliminarytasks.Thesetaskscanbeperformedonlybytheeighthsociety,which mustnowbeformed."(97:p.71) Thiseighthsocietyof"combinedstructure"istobringsocialistideastolife.Inthedescriptionofthissociety,weencounterthefamous"phalansteries"andnumerousforms offreelove,togetherwithFourier'scriticismbycontemporarycivilization.Onenteringthe"eighthsociety,"mankindwillaccomplishthetasksthatserveasthe preconditionsforanewactbycopulationbytheearth.Thiswillbringaboutchangeswhich,intheirturn,willhaveafructifyinginfluenceonmankindandwilllightenthe taskofdevelopingthe"combinedstructure."Theseasandoceanswillacquirethetasteoflemonadeinsteadofsharksandwhales,therewillappearantisharksandanti whales,togetherwithamultitudeofamphibiathatwillpromotetransportationandfishing.Andinthedeserts,insteadoflionsandtigers,therewillbeantilionsandanti tigers,whichwillcarryoutpeople'swishes. Wehaveheretheancientandmythologicalnotionaccordingtowhichhumanactivityisnecessaryforthefunctioningoftheuniverse.Itispreciselythesamesortofnotion thatunderliestheceremonyoftheAustralianaborigineswhichaimstoassurethefertilityofnature.Similarly,theAztecssacrificedthousandsofpeopleinordertopreserve thelifegivingpowerofthesun.ItwouldseemthatthisancientnotionwastherealfoundationofFourier'steaching,andnot"theapplicationofgeometrictheorems,"which arecompletelyabsentinhisspeculations.Histheoryseemstohavebeen"revealed"tohim,andinthisdirectperceptionthereisasinceritythatpartlyaccountsforhis success.*Asfortheimitationofscientificphraseology,whichisquiteclumsyinFourier,thiswasonlyagestureinthedirectionofnineteenthcentury
*WhenFourierwritesof"araycontainingfiveother[colors]invisibleandunnoticedbyuspink,crimson,chestnut,greenwithashadeofdragoon,lilac(Iamperfectlysure onlyofpinkandcrimson),"onecanreadilybelievethathesawthepinkandcrimsonwithhisowneyes.(See97:p.104)

[205] tastes,anattempttomakehissystemmoreattractive. Thisconclusion,soobviousinthecaseofFourier,forcesusnottoacceptonfaithMarxism'sclaimstobeingascientifictheory.Andtheveryfeaturewhichthecreatorsof Marxismproclaimedtobefundamentalthe"criterionofpractice"seemstoprovidetheclearestresponsetoMarxism.Accordingtothiscriterion,ascientifictheory oughttobetestedaccordingtoitsconcreteconclusions.Butwithalmostperverseconsistency,mostoftheprojectionsofMarxismhaveprovedtobeincorrect.Abetter percentageofcorrectpredictionscouldprobablyhavebeenachievedbymakingrandomguesses.Exampleshavebeencitedrepeatedly,andforthisreasonwelimit ourselvestothreeinordertounderscorethetypicalandinmostcasesfundamental natureoftheerrors:thetruthprovedtobenotmerelydifferentbutinfacttheopposite tothatwhichhadbeenpredicted. a.Thenationalquestion:"Nationaldifferencesandantagonisticinterestsamongvariouspeoplesarealreadyvanishingmoreandmorethankstothedevelopmentofthe bourgeoisie,tofreedomofcommerce,totheworldmarket,touniformityinthemodeofproductionandinthecorrespondingconditionsoflife.Thesupremacyofthe proletariatwillacceleratethedisappearanceofdifferences."(3:V:p.500) b.Inparticular,theJewishquestion,whichwastodisappearassoonasfinancialoperationsandpettytradebecameimpossible."ThechimericalnationalityoftheJewis thenationalityofamerchant,ingeneralofamanwhodealswithmoney."(3:I:p.382)"Anorganizationofsocietywhichcouldremovethepreconditionsofpettytrade, andthereforethepossibilityofpettytrade,wouldmakeJewryimpossible."(3:I:p.379) c.Theroleofthestate:"Thefirstactinwhichthestatetrulycomesforwardasarepresentativeofthewholeofsocietythetakingpossessionofthemeansofproduction inthenameofsocietyis,atthesametime,itslastindependentactasastate.Interferenceofthestateinsocialrelationsbecomessuperfluousinonesphereafteranother, andthenceasesofitself.Thegovernmentofpersonsisreplacedbytheadministrationofthingsandthedirectionoftheprocessofproduction.Thestateisnot'abolished' itwithersaway."(98:p.285) "Withthedisappearanceofclassesthestateinevitablydisappears.Asocietywhichorganizesitsproductioninanewfashionbasedon [206] thefreeandequalassociationofproducerswillsendthemachineofthestatetotheplacewhereitwillthenbelong:themuseumofantiquity,nexttothespinningwheeland thebronzeax."(3:XVI:p.149) Theunquestionablyimmensesuccess ofMarxisminthenineteenthandthebeginningofthetwentiethcenturiesbynomeansprovesitscorrectnessasascientifictheory. Othermovements,Islam,forinstance,haveenjoyednolesssuccesswithouteverhavinglaidclaimtobeing"scientific." ThedirectimpressionleftbytheworksofthefoundersofMarxismleadstothesameconclusiontheylacktheclimatecharacteristicofscientificinquiry.Fortheauthors, theworldofscienceisdividedintotwounequalparts.Onepartconsistsofanarrowcircleoffollowers,theotherofenemies,plottingagainstthemandreadyforanycrime againstthetruthforthesakeofattainingtheirgoals.ThusGermaneconomistsaresaidtohavewillfullyignoredCapital foryears,whilestealingfromitconstantly,and EnglishspecialistsonprimitivesocietyaresaidtohavetreatedMorgan'sbookinthesameway.ButthefoundersofMarxismhardlystoodonceremonythemselvesand againandagainattackedtheircolleaguesfor"liberalfalsifications,""banalityandcommonplacenessoftheworstkind,""virtuosityinpretentiousidiotism,"etc. ThebasicworksofMarxismareutterlyalientothemostfundamentalcharacteristicofscientificactivitythedisinterestedstrivingfortruthforitsownsake.Andalthough thescientist'sdutyissometimesproclaimed,thetruth,inpractice,alwaysremainsa"partytruth"i.e.,itissubordinatedtotheinterestsofthepoliticalstruggle.Thisattitude towardscienceisexpressed,forinstance,intheconclusionoftheprefacetoMarx's CritiqueofPoliticalEconomy: "Myviews,nomatterhowtheyarejudgedandhow littletheyagreewiththeegotisticalprejudicesoftherulingclasses,aretheresultofmanyyearsofconscientiousresearch."(3:XII:p.9)Inthisway,Marximmediately suggeststhatanyobjectionstohisviewsaretheproductof"egotisticalprejudices." ThankstothisindifferencetowardtruthinMarxism,wesooftencomeacrosscontradictionsevenafewofwhichwouldruinanygenuinelyscientifictheory.Wehavecited, forinstance,Wittfogel'sremarksontheappearanceandsuddendisappearanceofthe"Asiaticformation"intheworksofMarxandEngels.Numerousexamplesofthis kindcouldbebroughtforward.Inthe CommunistManifesto weread: [207] "Thelowermiddleclass,thesmallmanufacturer,theshopkeeper,theartisan,thepeasant...theyareallnotrevolutionarybutconservative.Nay,more,theyarereactionary, fortheytrytorollbackthewheelofhistory."(3:V:p.493)LassalleincorporatedthesamethoughtinhisGothaprogram:"Inrelationtotheproletariat,allothergroups

ThankstothisindifferencetowardtruthinMarxism,wesooftencomeacrosscontradictionsevenafewofwhichwouldruinanygenuinelyscientifictheory.Wehavecited, forinstance,Wittfogel'sremarksontheappearanceandsuddendisappearanceofthe"Asiaticformation"intheworksofMarxandEngels.Numerousexamplesofthis kindcouldbebroughtforward.Inthe CommunistManifesto weread: [207] "Thelowermiddleclass,thesmallmanufacturer,theshopkeeper,theartisan,thepeasant...theyareallnotrevolutionarybutconservative.Nay,more,theyarereactionary, fortheytrytorollbackthewheelofhistory."(3:V:p.493)LassalleincorporatedthesamethoughtinhisGothaprogram:"Inrelationtotheproletariat,allothergroups constituteasinglereactionarymass." ButitwaspreciselyatthistimethatMarxwascompetingagainstLassalle(andnotverysuccessfully)forinfluenceontheGermansocialdemocraticmovement. Andhewrites:"Lassalleknewthe'Manifesto'byheart,andifhedistorteditsogrossly,hedidsoonlytojustifyhisownbetrayaloftheworkingclass."*(3:XV:p.277) Marx's Capital ofcourseimitatesthestyleofascientifictreatisefarbetterthanFourier's TheoryofFourMovements. Marxincludestablesandagreatnumberof quotations(evenfromGreek,ashewasfondofnoting).Butinitsessence,Marx'sCapital isequallyfarfrombeingascientificwork,forthebasicstatementsinitare merelyassertedandnotdeduced.ItwasBulgakovwho(in100)drewattentiontoafootnoteinVolumeIof Capital: "Ofcourse,itismucheasiertofindtheearthly essenceofreligiousnotionsbymeansofanalysisthantheotherwayround,i.e.,fromthegivenrealrelationstodeducetheirreligiousforms.Thelattermethodistheonly materialisticoneand,therefore,theonlyscientificone." ButMarxonlyremarkedonthismatterinanoteandnowhereattemptedtoapplyhis"onlyscientific"method.Inthesameway,neitherMarxnorEngelstriedtoshowin whatmanner"thehandmillyieldsafeudalsocietywithasuzerainatitshead."Theysimplycouldnothavedoneso,ofcourse,sincethehandmillwasknowninancient Sumerandinothersocietiesaswell.Examplessuchasthesecouldbecitedatlength. TheattitudeoftheclassicsofMarxismtowardscienceisvividlyillustratedbywhatEngelswroteaboutmathematics.Indeed,itisinthisconnectionthathesays(inthe prefacetoAntiDhring): "AwarenessofthefactthatIhavenotsufficientlymasteredmathematicshasmademecareful:noonewillbeabletofindmetrespassingagainstthefacts."(98:p.7)
*Thisexampleandmostoftheothersinthissectionaretakenfromastudy(99)inwhichthequestionofthescientificcharacterofMarxismisanalyzedmoresystematically.

[208] Nevertheless,inthatworkwefindthefollowingstatements: "Wehavealreadymentionedthatoneofthemainprinciplesofhighermathematicsinvolvesacontradictionwhichconsistsofthefactthatundercertainconditionsastraight lineandacurveareoneandthesamething.Andhighermathematicsprovidesanotherexampleofacontradiction:twolinesthatintersectbeforeoureyesmustnonetheless beconsideredparallellinesfiveorsixcentimetersfromthepointofintersection,i.e.,linesthatcannotintersectevenifextendedtoinfinity."(98:p.120) "Thevirginstateofabsolutesignification,theindisputableproofofeverythingmathematical,isgoneforeveraneraofdiscordantopinionisuponus,andwehavegottento thepointthatthemajorityperformdifferentiationandintegrationnotbecausetheyunderstandwhattheyaredoing,butsimplybecausetheybelieveinsomethingthatuptill nowhasalwaysobtainedcorrectresults."(98:p.85)(Wemustpointoutthatwhenthiswaswritten,halfacentury hadalreadypassedsinceCauchyproposeda rigorousfoundationfordifferentialandintegralcalculusandhisideashadlongbecometextbookknowledge.) "Mathematicalaxiomsareanexpressionofanextremelylimitedintellectualcontent,whichmathematicsisobligedtoborrowfromlogic.Theymaybereducedtothe followingtwo: "1.Thewholeislargerthanthepart.... "2.Twoquantitiesseparatelyequaltoathirdareequaltooneanother."(98:p.34) (Itwouldseemthatevenamediocresecondaryschoolstudentoughttohaverememberedatleasttheaxiomonparallels!) Asforpoliticaleconomyorhistory,MarxandEngelsclearlydidnotbelievethattheyhad"notsufficientlymastered"thesesubjectsnothingpromptedthemtobe"careful" aswithmathematics.Onemaywellimaginehowresolutelytheyoperatedintheseareas. ThecorrespondencebetweenMarxandEngelsprovidesfurtherstrikingexamplesofviewsthatareextremelydifficulttoreconcilewiththeusualunderstandingofthe scientificmethod.Forinstance,EngelspointsouttoMarxonepassagein Capital thatwouldobviouslyprovokeobjectionsandsuggeststhisobjectionbetakeninto account.Marxreplies:"HadIwishedtoforeseeallobjectionsofthatkindIshouldhavespoiledthedialecticalmethodofexposition.Onthecontrary.Thismethodhasthe advantageofsettingtrapsforthesegentlemen [209] ateverystepandcompellingthemtorevealtheirimpenetrablestupidity."(3:XXIII:p.425) OrinanotherlettertoEngels:"DearFred!InmyopinionyouareunjustlyafraidtotreattheEnglishphilistinereaderofthemagazinetosuchsimpleformulaeasM GM, etc.Ifyouwerecompelledtoread,asIam,theeconomicarticlesofLalor,HerbertSpencer,MacleodandothersinTheWestminsterReview, youwouldseethatthey allaboundineconomicbanalities(allthewhileknowingthattheirreaderisthoroughlyboredwithitall)andthattheytrytospiceuptheirarticleswithpseudophilosophic orpseudoscientificjargon.Despitetheimaginedscientificcharacter,thecontent(equaltonothing,ofcourse)becomesinnosenseclearer.Onthecontrary,thetrickisto mystifythereader."Thisparagraphcloseswiththeadvice:"Infact,youaretooshy.Thenewisrequiredthenewinformandincontent."(3:XXIV:pp.6061) ItisinterestingtojuxtaposetheattitudeofMarxismtowardsciencewithacloselyrelatedquestionMarx'suseofHegel'sdialecticalmethod.Herewemayagainreferto S.Bulgakov.Inaworkalreadycited(100),heshowsthat Capital, especiallythefirstchapterofVolumeI,iswritteninaHegelianfashionbutthat,atthesametime,it demonstratesaverysuperficialgraspofHegel'sphilosophyandofGermanclassicalphilosophyingeneral,aquiteprimitivemanipulationofsubtleandprofoundcategories. Infact,Marxattimesseemstoseedialecticsinaquiteunexpectedlight. "Itooktheriskofprognosticatinginthisway,asIwascompelledtosubstituteforyouascorrespondentatthe Tribune. Notabeneonthesuppositionthatthedispatches wehavegottenuptillnowarecorrect.ItispossiblethatImaybediscredited.Butinthatcaseitwillstillbepossibletopullthroughwiththehelpofabitofdialectics.It goeswithoutsayingthatIphrasedmyforecastsinsuchawaythatIwouldprovetoberightalsointheoppositecase."(3:XXII:p.217)

ItisinterestingtojuxtaposetheattitudeofMarxismtowardsciencewithacloselyrelatedquestionMarx'suseofHegel'sdialecticalmethod.Herewemayagainreferto S.Bulgakov.Inaworkalreadycited(100),heshowsthat Capital, especiallythefirstchapterofVolumeI,iswritteninaHegelianfashionbutthat,atthesametime,it demonstratesaverysuperficialgraspofHegel'sphilosophyandofGermanclassicalphilosophyingeneral,aquiteprimitivemanipulationofsubtleandprofoundcategories. Infact,Marxattimesseemstoseedialecticsinaquiteunexpectedlight. "Itooktheriskofprognosticatinginthisway,asIwascompelledtosubstituteforyouascorrespondentatthe Tribune. Notabeneonthesuppositionthatthedispatches wehavegottenuptillnowarecorrect.ItispossiblethatImaybediscredited.Butinthatcaseitwillstillbepossibletopullthroughwiththehelpofabitofdialectics.It goeswithoutsayingthatIphrasedmyforecastsinsuchawaythatIwouldprovetoberightalsointheoppositecase."(3:XXII:p.217) ReturningtothecomparisonofFourier's"scientificmethod"withMarx's,itmustbestatedthatinsomeinstancestheydifferverylittlee.g.,intheiruseofmathematics. Take,forinstance,theargumentFouriergivesinsupportofhisideathatsocietyisruledonthe"basisofgeometricprinciples": "Thepropertiesoffriendshipduplicatethepropertiesofthecircle. "Thepropertiesoflove,thoseoftheellipse. "Thepropertiesoffatherhood,oftheparabola. [210] "Thepropertiesofambition,ofthehyperbola. "Thecollectivepropertiesofthesefourpassionsduplicatethepropertiesofthecycloid." ThisisquitecomparablewiththepassageinCapital inwhichMarxwrites(inconnectionwithoneofhisconclusions):"Thislawclearlyrunscountertoexperience."Buthe extricateshimselffromthepredicamentasfollows:"Thesolutionofthisseemingcontradictionrequiresmanymoreintermediarylinks,asinelementaryalgebra,wheremany intermediarylinksarerequiredtocomprehendthat0/0mayrepresentarealquantity."(3:XVII:p.337)*KarlJaspersisclosertothetruth,nodoubt,whenhesees Marxismnotassciencebutas"mythmaking"basedoncertainnotionsborrowedfrommagic,asforinstancethebeliefthatthedestructionoftheexistingworldwillleadto thebirthofnewman.(101) Theconceptof"thescientificmethod"wasofextraordinaryimportanceforthedevelopmentofnineteenthcenturysocialism.Henceitwassteadilyandpersistently elaborated,firstbyFourierandSaintSimon(inaverynaiveform),andlaterinamuchmoresophisticatedmannerbyMarxandEngels.Thescientificmethodprovidedthe socialistdoctrineswitha"sanction"ofthefirstorder.Furthermore(andthisisespeciallyimportant),thethesesofsocialistdoctrinethereby
*Marxemploysthisunusualargumentationinapassagethatisbynomeanssecondaryinimportanceforhissystem.Histheoryofvalue,acornerstoneofhispoliticaleconomic theory,provedtobeincompletecontradictiontowellknownfactsofeconomiclife!ConcerningMarx'spromisestopresentfurtherevidence(or"intermediarylinks")onthe question,theItalianeconomistLoriawrote:"IhavejustlyassertedthatthissecondvolumewithwhichMarxconstantlythreatenshisopponents,andwhich,however,willnever appear,wasmostprobablyemployedasacunningsubterfugeinthosecaseswhereMarxlackedscientificarguments."Inthesixteenyearsthatseparatethepublicationof VolumeIof Capital fromhisdeath,Marxdidnotofferacontinuationofhisstudy.In1885,EngelspublishedMarx'smanuscriptsasthesecondvolumeof Capital. Inthepreface, hementionsthecontradictioncitedaboveandremarksthat"becauseofthiscontradictiontheRicardoschooland'vulgareconomy'collapsed."Marx,soEngelsclaimed, resolvedthiscontradictioninVolumeIII,whichwastoappearinseveralmonths.VolumeIIIappearedin1894 i.e.,nineyearslater.Inhispreface,Engelsagainreturnstothe "contradiction"andquotesLoriainthisconnection.HepointsoutthatintheprefacetoVolumeII,thisquestionwas"publiclyproposed"byhimandthat,therefore,Loriamight havetakenthisintoaccount....ButEngelsdoesnotmentionhisownpromisethatthecontradictionwouldberesolvedinVolumeIII,nordoesheindicatetheplacewhereitis resolved.InreferencetoLoria,however,hedoesusesuchexpressionsas:"falsification,""distortion,""mistakesunforgivableinaschoolboy,""careerist,""scientificcharlatan," "shamelessness,""literaryadventurerwhoinhisheartofheartsspitsonthewholeofpoliticaleconomy,""aconscioussophist,""abraggart,""anirresistiblerushtoappropriate theworksofothers,""importunatecharlatanismofselfaggrandizement,""successachievedwiththehelpofclamorousfriends,"etc.

[211] acquiredtheappearanceofobjectivityandacertaininevitability,beingpresentedasaconsequenceofimmanentlawsindependentofhumanwill.Incallingforthe destructionofsociety,revolutionariesoftheBabeufandBakunintypehadtoarguethatitwasloathsomeandunjust.Butindoingso,theymadeeachpersonajudgeand leftopentheopportunityforthecounterargumentthattheprocessofdestructionitselfwasevenmoreloathsomeandunjust.Butwhen,forexample,Bukharin(102) proclaimedthatexecutionbyshootingconstitutedoneoftheformsforthe"elaborationofcommunisthumanity,"hewasinvulnerablefromtheMarxistpointofview. Indeed,Engelscouldthinkofonlyonefunctioninhistoryfortheconceptofjusticeasaphraseusefulforagitation.(98:p.352)How,then,isonetoverifyanexpertin MarxismlikeBukharin?Perhapshismethodofelaboratingcommunisthumanitydoesproceedfromthe"immanentlaws"orthe"dialecticsofproduction?" Inthecontemporaryworld,hypnotizedasitisbythenotionthatsciencecansolveanyquestionandsanctionanyaction,willmanyfindthecourageinsuchasituationto adheretotheunscientifictencommandmentsratherthantothescientificallyproved"immanentlaw"? Itwasnaturalenough,therefore,thatsocialistMarxistsofthenineteenthcenturywerehighlyattractedtoscienceasthesupremesanctioningauthority.Inparticular,Marx andEngels,withtheirprodigiousenergyandcapacityforwork,processedhugeamountsofdatafromthefieldsofpoliticaleconomyandhistory.Butwhattheywere seekinginsciencewasnotthesourcebuttheconfirmationandsanctionoftheageoldthesesofsocialistideology.Thelogicoftheirendeavorisexplicitlystatedinthe prefacetoAntiDhring: "In1831,inLyons,thefirstuprisingofworkerstookplaceintheperiodbetween1833and1842,theEnglishChartistmovement,thefirstnationalworkingmovement, reacheditsclimax....Itwasimpossiblenottotakeallthesefactsintoconsideration,aswellasFrenchandEnglishSocialism,whichconstitutedtheirtheoretical,albeit extremelyimperfectexpression."(98:p.21)"Althoughitcriticizedthecapitalistmodeofproductionanditsconsequences,thesocialismofearlierperiodscouldnotcope withit.Itcouldonlypronounceittobegoodfornothing.Butthetaskistwofold:ontheonehand,toexplaintheinevitabilityoftheappearanceofthecapitalistmodeof productioninitshistoricalcontextandthustoshowwhyitsdeathisinevitable [212] ontheotherhand,toexplainthehithertounclearnatureofthatproduction.Previouscriticismhasbeendirectedmoretowardtheharmfulconsequencesthanagainst capitalistproductionitself."(98:p.22) Marxismhereemergesnotasaresultofobjectivescientificresearchbutasaresponsetoasettasktoprovetheinevitabilityofthecollapseofcapitalismandits replacementbysocialism.ThistaskbecamerelevantforthecreatorsofMarxismastheresultofaseriesoflabordisturbancesinEurope. 3. Socialismisthetheoryofpreparingandimplementingrevolution:itisaseriesofruleswhichmustbefollowedinordertoseizepower.Atthesametime,itis thetechnologyofpower,thephilosophyoftheabsolutestatetowhichalllifeissubjectedi.e.,statism.

Marxismhereemergesnotasaresultofobjectivescientificresearchbutasaresponsetoasettasktoprovetheinevitabilityofthecollapseofcapitalismandits replacementbysocialism.ThistaskbecamerelevantforthecreatorsofMarxismastheresultofaseriesoflabordisturbancesinEurope. 3. Socialismisthetheoryofpreparingandimplementingrevolution:itisaseriesofruleswhichmustbefollowedinordertoseizepower.Atthesametime,itis thetechnologyofpower,thephilosophyoftheabsolutestatetowhichalllifeissubjectedi.e.,statism. Incontrasttotheviewsconsideredearlier,seriousargumentsmaybebroughtforwardinsupportofthispointofview.Itisdifficulttodenythatsocialistdoctrines constituteapowerfuldrivingforcecapableofinspiringmassesofpeopleandservingasameansofseizingpower.Furthermore,manysocialistutopiasdescribeasocietyin whichallaspectsofthecitizen'slifearecontrolledbythestate,whilesocialiststatescarryouttheseidealstoacertainextent.Insomecases(forexample,inShangYang's teaching),itisimpossibletodrawalinebetweencertainaspectsofsocialismandstatismtakentoanextremeifalloflifeiscontrolledbythestate,thedegreetowhich privatepropertyislegallypermittedceasestobesignificant. Thefirstobjectionarousedbysuchadefinitionisnotbasedonspecificargumentsbutisprimarilyaesthetic.Thecharacterizationseemsfartooshallowincomparisonwith thephenomenonitseekstoexplainitrecallstheviewofreligionasthe"contrivanceofpriests."Furthermore,manyactualfeaturesofsocialismcannotbeaccountedforby thismeans. Infact,viewingthesocialistdoctrinesasatechniqueforseizingpowerleavesthebasicprinciplesofsocialismunexplained.Howisonetointerprettheprincipleof communality ofpropertyfromthispointofview?Inordertogaincontroloverapovertyriddentatteredmob,itisfarmorenaturaltopromisea redivision ofproperty suchwasthecharacterofsocialupheavalsinantiquity.Thesloganofcommunalitycouldeventurnouttobeanobstacletotakingpower,aswasthecaseintherevolution of1917,whentheBolshevikParty,whichuntilAprilofthatyearhadadvocatednationalizingland,temporarily [213] retreatedfromthispositionandacceptedtheS.R.principleof"equalizedlanduse"inordertoassurevictoryinOctober. Thecallforcommunalwivesisequallyinexplicablefromthisperspective.Inthe CommunistManifesto, MarxandEngelssaythattheentirebourgeoisieaccusedthe Communistsofintendingtointroducecommunalityofwives.Whydidtheynotreplytothisaccusationlessambiguouslythantheydid?Theywrote:"Bourgeoismarriageis inrealityasystemofwivesincommonandthusatthemost,whattheCommunistsmightpossiblybereproachedwithisthattheydesiretointroduce,insubstitutionfora hypocriticallyconcealed,anopenlylegalizedcommunalityofwomen." Thisobviouslyleavestheimpressionthatthereproachistrue.Indeed,thispassagecausedsomuchtroublelaterthatnumerous"elucidations"wererequired.(Thesortof problemthataroseisillustratedbythefactthatinthesecondRussianeditionoftheworksofMarxandEngels,publishedin1955,thistextwasalteredtoread:"...what theCommunistsmightpossiblybereproachedwithistheallegation that...")Whyweretheseaccusationsnotsimplydeclaredbourgeoisslander?Andwhatismost remarkableofall,suchanideadidinfactoccurtoEngels.Heraisespreciselythisquestionin"PrinciplesofCommunism,"hisfirstdraftoftheManifesto.Butlater,afterhe metwithMarx,thetextwaschanged. Therearemanyotherparticularfeaturesofsocialistdoctrinethatremaincompletelyincomprehensible,ifonelooksatsocialismsolelyasamethodofseizingpower.One exampleisthenotionofthe"forerunnersofscientificsocialism,"whichplaysanimportantroleinMarxism.WhywasitnecessaryforMarx,Engels,Kautsky,Bernsteinand otherstodeclarePlato,Dolcino,MntzerandMoretheirforerunners?Whatstrangelogic,forexample,madeKautsky,speakingofproletarianmovementsthatcameto power"tooearly,"exclaim:"Theyarealldeartous,fromtheAnabaptiststotheParisCommunards."(103:p.166)Nothingcouldbemoreobviouslycontrarytotheir viewofsocialismasaproductofthecontradictionbetweenproductionforcesandproductionrelationsundercapitalism.Itwouldseemthattheyshouldhavedeniedany connectionanycommonfeaturescouldhavebeendeclaredtobeamatterofcoincidence. Itisimpossibletosupposethatsuchobvioustheoreticaldifficultieswentunnoticedbythefoundersofsocialism.Evidently,theconceptofforerunnerscontainedsomething essentialtotheideologysome [214] elementsthathadtobepreservedatanycost,evenattheriskofdoctrinalinconsistencies.Andthisindicatesthatcertainstrataofsocialistideologycannotbeunderstood intermsofanycoldlycalculatedplanfortheseizureofpower. Itispossibletocometopowerpreachingreligiousideas(astheexampleofMohammedshows)orbytakingadvantageofnationalfeelings,butwedonotthereforethink ofeitheroftheseroutestopowerasmeremeans. Furthermore,theviewofsocialismastheideologyofanabsolutestatemakesincomprehensibleoneofthemainpropertiesofsocialistdoctrinestheirinfectiousness,their capacitytoinfluencethemasses.Itwouldbeabsurdtosupposethatpeoplefacetortureandthegallowsorgotothebarricadesforthesakeofbecomingasoullesscogin theallpowerfulstatemachine.Moreover,thelargeproportionofsocialistdoctrinesbelongstothe anarchicalnihilistic tendency,whichisquitehostiletotheideaof statecontrol.Suchisthespiritthatinformsthemedievalheresies,themovementsoftheReformationperiod,Meslier,Deschamps,Fourier,Bakuninandnumerousmodern socialistmovements. 4.Thelastobjectionsapplyfullytotheviewthat socialiststatesareamanifestationofasocialstructurebasedoncompulsorylabor. Thisideaisexpressed,for instance,byR.VipperinhisbookKommunizm ikultura[CommunismandCulture], whichwaspublishedshortlyaftertheRevolution.(Thisbookispresently inaccessibletomeandIamobligedtocitefrommemory.)Vippersuggeststhatsocialismshouldberegardednotasaprophecyaboutahappyfuture societybutasareal socialstructurewhichhasappeared inthepast morethanonce.Hisexamples:ancientEgypt,theIncastate,theJesuitstateinParaguay...Inhisopinion,compulsory laboristhecornerstoneofallthesesocieties. Itistruethatnoneconomiccompulsion,toagreaterorlesserdegree,playsasignificantroleinallsocialiststates.Butonewouldliketodiscovernotonlythesortoftrait thatwouldserveasadistinguishingfeaturebutsomerelevantpropertythatwouldrendertheirotheressentialfeaturescomprehensible.Yetthepresenceofcompulsory laborinnowayexplainseithertheattractionofsocialistideologyorsuchofitsprinciplesasthedestructionofthefamilyorofhierarchy. [215] 5. Socialismassuchdoesnotexist.Thatwhichiscalledsocialismisoneofthelinesofdevelopmentofcapitalismstatecapitalism. Theevidentdefectofthispointofviewisthatitappliesonlytothesocialiststatesofthetwentiethcentury,withoutanyefforttoascertaintheplaceofthesestateswithinthe millennialongtraditionofsocialism.Butitwouldbeinterestingtodeterminetowhatdegreethisviewisapplicableeventothisadmittedlyshortperiodofhistory. Wittfogelbelievesthattheconceptofstatecapitalismisnotpertinenttocontemporarysocialiststates.Fromthepointofviewofeconomics,heasserts,itisimpossibleto considercapitalistasocietyinwhichthereareneitherprivatemeansofproductionnoranyopenmarketforgoodsandmanpower.

5. Socialismassuchdoesnotexist.Thatwhichiscalledsocialismisoneofthelinesofdevelopmentofcapitalismstatecapitalism. Theevidentdefectofthispointofviewisthatitappliesonlytothesocialiststatesofthetwentiethcentury,withoutanyefforttoascertaintheplaceofthesestateswithinthe millennialongtraditionofsocialism.Butitwouldbeinterestingtodeterminetowhatdegreethisviewisapplicableeventothisadmittedlyshortperiodofhistory. Wittfogelbelievesthattheconceptofstatecapitalismisnotpertinenttocontemporarysocialiststates.Fromthepointofviewofeconomics,heasserts,itisimpossibleto considercapitalistasocietyinwhichthereareneitherprivatemeansofproductionnoranyopenmarketforgoodsandmanpower. Theinadequacyofthisapproachisevenmoreapparentwhenonetakesintoconsiderationthebasicpointthatsocialism,unlikecapitalism,isnotmerelyaneconomic formationbutisalso,andperhapsfirstofall,anideology.Indeed,wehaveneverheardof"capitalistparties"or"capitalistdoctrines."Theideologicalcharacterofsocialism isabasicfactorintheactivitiesofthesocialiststates.Theirpolicyisfarfrombeingdeterminedonlybyeconomicfactorsorbystateinterests.Historyprovidedaclear experimentafewyearsago,whenthegovernmentsoftwocountriesinthesamesocialistcampsimultaneouslypermittedthemselvestodeviatefromgrouppolicy.The deviationofoneofthesestateswaspurelyideological,whiletheotherstatepreservedacompleteideologicalconformitybutdemonstrativelyassertedtheindependenceof itsforeignpolicy.Asaresult,drasticmeasuresweretakenagainstthefirststate,whiletheotheronlybenefitedfromitspolicy.Anotherexampleofpoliticalaction motivatedbyideologicalprinciplesisthesupportgivenbythesocialiststatestorevolutionarysocialistmovementsandnewlyformedsocialiststates.Andthisinspiteof considerableexperiencewhichshowsthatthisisthewaytocreatethemostdangerousrivals,aggressiveandarmedwithmoreradicalideology. Weshallpointoutonlyonemorecrucialpeculiarityofsocialiststates,somethingthathasnoanalogyincapitalistsociety:allsocialiststatesarebasedona"newtype"of parity.Wehavehereaphenomenonthatiscompletelydifferent,despiteitsname,fromthepoliticalpartiesofbourgeoissociety.Membersofliberalorradicalpartiesare unitedbyadesiretorealizedefinitepoliticaloreconomicends,withoutcircumscribingtheirconductorviewsinotherareas.Inthissense,they [216] areguidedbythesamekindofprinciplesastradeunionsoranimalprotectionsocieties.The"newtype"ofparty,however,notonlydemandsthatitsmemberssubordinate all aspectsoftheirlivestoit,butalsodevelopsinthemanoutlookaccordingtowhichlifeoutsidethepartyseemsingeneral unthinkable. Thespiritofthespecial relationshipthatexistsbetweentheindividualandthepartymaybegleanedfromthefollowingthreeexamples. AGermanessayist,W.Schlamm,relatesthatin1919,attheageoffifteen,hebecamea"fellowtraveler"oftheCommunistsbutnevermanagedtopenetrateintothe narrowcircleofthepartyfunctionaries(104).Twentyyearslater,oneofthesefunctionaries,whohadbrokenwiththeparty,explainedtoSchlammthereasonwhy.When Schlammwasinvitedtojointheparty,hehadsaid:"I'mreadytogivethepartyeverythingbutthetwoeveningsoftheweekwhenIlistentoMozart."Thisanswerproved fatal!Amanwhohasinterestshedoesnotwishtosubordinatetothepartydoesnotfit. AnotheraspectoftherelationshipbetweenpartyandindividualisrevealedbyTrotsky'slastspeechataPartyCongress.Hehadalreadybeendefeatedbyhisopponents. Hesaid:"Iknowthatitisimpossibletoberightagainsttheparty.Itispossibletoberightonlywiththeparty,forhistoryhascreatednootherroadfortherealizationof whatisright."(105:p.167) Finally,hereishowPiatakov,alreadyexpelledfromthepartyandindisgrace,describedhisviewofthepartytohisformerpartycomradeValentinov.Piatakovreminded himofLenin'sstatementthatthe"dictatorshipoftheproletariatisaregimeimplementedbytheparty,whichreliesonviolenceandisnotboundbyanylaw."(Fromthe article"TheProletarianRevolutionandtheRenegadeKautsky.")Piatakovexplainedthatthecentralideaherewasnot"violence"butthefactofbeing"unboundbyany law."Hesays: Everythingthatbearstheimprintofhumanwillmustnotandcannotbeconsideredinviolableortiedtoanyinsuperablelaw.Alawisalimit,aban,adefinition ofonephenomenonadmissibleandanotherinadmissible,oneactionpossibleandtheotherimpossible.Whenthoughtholdstoviolenceinprincipleandis psychologicallyfree,unboundbyanylaws,limitsorobstacles,thenthefieldofpossibleactionexpandstogiganticproportionsandthefieldoftheimpossible contractstothepointofzero....Bolshevismisapartywhoseideaistobringintolifethatwhichisconsideredimpossible,notrealizableandinadmissible. ...Forthehonorandhappinessofbeinginitsrankswemustsacrificeourprideandselfesteemandeverything

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[217] else.Returningtotheparty,weputoutofourheadsallconvictionscondemnedbyit,eventhoughwedefendedthemwhileinopposition....Iagreethatnon Bolsheviksandthecategoryofordinarypeopleingeneralcannotmakeanyinstantaneouschange,anyreversaloramputationoftheirconvictions....Wearea partyofmenwhomaketheimpossiblepossible.Steepedintheideaofviolence,wedirectitagainstourselves,andifthepartydemandsitandifitis necessaryandimportantfortheparty,wecanbyanactofwillputoutofourheadsintwentyfourhoursideasthatwehavecherishedforyears.In suppressingone'sconvictionsortossingthemaside,itisnecessarytoreorientoneselfintheshortestpossibletimeinsuchawayastoagree,inwardly,with one'swholemind....Isiteasytoputoutofmindthingsthatonlyyesterdayyouconsideredtoberightandwhichtodayyoumustconsidertobefalseinorder tobeinfullaccordwiththeparty?Ofcoursenot.Nevertheless,throughviolencedirectedagainstoneself,thenecessaryresultisachieved.Givinguplife, shootingoneselfthroughthehead,aremeretriflescomparedwiththisothermanifestationofwill....Thissortofviolenceagainsttheselfisacutelypainful,but suchviolencewiththeaimofbreakingoneselfsoastobeinfullaccordwiththepartyconstitutestheessenceofatrulyprincipledBolshevikCommunist.Iam familiarwithobjectionsofthefollowingkind.Thepartymaybeabsolutelymistaken,itissaid,itmightcallblacksomethingthatisclearlyandindisputably white.Toallthosewhotrytofoistthisexampleonme,Isay: Yes,IshallconsiderblacksomethingthatIfeltandconsideredtobewhite,sinceoutside theparty,outsideaccordwithit,thereisnolifeforme. (106:p.148) Someentomologists(see,forexample,107:pp.110115)believethatthefunctioningofabeehivecanonlybeunderstoodintermsofasuperorganism havingitsown metabolismandrespirationandcapableofreproductionandofthekindofactionquiteimpossibleforindividualbees(forinstance,holdingthetemperaturewithintothe necessarynarrowrangearound34C.).Theexistenceofeachbeehasmeaningonlytotheextentthatitisinvolvedwiththelifeoftheentirehive.Wearenolessjustified inconsideringthepartiesofthesocialiststatestobesimilarsuperorganisms capableofperformingactionsimpossibleandunthinkableforitsindividualhumancells.Their lifehasmeaningonlywhentheyarecarryingouttheaimsofthesuperorganismwithoutwhichtheycannotexist. Thisenablesustounderstandtheenigmaticpsychology,describedsopreciselybySolzhenitsyn,ofthe"orthodox"truebelieverwhoeveninaconcentrationcamp continuestoglorifyStalinandtheparty. Anysuchworldviewis,ofcourse,utterlyalientorationalcapitalism.ItisnotamongtheToriesandWhigsthattheforerunnersofthe"new [218] type"ofpartymustbesought,butintheSocietyofJesusoramongthemedievalsects,withwhomtheyalsohavesomecommonorganizationaltraits. Thepresenceofsuchapartyseemstobeanecessaryconditionfortheexistenceofallsocialiststatesofthetwentiethcentury,whileincapitalistcountriesitservesasone ofthemaininstrumentsofdestruction.Thispointstocardinaldifferencesbetweenthetwosocialstructures.

[218] type"ofpartymustbesought,butintheSocietyofJesusoramongthemedievalsects,withwhomtheyalsohavesomecommonorganizationaltraits. Thepresenceofsuchapartyseemstobeanecessaryconditionfortheexistenceofallsocialiststatesofthetwentiethcentury,whileincapitalistcountriesitservesasone ofthemaininstrumentsofdestruction.Thispointstocardinaldifferencesbetweenthetwosocialstructures. 6. Socialism istheexpressionofthequestforsocialjustice. Itisanindisputablefactthatalmostallsocialistdoctrinesandmovementsassignanextremelyimportantroletoprotestagainsttheinjusticesofthecontemporarysocial order.SympathyfortheoppressedandthecondemnationofoppressorsaremotifsthatmaybefoundintheworksofMntzer(especiallyinhis"DiscourseforDefense"), More(inPartOneof Utopia), Winstanley,Meslier,Fourier,Bakunin,MarxandtheMarxists. Manywhoarenotsupportersofsocialism(orwhoacceptitonlypartially)alsoseeitsmaindrivingforceinitsadvocacyofjustice.Forexample,theprimeministerof India,respondingtoacorrespondentwhoinquiredwhattheword"socialism"meanttohim,answered:Justice.Yes,socialismmeansjustice,thedesiretoworkinamore equalsociety."ToacertainextentthispointofviewissharedbyKarlJaspers:"Socialismtodayisseenasthatquest,tendencyorplanwhichhasasitsaimuniversal cooperationandcoexistenceinthespiritofjusticeandintheabsenceofprivilege.Inthissense,today,everyoneisasocialistsocialismisthemaintendencyofour time."(108) ButJaspersdistinguishessocialisminthesenseofgradualprogressfromcommunism,whichpreachestotalplanningandtheachievingofhappinessforhumanityaccording toascientificprognosis. TheviewofsocialismasanattempttoachievesocialjusticewaswidespreadinRussianphilosophy.Forinstance,VladimirSolovievwrote:"Theattemptofsocialismto achievetheequalityofrightsinmaterialwelfare,itseffortstotransferthismaterialwelfarefromthehandsoftheminorityintothehandsofthepopularmajority,is absolutelynaturalandlegitimatefromthepointofviewoftheprinciplesproclaimedbytheFrenchrevolutionandwhichunderlieallmoderncivilization."(109:III:pp.7 Whileherejectssocialism'sclaimtobeingasuprememoralforce,Solovievdoesacknowledgethatit"has [219] thecharacterofmoralityinitsdemandforsocialtruth....Inanycase,socialismisrighttoriseupagainstexistingsocialuntruth."(109:III:p.9)Itisherethatheevidently seesthat"truthofsocialism"whichmustberecognizedinordertovanquishthe"lieofsocialism." Bulgakov,aformerMarxisthimself,developedthisviewofsocialismindetail,especiallyinapamphlet(110)thatappearedin1917,whiletheRevolutionwasatitsheight. Socialism,inhisopinion,isareactiontothemisery,hungerandsufferingofmankind.Itisthethoughtthat"firstofallonemustdefeathungerandbreakthechainsof poverty."(110:p.5)Manistheprisonerofnaturalforcesandhisspiritlongsforliberationfromthatcaptivity.Socialismshowshimtheway.Itpromises"freedomfrom economicfactors...througheconomicfactors,bymeansofthesocalleddevelopmentofproductiveforces."(110:p.9)Butthisisafalsepromise."Theeconomic captivityofmanisnotarootcausebutaconsequenceitiscalledforthbytheshiftinman'srelationtonaturetheresultofthesinfulcorruptionofthehumanessence. Deathcameintotheworldlifebecamemortal,whenceappearedman'sfatefuldependenceonfoodandthe'forcesofnature,controloverwhichwillnotsavehimfrom death."(110:p.11) TheideaofsocialismwasforeshadowedinChrist'sfirsttemptation.By"turningstonesintobread,"ChristwouldhavebecomeanearthlyMessiah,whoinsteadof overcomingthesinfulconditionoftheworldwouldhavesubmittedtothatcondition.Thistemptation,towhichaconsiderablepartofmodernmankindhasyielded, constitutesthespiritualessenceofsocialism.Buteverytemptationcontainswithinitselfsometruth.Inthiscase,itisaprotestagainsthumanbondagetomatterandthe sufferingthatensuesfromit.Thepositivemeaningofsocialism,however,isextremelylimited.Bulgakovwrites:"Socialismcannotbeseenasaradicalreformoflifeitis philanthropy, oroneformofit,evokedbymodernlifeandnothingmore.Thetriumphofsocialismwouldintroduce nothingessential tolife."(110:p.41) Letusnowmovetoaconsiderationoftheseviews.Firstofall,itseemsthatsocialismcanbynomeansbeidentified simplywithastrivingforjusticenorwithareactionto thesufferingofmankind.Thisisalreadyclearfromthefactthatwewouldnotneedtoinventanewtermforsuchadesire:"compassion,""sympathy,""activelove,"areall oldfashionedwordsquitesuitableforthedefinitionofthis [220] equallyoldaspiration.Butletusassumeforamomentthatsocialismisadefinitewaytoachievesocialjustice.Inthatcaseweshouldbeabletoseenumerous confirmationsofthisfactintheknownsocialistdoctrinesaswellasintheexperienceofthesocialiststates.Sinceitisunquestionablytruethatappealstojusticeandthe condemnationofthedefectsofcontemporarylifeoccupyacentralplaceinsocialistideology,thisquestionmustbeformulatedmoreprecisely: Istheaspirationforsocial justicethegoalandthedrivingforceofsocialismor istheappealtothisaspirationonlyameanstoachievesomeothergoals? Tosimplifyourargumentation,weexcludefromourdiscussionthepracticeofsocialiststates.Afterall,ifitcouldbeshownthatdreamsofsocialistjusticehavenotbeen realizedinthesestates,thatwouldnotinitselfcontradictthepossibilitythatthesedreamsdidinspiretheparticipantsandtheleadersofsocialistmovements:Lifehasaway ofdeceivingthebestlaidplans.Butinthesocialistdoctrinesthemselves,atleast,weshoulduncovercompassionforthesufferingsofthevictimsofinjusticeandthe impulsetolightentheirburden.Yetthisispreciselywhatislacking!Thealleviationofsufferingissetasideuntilthevictoryofthesocialistideal,andallattemptstoimprove lifeatthepresenttimearecondemnedaspossiblypostponingthecomingvictory.Particularlyinthemodernsocialistdoctrinesproclaimingatheism,thispointofviewisin nowaycompatiblewithcompassionfor today's victimsofoppression,whowillhavenoshareinthefuturejustsociety.Itwillbeobjectedthatstrivingtoachievejusticein lifeforfuture generationsistheverythingthatinspiresthefollowersofsocialism.Thispointofviewseemshardlyplausiblefromapsychologicalpointofview.Weare askedtobelievethatamancanbeindifferenttothesufferingofthosearoundhimandatthesametimedevotehislifetothehappinessofafutureworldhewillneversee. Welistbelowseveralexamplesillustratingtheapproachofsocialistdoctrinetowardtheinjusticeoftheirday. TheCathars,whosedoctrinesincludedsomeelementsofsocialism,categoricallyforbadecharity,instarkcontrasttothetheoryandpracticeoftheCatholicChurch.Inthe Catharsectsthe"faithful"wereobligedtomakenumerousdonationsbutonlytotheleadership,the"perfect."Thisdoctrinalfeatureisextremelyoldand,consequently,is linkedtothesect'sfundamentalprecepts.WemeetthesameprincipleamongtheManicheans,inthesecondcenturyA.D. [221] ThesocietyoftheMoravianBrethrenisavividexampleofthestrictestcommunityofpropertyandofallaspectsoflife.Inthesect'svoluminouswritings,Christ'slawof brotherlyloveisoftenmentioned,butitisneverusedtojustifycommunality.Onthecontrary,thedemandforcommunalityiscloselylinkedtothestrivingforsuffering. Communalityisperceivednotasanexpressionofcompassion,butasa"yoke,"avoluntarycross.Communistlifeisanarrowpath,leadingthroughsufferingtosalvation. Turningtothehumanistliterature,wemightpointtoThomasMore,whogaveadetailedcommentaryonthesufferingofthepoorhecondemnedunjustlifeasa "conspiracyoftherich"andformulatedathesis,whichlaterbecamepopular,totheeffectthatcriminalityisinrealityacrimeoftheunjustsociety.Atthesametime,he

8)

ThesocietyoftheMoravianBrethrenisavividexampleofthestrictestcommunityofpropertyandofallaspectsoflife.Inthesect'svoluminouswritings,Christ'slawof brotherlyloveisoftenmentioned,butitisneverusedtojustifycommunality.Onthecontrary,thedemandforcommunalityiscloselylinkedtothestrivingforsuffering. Communalityisperceivednotasanexpressionofcompassion,butasa"yoke,"avoluntarycross.Communistlifeisanarrowpath,leadingthroughsufferingtosalvation. Turningtothehumanistliterature,wemightpointtoThomasMore,whogaveadetailedcommentaryonthesufferingofthepoorhecondemnedunjustlifeasa "conspiracyoftherich"andformulatedathesis,whichlaterbecamepopular,totheeffectthatcriminalityisinrealityacrimeoftheunjustsociety.Atthesametime,he suggestedwhathethoughtwasamorejustapproach:criminalsshouldbemadeintoslaves!JusthowfamiliarMorewaswiththelifeofthecommonfolkisindicatedbyhis listofidleparasitesinsociety,inwhichwomenappearfirst. ThehistoryofthesocialistmovementinRussiaservesasanotherstrikingexample.Theappearanceofrevolutionarynihilistcirclescoincidesexactlyintimewiththe abolitionofserfdom.Thepeasantswereliberatedin1861.Chernyshevsky's"AppealtothePeasantsofLandowners"appearedinthesameyearandhis"ToYoung Russia,"wherethestyleandspiritofthenewmovementwereformulated,appearedin1862.Chernyshevskyandothersopenlyexplainedtheirantipathytothereformof 1861byassertingthatacertainimprovementinthepeasants'lotmightturnthemfromtherevolutionarypath.SomewhatlaterwehaveNechayevproclaimingthefollowing: "Thegovernmentitselfmightatanymomentcomeupontheideaofreducingtaxesorinstitutingsimilarbenefits.Thatwouldbearealmisfortune,becauseevenunderthe presentterribleconditionsthefolkareslowtorise.Butgivethemalittlemorepocketchange,setthingsupevenonecowbetter,andeverythingwillbedelayedanother tenyears.Andallourworkwillbelost.Onthecontrary,youshoulduseanyopportunitytooppressthepeople,thewaythecontractorsdo,forexample."(Ill:p.137) AproposoftheattempttoeffectasocialistcoupinFrance,Bakuninwrote:"Frenchmenthemselves,eventheworkers,werenotinspiredbyitthedoctrineseemedtoo frightening.Itwas,infact,tooweak.Theyshouldhavesufferedgreatermiseryanddisturbances.Circumstances [222] arecomingtogetherinsuchawaythattherewillbenoshortageofthat.PerhapsthentheDevilwillawaken."(LettertoOgarev,1871,95:p.246)

ThispronouncementcoincideswiththeviewscontainedinthewritingsoftheMoravianBrothers:thereshouldbenoattempttoseekreleasefromsufferingsincesufferingis essentialinachievingthesupremegoal.ThereisofcourseanimportantdifferencetheMoravianBrethrensawthegoalinChrist,whileBakuninusesdifferentterminology. FinallywecometoMarxism.Despitetherolethattheexposureoftheinjustice,crueltyandinhumanityofcapitalismplaysinit,wecanencounterquitesimilarviews.Thus, inthearticle"ExposeoftheCologneTrialofCommunists,"Marxwrites:"Wesaytoworkers:youmustsurvivefifteen,twenty,fiftyyearsofcivilwarandinternational strifenotonlytochangeexistingrelationsbuttochangeyourselvesandbecomecapableofpoliticalsupremacy."(3:VIII:p.506)Ifwerecallthecrueltyandhungerwhich weretheconsequenceofthreeyearsofcivilwarinRussia,wemayimaginevaguelywhatthosefiftyyearsofcivilwarwouldmeantheyearsthattheworkers must survive,accordingtoMarx.Indescribingtheterriblelivingconditionsoftheworkersoftheday,MarxandEngelsshowednointerestinanyimprovement.Onthe contrary,theyactuallytriedtoseefeaturesofthefuturesocietyintheseconditions.Itwasimpossiblefortheworkertohaveanuninterruptedfamilylife?Well,inthefuture societythebourgeoisfamilywillwitheraway.Proletarianchildrenwerecompelledtowork?Inthefuturesocietychildrenwould"combineeducationwithproductive labor."Atatimewhen"bourgeoisphilanthropists"suchasDickensandCarlylewerefightingagainstchildlabor,theGenevaCongressoftheFirstInternationaladopteda resolutioncomposedbyMarx:"TheCongressregardsthetendencyofcontemporaryindustrytodrawonthelaborofchildrenandjuvenilesofbothsexesinthegreattask ofsocialproductionasaprogressive,soundandlawfultendency,thoughundertheruleofcapitalismitturnsintoaterribleevil.Inarationallyorganizedsociety,eachchild fromtheageofnineoughttobeaproductiveworker."(Citedin112) InthecorrespondencebetweenMarxandEngelstherearenumerousutterancesinthefollowingvein: "DearEngels!Ihavejustreceivedyourletterwhichbringsuptheverypleasantprospectofatradecrisis."(MarxtoEngels,3:XXI:p.228) [223] "Itwouldbeagoodthingtohaveabadharvestnextyearinaddition,andthentherealfunwillbegin."(EngelstoMarx,3:XII:p.249)"It'sthesamewithme.Sincethe beginningofthecrashinNewYork,IcouldfindnorestinJerseyandfeelfineamidstthegeneralbreakdown.Thecrisiswillbeasusefulformyorganismasthesea baths."(EngelstoMarx,3:XXII:p.255)"Thereisanimprovedmoodinthemarket.Maythisbedamned!"(EngelstoMarx,3:XXII:p.295)"Hereonlytwoorthree verybadyearscouldhelp,butitseemsthattheywon'tbequicktocome."(EngelstoMarx,3:XXII:p.368)"Ourfatherlandpresentsanextremelypitifulsight.Without beingbatteredfromoutside,nothingcanbedonewiththesedogs."(MarxtoEngels,3:XXIII:p.162) DuringWorldWarI,Leninwroteasfollowsaboutwar:"IfthewarnowevokesamongreactionaryChristiansocialistsandthewhimperingpetitebourgeoisieonlyhorror andfright,onlyanaversiontoanyuseofarms,toblood,deathandsoon,thenwemustanswerthatcapitalistsocietyhasalwaysbeenandremains ahorrorwithoutend. Andifnowthemostreactionaryofallwarsispreparinganendwithhorror tothissociety,wehavenoreasontofallintodespair."(113:XXX:p.136) Itisstrikinghowsocialistthinkers,inexposinginjusticeandexploitationofthepeople,refersooftentotheseverypeoplewithcontemptandevenmalice.Forinstance, Meslierwroteonthecoverofhis Testament: "Icametoknowtheerrorsandthemisdeeds,thevanityandthestupidityofthepeople.Ihatedanddespisedthem." Describingthepeasants'suffering,hewrote:"Itisjustlysaidofthemthatthereisnothingmorecorrupt,morecrudeandmoredeservingofcontempt."(114:p.56)Fourier callsthesameFrenchpeasants"livingautomatons"andadds:"Intheirextremecrudity,theyarenearertoanimalsthantothehumanrace."(97:p.93)InalettertoMarx, EngelscallsthepeasantsGermanicbumpkins.(3:XXI:p.39)AndtheFrenchpeasantsarereferredtoas"abarbaricrace,"thatis"bynomeansinterestedintheformof government,etc.,strivingfirstofalltodestroythetaxcollector'shouse...torapehiswifeandtobeathimtodeathiftheyshouldmanagetocatchhim."(LettertoMarx,3: XXI:p.312)Abouttheworkershewrites:"Themassesarefrightfullystupid."(LettertoMarx,3:XXIV:p.160)Speakingofcertainunjustcontracts,Marxforhispart callsthem"contractstowhichonlythecompletelydegeneraterabblecouldagree."(LettertoEngels,3:XXIV:p.30) [224] Anothertimeheexclaims:"Tohellwiththesepopularmovements,especiallyiftheyarepacifistintothebargain.TheChartistmovementdroveO'Connormad(haveyou readhislastspeechatthetrial?)madeGarnyweakintheheadandcausedJohnsontogobankrupt. VoilaIedernierbutdelaviedanstouslesmouvements populaires. "(LettertoEngels,3:XXI:p.328) Itispossibletosuggestvariouslogicalexplanationsforsuchstatements,butitisabsolutelyimprobablepsychologicallytoconsiderthattheyareengenderedby compassionforthepeopleorbysympathyforthevictimsofhungerandwar.AndwecanseethatthemainachievementsinsocialjusticeofthelastcenturyintheWest thereductionoftheworkingday,socialinsurance,anextraordinaryriseinthelivingstandardoftheworkerswereaccomplishedwithverylittleparticipationonthepart ofsocialistmovements.Themainfactorswerethestruggleofthetradeunions(condemnedbythesocialistsas"economism"),increasedproductivityoflabordueto technologicalprogress,andthemoralinfluenceof"bourgeoisphilanthropy." How,then,issocialistideologyconnectedwiththeideaofstruggleforsocialjustice?Itseemsthatwehaveheretwoquitedifferentapproachestowardlifewhich, nevertheless,intersectinacertainarea.Theirpointofcontactisthecondemnationofsocialinjusticeandtheexposureofthesufferingitbrings.Fromthisstartingpoint, theydevelopintwoentirelydifferentdirections,onebeingthepathofcorrectingsocialinjustice,thestruggleagainsttheconcreteevilsofthepresent.Theotherpath regardssocialinjusticeasanabsoluteevil,anindicationthattheexistingworldisdoomedandmustbecompletelydestroyed.Sympathyforthevictimsofinjusticeismore

thereductionoftheworkingday,socialinsurance,anextraordinaryriseinthelivingstandardoftheworkerswereaccomplishedwithverylittleparticipationonthepart ofsocialistmovements.Themainfactorswerethestruggleofthetradeunions(condemnedbythesocialistsas"economism"),increasedproductivityoflabordueto technologicalprogress,andthemoralinfluenceof"bourgeoisphilanthropy." How,then,issocialistideologyconnectedwiththeideaofstruggleforsocialjustice?Itseemsthatwehaveheretwoquitedifferentapproachestowardlifewhich, nevertheless,intersectinacertainarea.Theirpointofcontactisthecondemnationofsocialinjusticeandtheexposureofthesufferingitbrings.Fromthisstartingpoint, theydevelopintwoentirelydifferentdirections,onebeingthepathofcorrectingsocialinjustice,thestruggleagainsttheconcreteevilsofthepresent.Theotherpath regardssocialinjusticeasanabsoluteevil,anindicationthattheexistingworldisdoomedandmustbecompletelydestroyed.Sympathyforthevictimsofinjusticeismore andmoresqueezedoutofthepicturebyallconsuminghatredoftheexistingsocialstructure. 7. Socialismasaspecialreligion Bulgakov,amongothers,formulatedthisthoughtinthefollowingway:"Forsocialismnowadaysemergesnotonlyasanaturalareaofsocialpolicybutusuallyalsoasa religion,onebasedonatheismandthedeificationofmanandman'slaborandonrecognitionoftheelementalforcesofNatureandsociallifeandastheonlymeaningful principleofhistory."(115:p.36)Morespecifically,Bulgakovbelieves,socialismcanbeseenasarebirthofJudaicMessianism."KarlMarx,alongwithLassalle,arethe proclaimersoftheapocalypseinfashionable [225] dress,theannouncersoftheMessianicKingdom."(110:p.17Bulgakovtreatsthisideaingreaterdetailinhis"ApocalypticsandSocialism,"inthecollectionTwoCities, VolumeII).SemyonFrankalsocallsrevolutionarysocialism"areligionofabsoluterealizationofthepeople'shappiness"andthe"religionofservicetomaterialinterests." Frankpointsto"atrainofthoughtwhichunitesnihilisticmoralitywiththereligionofsocialism."(116:p.192)AnanalogouspointofviewisdevelopedbyBerdiaevinthe article"MarxismandReligion." Suchaviewwasexpressedoccasionallybytheadherentsofsocialismthemselves,forinstance,bythesocialdemocratparticipantsinthe"God building"[bogostroitel'stvo] tendencyatthebeginningofthiscentury.Bazarov,GorkyandLunacharskytookpartinthisattempttolinkMarxismandreligion.Abookby G.LeBon(117)isbasedonthesameview.Amongmorerecentworks,thisapproachistaken,forinstance,in118. Aforcefulargumentcanbemadeforthisdefinition.Forexample,thereligiousaspectsofsocialismmayexplaintheextraordinaryattractionofsocialistdoctrinesandtheir capacitytoinflameindividualsandtoinspirepopularmovements.Itispreciselytheseaspectsofsocialismwhichcannotbeexplainedwhensocialismisregardedasa politicaloreconomiccategory.Socialism'spretensionstobeauniversalworldviewcomprisingandexplainingeverything(fromthetransformationofaliquidintosteamto theappearanceofChristianity)alsomakeitakintoreligion.Acharacteristicofreligionissocialism'sviewofhistorynotasachaoticphenomenonbutasanentitythathasa goal,ameaningandajustification.Inotherwords,bothsocialismandreligionviewhistoryteleologically.Bulgakovdrawsourattentiontonumerousandfarreaching analogiesbetweensocialism(especiallyMarxism)andJudaicapocalypticsandeschatology.Finally,socialism'shostilitytowardtraditionalreligionhardlycontradictsthis judgmentitmaysimplybeamatterofanimositybetweenrivalreligions. However,alltheseargumentsindicateonlythatsocialismandreligionhavesomeimportantfeaturesincommon.Theydonotprovethatthebasictraitsofsocialismcanbe reduced toareligion.Andinpointoffact,thereareanumberofcardinaldistinctionsthatsetthemapart. Inthefirstplace,religionproceedsfromconcreteexperience:thereligiousfeelingsofpeoplewhothendescribethesefeelingsasanencounterwithGod.Suchexperiences onthepartofindividualsgifted [226] inthisrespectbecomefixedandarepassedontoothersintheformofacult,ofatraditionandoftheologicalliterature.Itwouldbeofgreatinterestifitcouldbe establishedthatsimilarexperienceslieattherootofsocialistphilosophy,butwehearnothingofthekind.Andthisinitselfisaclearobjectivedifferencebetweenthe socialistworldviewandreligion.Forevenifsuchexperiencesdooccurwithinsocialism,thosetowhomitisaccessiblecategoricallydenythefact.Themostprominent representativesofsocialistideologyeitheradheretoarationaloutlook(inrecentcenturies)orprofesssomeother,nonsocialistreligion(earlier). Anevenmoreradicalcontrastbetweensocialismandreligionemergesfromtheirviewsoftheessenceofmanandhisroleintheirrespective"anthropologies."Allreligions proceedfromarecognitionofsomehighermeaninginlife,somegoalderivingfromahighersphere.PresupposingtheexistenceofGodandthepossibilityofman's communicationwithHim,religiontherebyadmitsacertaincommensurabilitybetweenGodandman,whichisindispensableifonlytomakepossiblesomesortofcontact. (Anant,forinstance,cannotenterintocontactwithman.)Socialism,ontheotherhand,proceedsinalmostallitsmanifestationsfromtheassumptionthatthebasic principlesguidingthelifeofanindividualandofmankindingeneraldonotgobeyondthesatisfactionofmaterialneedsorprimitiveinstincts.Whatismore,thisview becomesmoreexplicit,themoreclearlyformulatedthegivensocialistideology.Below,weshallciteseveralillustrationsofthistendency. WithPlato,justice wasstillamongthebasicorganizingprinciplesintheidealstate.Theideologyofmedievalheresiesincludedspiritualgoals,althoughtheygenerallyset Godandtheworldatsuchoddsthattheearthly activityofmancametobedevoidofanyhighermeaning.ButMorerecognized(ormoreprecisely,hewrotethatthe Utopiansrecognized)satisfactionasthesupremegoalinlife.Still,Moredoesbelievethatareasonablemancanrefuselessersatisfactionsinordertoreceivegreaterones fromGod.However,thislineofreasoningSoonbringsustoFourier'sdoctrine,accordingtowhichthesatisfactionofinstincts(orasheputsit,passions)istheonlygoal andeventhebasicforceshapinghumansociety. AccordingtoFourier,allinstinctsareequallyfruitfulandusefulforsocietyitisonlynecessarytocombinethemanddirectthemintheproperway:"Thereisnotasingle uselessorbadpassionallpersonalities [227] aregoodastheyare."(97:p.292)"Passions,whatevertheymightbeeventhemostrepulsivebothinmanandinanimals,leadtotheirvariousconsequencesaccording togeometricalprinciplesobservedbyGod."(97:p.60)Asaresult,citizenswhoaremostusefultothesocietalmechanismarethose"whoaremostinclinedtorefined pleasuresandwhoboldlygivethemselvesuptothesatisfactionoftheirpassions."(97:p.292)Thefuture"combined"socialstructureisbuiltalongthesamelines:"Inthe eighteencommunitiesofthecombinedstructure,thetraitthatisthemostusefulforthetriumphoftruthisloveofwealth."(97:p.95)"Thewholearrangementofthe combinedstructurewillbethedirectoppositeofourhabitsandwillcompeltheencouragementofeverythingwecallvice,forinstance,thepassionforsweetsandthe pleasuresoflove."(97:p.96) Themoralprinciplesrestrictingfreedomofexpressionofinstinctsareharmful.Inparticular,thereisnothingsoharmfulasthesenseofdutyinventedbyphilosophers."All thesephilosophicalwhimscalled duty havenothingtodowithtruthdutyproceedsfrompeople,whileattractionproceedsfromGod.IfyouwanttorecognizeGod's intentions,studyattraction,onlynature,anddonotacceptduty."(97:p.98)Thefunctioningofsocietyistobeensuredbyplacingpeopleinsituationsinwhichwhatis advantageousforthemwillbeforthebenefitofall.Atthispointeventhemostdishonestmanwillbecomeausefulmemberofsociety."Showhimthathecanearna thousandcusbylyingandthreethousandbythetruth,andhewillpreferthetruthnomatterwhatacheatheis."(97:p.96) Itisrevealing,however,thatFourier refuses torecognizetheexistenceofclearlyinstinctiveattractionsiftheyengenderactswhichdonotfitanegoisticframework.For

Themoralprinciplesrestrictingfreedomofexpressionofinstinctsareharmful.Inparticular,thereisnothingsoharmfulasthesenseofdutyinventedbyphilosophers."All thesephilosophicalwhimscalled duty havenothingtodowithtruthdutyproceedsfrompeople,whileattractionproceedsfromGod.IfyouwanttorecognizeGod's intentions,studyattraction,onlynature,anddonotacceptduty."(97:p.98)Thefunctioningofsocietyistobeensuredbyplacingpeopleinsituationsinwhichwhatis advantageousforthemwillbeforthebenefitofall.Atthispointeventhemostdishonestmanwillbecomeausefulmemberofsociety."Showhimthathecanearna thousandcusbylyingandthreethousandbythetruth,andhewillpreferthetruthnomatterwhatacheatheis."(97:p.96) Itisrevealing,however,thatFourier refuses torecognizetheexistenceofclearlyinstinctiveattractionsiftheyengenderactswhichdonotfitanegoisticframework.For instance,heneverspeaksaboutloveassuchbutonlyaboutthe"delightsoflove"orabout"amorousness."Heconsidersthefeelingsofparentforchildandchildforparent tobemereinvention."Sincehedoesnotknowthe'act'thatisatthebasisofhispaternity,thechildcannotexperiencefilialfeelings."Parents,fortheirpart,loveonly"the recollectionofpastdelightsconnectedwithconception."Achildcannotfeel"indebtedtoparentstowhomhehasgivensomuchdelightunsharedbyhim,delightofwhich peoplewanttodeprivehimatthebesttimeofhislife."(97:p.100) ItispossibletoconsiderFourierasanimmediatepredecessorofFreud:inhisstrivingtounderstandmanandhumansocietyinthe [228] lightofthemostprimitiveinstincts,inapathologicalunderdevelopmentoftheemotionalspherewhichpreventsanyappreciationforthehigheraspectsofthehuman psyche,inthehypertrophiedroleheascribestorelationsbetweenthesexes.(AccordingtoFourier,eveneconomicsoughttobebasedonattractingyoungpeopleinto laborarmiesbytheprospectofloveaffairsinthiswayhugeindustrialbuildingprojectscouldbecarriedout.)Ofcourse,Fourier'smythologicalconstructdescribingthe cooperationofmanandthecosmosfindsnocontinuationinFreud'sworks.(Asweshallseebelow,Freudhadhisownmythology.)ButwhileFourier,withtheinfantilism socharacteristicofhim,seesamid"thepassionswecallvices"nothingmoreterriblethan"passionforsweetsandthedelightsoflove,"Freudgoesmuchfurther.Among theforcestowhichheattemptstoreducecultureandthespirituallifeofman,Freuddoesnotbypasseithermaliceorlustfordomination,destructionorthedeathwish.He considersallculturetobebasedonthesuppressionoftheinstinctsthedeepestpartofthehumanpsyche,whichstrivestoactaccordingtothe"pleasureprinciple." Unhappiness,inFreud'sview,isanecessarycostforcivilization.Happinessdoesnotfallwithintherangeofculturalvalues.Moralnorms,elaboratedbythatpartofthe psychethatisoflater,cultural,origin,arefactorswhicharedestructiveandmortallydangeroustotheorganism.Freudcomparesmoralswithproductsofdecaywhichare manufacturedbyacellandthenbecomethecauseofitsdeath. ThenextepisodeinthehistoryofsocialistdoctrineafterFourierMarxismwasbasedonanalogousconceptsofhumanpersonality.Dividingallhumanactivityinto"base" and"superstructure,"Marxismassignedtothe"base"thatmodeofproduction"fromwhich,byforceofinnerdialecticsandimmanentlaws,asocialandstatesystemis derivedwithallitslegal,philosophicalandreligiousviews."Inanevenmorestrikingformulation,Marxismproclaimedthatthissuperstructureis"given"bythehandor steammill.Themechanismbywhichthebasecreatesasuperstructureisheldtobethestruggleofmaterialandeconomic interests (thatis,egotismintheformoftheclass struggle).Initsmoregeneralviewsofman,Marxismdeniesthefreedomofwillandanyindependentspirituallifeorconsciousness,thelastbeingdeterminedbyone's "socialexistence."IntheprefacetothefirstvolumeofCapital, Marxwrote:"Formetheidealprincipleisamaterialonethathaspassedthroughthebrain." [229] Still,thenegationofthehigheraspectsofhumanexistenceinMarxismisnotasradicalasitisinthemovementgivenshapebyFourierandlaterdevelopedbyFreud. Marxismseesthebasicstimulusofhumanlifeandtheexplanationoftheriddleofhistoryinman'sbaseractions,butneverthelessin human activityandeveninactivitythat unitespeopleina"socialexistence."Freud,however,reducesmankindtoastilllower,purelybiologicallevel.WhileMarxismproclaimsthedivisionofhumansociety into antagonisticclasses(atleastthroughoutrecordedhistory),Freudstrivestoaccomplishthesamestratificationinthe humanpersonality. Hesinglesoutthemostancient andthemostextensiveareatheid,theunconsciouswhichfunctionsexclusivelyaccordingtothepleasureprinciple,outsideanynotionoftimeorcontradiction.Thereis nodistinctionherebetweengoodandevil,nomoralityoranyotherkindofvalue,savepleasure.Undertheinfluenceoftheexternalworldaderivativeareatheegois formed,andfromthis,inturn,thesuperegotakesshapeundertheinfluenceofsocialfactors.Herewecanobserve(underthenameofsuppressionorrepressive organization)thesameexploitationandoppressioninwhichMarxismseesthebasicfactorofsociallife.Freudcomparestheroleoftheareasofthepsychecreatedunder theinfluenceofcivilizationtothatpartofthepopulationwhich"seizedpowerandexploitstherestofthepopulationforitsownprofit.Thefearofanuprisingofthe oppressedbecomesthesourceofmoreseveremeasures." (CivilizationandItsDiscontents) Inparticular,sexuality,whichhasfortheidthesoleaimofderivingpleasure fromdifferentpartsofthebody,isforciblysubordinatedtothefunctionofchildbearingandistransferredexclusivelytothegenitalia.Subconsciouslytheorganismretainsa recollectionoftheidealconditionofunlimitedruleofthepleasureprinciple(cf.preclasssociety)andattemptstobreakoutofbondage.Theegoandsuperegocreatein responsetheconceptofmoralityandclassifysuchattemptsas"perversion"or"amoralactions."Thisresultsinacivilizationwherelaborbringsnosatisfactionandinstead becomesasourceofunhappiness,acivilizationwhichinevitablybreedssuffering.Onemayaddtothispicturetheconceptionofhistoryasatraumaticreactiontoan ancientcrimethemurderofthefather,theleaderofaprimitiveband. ItmightseemthatFreudhasdistractedusfromthemaintaskofsketchingtheconceptofhumanpersonalityinsocialistideology.Infactitwouldhavebeenamiracleif systemslikethoseofFreud,so [230] closetotheviewselaboratedbysocialistthinkers(FourierandMarx),hadnotbeenincorporatedintothesocialistworldview.Nomiracleoccurred:theattemptto achieveasynthesisofFreudianismwithsocialistconcepts(called"neoMarxism"or"neoFreudianism")becamethebiggesteventinthedevelopmentofsocialistideology inthepostWorldWarIIyearsithadaverystrongideologicalimpactonsocialisttrendsthattookshapeduringthistime.InthisregardMarcuse'sbook(119)standsout asthemostconsistentandvividattempttoachievesuchasynthesis. Freud'ssystemisskepticalandpessimisticheconsideredsufferingandmentaldiseasestobetheinevitablecostofcivilization,whichinitsturnismoreandmore underminedbyelementsofthepsychethathavebrokenawayfromitscontrol.Marcuse,incontrast,undertakestoalterthisviewsothatitspessimisticevaluationis directedonlyagainstmodernsociety.Furthermore,headdsthepredictionofafuture"liberation."Todothis,hedividesthesuppressiontowhichtheinstinctsare subjectedintotwoparts:therepressionthatinevitablycomesfromtheobjectiveclaimsoftheexternalworldoneachorganismandanothertype,whichiscausedbythe strivingofcertaingroupsofindividualstoattainprivilegedpositionsinsociety.Thesecondformofrepressionhecallssurplusrepression, andheconsiderstheexcessive burdenthatthisfactorimposesonthehumanpsychetobeapeculiarityofmoderncivilization.IncludedinsurplusrepressionbyMarcusearethefollowing:thenecessityof workthatdoesnotbringdirectsatisfactionandwhoserewardappearsintheformofevermoredelayedpleasuretherepressiveroleofgenitalsexualityandthe suppressionofmoreprimitiveformsoflibido,whichpermitthewholebodytobetheinstrumentofpleasurethedominantroleofreason,whichsubjectsalllifetoitselfthe transformationofscienceandreligionintoameansofthetotalmobilizationofmanthecontrolexercisedbysuchcategoriesas"conscience"and"morality"overman's innerworld.Surplusrepressionisdirectlyconnectedtothefactthatthedemandsofsocietyarenotsatisfiedcollectivelyandinaccordancewithindividualneedsbutare organized bythedominantpartofsociety. MarcuseisinagreementwithFreudthatrepressionisthenecessarypriceforsurvival,butheassertsthatsurplusrepressionwithallitsconsequencesmaybeovercome withthehelpofthelatestachievementsintechnology.Withoutgoingintothedetailsofthisprocess [231] (asarule,onewordisused:"automation"),Marcusedrawsapictureofafutureunrepressedsociety.Itisbasedontheliberationoftheinstinctsfromthecontrolof "repressivereason."Thiswillleadto regression, incomparisontothelevelofcivilizationandreasonthathadbeenachieved:"Itwouldreactivateearlystagesofthelibido

MarcuseisinagreementwithFreudthatrepressionisthenecessarypriceforsurvival,butheassertsthatsurplusrepressionwithallitsconsequencesmaybeovercome withthehelpofthelatestachievementsintechnology.Withoutgoingintothedetailsofthisprocess [231] (asarule,onewordisused:"automation"),Marcusedrawsapictureofafutureunrepressedsociety.Itisbasedontheliberationoftheinstinctsfromthecontrolof "repressivereason."Thiswillleadto regression, incomparisontothelevelofcivilizationandreasonthathadbeenachieved:"Itwouldreactivateearlystagesofthelibido whichweresurpassedinthedevelopmentoftherealityego,anditwoulddissolvetheinstitutionsofsocietyinwhichtherealityegoexists."(119:p.198)"Theregression involvedinthisspreadofthelibidowouldfirstmanifestitselfinareactivationofallerotogeniczonesand,consequently,inaresurgenceofpregenitalpolymorphous sexualityandinadeclineofgenitalsupremacy."(119:p.201)Thebodyasawholewillbecomeaninstrumentofsatisfaction."Thischangeinthevalueandscopeof libidinalrelationswouldleadtoadisintegrationoftheinstitutionsinwhichtheprivateinterpersonalrelationshavebeenorganized,particularlythemonogamicand patriarchalfamily."(119:p.201)Reason,whichistheinstrumentoftheego,willtoalargeextentgivewaytofantasyconnectedwiththeid.Andthiswillopenupnew' waystounderstandthefutureitwillrevealtherealityofthepossibilitiesformerlyperceivedonlyaselementsofautopia.Theliberationofsexualinstinctswillleadtothe developmentof"libidinalrationality,"whichwillshowthewaytoahigherformoffreecivilization. Thesatisfactionofneedsunderstoodinaneverwidersensewillbecomepossiblewithoutheavyi.e.,alienatingwork.Workingrelationswillbesimultaneouslylibidinal relations."Forexample,ifworkwereaccompaniedbyareactivationofpregenitalpolymorphouseroticism,itwouldtendtobecomegratifyinginitselfwithoutlosingits work content."(119:p.215)Ontheotherhand,workwillbecomeplay,"afreeplayofhumanfaculties."(119:p.214)Inalaterwork(4),Marcusespeaksabout"play withautomation."HereheconsidersitessentialtocorrectMarx,whowasnotboldenough,andtoadheretoFourier. Marcusespeakshereoftheendofcultureintheoldsenseoftheword:"Itwouldstillbeareversaloftheprocessofcivilization,asubversionofculturebutafter culture haddoneitsworkandcreatedthemankindandtheworldthatcouldbefree."(119:p.198)TheessenceofthisupheavalMarcusedescribesinpoetictermsby juxtaposingPrometheus,theheroofrepressiveculture,withtheheroesofhisownNewWorldOrpheusandNarcissus.Heendsasfollows:"Theclassicaltradition associatesOrpheuswiththeintroductionofhomosexuality. [232] LikeNarcissus,herejectsthenormalEros,notforanasceticideal,butforafullerEros.LikeNarcissusheprotestsagainsttherepressiveorderofprocreativesexuality. TheOrphicandNarcissisticErosistotheendthenegationofthisordertheGreatRefusal.IntheworldsymbolizedbythecultureheroPrometheus,itisthenegationof all orderbutinthisnegationOrpheusandNarcissusrevealanewreality,withanorderofitsown,governedbydifferentprinciples."(119:p.171) Themostactivesocialistcurrentofrecenttimes,theNewLeft,provedtobeextraordinarilyreceptivetoMarcuse'steachingandwastoaconsiderableextentinfluenced byit.Marcuse'sbasicpropositionsarecloselyparalleledintheslogansofthismovementandserveastheirtheoreticalfoundation.Forinstance,theliberationofsexual instinctsfindsexpressioninthe"sexualrevolution,"andthesuppressionofrepressivereasonisdemonstratedinthe"psychedelicrevolution,"thatis,inthemassuseof hallucinogens.Evenostentatiousslovenlinesscanbetheoreticallyjustified,foraccordingtothetheory,egoandsuperegosuppresstheinstinctsconnectedwiththesenseof smellandenforcetheperceptionofstrongsmellsas"disgusting."(Furthermore,thedominantclassesassociategarbagewiththelowerclasses,whichareperceived negativelyas"thedregsofsociety.")Theseviewsalsoserveasatheoreticalbasisfor"leftart,"whichfosterstheideaof"anticultural"(or"cultural")revolution,ofthe destructionof"repressive"or"stifling"culture,uptoandincludingaheightenedinterest(inbothliteratureand,art)ingarbageandexcrementasmeansof"exploding bourgeoisculture." Weprovidedseveralexamplestoillustratethe"anthropologyofsocialism."Hadweconsideredotherdevelopedsocialisttheoriesinthisconnection(forinstance, Deschamps'ssystem),wewouldhavebeenobligedtocometothesameconclusion,namely,thatsocialistideologyseekstoreducehumanpersonalitytoitsmost primitive,lowestlevelsand,ineachepoch,reliesuponthemostradical"criticismofman"available. Forthatreason,theconceptsofmaninsocialismandin religionarediametricallyopposed. Sothatifsocialismisareligion,itmustberecognizedasaquitespecialreligion,differentinprinciplefromallothersandantitheticaltotheminmanybasicquestions.(How elsearewetounderstandBulgakov'sstatementthatsocialismis"areligionbasedonatheism"?) [233] Otherwiseitwouldbenecessarytoexpandthedefinitionofreligiontothepointwhereitwouldhavenomeaningatall. 8. Socialismistheconsequenceofatheism,theconclusiontowhichatheismleadsinthefieldofsocialrelations. Dostoyevskyexpressedthisviewwithparticularclarity,andhiscommentsdeservespecialconsideration.Themajorityofthethinkersofthenineteenthcenturycompletely overlookedthespiritualcrisisoftheirtime,whichpavedthewayforthetriumphofsocialisminourday.Dostoyevskywasoneofthefewwhosawclearlythatmankind wouldnotfollowthepathofliberalism,humanismandprogress,andthatterriblecalamitiesawaiteditinthenottoodistantfuture.Heforesawthatsocialismwasdestined toplaythecentralroleinthefuturetribulationsofmankind,andmostofhisworkstouchuponvariousaspectsoftheproblem.Weshallherelimitourselvestowhatcanbe foundonthesubjectinhisessaysappearingin TheDiaryofaWriter. Herearesomeofhisviews: "Frenchsocialism,thatis,theassuagingandthearrangementofhumansocietywithoutChristandoutsideChrist..."(1877,January,Chapter1)"Forsocialismsetsitself thetaskofsolvingthefateofmankind,notaccordingtoChristbutoutsideGodandoutsideChrist,anditwasnaturalforittoariseinEurope,ontheruinsoftheChristian principleinproportiontothedegreethatthishadbecomedegenerateandlostintheCatholicChurchitself."(1877,February,Chapter3)"WhenCatholichumanityturned awayfromthemonstrousimageinwhichChristwaspresentedtothem,thenaftermanycenturiesofprotests...therefinallyappeared,atthebeginningofthiscentury, attemptstoarrangethingsoutsideGodandoutsideChrist.Withouttheinstinctsofbeesorantsthatcreatetheirbeehivesandanthillsfaultlesslyandprecisely,people undertooktocreatesomethinglikeafaultlesshumananthill.TheyrejectedtheformulaforsalvationwhichproceedsfromGodandwasrevealedas'Lovethyneighboras thyself'andreplaceditbypracticalconclusionssuchas 'chacunpoursoietDieupourtous' orbyscientificaxiomssuchas'thestruggleforexistence.'Lackingthe instinctsofanimals...peopleplacedgreatconfidenceinscience,forgettingthatforatasklikethecreationofsociety,sciencewasstillinitsinfancy.Dreamsappeared.The futuretowerofBabelbecametheidealand,ontheotherhand,thefearofallmankind.Butthevisionariesweresoonfollowedbyotherdoctrines, [234] simpleandtothepoint,suchas'robtherich,drowntheworldinbloodandtheneverythingwillsomehowarrangeitself.'"(1877,November,Chapter3) Therearetwoessentialpointshere.First,socialismisseenasthenaturalconsequenceofthedeclineofreligion(DostoyevskyhasinmindsocialisminWesternEuropeand thedeclineofCatholicism).SocialismisinthissensethatwhichremainsofthespiritualstructureofmankindifthelinkwithGodislost. Second,socialismaimsatorganizinghumansocietyaccordingtonewprincipleswhicharecomparedtotheinstinctiveactionsofinsectsocieties. Itappearstousthatthesecondideaisincompleteaccordancewithalltheknownfactsaboutsocialism,andlaterweshalltrytospecifytheattitudeofsocialismtoward theforcesthatshapehumansociety.

Therearetwoessentialpointshere.First,socialismisseenasthenaturalconsequenceofthedeclineofreligion(DostoyevskyhasinmindsocialisminWesternEuropeand thedeclineofCatholicism).SocialismisinthissensethatwhichremainsofthespiritualstructureofmankindifthelinkwithGodislost. Second,socialismaimsatorganizinghumansocietyaccordingtonewprincipleswhicharecomparedtotheinstinctiveactionsofinsectsocieties. Itappearstousthatthesecondideaisincompleteaccordancewithalltheknownfactsaboutsocialism,andlaterweshalltrytospecifytheattitudeofsocialismtoward theforcesthatshapehumansociety. Asfarasthefirstpointisconcerned,itiscertainlytruethatsocialismishostiletoreligion.Butisitpossibletounderstanditasaconsequence ofatheism?Hardly,atleastif weunderstandatheismasitisusuallydefined:asthelossofreligiousfeeling.Itisnotclearjusthowsuchanegativeconceptcanbecomethestimulusforanactiveattitude towardtheworld(itsdestructionoralteration)orhowitcanbethesourceoftheinfectiousnessofsocialistdoctrines.Furthermore,socialism'sattitudetowardreligion doesnotatallresembletheindifferentandskepticalpositionofsomeonewhohaslostinterestinreligion.Theterm"atheism"isinappropriateforthedescriptionofpeople inthegripofsocialistdoctrines.Itwouldbemorecorrecttospeakherenotof"atheists"butof"Godhaters,"notof"atheism"butof"theophobia."Such,certainly,isthe passionatelyhostileattitudeofsocialismtowardreligion.Thus,whilesocialismiscertainlyconnectedwiththelossofreligiousfeeling,itcanhardlybereducedtoit.The placeformerlyoccupiedbyreligiondoesnotremainvacantanewlodgerappeared.Thisistheonlytruesourceoftheactiveprincipleofsocialism,andtheaspectwhich determinesthehistoricalroleofthisphenomenon. Wemaydrawthefollowingconclusionfromourcriticalsurvey:Socialismcanapparentlynotbereducedtofamiliarsocialcategories.Theveryabundanceofsuch attemptspointstothefutilityofsuchanexercise. [235]

VIII. TheEmbodimentof theSocialistIdeal


Inthelightoftheprecedingsection,twopossibilitiesremain:eithersocialismisafundamentalhistoricalforceirreducibletootherfactors,oritisamanifestationofforces whichuptillnowhavenotreceivedsufficientattention.Ourbasicgoalisadiscussionofthesealternatives.Topreparethegroundforit,weshalltrytolookattheentire questionfromanewperspective.Ifearlierweattemptedtospecifywhatthevariousmanifestationsofsocialismhaveincommon,weshallnowtrytodissectthis phenomenonintoitselementsinordertoobservetheirinterrelationsandtoevaluatetheroleofeachelementintheevolutionofsocialism. Thestartingpointforsuchananalysisistheobservationwithwhichwebeganthepresentstudy:Socialismmanifestsitselfinlifeintwoformsasadoctrine(chiliastic socialism)andasastatesystem(statesocialism).Theseformsdiffersosignificantlythataquestionarisesastowhethertheircontentisinfactthesame.Isitproperto categorizethemasasinglehistoricalphenomenon?Forexample,thedemandfordestructionofthefamily,whichinchiliasticsocialismsooftentakesthemoreradicalform ofcommunityofwives,hasbeenrealizedinpracticeonlyinnarrowcircles:thegnosticsectsdescribedbyEpiphanes,amongtheBrethrenoftheFreeSpiritorin contemporaryBerlin's"CommuneNo.1."Butwearenotawareofanyinstanceofthisprinciple'simplementationonthelevelofstatepolicy.Thesameistrueofanother aspectoftheabolitionofthefamilythebreakupoftiesbetweenchildrenandparents,withstateupbringingofallchildrenfromtheearliestage. [236] Weshallbeginwithadiscussionofthisquestion.Weshallarguethatchiliasticandstatesocialismaretwoembodimentsofoneandthesameideal.Later,theroleofthese twoformsinthehistoricalevolutionofsocialismwillbeexamined. Itwouldbenaturaltoascribethedifferencebetweenthedoctrinesofchiliasticsocialismandthepracticeofstatesocialismtothefactthattheformerhaveastheiraimthe destructionofanexistingsocialorderandtheestablishmentofanewone,whilethelatteraimstopreserveanalreadyexistingsocialorder.Inthiscase,thespecific featuresofchiliasticsocialismwhichcallforthedestructionofthefamilycouldbeconsideredtacticaldevicesdesignedtodisruptthehostilesystemortoarouse fanaticism.Itfollowsthataftertheestablishmentofaneworder,thesedevicesarenolongerneededandcanbediscarded.Theymustthereforenotbetakeninto considerationinadiscussionofsocialism'spracticalgoals.Anyargumentaboutthefundamentaldifferencebetweenchiliasticandstatesocialismwouldprobablyfollow suchapattern. Thispointofviewseemstoustobeunconvincingapriorianddevoidofinnerlogic.Sogiganticamovementassocialismcannotinprinciple bebasedonadeception. Foralltheirsuperficialdemagoguery,thesemovementsarehonestatbottomtheyproclaimtheirfundamental principlesclearlyforalltohear(exceptthosewho consciouslytrynottohear).AndthosepropositionsofsocialistideologywhichweformulatedinchapterVIappearsoconsistentlyoversuchavastperiodoftimethat theyobviouslyaretobetakenasfundamentalprinciples.Moreover,theyareoftenexpressedinwritingnotbytheleadersofpopularmovementsbutbyabstractthinkers suchasPlatoandCampanella,whomitishardtosuspectofdemagogiceffectsandwhoevidentlyproducedtheentirecomplexofbasicsocialistnotionsinresponsetothe innerlogicofthisworldview. Below,weshallbringforwardanumberofspecificargumentstosupportourcontention.However,wemustnotforgetthatconsiderabledifferencesinthespiritofsocialist doctrinesandthepracticeofsocialiststatesareinevitable.Wemayspeakonlyaboutthecoincidenceinprinciple oftheidealsproclaimedineachcase.Theleaderofa popularsocialistmovementandtherepresentativeofasocialiststatehavetodealwithdifferentpracticaltasks.Themoreradicalandstrikingistheforminwhichthe formerexpresseshisideal,themoreaccessibleandeffectivehisideaswillbe.Butthelattermustcontendwithmany [237] realandcomplexdifficulties,whichlimitthepossibilityofenactinghisideologyinaconsistentfashionandwhichmayeventhreatentheveryexistenceofhisstate. Oneofthetypicallimitationsimposedbyrealityisthenecessityofcontactwithother,differentlyorganizedsocieties.Isolationispositedasabasicconditionforthe existenceofasocialiststateinthemajorityofthesocialistutopianwritings.More,Campanella,Vairasseandmanyothersplacedtheirutopiasonremoteislands.Vairasse, forexample,makesthespecialreservationthatonlythemostreliableSevaritesmaygoon"errands"totheouterworldandtheyarepermittedtodosoonlyonthe conditionthattheirfamiliesremainbehindashostages.Theorganizersofthe"ConspiracyofEquals"suggestedthatFranceshouldbesurroundedby"spikedhedges"after thevictory.ThestabilityoftheJesuitstate,toamarkeddegree,dependedonitsisolation.TheunexpectedlyhighlevelofthecraftsamongtheGuarani,inthecontextofa generallyprimitiveleveloflife,apparentlywasaresultofanattempttomakethecountryindependentoftheoutsideworld.Ontheotherhand,thebreakdownofisolation permittedahandfulofSpanishadventurerstodestroytheIncaempire.Isnotthisdifficultyreflectedinthevexedproblemof"buildingsocialisminonecountry"?Engels once'answeredthisquestionmostcategorically:"Nineteenthquestion.Cantherevolutiontakeplaceinonecountry?Answer.No."(3:V:p.476)Thankstothisfactor alone,asocialiststatethatisnotsufficientlyisolatedisforcedtoforgothemostradicalelementsoftheideal.Andthecontraryalsoholds:whenthesocialistmovementis ontheascent,takingcontrolinmoreandmoreareasandholdingoutthepromiseofthedestructionoftheoldsystemintheentireworld,thesocialiststatesprovetobe muchmoreradicalintheirpracticalactivity.Fromthispointofview,theepochof"WarCommunism"inpostrevolutionaryRussiaisextremelyinterestingforan understandingofthepeculiaritiesofsocialistideologytheimpulsesarousedthen,inthehopeofworldrevolution(oratleastaEuropeanrevolution),continuedtobe

generallyprimitiveleveloflife,apparentlywasaresultofanattempttomakethecountryindependentoftheoutsideworld.Ontheotherhand,thebreakdownofisolation permittedahandfulofSpanishadventurerstodestroytheIncaempire.Isnotthisdifficultyreflectedinthevexedproblemof"buildingsocialisminonecountry"?Engels once'answeredthisquestionmostcategorically:"Nineteenthquestion.Cantherevolutiontakeplaceinonecountry?Answer.No."(3:V:p.476)Thankstothisfactor alone,asocialiststatethatisnotsufficientlyisolatedisforcedtoforgothemostradicalelementsoftheideal.Andthecontraryalsoholds:whenthesocialistmovementis ontheascent,takingcontrolinmoreandmoreareasandholdingoutthepromiseofthedestructionoftheoldsystemintheentireworld,thesocialiststatesprovetobe muchmoreradicalintheirpracticalactivity.Fromthispointofview,theepochof"WarCommunism"inpostrevolutionaryRussiaisextremelyinterestingforan understandingofthepeculiaritiesofsocialistideologytheimpulsesarousedthen,inthehopeofworldrevolution(oratleastaEuropeanrevolution),continuedtobe prominentuntilthemiddleofthetwenties.Weshallciteanecessarilylimitednumberofexamplestoshowhowtherealizationofsocialistprincipleswasconceivedatthe time. Theterm"WarCommunism"itselfismisleadingitisnotatalladescriptionofthemeasuresdictatedbywartimeneeds(aswassuggested,forexample,inStalin's QuestionsofLeninism). Infact,atthetimethispolicywasbeingimplemented(19181921),theterm"War [238] Communism"wasnotusedatall.Itcameintobeinglater,togetherwiththenotionthatthispolicywasconceivedastemporaryandwasforcedupontheSovietregimeby events.Inaseriesofspeechesin19211922,Lenincharacterizedthepolicyoftheprecedingthreeyearsassomethingconsciouslyundertakenthathadperhapsgonetoo far.Hecompareditwiththestormingofafortress:ifthistacticwouldnotbringvictory,itshouldbereplacedbyasystematicsiege.Forexample:"Regardingour precedingeconomicpolicy,althoughitcannotbesaidtohavebeenplanned(insuchsituationsonecalculateslittle),itneverthelessassumedthattherewouldbean immediatetransitionfromtheoldRussianeconomytostateproductionandtodistributionbasedonCommunistprinciples."InLenin'sopinion,itwasanecessary experimentwhichforcedthetransitiontoanewpolicyof"statecapitalism,"which,albeitstillinvagueform,hadbeenconsideredasearlyas1918asapossiblelineof retreat.(SeeLenin's"NEPandtheTasksofPoliticalEnlightenment,""TheReportonNEPattheVIIthMoscowRegionalPartyConference,"and"FiveYearsofthe RussianRevolutionandtheProspectsforWorldRevolution.") Thereweremanysimilarstatementsbynumerousleadersofthestate.Inaddition,thefactthatthemostradicalmeasuresinimplementingthepoliciesassociatedwithWar Communismweretakeninthespringof1920andthewinterof19201921whentherewasnomilitaryactiongoingonleadstotheconclusionthatthepolicyoftheday wasnotnecessitatedbytheCivilWarbuthadbeenmotivatedbygeneraltheoreticalconsiderations. Letustakeupamoredetaileddiscussionofthepolicyinquestion.

1.Economy
Allindustrywasnationalized,includingthesmallestoperation.Everythingwas"supercentralized,"subordinatedtoCentralBoards(Glavki)inwhichseparateplantswere deprivedofanyeconomicindependence.Inagriculture,theproclaimedgoalwasthemostradicallyconceivedformofcollectivization.ThedecreeoftheCentralExecutive CommitteeissuedonMarch1,1919,readsasfollows:"Allaspectsofindividuallanduseshouldberegardedastransientanddyingforms."rOntheSocialistUseofLand andonMeasuresfortheTransitionto,SocialistAgriculture")Thepreferredformoforganizationofpeasantlaborwasthe commune. Forexample,inanothersectionof thesame [239] decree,statefarmsandcommunesarelistedfirstamongtheprioritiesintheregulationoflandallotments.Inaresolution"OntheCollectivizationofAgriculture"(adopted bytheAllRussianCongressofLandSections[Zemotdely]),itisstatedthat"themaintaskislargescaleorganizationofagriculturalcommunes,ofSovietCommunist farmsandofthepubliccultivationofland,allofwhichwillinevitablyleadtoaunifiedCommunistorganizationofagriculture." Inthecommune,asarule,allmeansofproductionweresocializedbuildings,instruments,livestock,land,etc.,aswellasconsumptionandservices.Whatlifewas supposedtobelikemaybegleanedfromstoriesaboutmodelcommunespublished,duringNEP,in Izvestia's regularsectioncalled"CompetitionfortheBestCollective Farm."Forexample:"Noonehashisownmoneyallmoneyiskeptinthegeneraltreasury."(September11,1923)Somemembersliveinseparatehousesandtaketheir mealsseparately,butwhenanewbuildingisready"everythingindividualwillbedoneawaywith."(September5,1923)Inanothercommune,thereisadormitory,a commondininghallandkitchen."Workandmealsareannouncedbybells."(September8,1923)Peopleeatinpubliccafeteriasandliveinadormitory,whereeachfamily hasitsownroom."Childrenstilllivewiththeirparents,goingoutonlybydaytothekindergarten.Itisonlyduetotheabsenceofbeddingthatchildrencannotbeinterned separately."(September11,1923)"Childrenunderschoolageliveandeatseparately." Agriculturalproductsweredeliveredtothestateaccordingtothe"surplusappropriationsystem,"atpricesdozensoftimeslowerthanthosepaidontheblackmarket.In otherwords,productsweretakenforpracticallynothing.TheSovietEncyclopedia putsitquitedelicately:"Theeconomicrelationsofthetownandthecountrywere essentiallyonesidedincharacter."Inotherareas,too,requisitionsandconfiscationwereregulated.AdecreeoftheCouncilofPeople'sCommissars(SNK)fromApril 16,1920,allowsthePresidiumoftheVSNKh(SupremeCouncilofthePeople'sEconomy)andThePeople'sCommissariatofProducetocarryoutrequisitionand confiscationdirectlyaswellasthroughlocalorganizations.AnotheroftheSNK'sdecrees(December4,1920)sanctionsfreedistributionoffoodstuffstothepopulation (moreaccurately,tothosegroupsofthepopulationthatwerebeingsuppliedwithfoodstuffs).Frequently,thecompleteabolitionofmoneywasformulatedasanimmediate aimofeconomicpolicy.Yu.Larin, [240] headofthedepartmentoffinancialpolicyoftheVSNKhwrote:"Andnow,afterafewyearsofeffortonthepartofthevictoriousproletariat,thethousandyearold foundationsofthecommodityproductionsystemarecollapsinglikeahouseofcards.Whenourchildrengrowup,moneywillbenothingbutamemory,andour grandchildrenwilllearnaboutitonlyfromthecoloredpicturesinhistorybooks."(Pravda, October17,1920,"TheTransformationofEverydayLife")InanarticlebyL. Obolenskyin ThePeople'sEconomy (publishedbyVSNKh),weread:"AtthepresenttimeinSovietRussia,asystemofmoneylessaccountsisthefirststeptowardthe abolitionofmoneyrelationsingeneral."(No.12,1920)"Naturalizationoftheeconomy"becameacommonlyusedterm,derivedfromthephraseplatit'naturoi"to payinkind."Pravda states:"Thetendencytothe generalnaturalizationofoureconomy mustbeconsciouslyundertakenbyuswithallpossibleenergy."(February14, 1920)

2.TheOrganizationofLabor
LetusrecallthatMarxandEngelsthemselvesrecommendedthefollowingmeasure,amongotherstobecarriedoutimmediatelyafterthesocialistrevolution:"Identical dutiesregardingwork.Establishmentofindustrialarmies,especiallyinagriculture."(3:V:p.502) Inanotecalled"TenThesesonSovietPower"whichwaspresentedtotheSeventhPartyCongress,Leninformulatedthetaskthus:"Aquickbeginningofthecomplete realizationofgenerallaborconscription,withacarefulandgradualextensionofittothesmallpeasantslivingontheirownwithouthiredlabor."(113:XXXVI:p.74)This ideawasdevelopedingreatdetailsomewhatlater. AttheNinthPartyCongress,Trotskyproposedasystemofmilitarizationunderwhichworkersandpeasantswouldbeinthepositionofmobilizedsoldiers.Theplanset forthinTrotsky'sreportisworthconsideringinmoredetail.

Inanotecalled"TenThesesonSovietPower"whichwaspresentedtotheSeventhPartyCongress,Leninformulatedthetaskthus:"Aquickbeginningofthecomplete realizationofgenerallaborconscription,withacarefulandgradualextensionofittothesmallpeasantslivingontheirownwithouthiredlabor."(113:XXXVI:p.74)This ideawasdevelopedingreatdetailsomewhatlater. AttheNinthPartyCongress,Trotskyproposedasystemofmilitarizationunderwhichworkersandpeasantswouldbeinthepositionofmobilizedsoldiers.Theplanset forthinTrotsky'sreportisworthconsideringinmoredetail. HebeginswithanattackonSmirnov,whosepositionheformulatesasfollows: "Insofaraswehavebegunawidermobilizationofthepeasantmassesinthenameoftasksrequiringextensiveapplicationoflabor,militarizationisbecomingmandatory. Wemobilizethepeasantryandfromthismobilizedworkforceweformlabordetachmentsthatresemblemilitaryunits.Wesupplycommandersandinstructionstaff.We [241] mustincludeCommunistcellssothattheseunitsarenotsoulless,butareinspiredbythewilltowork.Thisamountstoacloseapproximationofmilitarystructure.The word'militarization'isappropriatehere,butComradeSmirnovsaysthatwhenweenterthefieldofindustry,thefieldofskilledlaborwherethereareprofessionaland productionorganizationsoftheworkingclass,thereisnoneedtoapplythemilitaryapparatusfortheformationofunitsmilitarizationinthissenseisoutofthequestion. Thetradeunionswillfulfillthetaskoforganizinglabor.Suchanapproachtothequestionrevealsacompletelackofunderstandingoftheessenceoftheeconomicchanges thataretakingplaceatthepresent."(120:p.92) Trotsky'spointofview,asexpressedinhisreport,comestothis:"Inthemilitarythereisanappropriatemechanismwhichissetinmotiontomakesoldiersfulfilltheirduty. Thisoughttobeintroducedinoneformoranotherinthelaborarea.Itisclearthatifwewishtospeakseriouslyofaplannedeconomythatisdirectedfromthecenterbya singledesign,wheretheworkforceisdistributedinaccordancewithaneconomicplanatagivenstageofdevelopment,thisworkforcecannotbenomadicRussia.Itmust becapableofbeingmovedquickly,ofbeinggiventasksandcommandedjustassoldiersare."(120:p.93)"Thissortofmilitarizationisunthinkablewithoutthe militarizationofthetradeunionsassuch,withouttheestablishmentofaregimeunderwhicheachworkerfeelsheisasoldieroflaborwhocannotfreelyarrangehislife.If thereisanorderforhimtobetransferred,heoughttoobeyit,andifhedoesnot,hewillbeconsideredadeserterwhomustbepunished."(120:p.94)Trotskyevenputs forwardatheoryinthisregard:"Thoseargumentswhichweredirectedagainsttheorganizationofalaborarmyarewhollydirectedagainstthesocialistorganizationofthe economyinourtransitionalperiod.Ifwetakeatfacevaluetheoldbourgeoisprejudiceor,toputitmoreprecisely,anoldbourgeoisaxiomwhichhasbecomea prejudice,aboutforcedlaborbeingunproductivethenwemustapplythisnotonlytoalaborarmybuttolaborconscriptionasawhole,tothefoundationofour economicplanandthereforetosocialistorganizationingeneral."(120:p.97)"Iflaborisorganizedaccordingtoanincorrectprinciple,accordingtotheprincipleof compulsion,ifcompulsionishostiletotheproductivityoflabor,thenwearedoomedtoeconomicdeclinenomatterhowmuchwedodgeandshift.Butthisisaprejudice, comrades!Theassertionthatfreelabor,freelyhiredlaborismoreproductivethanforcedlaborwasundoubtedlycorrectwhenapplied [242] tothefeudalandbourgeoissystems....ButthedevelopmentoflaborproductivitypreparedfortheshiftfromacapitalisteconomytoanewCommunisteconomy,andto applytothiscolossalhistoricchangethatwhichwascorrectlyappliedtotheoldsituationmeanstoremainwithintheframeworkofbourgeoisandphilistineprejudices.We say:itisnottruethatcompulsorylaborisunproductiveunderanyandallcircumstancesandconditions."(120:p.98) TrotskydevelopedthesamethoughtsingreaterdetailinhisbookdirectedagainstKautsky.(121)Onceagainweencountertheideaofmilitarization,laborarmiesandthe theoryaccordingtowhichforcedlaborunderconditionscreatedbythedictatorshipoftheproletariatwillbemoreproductivethanfreelabor.Trotskysupportsthis conceptionbymeansofthefollowingsignificantanalogy:"Evenserfdomwas,undercertaincircumstances,progressiveandledtoanincreaseintheproductivityof labor."(121:p.119) ThequestionwasposedonamoretheoreticalplanebyBukharin.(102)Noneconomiccompulsionispresentedherenotasameasurenecessitatedbythewarbutasan organicfeatureofthetransitionfromcapitalismtosocialism.InChapter10,entitled"ExtraEconomicCompulsioninthePeriodofTransition,"weread:"Inregardtothe nonkulakpeasantmass,compulsiononthepartoftheproletariatisaninstanceoftheclassstruggle,insofarasthepeasantisaproprietorandaspeculator."Asitturns out,thequestionhasamoreelevatedaspect:"Fromabroaderpointofview,proletariancompulsioninallitsforms,fromexecutionbyshootingtolaborconscription,is nomatterhowparadoxicalthissoundsamethodfortheelaborationofCommunisthumanityfromthehumanmaterialofthecapitalistepoch."(102:p.146) Theseconstructswerefarfrombeingpuretheory.Generallaborconscriptionwasactuallyannounced.Insteadofpassports,whichhadbeenabolished,workingpapers wereintroducedfortheentireworkforce.InMoscowandPetrograd,anyoneventuringoutonthestreetwasobligedtohavehisworkingpaperswithhim.Bythetimeof theintroductionofNEP(1921),eightlaborarmieshadbeenorganized.

3.Family
PracticalactionsaswellastheoreticalconsiderationsinthisfieldwerebasedonMarxisttheory,assetforthinitsmostcompleteforminEngels'bookTheOriginofthe Family,PrivatePropertyandtheState. [243] Engelshadthefollowingviewofthecontemporaryfamily:"Monogamyarosefromtheconcentrationofgreatrichesinasinglehandthatofthemanandfromtheneedto bequeaththeserichestothechildrenofthatmanandnotofanyother."(3:XVI:p.56)Aboutthefutureofthefamilyhesays:"Withthetransferofthemeansofproduction intocommonownership,theindividualfamilyceasestobeaneconomicunitofsociety.Privatehousekeepingistransformedintoasocialindustry.Thecareandeducation ofchildrenbecomeapublicaffairsocietylooksafterallchildrenequally,whethertheyareborninoroutofwedlock."(3:XVI:p.57) Itwouldseemthatsincethefamilyisdeprivedofallsocialfunctions,itmustinevitablydisappear,atleastfromthepointofviewofhistoricalmaterialism.The Communist Manifesto doesinfactproclaimtheabolitionofthe"bourgeoisfamily."What,then,willreplaceit?TheanswerstothatquestionintheclassicwritingsofMarxismare strikinglyambiguous.Wehavealreadypointedoutthepassageinthe Manifesto wheretheauthors,inspeakingabouttheaccusationthatCommunistswishtointroduce communalityofwives,clearlyavoidrejectingthisexplicitly.InanotherdocumentusedbyMarxinwritingthe Manifesto ("ProceedingsoftheGermanWorkers'Self EducationSociety")weread:"Question20:Willcommunalityofwivesbeproclaimedtogetherwiththeabolitionofprivateproperty?Answer:Absolutelynot.Weshall interfereintheprivaterelationsbetweenmanandwomanonlytothedegreethattheserelationsdisruptthenewsocialorder.Weknowverywellthatfamilyrelationshave beensubjectedtochangeinthecourseofhistory,dependingonthephaseofdevelopmentofproperty,andbecauseofthistheveryabolitionofprivatepropertywillhave amostdecisiveinfluence."(Quotedin112) Hereagain,itisimpossibletocomprehendwhatitisthattheauthorsodecisivelyrejectsthefactthatcommunalityofwiveswilloccurormerelythefactthatitwouldbe "proclaimed"andintroducedthroughtheinterferenceofsociety. InTheOriginoftheFamily,PrivatePropertyandtheState, aworkwrittenintheleastradicalperiodofhisactivities,Engelsassertsofthefuture:"Farfrom

beensubjectedtochangeinthecourseofhistory,dependingonthephaseofdevelopmentofproperty,andbecauseofthistheveryabolitionofprivatepropertywillhave amostdecisiveinfluence."(Quotedin112) Hereagain,itisimpossibletocomprehendwhatitisthattheauthorsodecisivelyrejectsthefactthatcommunalityofwiveswilloccurormerelythefactthatitwouldbe "proclaimed"andintroducedthroughtheinterferenceofsociety. InTheOriginoftheFamily,PrivatePropertyandtheState, aworkwrittenintheleastradicalperiodofhisactivities,Engelsassertsofthefuture:"Farfrom disappearing,monogamywillthenonthecontrarybefullyrealizedforthefirsttime."(3:XVI:p.57)Butinwhatway,ifitseconomicpreconditionshavedisappeared? Answer:"Hereanewfactorcomesintoplay...individualsexlove."(3:XVI:p.57)Butonewaitsinvainforamaterialisticanalysisofthis"factor" [244] fromthefounderofhistoricalmaterialism.Itisnotabiologicalcategorybecause:"BeforetheMiddleAgesindividualsexlovewasoutofthequestion."(?!)(3:XVI:p.58) Thenperhapsweshouldexpectanexplanationinthespiritofthe"base"andthe"superstructure,"soastoshowhowthis"factor"is"given"bythehandmill!Butinstead, theauthoronlypointsmysteriouslytoadulteryasasourceofsexuallovei.e.,toafactorwhichcouldbeascribedtoproductionrelationshipsonlywithgreatdifficulty.To addtotheconfusion,Engelsspeaks,inanoteattheendofthebook,withsympathyofFourier's"brilliantcritiqueofcivilization":"IonlynotethatalreadyinFourier's writings,monogamyandpropertyinlandaretreatedasthechiefcharacteristicsofcivilization."(3:XVI:p.153) Itisnotsurprisingthatthesegeneralprincipleswereinterpretedinamultitudeofwaysintheearlypostrevolutionaryyears.Butthereisonethingthatunitesmostofthe viewscurrentthentheattitudetowardthefamilyasaninstitutionopposedtotheparty,theclassorthestate,andthereforedangerous.Herearesomeexamples: "Thefrequentconflictsbetweentheinterestsofthefamilyandthatoftheclass,asforexampleduringstrikes,andthemoralstandardthatisusedbytheproletariatinthese casescharacterizethebasisofthenewproletarianideologywithsufficientclarity....Tothedetrimentofindividualhappiness,tothedetrimentofthefamily,themoralityof theworkingclasswilldemandtheparticipationofwomeninthelifeunfoldingbeyondthethresholdofthehouse."(122:p.59)"Fromthemomentthefamilybeginsto opposeitselftosociety,enclosingitselfinthenarrowcircleofpurelydomesticinterests,itbeginstoplayaconservativeroleinthewholesocialstructureoflife.Thissortof familywearecertainlyobligedtodestroy."(123:p.156)"Thespiritofsolidarity,comradeship,readinesstogiveoneselfuptothecommoncauseiswelldeveloped wherevertheexclusionaryfamilydoesnotexist.Thishasbeencarefullytakenintoaccountbytheleadersofalmostalllargesocialmovements....Underthesocialist system,whentherewillnolongerbeadomestichouseholdandchildrenwillbebroughtupbysocietyfromthedayoftheirbirth,otherformsoftheunionofthesexes ratherthanthefamilywillundoubtedlycomeintobeing."(124:p.12)"Infuturesocialistsociety,wheretheobligationfortheupbringing,educationandmaintenanceof childrenwillbe,shiftedfromtheparentstosocietyasawhole,itisclearthatthefamilymustwitheraway."(125:p.121)"Itmakeslittlesenseforustostrive [245] foranespeciallystablefamilyandtoregardmarriagefromthatangle."(126:p.26) Thepracticalconclusionsderivedfromthisgeneraltendencyvariedsharply.AleksandraKollontaicalledforthespreadoffreelovewithafrequentchangeofsexual partners:"Fortheworkingclass,greater'fluidity,'lessrigidityintheunionofthesexescompletelycoincideswithandevenfollowsfromthebasictasksofthisclass."(122: p.59)Intheplay LoveoftheWorkerBees andthearticle"MakeWayforWingedEros!"shedevelopedthesepropositionsvividly.Leninobjected(seeKlaraTsetkin's "OnLenin"),asdidSolts,whowrites:"Adisorderlysexlifeundoubtedlyweakensanyoneasafighter."rOnPartyEthics")Ontheotherhand,M.N.Liadov(pseudonym ofMandelshtam,aBolshevikwhohadbeenoneoftheearliestmembersoftheSocialDemocraticParty)calledfortheabolitionoftheupbringingofchildrenwithinthe family."Isitpossibletobringupcollectivemaninanindividualfamily?Tothiswemustgiveacategoricalresponse:No,acollectivelythinkingchildmaybebroughtup onlyinasocialenvironment....Everyconscientiousfatherandmothermustsay:Ifwewantourchildtobeliberatedfromthatphilistinismwhichispresentineachofus,he mustbeisolatedfromourselves....Thesoonerthechildistakenfromhismotherandgivenovertoapublicnursery,thegreateristheguaranteethathewillbe healthy."(127:pp.2527) Letusrecallherethereferencecitedaboveonthe"interningofchildren"incommunes. Finally,extensivestateinterferenceinfamilyrelationswasproposedandjustifiedonhistoricgrounds:"Whereverthestateheldcontroloveralleconomicresources,asin ancientPeru,itattemptedtocontrolthecontractingofmarriageaswellasthefamilylifeofmanandwife."(124:p.12)Radicaleugenicmeasuresalsowereproposed,for example:"Wehaveeveryreasontoassumethatundersocialismchildbearingwillberemovedfromtherealmofnature."Thisdubiousconsolationisoffered:"Butthis,I repeat,istheonlyaspectofmarriagethat,inouropinion,socialistsocietymaycontrol."(128:p.450) Preobrazhensky,whowasextremelyinfluentialatthetime,wrote:"Fromthesocialistpointofview,itisquitesenselessforaseparatememberofsocietytolookonhis bodyashisownprivateproperty,foranindividualisonlyanisolatedpointinthetransitionoftheracefrompasttofuture.Butitistentimesmoresenselesstoviewone's [246] 'own'progenythatway."Theauthorrecognizes"afullandunconditionalrightofsocietytointroduceregulation,includinginterferenceinsexuallifefortheimprovementof theracethroughnaturalselection."("AboutMoralandClassNorms,"citedin112) Andoccasionallytheproblemwasphrasedevenmoreradicallythaninanyoftheexamplesabove.Forinstance,aunitoftheYoungCommunistLeagueattheLiudinov factoryinBrianskadoptedthefollowingresolutionconcerningareport"OnSexualIntercourse":"Wemustnotavoidsexualintercourse.Ifthereisnosexualintercourse, therewillbenohumansociety."(123:p.168) Practice,ofcourse,laggedbehindideology.Butanumberofmeasuresweretaken,which,thoughlessfarreachingthantheoreticalpronouncements,neverthelesspointed inthesamedirection.Thelegalformalitiesincontractingandbreakingamarriageweregreatlyliberalizedregistrationwasregardedmerelyasoneofthemeanstoconfirm marriage."Registrationisasurvivalofoldbourgeoisrelations,anditwillultimatelyceasetoexist."(AspeechbyLarin,126:p.210) Divorcewasgrantedupontherequestofeitherparty.Paternitywasascertainedonthebasisofthemother'sclaim:"Ourlegalpractice...placedresponsibilityonallthe defendants[laughter],givingthewomantheopportunityofrecoveringsomethingfromeach....Thecourt,asageneralrule,willbeguidedbytheindicationsoftheplaintiff: whoeverisindicatedbytheplaintiffwillberecognizedbythecourtasthefather[laughter]."(FromaspeechbyPeople'sCommissarofJusticeKursky,126:pp.232 Newdwellingswerenotdividedintoseparateapartmentsbutwerebuiltasdormitories. "Andoneshouldbynomeansblamethoseworkingmenandwomenwhodonotwanttomoveintocommonquarters.Itmustalwaysbekeptinmindthattheformerlife oftheworkingclasswasdeeplyrootedinbourgeoissociety,builtasitwasontheisolationofseparatefamilies.Thisindividualfamilyofbourgeoisoriginiswhatstandsin thewayofthecollectivizationofourexistence."(123:p.12)Dormitoryquartersdidnotasarulehavekitchens,sinceitwasassumedthateveryonewouldtakehismeals atcommondiningroomsand"factorykitchen"facilities.Inhis"TenThesesonSovietPower,"Leninsuggeststhat"steadfastandsystematicmeasuresshouldbe undertakenforreplacingtheindividualfoodpreparation...bythecommondiningoflargegroupsoffamilies."(113:XXXVI:p.75)Dormitories,common [247]

233)

"Andoneshouldbynomeansblamethoseworkingmenandwomenwhodonotwanttomoveintocommonquarters.Itmustalwaysbekeptinmindthattheformerlife oftheworkingclasswasdeeplyrootedinbourgeoissociety,builtasitwasontheisolationofseparatefamilies.Thisindividualfamilyofbourgeoisoriginiswhatstandsin thewayofthecollectivizationofourexistence."(123:p.12)Dormitoryquartersdidnotasarulehavekitchens,sinceitwasassumedthateveryonewouldtakehismeals atcommondiningroomsand"factorykitchen"facilities.Inhis"TenThesesonSovietPower,"Leninsuggeststhat"steadfastandsystematicmeasuresshouldbe undertakenforreplacingtheindividualfoodpreparation...bythecommondiningoflargegroupsoffamilies."(113:XXXVI:p.75)Dormitories,common [247] meals,theupbringingofchildrenapartfromparentsallthesemeasuresweretriedinvariouscommunes.Andtheydidinfactleadtoaweakeningofthefamily.In123, whichhasalreadybeencited,thereisthefollowingletterfromacertain"highlyplacedmember"oftheKomsomol:"Today,marriagebetweenKomsomolmembershardly evertakesplace."Theauthoroftheletterassertsthatsexualrelationsoutsidemarriageprevail,butheistakentotaskfornotunderstandingthatthisisindistinguishable frommarriage.Afterall,"foraMarxistitwouldseemthattheveryfactofsexualintercourseshouldtestifytomatrimonialrelations."(123:p.164)Between1924and1925 intheEuropeanareaofRussia,thenumberofmarriagesper100,000ofpopulationdeclinedfrom1140to980,whilethenumberofdivorcesrosefrom130to150.In 1924,ofthoseobtainingdivorces,aconsiderablenumberhadbeenmarriedforlessthanayear.(InMinskthiswastrueof260per1,000divorcesinKharkov,197in Leningrad,159.Comparethesamestatisticfor:Tokyo80NewYork14Berlin11.)(129:pp.412,416) Thedeplorablesituationwithregardtohomelesschildrenatthetimeiswellknown. "Thepresentnumberofhomelesschildrenmaybeattributedtoalargedegreetothedisintegrationofthefamily."(126:p.255)Thefollowingwordsseemtocomefrom theheart:"Ifwecontinuealongthispath,IfearweshallturnRussiaintoacountrywhereeachwillbemarriedtoall."(126:p.270)

4.Culture
Inthepostrevolutionaryperiodthereappearednumeroustheoriesandplansforthedestructionofculture,scienceandart.Certainofthemoriginatedinanarchistcircles. Forinstance,inaworkpublishedin1917(129),theanarchistA.Borovoiassertsthatonlybyovercomingculturecouldanarchistidealsberealized.TheprolificGordin brothers(anarchistwriterswhointheirpoliticalactivitywereclosetoBolshevism)proclaimedtheslogan"Downwithscience!"Theymeantthisasanappealforfreedom fromtheoppressionoflogic:"Downwithspiritualoppression,coercionthroughscience,deception,pseudoconvictions!"And:"Downwithsciencewiththespiritual government,anditslogicalpowerandarmy,itslogicalcoercion."(130:p.144)Theanarchist"proclaimsterroragainstscience."(130:p.137)Their [248] entirebookisdevotedtothecomparisonandcondemnationoftwosuperstitionsreligionandscience.ThebrothersGordinconsiderthePartytobethechurchof science,theuniversityitssynagogue,thephilosopheraholyfoolofintellect.(130:pp.142,194,202)"Thehistoryofcultureisthehistoryofoursuperstition....Thehistory ofcultureoncefulfilleditshonorableroleasthegravediggerofreligion,servingasitstombatthesametime.Itmustfulfillthesameroleinrespecttoscience.Afterthe collapseofscience,afterthedisenchantmentwithitasthesourceoftruth,afteritsextinctionas'civilization,'itmustbecome'culture'andretiretothemuseumofhuman superstitions."(130:pp.226227)Hereistheideal:"Atpresentatrueanarchist,apanarchist,outgrowshispettynegativeanarchismand,rejectingscienceandsocial science,therebyrejectshisownpettyidols,hisshallowandcheapasceticideals,replacingthemwithonegreatdestructivelynegativetruthwhichliesattheverybaseofhis innaturism/aphysism,oftheantiscientificspirit."(130:p.137) InhisTheTheoryoftheNewBiology, E.Enchmen,citingMarxashisauthority,comestoevenmoreextremeconclusions.Hiswork,whichisreminiscentofFourierin spirit,containsahighlyambitiousplanforthebiologicalregenerationofmankindthroughachangeinthestructureofconsciousnesswhichwillbebroughtaboutbyaseries ofsocalledorganiccataclysms."TheRevolutionaryScientificCounciloftheWorldCommunewillaccomplishorganiccataclysmsbothinthemassesofrebelsand, systematicallyandbymeansofforce,intheconservativeorganismsoftherecentoppressorsandtheirminions."(131:p.43)Asaresultofthesecataclysms,almostall receivedideasinthehumanconsciousnesswillbeerased."Alltheoriesoflogic,cognition,scientificmethodologywilldisappear,aswillallsocialandsociologicaltheories whichstilllabelthemselves'humanitarian,'andalltheoldbiologicaltheories."Allaretobereplacedbyfifteenconceptswhichtheauthorcalls"analyzers."Heexplainsthat "pastmankinddividedintothousandsofgroupsofdifferentlyreactingpeoplegroupsofmoreorless'educated'and'cultured,'andcompletely'uneducated'and 'uncultured.'AllwilluniteundertheCommunisteconomicsystemandbecomeabsolutelyequalthroughthepenetrationintoallhumanorganismsofanew,completely identicalcombinationoffifteenanalyzers...thattheepochofCommunismwillberegardedbyCommunistmankindnotaccordingtothemodernartisticformula'fromeach accordingtohisabilities,toeachaccordingtohisneeds'butasanepoch [249] ofthecompleteequalizationofallhumanorganismsstrenuouslyinvolvedin'continuousjoy'...thattheCommunisteconomywillbebasedonasystemof'physiological passports'forallhumanorganisms...thatsucha'physiologicalpassport'willservefortheorganism,usingmodernlanguage,asa'rationcard'bothforworkand consumptioninthebroadsenseofthesewords."(131:p.34) Bukharindevotedanarticletothecriticismof"Enchmenism"inthecollectionAttack. AnotherauthordealswithEnchmeninthisway:"Ofcourse,itwouldnothavebeen worthmentioninghadnotEnchmenismattractedanumberofstudents."(132:p.19) Whereasinrespecttogeneralculturesuchstatementsweresporadicandunsystematic,intheareasofartandphilosophyacoherentsystemevolved.Someofthemost influentialgroups(LEFthe"LeftFrontoftheArts")proclaimedthetransformationofartintoabranchofmaterialproduction.B.Arvatov,aprominenttheoreticianofthis group,wrote:"ThegoalofLEFistotransformallartintoacontributiontothematerialcultureofsocietyinclosetouchwithengineering."(133:p.90)"Whenartisticwork isstructuredinthisway,individualartistswillbecomethecollaboratorsofscientists,engineers,scholars,administratorsinorganizingthecommonproducttheywillbe guidednotbypersonalmotivesbutbytheobjectiveneedsofsocialproduction,fulfillingthetaskssetbytheclassthroughorganizationalcenters."(133:p.104)Ultimately, theresultwillbeasfollows:"Accordingtothepreceding,itispossibletomaintainthatinanorganized,integrated,socialistorder,figurativeartasaspecialprofessionwill witheraway."(133:p.129) Thissameattitudefoundexpressioninhostilitytowardthetreatmentofhumanpersonalityinliteraturethiswasbranded"psychologism,"andwasgenerallyconsidered representativeof"bourgeois"values.OsipBrikexpressedviewstypicalofthisapproachinanarticleonFadeyev'snovel TheRout: "Onemustsetliteraturethetaskof describingnotpeoplebuttheirdeeds,toevokeinterestnotinpeoplebutindeeds.Wevalueapersonnotforhisexperiences,butfortheroleheplaysinourcommon cause.Therefore,interestinthedeedisbasicforus,whileinterestinthepersonisderivative."(134:p.79)B.Kushnir,inhisarticle"WhyWeAreFallingBehind,"writes: "Inallitspermutations,theslogan'livingman'alwayspreserveditsinvariableclassessence....Accordingtothistheory,theauthorissupposednotonlytoworkoutthe psychologyandtheinterrelationshipofhis [250] charactersbutalsoasitweretometamorphosehimselfintoeachofthem.Thisisclearlyadifficult,timeconsumingandharmfulthing.Transformationintoone'scharacters canhardlysharpentheauthor'sclassvigilanceandclassperceptivity.Afterall,therearecharactersandcharacters.Amongthemtheremayevenbesomeunambiguous classenemies."(134:p.85)I.Nusinovopines:"Thefurthertotherightawriteris,thestrongerhistendencytopsychologize."(134:p.88)I.Altman,inanarticleentitled "FromtheBiographyofaLivingMan,"thinksitnecessaryto"exposeutterlytheopportunisticslogansofpsychologism'thelivingman'whichinterferewiththedecisive andtriumphantadvanceofproletarianliterature!"(134:p.91)

[250] charactersbutalsoasitweretometamorphosehimselfintoeachofthem.Thisisclearlyadifficult,timeconsumingandharmfulthing.Transformationintoone'scharacters canhardlysharpentheauthor'sclassvigilanceandclassperceptivity.Afterall,therearecharactersandcharacters.Amongthemtheremayevenbesomeunambiguous classenemies."(134:p.85)I.Nusinovopines:"Thefurthertotherightawriteris,thestrongerhistendencytopsychologize."(134:p.88)I.Altman,inanarticleentitled "FromtheBiographyofaLivingMan,"thinksitnecessaryto"exposeutterlytheopportunisticslogansofpsychologism'thelivingman'whichinterferewiththedecisive andtriumphantadvanceofproletarianliterature!"(134:p.91) Anegativeattitudetowardphilosophy wasalsosupportedbyreferencestotheclassicwritingsofMarxism.Kautskyhadwritten:"Marxdidnotproclaimanyphilosophy buttheendofallphilosophy."(135:p.452) InRussia,theviewofphilosophyasa"productofthebourgeoisie,"a"semireligion,""intellectualatavism,"wasdevelopedbyS.Minin,particularlyinthearticle "PhilosophyOverboard"(136),andbyP.P.Blonsky.(137)

5.Religion
ThefateofreligioninthisperiodisrepletewithfeaturesthathavenoparallelineitherRussianhistoryorthehistoryoftheworld.Astudyofthisphenomenonwould undoubtedlyshedlightonanumberofaspectsofWarCommunismthatremainunclear.Agreatdealofsystematicresearchisrequired. ThiswasthetimewhenthemostdecisiveattemptwasundertakentodestroytheRussianOrthodoxChurch(inconnectionwiththesocalledcampaignfortheremovalof churchvaluables).ItwasatimewhentribunalswereconvenedtotryGodandHewassentencedtodeathbyunanimousvote.AtEaster,thereweredemonstrationswith blasphemouspicturesandslogans.... ThisextremelyfragmentarysurveyofWarCommunismwillnevertheless,wehope,conveyacertainimpressionofthatfascinatingperiod.Weseethereasystemofviews andmeasuresthatismuchmoreradicalthanwhatistobefoundinanyothersocialiststateknowntous.IfWarCommunismisthemoststrikingexampleofthe appearanceof [251] radicaltendenciesinasocialiststate,itisneverthelessnotunique. Onlycontinuingfamineanddevastationcoupledwith"capitalistencirclement"forcedaretreatfromthissystem.TheNewEconomicPolicywassucharetreatandwemust believethesincerityofthedeclarationsofthedaythatitwouldbeonlyatemporarywithdrawal.NEPwasindeedtemporary.Stalinpromulgatedalawwhichforesaw imprisonmentforlaborersandofficepersonnelwhowereabsentfromworkormerelylate:theywere"militarized."Inthelastyearsofhislife,Stalin"reassigned"moreand morescientistsandtechnicianstoprisonresearchinstitutes(sharashki). Theinternalsecurityagencyraninnumerablefactoriesandscientificinstitutions. ButStalinhadvisionsofevenmoreradicalchangesahead.Inaworkwritteninthelastyearofhislife, TheEconomicProblemsofSocialism, heexpressesthethought thatmoneyandcommodityproductioncontradictthenatureofasocialiststate.Healsofeltthatthepeasantsinthecollectivefarmswerenotsufficientlydependentonthe state.Stalinseesthis,forinstance,inthefactthatthecollectivefarmspossesstheirownseedgrainandselltheirproductstothestate(albeitaccordingtoquotasandata ratefixedbythestate). "Butitwouldbeunpardonableblindnessnottoseethatthesephenomenaarealreadybeginningtoimpedethepowerfuldevelopmentofourproductiveforces,sincethey createanobstacletothecompletecontroloftheentirenationaleconomyand,especially,ofagriculturebystateplanning."(138:p.68)Stalinproposesanewsystemfor theorganizationoftheeconomy,underwhichtradewouldbereplacedbya"systemofproductexchange"andalleconomiclifewouldcomeunderevengreatercontrolby thestate."Butthisshouldbeintroducedsteadfastly,withouthesitation,stepbystepreducingthesphereofcommoditycirculationandextendingthesphereofproduct exchange."(138:p.94) Thisprogramcouldnotbeundertaken,forpurelypracticalreasonsinparticular,itwouldhaveinvolvedtheriskoffallingeconomicallytoofarbehindtheU.S.A. China's"GreatLeapForward"providesuswithonemoreexample.Attheendofthefifties,atransitiontocommunisminthreetofiveyearswasproclaimed:"Threeyears ofintenseworkandtenthousandyearsofhappiness!"Inseveralmonthstimein1958,"people'scommunes"sprangupalloverthecountrysidecommuneswere introducedincitiesaswell.Accordingtotheplan,theyweretobecomethebasic [252] formoftheorganizationofagriculture,industry,administration,schools,thearmy.Militarizedlaborarmieswerecreated.Peoplemarchedtoworkinformation.Everyday lifewasbeingsocialized,andallequipmentandhouseholdgoodsinthecommunewerebeingconsolidated.Unpaiddeliveryofproductswasinitiated. Weseethesamepictureintheattitudetowardreligion.Allsocialiststatesarefundamentallyhostiletowardreligion,buttheopportunitiesforexpressingthisattitudevary. ItalianfascismatfirstcameintosharpconflictwiththeCatholicChurch,butwascompelledtocometotermswithitandrefrainfromseriousoppressionofreligion.In otherrespects,too,itwastheweakestsocialiststateofourcenturyandhadtheleastpossibilityforrealizingitssocialisttendencies.China,ontheotherhand,couldpermit itselftooutlawtheChristianreligioncompletely.Betweentheseextremes,thereisawholespectrumofpossibleapproachestowardreligionallofthembasicallyhostile butonlyasharshasgivenconditionspermit. Neithertheabolitionofthefamilynorcommunalityofwiveswasfullyrealizedinanyknownsocialiststate,buttherudimentsofsuchaneffortcanbeeasilyobserved.For instance,inNaziGermanytherewasanattempttoproduceraciallypurechildrenoutofwedlock.Theorganizationlebensborn, foundedbyHimmler,selectedAryansires forunmarriedwomen.Therewereofficiallyinspiredsuggestionsaboutthedesirabilityofextrawivesformenofaraciallysuitabletype.Bormann'swifepropagandized theseideasandherselfsanctionedanotherwifeforherhusband. Inalltheexamplescited,theseundertakingswerenotcarriedtocompletionduetoveryspecificexternalcircumstances,butnotbecauseofideologicalinconsistency.It seemsthatcarryingthroughsuchtransformationsofliferequiresadefinitelevelofagitationandthemobilizationofacertainkindofspiritualenergy.Andthis,initsturn,is dependentonthedepthofthecrisisthatthesocietyisundergoingatthegivenmoment.Inparticular,thedestructionofthetraditionalfamilyandstatecontroloverfamily relations,whichweintroducedatthebeginningofthissectionasanexampleofsomethingpeculiartothedoctrinesofchiliasticsocialism,mayprovetobealltoofeasible underconditionsoftheapproachingcrisisofoverpopulation.(Toynbeesuggeststhisin139.) Itthereforeseemsimpossibletodrawanyfirmtheoreticaldistinction [253] betweenthedoctrinesofchiliasticsocialismandthepracticesofthesocialiststates.Theonlydifferencestemsfromthefactthatinthefirstcasewehaveaclearly formulatedideal,whereasthesecondpresentsaseriesofvariants,stretchingdownthroughhistory,wherenomorethananattemptcanbemadetodistinguishacertain

underconditionsoftheapproachingcrisisofoverpopulation.(Toynbeesuggeststhisin139.) Itthereforeseemsimpossibletodrawanyfirmtheoreticaldistinction [253] betweenthedoctrinesofchiliasticsocialismandthepracticesofthesocialiststates.Theonlydifferencestemsfromthefactthatinthefirstcasewehaveaclearly formulatedideal,whereasthesecondpresentsaseriesofvariants,stretchingdownthroughhistory,wherenomorethananattemptcanbemadetodistinguishacertain trend.Butthistrend,ifextrapolatedtoitslogicalconclusion,pointstowardthesameidealthatisproclaimedbythesocialistdoctrines. Itisfareasiertodiscernthedistinctionsbetweenchiliasticandstatesocialismastheyarerevealedinhistory.Tobeginwith,weencounterstatesofthesocialisttype thousandsofyearsbeforetheexistenceofanydevelopedsocialistdoctrine.Second,socialiststatesappearinhistoryintwoquitedifferentsituations:inprimitivecultural conditionsattheverybeginningofthestateperiodofhistory(intheMediterraneanbasinthisoccurredbetweenthethirdandthesecondmillenniaB.C.)andinthe industrialsocietiesofthetwentiethcentury.Thedevelopmentofsocialistdoctrinesoccursduringtheintervalbetweenthesetwoperiods.Withinchiliasticsocialismitisalso possibletodistinguishtwotendenciesonegivesrisetoabstractacademicsystems,elaborateplansforafuturesocietytheothercallsforthedestructionoftheexisting world,for"liberation,"revenge,andthereignofanelect.Thesetwotendenciesalsoundoubtedlymanifestthemselvesduringdifferentepochs.Plato'sRepublic ismost certainlythesourceofthefirstcurrent:More,Campanella,DeschampsareunderhisobviousinfluenceevenMarcuseincitingthemythsofNarcissusandOrpheusto illustratehisconceptsisclearlyattemptingtoimitatePlato.ThesecondcurrenttakesshapeintheMiddleAgesamongthehereticalsects.Butifthehistoryofthesesectsis traced,itisfoundthatallofthem(CatharsandtheBrethrenoftheFreeSpirit)originateinthegnosticsectsoftheearlycenturiesA.D.Inanadmittedlyundevelopedform, theseearliersectsshowsomeofthebasicfeaturesthatwillappearlaterinthesocialistdoctrines. Letusnote,firstofall,thatsocialistdoctrinesarosethousandsofyearslaterthansocialiststates.Thiscompelsustoreversetheusualaxiomofsocialistideology:the doctrinesofchiliasticsocialismcannotberegardedasaprediction(scientific,mysticalorrational)ofafuturesocialsystem.Theyarefarmoreakintoreactioni.e., tothe desiretoreturnmankindtoamoreprimitivearchaiccondition. However,thisreactionisnotsimplyaimedatrestoringthatwhichwaschiliastictheorygoesfarbeyondthepracticeofearlysocialist [254] states.Thenatureofthisprocesswillbecomeclearerifweexamineitinthelightofahistoricalobservationmadebyvariousauthors,KarlJaspersamongthem.Itwas Jasperswhosuggestedcallingthephenomenoninquestionhistory's"axialtime."(140)Jaspershasinmindthoseprofoundshiftswhichoccurredintheperiodcomprising approximatelythefirstmillenniumB.C.Duringthetwoprecedingmillennia,themainforceinfluencingthedevelopmentofhistorywerethepowerfulstatesorganizedinthe mannerofOrientaldespotism,withentirepopulationsunderbureaucraticcontrol,permittingthemtoundertakegiganticconstructionprojectsandtofieldhugearmies. Afteralonginterval,inthefirstmillenniumB.C.,other, spiritual forcesagainbegantohaveadecisiveinfluenceonthecourseofhistory.FromGreecetoChina,there aroseteachingsthatweredirectedtothesoulofindividualmen,assertingindividualman'sresponsibilitybeforereason,beforeconscienceorelsebeforehigherpowers. Thesewere:Greekphilosophy,thepreachingoftheIsraeliteprophets,Buddhism,Confucianism.Itisnottheomnipotentstatemachinethatispronouncedtobetheforce capableofdeterminingthefateofmankind,butthehumanpersonality.Agodlikedespotbeforewhomonecouldonlybowdownandobeyloseshispositionasthe creatorofhistory.Nolessaroleisnowplayedbytheteacherwhocallsonthepeopletobelieveinhismessageandtofollowhisexample.Whateverapproachonetakes withregardtotheoriginofChristianitywhether"theWordbecameflesh"orwhethermankinditselfcametoanewunderstandingofitsfatetheprocesswehave sketchedfindshereitshighestexpression.Jaspersbelievesthatitispreciselyin"axialtime"thattheconceptionof history appears.Inhisopinion,weconsiderhistorical thosepeopleswhohaveeitherdirectlyparticipatedinthisprocessorwhosubsequentlycametosharethevaluessocreated(theGermanicpeoples,forexample,orthe Slavs). Thereisnoneedforustodiscussherethisvastandcomplexhistoricalphenomenon.Weshallonlyjuxtaposeitwiththestagesinthedevelopmentofchiliasticsocialism thatwehavenotedearlier.WithinthelimitsoftheMediterraneanculturalcircles,"axialtime"wasexpressedintwobasicphenomenainthe"Greekmiracle,"mostvividly embodiedinthepersonalityofSocrates,andintheriseofChristianity.Thesetwophenomenaareverycloseintimetowhatwehaveindicatedasthestartingpointsofthe twotendenciesofchiliasticsocialism.Plato'ssocialistutopiawaspromulgatedseveraldecadesafterSocrates'death, [255] whiletheoriginalgnosticsectsappearedasearlyasthefirstcenturyA.D.Itisreasonabletosuggestthatwehaveherenotonlyatemporalbutalsoacausalrelationship i.e.,the"utopian"chiliasticsocialismofPlato,More,Campanella,Fourier,mayperhapsbeseenasareactiontothevisionoftheworldelaboratedinGreekculture,while the"revolutionary"and"eschatological"socialismofthegnosticandmedievalheresies,ofMntzerandofMarx,maybeareactiontotheappearanceofChristianity.Such aviewisinfundamentalagreementwiththeconclusionswecametoconcerningthegeneralcharacterofsocialism.Ifsocialismisamanifestationofacertainbasicand constantlyactiveforce,itisnaturalthatanyobstacletoitsactionwouldcallforthchangesintheformofitsmanifestation.Aprofoundlyspiritualunderstandingofhuman personality,anassertionofthecentralrolethatitplaysinGreekcultureand,inparticular,inChristianitythesewerethefactorsthatshookthemonolithicstabilityofthe statesbasedonsocialistprinciplesandshowedmankindthepossibilityofanotherpath. ThequestionoftheaffinitiesbetweenprimitiveEasternstatesofthesocialisttypeandsocialiststatesofthetwentiethcenturyisexaminedinthelastchapterofWittfogel's book.(89)Theauthorbelievesthatthesearetwovariantsofoneandthesamesocialstructure.Primitiveagrariandespotism"existedformillennia,untilthetimethatitfelt theimpactofthegrowthoftheindustrialandcommercialWest."(89:p.360)Inthelastsectionsofhisbook("WhitherAsia?""WhitherWesternSocietyWhither Mankind?")WittfogelviewstheappearanceofsocialiststatesinthetwentiethcenturyasareturnofAsiaticcountriestotheprimitivestructuresthathadexistedfor millennia.Yetheacknowledgesthatmodernsocialiststatesdifferfromtheirancientpredecessorsbythefactthattheyundertaketocontroltheircitizensnotonlyin economicbutinsocialandintellectualterms.Forthatreasonmodernsocialismismuchmorethanan"Asiaticrestoration."Thelackofconsistencymaybeexplained,soit seemstous,bythefactthattheauthorviewssocialismasanexclusivelyeconomiccategoryandadefiniteformofstateorganization.Thusthedevelopmentofchiliastic socialism(whichrequiredtwoandahalfmillennia)remainsbeyondhisfieldofvision.Yetthisispreciselythelinkjoiningthetwotypesofsocialistsociety.The distinguishingfeatureoftwentiethcenturysocialiststatesistheirdependenceonanideologythathasbeenelaboratedandforgedoverthecourseofthousandsofyears (andthebetterelaborateditis,themorestabletheyare).Thisisexactly [256] whattheOrientaldespotslackedandwhatpreventedthemfromretainingpowerovertheworldinthespiritualatmospherecreatedby"axialtime."Thisideologywas createdalmostexclusivelyintheWest,andthisfactalonemakesitimpossibletoregardsocialismofthetwentiethcenturyasan"Asiaticrestoration." Thecontemporarysocialiststatescouldnothavecomeintoexistencewithouttheideologycreatedbychiliasticsocialism.Wehavealreadydescribeditsbasicfeatures:the abolitionofprivateproperty,hostilitytowardreligion,destructionofthefamily,communality.Thisideologyislinkedtothemythicconcepts(expressedthoughtheyarein modernquasiscientificterms)ofthe"goldenage,""captivity,""liberation"and"thechosenpeople"destinedtobetheinstrumentofliberation,forwhichpurposethe annihilationofanevilworldwillberequired.Finally,thereisthepromiseofanewworldthatwillariseasaresultofthecatastropheandwheretheidealsofchiliastic socialismwillberealized. Itisevidentlythissystemofviewswhichmustbeexaminedinordertoclarifythehistoricroleofsocialism.

Thecontemporarysocialiststatescouldnothavecomeintoexistencewithouttheideologycreatedbychiliasticsocialism.Wehavealreadydescribeditsbasicfeatures:the abolitionofprivateproperty,hostilitytowardreligion,destructionofthefamily,communality.Thisideologyislinkedtothemythicconcepts(expressedthoughtheyarein modernquasiscientificterms)ofthe"goldenage,""captivity,""liberation"and"thechosenpeople"destinedtobetheinstrumentofliberation,forwhichpurposethe annihilationofanevilworldwillberequired.Finally,thereisthepromiseofanewworldthatwillariseasaresultofthecatastropheandwheretheidealsofchiliastic socialismwillberealized. Itisevidentlythissystemofviewswhichmustbeexaminedinordertoclarifythehistoricroleofsocialism. [257]

IX. Socialismand Individuality


Itisnaturalenoughtobegintheanalysisofthissocialidealbyelucidatingtheinterrelationshipofitsvariouselements.Itisimmediatelycleartheydonotplayanequalrole. Forexample,Platoarguesforthenecessityofcommunalpropertyandwives,sinceonlyundertheseconditionswillthecitizenstakejoyinandgrieveoverthesamethings. Inotherwords,heconsidersthecommunalityofpropertyandtheabolitionofthefamilyasmeansforachievingequality. Heregardsequality,however,notintheusual senseofequalityofrightsoropportunities,butasidentityofbehavior,astheequalizationofpersonalities.Boththesetraitstheabolitionofprivatepropertyandofthe familyasameanstoachieveequality,andthisspecialunderstandingofequalityrunthroughthemajorityofsocialistteachings. Theviewthatequalityisthebasicprinciplefromwhichothersocialistdoctrinesproceedplayedanespeciallylargeroleinthegnosticsects."God'sjusticeconsistsof communityandequality"suchapropositionwasusedtojustifyboththeabolitionofprivatepropertyandthedemandforcommunalwives.Thisthemecanbetracedin themedievalheresiesandthedoctrinesoftheReformation.NiklausStorchpreached:"Everythingshouldbecommon,forGodsentallintotheworldequallynaked." Mntzertaught:"Nooneshouldriseaboveotherseverymanmustbefree,andthereshouldbecommunityofproperty."CitingPlato,Moreassertedthatthoselawsare bestthatprovidefor"distributingallthegoodthingsoflifeamongallequally,"anddeducedtheneedforcommunalityofproperty.Meslierwritesthat"allpeopleareequal bynature"andalsodeducesthenecessity [258] ofabolishingprivateproperty.RepresentativesoftheEnlightenmentsupplementedthisargumentwiththenotionofa"naturalstate"inwhichallpeoplewereequalandthe disappearanceofwhichgaverisetoprivatepropertyandallthevicesofcontemporarylife.Theonlysignificantexceptionis"scientificsocialism,"whichdeducestheneed toabolishprivatepropertyfromobjectivecauses,suchasthetypeofproduction.Insodoing,Marxdeducestheverynotionofequalityfromtheeconomicconditionsof bourgeoissociety.(See3:XVII:p.68)Buthow,then,arewetodealwiththejustcitedradicalconceptsofequalitythatwereproclaimedintheearlycenturiesA.D.?We havealreadyshownwhywecannotrecognize"scientificsocialism"asagenuinelyscientifictheoryandwhywemustseeitmerelyasaformorguiseinwhichthesocialist idealappearsGustasitcanappearinmysticgarb,forexample).Forthesamereason,wecannottakeonfaiththeassertionthatthedemandforabolishingprivate propertyisalsoaresultofscientificanalysisoftheobjectivephenomenaofsociallife.Weshallsoonreturntotheevaluationoftherolewhichcommunalityofproperty playsin"scientificsocialism"anditsconnectionwiththeconceptofequality. Oneofthemoststrikingfeaturesofsocialistideologyisthatquitespecialsensewhichitattributestotheconceptofequality.Wehavealreadypointedthisoutin connectionwiththerationaleforcommunalityofproperty,ofwivesandchildrenproposedbyPlato.Andlater,inthemajorityofsocialistdoctrines,weencountera conceptionofequalitywhichapproachesthatof identity. Dwellinglovinglyonthedetails,authorshavedescribedthecharacteristicmonotonyandunificationoflifeinthe stateofthefuture.WhereMorespeaksaboutidenticalclothing,exceptforadifferencebetweenmaleandfemaleattire,Campanellaindicatesthatthedressofmenand womenisalmostthesame.InUtopia,everyonewearscloaksofthesamecolorintheCityoftheSunawomanwhoattemptstoalterhermodeofdresswillbepunished bydeath.Solariansneverhaveanyprivacytheyworkandrelaxindetachmentsandsharecommonsleepinganddiningfacilities.AllthecitiesofUtopiaarebuiltaccording tooneplan:"Hewhorecognizesonewillrecognizeall."ThesameidealoflifeinabsolutelyidenticalcitiesconsistingofidenticalhousesisrepeatedbyMorelly.Hispeople alsowearclothesmadeofthesamematerial,andallchildren'sclothingisabsolutelyidentical.Theyalleatthesamefood'andreceivethesameeducation.Babeufand Buonarotti'scircle,whose [259] verytitleincludedtheword"equality,"understoodthistoincludecommonobligatorymeals,entertainment,etc.... Intheexamplesabove,weseeanexternalequalizationoflivingconditionswhichsymbolizes,asitwere,thecorrespondinglevelingoftheinnerworld.Deschampsgivesa moredetaileddescriptionofthechangesinhumanpersonality.Ofthepeopleofthefuture,hewrites:"Theywould(muchmorethanwe)adheretothesametypeofaction andwouldnotdeducefromthis,asweusuallydowithregardtoanimals,thattoactthusistorevealalackofreasonorunderstanding.Whydopeoplewhofind perfectioninnature'severidenticaltypeofactionconsiderthistobeadefectinanimals?Onlybecausepeoplearetoofarremovedfromthiskindofaction,andtheir haughtinessmakestheminterpretthisveryremotenesstotheiradvantage."(53:p.219) Morespecifically,heforeseesthatpeoplewillbegintolookalike:"Identicalmorals(andtruemoralscanonlybeidentical)wouldmake,sotosay,onemanofallmenand onewomanofallwomen.Imeanbythisthatultimatelytheywouldresembleeachothermorethananimalsofthesamespecies."(53:p.176) Deschampsproposeschangesinlanguagesoas"tobanishalltermspresentlyusedtoexpressourgoodandbadqualities,evenalltermsunnecessarilydistinguishingus fromotherthings."(53:p.503) Finally,"scientificsocialism"proclaimsthatthehistoricalprocessiscontrolledbyimmanentlawswhichareindependentofhumanwill.Anunderstandingoftheselaws makeshistorypredictable.Thisconceptionwasformedundertheobviousinfluenceoftheadvancesofnaturalscienceintheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies,above all,thesuccessofastronomyinpredictingthediscoveryofplanets,thereturnofcomets,etc.Fourierassertsthatmankindisruledbythelawsof"attractionofthe passions,"whichareinhisviewpreciselyanalogoustoNewton'slawofgravitation,whereby"theunityofthephysicalandthespiritualworldsismanifest."Intermsofthis analogy,individualscorrespondtotheelementalparticlesofmatter,whichmustbeidentical(atleast,fromthestandpointofpropertiesessentialtothephenomenonunder considerationthatis,history). AsforMarxism,onethinksofananalogywithanotherphysicaltheory.Thisisthekinetictheoryofgases,accordingtowhichagasisthe aggregateofmoleculesthatcomeintocollision,withtheresultofeachcollisiondeterminedbythelawsofmechanics.Averygreatnumberofmolecules [260] transformthestatisticallawsoftheircollisionintothegenerallawsofthephysicsofgases.Theonlyformofsocialcontactoftheproducersofgoodsincapitalistsocietyis exchange(justasforgasmoleculestheonlyformofinteractioniscollision).Theinteractionofagreatnumberofproducersengendersthat"socialproduction"which,inits turn,determinestheirpolitical,legalandreligiousnotions,andthe"social,politicalandspiritualprocessesoflifeingeneral."Itisevidentthatsuchaconceptionmakes senseonlyontheassumptionthatseparate"molecules"(producers)are identical. Otherwise,insteadofanexplanation(oran"understanding,"asMarxputsit),there wouldbeonlytheindividualpropertiesofahugenumberofpeople,andoneenigmawouldbereplacedbyamassofenigmas.

[260] transformthestatisticallawsoftheircollisionintothegenerallawsofthephysicsofgases.Theonlyformofsocialcontactoftheproducersofgoodsincapitalistsocietyis exchange(justasforgasmoleculestheonlyformofinteractioniscollision).Theinteractionofagreatnumberofproducersengendersthat"socialproduction"which,inits turn,determinestheirpolitical,legalandreligiousnotions,andthe"social,politicalandspiritualprocessesoflifeingeneral."Itisevidentthatsuchaconceptionmakes senseonlyontheassumptionthatseparate"molecules"(producers)are identical. Otherwise,insteadofanexplanation(oran"understanding,"asMarxputsit),there wouldbeonlytheindividualpropertiesofahugenumberofpeople,andoneenigmawouldbereplacedbyamassofenigmas. Proceedingfromtheseexamples,itispossibletoattempttoformulatethespecificconceptofequalityinherentinsocialistideology.Theusualunderstandingof"equality," whenappliedtopeople,entailsequalityof rights andsometimesequalityof opportunity (socialwelfare,pensions,grants,etc.).Butwhatismeantinallthesecasesisthe equalizationofexternal conditionswhichdonottouchtheindividualityofman.Insocialistideology,however,theunderstandingofequalityisakintothatusedin mathematics(whenonespeaksofequalnumbersorequaltriangles),i.e.,thisisinfactidentity,theabolitionofdifferencesinbehavioraswellasintheinnerworldofthe individualsconstitutingsociety.Fromthispointofview,apuzzlingandatfirstsightcontradictorypropertyofsocialistdoctrinesbecomesapparent.Theyproclaimthe greatestpossibleequality,thedestructionofhierarchyinsocietyandatthesametime(inmostcases)astrictregimentationofalloflife,whichwouldbeimpossiblewithout absolutecontrolandanallpowerfulbureaucracywhichwouldengenderanincomparablygreaterinequality.Thecontradictiondisappears,however,ifwenotethatthe terms"equality"and"inequality"areunderstoodintwodifferentways.Theequalityproclaimedinsocialistideologymeansidentityofindividualities.Thehierarchyagainst whichthedoctrinefightsisahierarchybasedonindividualqualitiesorigin,wealth,education,talentandauthority.Butthisdoesnotcontradicttheestablishmentofa hierarchyofinternallyidenticalindividualswhoonlyoccupydifferentpositionsinthesocialmachine,justasidenticalpartscanhavedifferentfunctionsinamechanism.The analogybetweenthesocialistidealofsocietyandthemachineiscertainlynotnew.Forexample,speakingabouttheancientstatesofMesopotamiaandEgypt(which,as wehaveseen, [261] weretoaconsiderableextentbasedonsocialistprinciples),LewisMumfordexpressestheviewthattheirsocialstructurewasthefirsttobebasedontheideaofa machine.Hesupportsthisideabyreferringtothedrawingsofthetimethatshowwarriorsandworkersascompletelyidentical,likethestereotypeddetailsofamachine. (141:p.150)Evenmoreconvincingistheevidenceofamanwhowasclearlycompetentinthisarea:I.V.Stalin.Heonceexpressedhissocialidealbycallingthe inhabitantsofthestateruledbyhim"nutsandbolts."Heproposedatoasttothem.AndincontemporaryChinathepapersglorifytheheroLeiFen,whowroteinhisdiary abouthisdesiretobeChairmanMao's"stainlesssteelcog." Theprecedingconsiderationsleadustotheconclusionthatatleastthreecomponentsofthesocialistidealtheabolitionofprivateproperty,theabolitionofthefamilyand socialistequalitymaybededucedfromasingleprinciple:thesuppressionofindividuality. Thereisalsoalargebodyofdirectevidencethatdemonstratesthehostilityof socialistideologytoindividuality.Someexamples: Mazdaktaughtthattheconfusionoflightanddark,aswellasevilingeneral,derivedfromindividualityandthattheidealconditioncannotbeachieveduntilpeoplerid themselvesoftheirindividualqualities.Fourierbelievedthatthe"fundamentalcoreofthepassions"onwhichthefuturesocietywillbefoundedisapassioncalled "unitheism."Thisforceisnotactivatedinconditionsofcivilization.Thepassiondirectlyopposedtoitisegoismorone'sown"I.""Thisdisgustinginclinationhasvarious namesintheworldoflearning:moralistscallitegoismideologues,the'I,'anewtermwhich,however,doesnotintroduceanythingnewbutisauselessparaphraseof egoism."(97:p.105)ItshouldbenotedherethategoismintheusualsenseisnotatallexcludedfromFourier'ssystem.Heheldthatthemostusefulpeopleinthefuture societywouldbethosewhoareinclinedtoenjoymentandwhodeclaredutytobetheinventionofphilosophers.Fourieroffersalistofthemostimportantpassionsforthe neworder:loveoffinefood,sensuality,apassionfordiversity,competition,selflove.Evidently,"egoism"inthequotationaboveshouldbeunderstoodinabroadersense andthe"I"inadirectsense. InMarxismtheideaisoccasionallyexpressedthatmanhasnoexistenceasanindividualitybutonlyasamemberofadefiniteclassindividualmanistheinventionof philosophers.Wecomeacrossattacksonthe"corrupt"viewsthathold"insteadoftheinterestsoftheproletariat, [262] theinterestsofman,whodoesnotbelongtoanyclassand,ingeneral,existsnotinrealitybutinthecloudsofphilosophicfantasy."(3:V:pp.506507)Marxsays:"The essenceofmanisnotanabstractqualityinherentinaseparateindividual.Inrealityitistheaggregateofallsocialrelations."(3:IV:p.590)Marxwasconcernedwiththe questionofwhy,underconditionsofcompletepoliticalemancipation,religiondoesnotdisappear.Fromhispointofview,thistestifiestothefactthatacertainflawremains insociety,butthereasonforthisflawshouldbesoughtintheveryessenceofthestate.Religionisnolongerpresentedasacausebutasamanifestationofgeneral narrowmindedness.Theessenceofthisnarrowmindednessandlimitationheseesinthefollowing:"PoliticaldemocracyisChristianinnaturebecausemaninitnotmanin generalbuteachmanseparatelyisconsideredasovereignandsupremebeingandthisissaidofmaninhisuncultivated,nonsocialaspect,ofmaninahaphazardformof existence,manasheisinlife,manasheiscorruptedbythewholeorganizationofoursociety,lostandalienatedfromhimselfinaword,manwhoisnotyetagenuine creature."(3:I:p.368) Inthecontemporaryleftistmovement,thethemeofthestruggleagainstindividualityisparticularlystrong.Theideologistsofthismovementdistinguishseveralaspectsof revolution(orofaseriesof"revolutions,"astheyputit):social,racial,sexual,artistic,psychedelic.Amongthese,twoespeciallyareperceivedasmeansfortheannihilation of"bourgeoisindividuality"thepsychedelicrevolution(collectiveuseofhallucinogensanddeafeningrockmusic)andaparticularaspectofthesexualrevolution("group sex,"whichgoesmuchfurtherthanthegroupmarriageofprimitivetribes,sincenotonlythepersonalitybutalsothesexofthepartnersplaysnorole). Thistendencyleadstoattemptstoovercomesexdistinction.Thuswereadinacontemporaryleftistmagazine:"Capitalismdevelopedtheevermoreinhumanpolarization ofthesexes.Thecultofmakingdistinctions,whichservesonlyforoppression,isnowbeingsweptawaybyawarenessofresemblanceand'identity.'"Theauthorquotes anotherrepresentativeofthesamecurrent:"BothsexesaremovingtowardgeneralHumanity."(142:p.25) Marcuseforeseesasocietyinwhichfantasy,nowsuppressedbyreason,willopenupanewapproachtoreality.Inhisunderstanding,ofthenatureoffantasyMarcuse herefollowsFreud,citing,inparticular,thelatter'sideathatfantasy"preservesthestructureandtendencies [263] ofthepsychepriortoitsorganizationbythereality,priortoitsbecomingan'individual'setoffagainstotherindividuals.Andbythesametoken,liketheid,towhichit remainscommitted,fantasypreservesa'memory'ofthesubhistoricalpast,whenthelifeoftheindividualwasthelifeofthegenus,theimageoftheimmediateunitybetween theparticularandtheuniversalundertheruleofthepleasureprinciple."(119:p.142)Itispreciselyintheprocessofdisintegrationofthisunitythatthereappearsthe "principiumindividuationis"hostiletofantasy.MarcusebelievesthatoneofFreud'smostimportantserviceswasthedestructionof"oneofthestrongestideological fortificationsofmodernculturenamely,thenotionoftheautonomousindividual."(119:p.57) Sartre'sviewsinthisconnectionarealsoofinterest.Hesays,forexample:"Ibelievethatthethinkingofthegroupiswherethetruthis....Ihavethoughtthiswaysince childhood.Ialwaysconsideredgroupthinkingtobebetterthanthinkingalone....Idon'tbelieveaseparateindividualtobecapableofdoinganything."(143:pp.170 171) Hefeelsparticularantipathyforsuchindividualactionassacrifice."Thesacrificialtypeisnarrowmindedbynature....Thisisamonstroustype.AllmylifeIhavefought againstthespiritofsacrifice."(143:p.183)

"principiumindividuationis"hostiletofantasy.MarcusebelievesthatoneofFreud'smostimportantserviceswasthedestructionof"oneofthestrongestideological fortificationsofmodernculturenamely,thenotionoftheautonomousindividual."(119:p.57) Sartre'sviewsinthisconnectionarealsoofinterest.Hesays,forexample:"Ibelievethatthethinkingofthegroupiswherethetruthis....Ihavethoughtthiswaysince childhood.Ialwaysconsideredgroupthinkingtobebetterthanthinkingalone....Idon'tbelieveaseparateindividualtobecapableofdoinganything."(143:pp.170 171) Hefeelsparticularantipathyforsuchindividualactionassacrifice."Thesacrificialtypeisnarrowmindedbynature....Thisisamonstroustype.AllmylifeIhavefought againstthespiritofsacrifice."(143:p.183) Wemeetwiththeverysamefeaturesinthehistoricalmodelsofsocialism.DiscussingtheinfluenceoftheIncasystemontheIndians'psyche,Baudinwrites:"Lifeitselfwas tornoutofthatgeometricalandsadempire,whereeverythingoccurredwiththeinevitabilityoff atum. ...TheIndianlosthispersonality."(56:pp.135136) Thedepthoftheconflictbetweenindividualityasacategoryandsocialistideologyisindicatedbythefactthatthisconflicttouchesontheinnermostcoreofindividuality. Assomuchelseinman,hisindividualityhastwostrataone,themoreancient,isofprehumanoriginandmansharesitwithmanyanimals,whilethenewerstratumis specificallyhuman. Ethologists(scientistsinvestigatingthebehaviorofanimals)seethemomentwhen individualbonding appearsasthefirstmanifestationofindividualityintheanimalworld (i.e.,whentherearerelationsinwhichoneanimalcannotbereplacedbyanyother).Thisphenomenonmaybeobservedexperimentallybytryingtosubstituteoneanimal foranother.Certaintypesoffish,birdsandmammalsexhibitthistypeofbondingaclassicexampleofthephenomenonthathasbeenthoroughly [264] investigatedisthebondingofthegraylaggoose.Inthisspecies,bondingisaccomplishedinacomplicatedritualperformedbyparentsandnestlingsorbyapairorbytwo ganders.Whenoneindividualdies,theothercallshimandlooksforhimeverywhere,stopsavoidingpredators,becomestimid.Lorenzevenassuresusthatintheeyesof suchacreaturethereappearsthesameexpressionasintheeyesofanunhappyhuman.(144:Chap.11) Thepresenceofindividualbondshasgreatimportanceforthestructureofanimalsocieties,whicharedividedintoanonymous societies,inwhichanimalsdonot distinguisheachotherasindividuals(forexample,groupsofherringorofrats),andindividualized societies,inwhichanimalsarelinkedbyindividualrelations(e.g., geese).Astonishingly,amongtheforcessupportingtheexistenceofindividualizedanimalsocieties,accordingtotheethologists,arepreciselythosefactors(seeninhuman society)withwhichsocialismisinconflict:theupbringingofoffspringbyafamily,individuallybondedchildrenandparentsand,ingeneral,individualbondsbetween membersofsociety.(Deschampsforesees"lifewithoutseparatebonds"inthefuturesociety.)Otherindividualizedanimalbehaviorincludesanimalhierarchiesinwhich individualshavedifferentimportance,andwhere,forinstance,oldermemberscanusetheirexperienceforthebenefitofthewholegroup,whilestrongerindividualsdefend theweak.Finally,thereisaphenomenonwhichmayberegardedasaprehumananalogyofproperty:thenotionofterritoryinanimalsociety. Socialismisequallyhostiletothosespecificallyhumanfactorswhichaccountfortheindividualityofman,tothoseaspectsoflifeinwhichmancanparticipateonlyasan individualityandcannotbereplacedbyanyoneelse.Culturalcreativity,particularlyartisticcreativity,isanexample.Wehaveseenhowthemostoutstandingthinkersof thesocialisttrend(Plato,Deschamps)elaboratemeasuresthatprovideforthecompletedisappearanceofculture.Andinperiodswhensocialistmovementsareonthe increase,thecallforthedestructionofcultureisheardevermoredistinctly.ItissufficienttorecalltheregulardestructionofbooksinmonasterylibrariesbytheTaborites andthedestructionofworksofartbytheAnabaptistsinMnster.IntheyearsofWarCommunism,ananticulturetrendwasquiteevident,aswehavealreadyindicated. Thecontemporaryleftradicalsocialistmovements,manifestthesameattitudetowardculture.Cultureisunderstoodbythemtobe"bourgeois"and"repressive"thegoalof artisunderstood [265] asan"explosion"orthedestructionofculture.ThetheoreticalframeworkisderivedfromFreud,AdornoandMarcuse,withtheirnotionoftheuncompromisingconflict betweentheinstinctsandoppressiveculture.TheprominentleftistH.M.Enzensberger,forinstance,criticizesliteracyandliteratureastypicallybourgeoiselementsof culture.Heconsidersliteracytopossess"classcharacter"andtobesubordinatedtonumeroussocial"taboos."Therulesoforthographyareimposedbysocietyasnorms andtheirviolationispunishedorcondemned."Intimidationbymeansofawrittentexthasremainedawidespreadphenomenonofclasscharacterevenindeveloped industrialsocieties.Itisimpossibletoremovetheseelementsofalienationfromwrittenliterature."(145:p.181)Althoughtheauthordoesnotforeseeacomplete destructionofliteracy,literatureandbooks,heassumesthattheywillbesupplantedbysuchmeansofcommunicationasradioandtelevision(perfectedtothepointwhere eachreceiverwillfunctionsimultaneouslyasatransmitter).Inthenewinformationsystem,thewrittenwordwillbepreservedonlyasan"extremecase." Oneofthemostsignificantfeaturesofspirituallifedirectlylinkedtotheexistenceofindividualityisasenseofindividual(andnotcollective)responsibilityforthefateof one'ssocialgroup,city,nation,orofallmankind.WithPlatobeingperhapstheonlyexception,allsocialistideologistsarehostiletosuchanattitude.Themedievalheretics, aswehaveseen,calledeitherforaradicalbreakwiththeworldandlifeorfortheirdestruction.Thispointofviewwaspreservedinothersocialistmovementsfromthe Reformationuntilourday.Inrecentcenturiesithasfoundsupportinthenotionthathistoryisgovernedbyironlawsaspreciseasthelawsofphysicsandthatitsbasic directioncouldnotbeaffectedbyhumanwill.Fourier'spositionistypical.(Fourierisaforthrightandhonestwriterwhosephilosophicalviewswerenotdistortedbythe exigenciesofpracticalactivity,byconsiderationsofpartypoliticsorrevolutionarystruggle.)Inanswertothequestionwhatoneshoulddowhileawaitingtheonsetofthe futureorder,hesays:"Donotsacrificethegoodofthepresenttothegoodofthefutureenjoythemomentavoidanymatrimonialorotherunionwhichdoesnotsatisfy yourpassionsnow.Whyworkforthesakeofthefuturegood?Forthisgoodwillexceedyourmosttreasureddesiresinanycase,andinthecombinedsocialstructure youwillbethreatenedbyonlyonetroubletheimpossibilityofmakingyourlifetwiceas [266] longsoastoexhaustthehugecircleofpleasuresawaitingyou."(97:p.293) Finally,humanindividualityfindsitsgreatestsupportanditshighestappreciationinreligion.OnlyasapersonalitycanmanturntoGodandonlythroughthisdialoguedoes herealizehimselfasapersoncommensuratewiththepersonofGod.Itisforthisveryreasonthatsocialistideologyandreligionaremutuallyexclusive.(Ofcourse,ifeither oftheseworldviewsisunderdeveloped,theycancoexistforacertaintime.)Itisnaturaltoseeherethecauseofthathatredforreligionwhichistypicalofthe overwhelmingmajorityofsocialistdoctrinesandstates. Thesameapproachmakesmorecomprehensiblethecurioustraitsweobservedinthe"ConspiracyofEquals"(seePartOne,ChapterIII,Section4,above):thenaIve adventurism,thearrogantboastfulness,thedispositiontopettydishonestyanddisruptivebehavior,acertaininanitythatgavethewholemovementasomewhatcomicand Gogolianflavor.Thesefeaturesareinherentinamajorityofsocialistmovementsintheinitialperiodoftheirdevelopment.Amonganarchisticandnihilisticcurrentsin Russia,theyfoundultimateexpressionin"Nechayevism,"sobrilliantlydescribedbyDostoyevskyinThePossessed. EarlyMarxismexhibitssimilartraitsquitevividly.For example,thereistheincrediblehistoryofthewritingofthefirstcriticalreviewsonVolumeIof Capital allcomposedanonymouslybyEngels.HeofferedMarxtowrite two,thenfourorfivereviewarticles"fromdifferentpointsofview"or"fromabourgeoispointofview."MeanwhileMarxprovidedhimwithdetailedinstructionsonwhat topraiseandwhattodisagreewithforthesakeofauthenticity.Marxwrites:"Inthisway,Ishouldthink,itmightbepossibletohoodwinkthatSwabianMaier[theeditor ofanewspaper].Nomatterhowinsignificanthispaperis,itisstillapopularoracleforallthefederalistsinGermanyandisreadabroadaswell.""It'shilarioushowboth magazineshavetakenthebait,"EngelsinformsMarx.InthefirstyearaftertheappearanceofthebooksevenreviewsappearedfiveofthembyEngels,oneeachbyhis friendsKugelmanandSiebel,whofollowedEngels'lead.Asaresult,Marxcouldsay:"Theconspiracyofsilenceinthebourgeoisandreactionarypresshasbeen broken!"(LettertoKugelman,February11,1869)HewritestoEngels:"Jenny,aspecialistinthesematters,assertsthatyouhavedevelopedagreatdramaticandevena

example,thereistheincrediblehistoryofthewritingofthefirstcriticalreviewsonVolumeIof Capital allcomposedanonymouslybyEngels.HeofferedMarxtowrite two,thenfourorfivereviewarticles"fromdifferentpointsofview"or"fromabourgeoispointofview."MeanwhileMarxprovidedhimwithdetailedinstructionsonwhat topraiseandwhattodisagreewithforthesakeofauthenticity.Marxwrites:"Inthisway,Ishouldthink,itmightbepossibletohoodwinkthatSwabianMaier[theeditor ofanewspaper].Nomatterhowinsignificanthispaperis,itisstillapopularoracleforallthefederalistsinGermanyandisreadabroadaswell.""It'shilarioushowboth magazineshavetakenthebait,"EngelsinformsMarx.InthefirstyearaftertheappearanceofthebooksevenreviewsappearedfiveofthembyEngels,oneeachbyhis friendsKugelmanandSiebel,whofollowedEngels'lead.Asaresult,Marxcouldsay:"Theconspiracyofsilenceinthebourgeoisandreactionarypresshasbeen broken!"(LettertoKugelman,February11,1869)HewritestoEngels:"Jenny,aspecialistinthesematters,assertsthatyouhavedevelopedagreatdramaticandevena comic [267] talentinthismatterof'differentpointsofview'andvariousdisguises."(See3:XXIII:pp.406,445,453,458,465,473,483,484XXIV:pp.3,5,26,59,65,80,and thegeneralsurveyin146)* Equallybizarreistheepisodeofthe"portraits"ofprominentrevolutionaryfiguresinemigrationthatwereputtogetherfortwentyfivepoundssterlingforacertainBann, wholaterprovedtobeanagentoftheAustrianandPrussianpolice.InresponsetoMarx'sproposal,however,Engelsimmediatelywarnshimthatitwouldberegardedas "assistingreaction,"butconcludes:"25valentbienunpeudescandale."(3:XXI:p.359)Or,finally,takethethreatstoblackmailtheircomradesinarms:"Doesn'tthis bruteunderstandthatifonlyIsodesire,hewouldbeuptohisearsinastinkingswamp?Ihavemorethanahundredofhislettersinmypossession.Hasheforgotten that?"(MarxwritingaboutFreiligrath,3:XXII:p.493) Thecorrespondenceofthefoundersofthematerialistapproachtohistoryaboundsinsuchpassages.Thesametraitsareevidentintoday'smoreextremeleftmovements inAmericaandWesternEurope,andoftengivethesemovementsaratherfrivolouscharacter.(Cf.147) Togetabetterfeelingforthecharacteristicsofthesephenomena,itisworthwhilejuxtaposingthemwithsimilarepisodesfromthesphereofreligion,orwithnationalistic movementswherecompletelyunknownindividualsorsmallgroupsfirstlaunchtheirideas.Take,forexample,CaptainIlyin,thefounderofthesectof"ForestBrethren"or "Jehovists"attheendofthenineteenthcenturyinRussiahewaspersecutedallhislifeandspentfourteenyearsinharshconfinementintheSolovetskyMonastery.One canrejecthisreligiousideas,butitisimpossiblenottobestruckbyhisprofounddignityandmoralstrength,whichneverlefthiminthecourseofhismanyordeals.There arethousandsofsuchexamples.Itwouldseemthatmanypeopleleadersofthemovementsinparticulardonotderivefromsocialistideologythesamesortofstrength andselfconfidence.Thiscomesonlyattheheightofsuccesswhenthemovementattractsthebroadmasses.Here,aselsewhere,Marx'swordsturnouttobetothepoint, ifweunderstandthemasreferringtohimself:"These ideasdonotgivestrengthofthemselvesbutbecomeaforcewhentheyholdswayoverthemasses."Thereasonsare clearinthelightoftheabovediscussion:
*Inthisconnection,Engels'reproachtoLoriaappearsinadifferentlight:"Theimportunatecharlatanismofselfaggrandizement,""successachievedwiththehelpofclamorous friends."Seep.211n.,above.

[268] anideologythatishostiletohumanpersonalitycannotserveasapointofsupportforit. Wecanseethatallelementsofthesocialistidealtheabolitionofprivateproperty,family,hierarchiesthehostilitytowardreligioncouldberegardedasamanifestation ofonebasicprinciple:thesuppressionofindividuality.Itispossibletodemonstratethisgraphicallybylistingthemoretypicalfeaturesthatkeepappearinginsocialist theoryandpracticeovertwoandahalfthousandyears,fromPlatotoBerlin's"CommuneNo.1,"andthenconstructingamodelofan"ideal"(albeitnonexistent)socialist society.Peoplewouldwearthesameclothingandevenhavesimilarfacestheywouldliveinbarracks.Therewouldbecompulsorylaborfollowedbymealsandleisure activitiesinthecompanyofthesamelaborbattalion.Passeswouldberequiredforgoingoutside.Doctorsandofficialswouldsupervisesexualrelations,whichwouldbe subordinatedtoonlytwogoals:thesatisfactionofphysiologicalneedsandtheproductionofhealthyoffspring.Childrenwouldbebroughtupfrominfancyinstatenurseries andschools.Philosophyandartwouldbecompletelypoliticizedandsubordinatedtotheeducationalgoalsofthestate.Allthisisinspiredbyoneprinciplethedestruction ofindividualityor,atleast,itssuppressiontothepointwhereitwouldceasetobeasocialforce.Dostoyevsky'scomparisonstotheanthillandthebeehiveturnouttobe particularlyaptinthelightofethologicalclassificationsofsociety:wehaveconstructedamodelofthe anonymoussociety. [269]

X. TheGoal ofSocialism
Difficultiesinunderstandingsocialistideologyarisewhenwetrytocorrelateitsdoctrinalprescriptionsfortheorganizationofsocietywiththeactualformsofthese principlesastheyarerealizedinhistory.Forexample,thepictureofasociety"inwhichthefreedevelopmentofeachwillbethepreconditionofthefreedevelopmentof all"containsnocontradiction.Butwhenthe"leadingtheoretician"assertsthatthecreationofthisharmoniousmanisachievedbyshooting,wearefacetofacewitha paradox.Theviewofsocialismtowhichwehavecomeencountersthesamekindofdifficultiesandmustbetestedbythismeansforinconsistency.Itisnotenoughtosay thatallthebasicprinciplesofsocialistideologyderivefromtheurgetosuppressindividuality.Itisnecessaryalsotounderstandwhatthistendencyportendsformankind andhowitarises.Weshallbeginwiththeformerquestion. Attheendoftheprecedingchapterwesketchedthe"ideal"socialistsocietyasitappearsintheclassicalwritingsofsocialism.Ofthefeaturesenumerated,weshall consideronlyone:stateupbringingofchildrenfrominfancysothattheydonotknowtheirparents.Itisnaturaltobeginwiththisaspectofthesocialistideal,ifonly becauseitwouldbethefirstthingthatanindividualbornintothissocietywouldface.ThismeasureissuggestedwithstrikingconsistencyfromPlatotoLiadov,aleading Soviettheoreticianofthe1920s.Inthe1970s,theJapanesepolicearrestedmembersofthe"RedArmy,"aTrotskyiteorganization,whichwasresponsibleforanumberof murders.Althoughthisgroupnumberedonlyafewdozenpeople,ithadalltheattributesofarealsocialistpartytheoreticians,asplitonthe [270] questionofwhetherrevolutionshouldoccurinonecountryorintheentireworldatonce,terroragainstdissidents.Thegroupestablisheditselfinalonelymountainregion. Andthesametraitsurfacedhere:theytooknewbornchildrenawayfromtheirmothers,entrustedthemtootherwomenforupbringingandfedthemonpowderedmilk, despitedifficultiesinobtainingit. LetusquotefromabookbythemodernethologistEiblEibesfeldt,whichwillhelpusevaluatethebiologicalsignificanceofthismeasure: Itisespeciallyinthesecondhalfofthefirstyearoflifethatachildestablishespersonaltieswithitsmotherorapersonsubstitutingforher(anurse,amatron).

questionofwhetherrevolutionshouldoccurinonecountryorintheentireworldatonce,terroragainstdissidents.Thegroupestablisheditselfinalonelymountainregion. Andthesametraitsurfacedhere:theytooknewbornchildrenawayfromtheirmothers,entrustedthemtootherwomenforupbringingandfedthemonpowderedmilk, despitedifficultiesinobtainingit. LetusquotefromabookbythemodernethologistEiblEibesfeldt,whichwillhelpusevaluatethebiologicalsignificanceofthismeasure: Itisespeciallyinthesecondhalfofthefirstyearoflifethatachildestablishespersonaltieswithitsmotherorapersonsubstitutingforher(anurse,amatron). Thiscontactisthepreconditionforthedevelopmentof"primarytrust"(E.H.Erikson),thebasisfortheattitudetowardoneselfandtheworld.Thechild learnstotrusthispartner,andthispositivebasicorientationisthefoundationofahealthypersonality.Ifthesecontactsarebroken,"primarydistrust" develops.Aprolongedstayinthehospitalduringthechild'ssecondyearmay,forexample,leadtosuchresults.Thoughthechildwilltryeventhereto establishclosecontactwithamothersubstitute,nonursewillbeabletodevoteherselfintensivelyenoughtoaninfantforaclosepersonaltietobe established.Nursesconstantlychange,andsothecontactsthatariseareconstantlybroken.Thechild,deceivedinhisexpectationsofcontact,fallsintoa stateofapathyafterabriefoutburstofprotest.Duringthefirstmonthofhisstayinthehospitalhewhinesandclingstoanyoneavailable.Duringthesecond monthheusuallycriesandlosesweight.Duringthethirdmonthsuchchildrenonlyweepquietlyandfinallybecomethoroughlyapathetic.Ifafterthreetofour months'separationtheyaretakenhome,theyreturntonormal.Butiftheystayinthehospitallonger,thetraumabecomesirreversible....Inoneorphanage whereR.Spitzstudiedninetyonechildrenwhohadbeenseparatedfromtheirmothersinthethirdmonthoftheirlives,thirtyfourdiedbeforetheyreached theageoftwo.Thelevelofdevelopmentofthesurvivorswasonly45percentofnormalandthechildrenwerealmostlikeidiots.Manyofthemcouldneither walknorstandnorspeakatagefour.(148:p.234) Thismaybeappliedtothewholeofasocietybuiltontheconsistentimplementationofsocialistideals.Notonlypeoplebutevenanimalscannotexistifreducedtothelevel ofthecogsofamechanism.Evensuchaseeminglyelementaryactaseatingisnotreducibletothemeresatiationoftheorganism.Forananimaltoeat,itisnotenoughthat itbehungryandthatfoodbeavailablethefoodmustbeenticing,"appetizing,"aswell.Andinmorecomplexactionsinvolvingseveral,individuals,suchasraisingof young,thecommondefenseofterritoryorhunting,animalsestablishrelationsthatusuallyareritualisticin [271] natureandthatelicitgreatexcitementandundoubtedlyprovidedeepsatisfaction.Foranimals,thesetiesconstitute"themeaningoflife"iftheyarebroken,theanimal becomesapathetic,doesnottakefood,andbecomesaneasyvictimforapredator.Toafargreaterextent,thisappliestoman.Butforhim,alltheaspectsoflifethat makeitattractiveandgiveitmeaningareconnectedwithmanifestationsofindividuality.Therefore,aconsistentimplementationoftheprinciplesofsocialismdeprives humanlifeofindividualityandsimultaneouslydepriveslifeofitsmeaningandattraction.Assuggestedbytheexampleoftheorphanedchildren,itwouldleadtothephysical extinctionofthegroupinwhichtheseprinciplesareinforce,andiftheyshouldtriumphthroughtheworldtotheextinctionofmankind. Buttheconclusionthatwehavereachedhasyettobetestedbyhistorybecausethesocialistidealshavenowhereachievedcompleteimplementation.Theprimitivestates oftheancientOrientandpreColumbianAmericahadaveryweaklydevelopedsocialistideology.InkeepingwithShangYang'sprinciple("Whenthepeopleareweak thestateisstrongwhenthestateisweakthepeoplearestrong"),particularlystrong,conservativeandlonglivedstatestructureswerecreated.Inthesestates,however, theprincipleofthe"weakpeople"wasunderstoodonlyinthesenseofexternal,physicallimitationschoiceofwork,placeofresidence,severelimitationsonprivate property,thelargenumberofofficialduties.Thesedutiesdidnottouchthelifewithinthefamilyorcutdeeplyintoman'ssoul.Theywerenotideologicallyinspired,andit wasapparentlythesamepatriarchalqualitythatpreservedthesestatesfromdyingoutbut,ontheotherhand,leftthemdefenselessinthefaceofnewspiritualforcescalled forthbytheabruptshiftsofthefirstmillenniumB.C. Thesocialiststatesofthetwentiethcenturyarealsofarfrombeingamodelofthecomplete realizationofsocialistideals.Butonemustnotethatwhensurvival isatstake, itwasachievedinthesestatespreciselybygivingupsomefundamentalsocialistprinciple.ThisoccurredwiththeintroductionoftheNewEconomicPolicyinSovietRussia andwiththehaltorderedbyStalininthepersecutionofreligionduringWorldWarII. However,itispossibletopointoutanumberofsimilarsituationswhichmayserve,thoughindirectly,tosupportourpointofview. Ithappensnotinfrequentlythatanationorasocialgroupdiesoutnotbecauseofeconomicreasonsorduetodestructionbyenemies [272] butbecausethespiritualconditionsofitsexistencearedestroyed.Forexample,H.G.WellswrotethefollowingaftervisitingPetrogradin1920:"Themortalityrate amongtheintellectuallydistinguishedmeninRussiahasbeenterriblyhigh.Much,nodoubt,hasbeenduetogeneralhardshipoflife,butinmanycasesIbelievethatthe sheermortificationofgreatgiftsbecomefutilehasbeenthedeterminingcause.TheycouldnomoreliveintheRussiaof1919thantheycouldhavelivedinaKaffir kraal."(1:p.57) Anotherexampleoffargreaterscopeinvolvestheconfrontationofprimitivepeopleswithmoderncivilization.Themajorityofethnographersnowagreethatthemaincause ofthedyingoutofthesepeopleswasnotphysicaldestructionorexploitationbyEuropeansorcontagiousdiseaseoralcoholbutthedestructionoftheirspiritualworld, theirreligionandtheirrituals.Forexample,theprominentspecialistinthecultureoftheAustralianaborigines,A.Elkin,paintsthefollowingpicture: Whatthenisthissecretlifeoftheaborigines?Itisthelifeapartalifeofritualandmythology,ofsacredritesandobjects.Itisthelifeinwhichmanreally findshisplaceinsocietyandinnature,andinwhichheisbroughtintouchwiththeinvisiblethingsoftheworldofthepast,presentandfuture.Everynowand thenwefindthetribe,orgroupsfrommorethanonetribe,goingapartfromtheworkadayworld.Aspecialcampisarrangedwherethewomenremain unlesssomeofthemarecalledupontoplayasubsidiarypartinaceremony.Thenthemengoonamileorsotoasecretsiteortositeswheretheyspend hours,ormaybedaysandweeksandevenmonths,singingandperformingrites,andinsomecaseseveneatingorsleepingthere.Whentheyreturnlaterto theworldofsecularaffairstheyarerefreshedinmindandspirit.Theynowfacethevicissitudesofeverydaylifewithanewcourageandastrengthgained fromthecommonparticipationintherites,withafreshappreciationoftheirsocialandmoralidealsandpatternsoflife,andanassurancethathaving performedtheriteswellandtruly,allwillbewellwiththemselvesandwiththatpartofnaturewithwhichtheirlivesaresointimatelylinked.(149:pp.162 163) ...Themissionaryorcivilizingagentmaybesuccessfulinputtinganendtoinitiationandothersecretrites,oringettingsuchagripovertherisinggeneration thattheoldmenmaketheinitiationamereformandnotanentryintothefullsecretlifeofthetribe.Butthisimpliesabreakdownoftribalauthorityandaloss oftheknowledgeof,letalonetherespectfor,thoseideals,sentimentsandsanctionswhichareessential,totribalcohesionandinAustralia,suchacondition istheaccompaniment,andacauseoftribalextinction.(149:p.161)

[273] AndG.Childewrites:"Anideology,howeverremotefromobviousbiologicalneeds,isfoundinpracticetobebiologicallyuseful,thatis,favorabletothespecies'survival. Withoutsuchspiritualequipment,notonlydosocietiestendtodisintegrate,buttheindividualscomposingthemmayjuststopbotheringtokeepalive.The'destructionof

[273] AndG.Childewrites:"Anideology,howeverremotefromobviousbiologicalneeds,isfoundinpracticetobebiologicallyuseful,thatis,favorabletothespecies'survival. Withoutsuchspiritualequipment,notonlydosocietiestendtodisintegrate,buttheindividualscomposingthemmayjuststopbotheringtokeepalive.The'destructionof religion'amongprimitivepeoplesisalwayscitedbyexpertsasamajorcauseintheirextinctionincontactwithwhitecivilization....Evidentlysocietiesofmencannotliveby breadalone."(150:p.8) Anexamplewhichpartlyreferstothesamesortofphenomenonand,atthesametime,bringsusbacktothemainthemeofourinvestigationisthefallinthebirthrate amongtheGuaraniIndiansintheJesuitstate.TheJesuitswerecompelledtoresorttovariousmeansofpressureontheIndiansinthehopeofincreasingthepopulation. OnecanassumethattheDraconianlawsagainstabortionintheIncastatewerealsoconnectedwithafallingbirthrate.Finally,shouldwenotviewinthesamewaythefact thattheRussians,whowerethemostrapidlygrowingnationinEuropeatthebeginningofthecentury,nowbarelymaintaintheirnumber? Webeganwithanexampleinwhichonecandemonstrateexperimentallytheconsequencesofimplementingonlyone principleinthesocialistideal,namely,theabolitionof thefamily.Otherexamplesillustratetheimpactonsocietyofthepartial demolitionofitsspiritualstructure(culture,religion,mythology).What,then,canbesaidofthe possiblesituationwherethesocialistidealwouldbeembodiedworldwide(sinceitevidentlycanreachitsfullpotentialonlywhenithasoverruntheentireworld)?Itis hardlypossibletodoubtthatthesametendencieswouldthenfindtheircompleteexpressionintheextinctionofallofmankind. Thisconclusionmaybemademorespecificintwocomplementaryways.Ontheonehand,wemayviewourhypotheticalcaseasa limitsituation inthemathematical sense,assomethingthatmightneveroccurinreality.Justasinmathematicstheconceptofinfinityclarifiesthepropertiesofconstantlyincreasingsequencesofnumbers,so, too,thisultimatelimitofhistoricaldevelopmentrevealsthebasictendencyofsocialism:itishostiletowardhumanpersonalitynotonlyasacategory,butultimatelytoits veryexistence. Orelsewecanassumethatthecompletevictoryofsocialismisattainable.Thereiscertainlynothingthatsuggeststheexistenceofanykindoflimitbeyondwhichsocialist principlescannotbeapplied.Itwouldseemthateverythingdependsonlyuponthedepthofthe [274] crisiswithwhichmankindmaybefaced.Inthiscase,onecouldregardthedeathofmankindasthefinal result towhichthedevelopmentofsocialismleads. Herewetouchonthemostprofoundofallthemanyquestionssocialismevokes:Howcouldadoctrineleadingtosuchanendcomeintobeingandswaysuchtremendous massesofpeopleoverthousandsofyears?Theanswertothisquestion,toalargeextent,dependsontheviewonetakesoftheinterrelationofsocialistideologyandthe endpointthatwehavepostulatedabove.Aretheyquiteindependentofeachotherinthewaythattheimprovementoflivingconditionsandtheresultingpopulationcrisis are,forinstance?(Howevercruelanddisastroustheeffectsofademographicexplosionmightbe,thefactorsthatallowittohappenaretheconsequenceofother,directly oppositemotives.)Orperhapsthereareessentialfeaturesinsocialistideologythatlinkitdirectlywithwhatwehavededucedtobethepracticalresultofitsrigorous implementationthedeathofmankind?Severalargumentsinclineustowardthesecondpointofview. Tobeginwith,mostsocialistdoctrinesandmovementsareliterallysaturatedwiththemoodofdeath,catastropheanddestruction.Forthemajorityofthem,itisthisvery moodthathasconstitutedtheirbasicinnermotivation.TheteachingoftheTaboritesistypicalhere:Inthenewagethatwasbeginning,theyasserted,Christ'slawofcharity wouldbeabolishedandeachofthefaithfulmustwashhishandsinthebloodofthegodless.ThisisclearlyexpressedinadocumentthatoriginatedinCzechPicardcircles butwasknownasfarawayasnorthernFrance.Thetextendswiththefollowingexhortation: Leteachgirdhimselfwiththeswordandletbrothernotsparebrotherfather,sonson,fatherneighbor,neighbor.KillalloneaftertheothersothatGerman hereticsshouldfleeinmobs,andwedestroyinthisworldthegainandthegreedinessoftheclergy.SowefulfillGod'sseventhCommandment,foraccording totheApostlePaul,greedisidolatry,andidolsandidolatorsshouldbekilled,sowecanwashourhandsintheiraccursedblood,asMosestaughtthrough exampleandinhiswriting,forwhatiswrittenthereiswrittenforouredification.(16:p.140) ThesamemotifsaredominantintheAnabaptistrevolutioninMntzer'steachingandinMnster.Inlateryears,theyaccompanythenewupsurgeintheactivityofsocialist movementsandaremanifestwithequalclarityinthesocialistnihilistmovementinthetwentiethcentury.ThusBakuninwrites,inaproclamationentitled"ThePrinciplesof Revolution": [275] Therefore,inaccordancewithstrictnecessityandjusticewemustdevoteourselveswhollyandcompletelytounrestrainedandrelentlessdestruction,which mustgrowinacrescendountilthereisnothingleftoftheexistingsocialforms....Wesay:themostcompletedestructionisincompatiblewithcreation, thereforedestructionmustbeabsoluteandexclusive.Thepresentgenerationmustbeginwithrealrevolutions.Itmustbeginwithacompletechangeofall sociallivingconditionsthismeansthatthepresentgenerationmustblindlyrazeeverythingtothegroundwithonlyonethought:Asfastandasmuchas possible....(95:p.361) Thoughwedonotrecognizeanyotheractivitybesidesthetaskofdestruction,weholdtotheopinionthattheforminwhichthisactivitymanifestsitselfmay bequitevaried:poison,dagger,noose,andsoforth.Therevolutionblesseseverythinginequalmeasureinthisstruggle.(95:363) Itisstrikingthatthemystiqueofdestructionisheretheonlymotivationraptureinitisofferedastheonlyreward,butonewhichmustoutweigheverysacrifice.Andthisis entirelyconsistentwithadefinitionBakuninandNechayevconstantlyrepeated:"Arevolutionaryisadoomedman."(151:p.468)Deathamonguniversaldestruction wassubjectivelytheultimategoalwithwhichtheyluredtheiradherents.Higherfeelingscouldnothavefosteredthisactivity,fortheywereutterlydenied.

this

"Alltenderandgentlefeelingsofkinship,friendship,love,gratitudeandevenhonoritselfshouldbechokedoffintherevolutionary'sbreastbythesinglecoldpassionofhis revolutionarytask.Heisnotarevolutionaryifhehaspityforanythingintheworld.Heknowsonlyonesciencethescienceofdestruction.Helivesintheworldwitha singleaimitstotalandswiftdestruction."(151:pp.468470) Evendreamsofthebrightfutureforthesakeofwhichallthedestructionwastooccurcouldnotserveasastimulusandwereforbiddenoutright. "Sinceourgenerationhasitselfbeenundertheinfluenceoftheabominableconditionswhichitisnowdestroying,creationmustnotbeitstaskbutthetaskofthosepure forcesthatwillcomeintobeinginthedaysofrenewal.Theloathsomenessofmoderncivilization,inwhichwehavegrownup,hasdeprivedusofthecapabilityofbuilding theparadiselikestructuresofthefuturelife,ofwhichwecanhavebutthevaguestidea,andourthoughtsaretakenwithdiametricallyopposite,unpleasantmatters.For peoplewhoarereadytostartthepracticaltaskofrevolution,weconsideritcriminaltohavethesethoughtsofthedimfuture,astheyhinderthecauseofdestruction [276]

"Sinceourgenerationhasitselfbeenundertheinfluenceoftheabominableconditionswhichitisnowdestroying,creationmustnotbeitstaskbutthetaskofthosepure forcesthatwillcomeintobeinginthedaysofrenewal.Theloathsomenessofmoderncivilization,inwhichwehavegrownup,hasdeprivedusofthecapabilityofbuilding theparadiselikestructuresofthefuturelife,ofwhichwecanhavebutthevaguestidea,andourthoughtsaretakenwithdiametricallyopposite,unpleasantmatters.For peoplewhoarereadytostartthepracticaltaskofrevolution,weconsideritcriminaltohavethesethoughtsofthedimfuture,astheyhinderthecauseofdestruction [276] anddelaythebeginningofrevolution....Forthepracticaltaskathand,itisapointlessspiritualcorruption."(95:p.361) Itisoftensaidthatcertainfeaturessovividlyexpressedinnihilismthegoalofcompletedestruction,neglectofallmoralprinciples,conspiracy,terrorarepeculiartothis movementspecifically,andthatitispreciselythesefeaturesthatdistinguishnihilismfromitsantipode,Marxistsocialism.Sometimesthisviewissupplementedbythe opinionthatBolshevismisatypicallyRussianphenomenon,theheritageofNechayevandBakuninandaperversionofMarxism.Thisviewwasexpressed,forexample, byKautskyinhisbooks(103and135)publishedin1919and1921.(KautskynotesthatsimilarideashadbeenexpressedbyRosaLuxemburgasfarbackas1904.)But whattodoaboutthestrikingcoincidenceofBolshevikideologyandpracticewithnumerousstatementsbyMarxandEngels?Anattemptisusuallymadetoexplainthese coincidencesawaybyassertingthattheparticularstatementsofMarxandEngelsarenotcharacteristicandareatoddswiththeiressentialmessage.(Opinions,however, divergeaboutwhichpartoftheirwritingshouldbeconsideredcentral.Kautskybelievesthatthelatercorpusoftheirwritings,theworksthatappearedaftertherevolution of1848,constitutethecentralcoreofMarxism,whichwasdistortedbyBolshevism,whilemodernsocialistsFromm,Sartreseetheearlierworksthisway.Indeed, SartreevenspeaksaboutthoseworksbyMarxthatprecededhis"illfatedmeetingwithEngels.") Thefactshardlysupportsuchaview.NihilismoftheBakunintypeandMarxismdevelopedfromthesamesource.Thedifferencesbetweenthem(whichexplain, incidentally,whyBakuninhasfarlessinfluencethanMarxandEngelsonhistory)lienotinthefactthatMarxismrenouncedelementsofnihilismbutthatitaddedtothem somenewandverysignificantelements.Marxismisbasedonthesamepsychologicalfoundationasnihilismaburninghatredforsurroundinglifethatcanbeventedonly throughcompleteannihilationofthatlife.ButMarxismfindsameansoftransferringthispurelysubjectiveperceptionoftheworldontoanother,moreobjectiveplane.As withart,wherepassioniskeptincheckandtransformedintocreativeworks,Marxismaccomplishedatransformationoftheelemental,destructiveemotionsthatruled BakuninandNechayevintoastructurethatseemedincomparablymoreobjectiveandhenceconvincingtheconceptofman'ssubordinationto"immanentlaws"or"the dialecticsofproduction." [277] ButtheperceptionoftheworldonwhichtheMarxiststructureisfoundedisidenticaltothatinNechayevandBakunin.ThisisparticularlyclearintheworksofMarxand Engelswrittenforanarrowcircleofcollaboratorsand,inparticular,intheircorrespondence.(3:XXIXXIV.Itwouldseemthatthefulltextsoftheselettershavebeen publishedonlyinRussiantranslation.)Weencounterherethesamefeelingofdisgustandseethinghatredfortheworld,beginningwiththewriters'parents:"MyoIdmanwill havetopayplentyforthis,andincash."(EngelstoMarx,February26,1851)"Youroldmanisapig."(MarxtoEngels,November1848)"Nothingtobedonewith myoIdwomanuntilImyselfsitonherneck."(MarxtoEngels,September13,1854)Thesamefeelingsareventedonclosefriends:"Thedoghasamonstrousmemoryfor allsuchmuck."(AboutHeine,MarxtoEngels,January17,1853.)Thesameholdsforpartycomrades:Liebknechtisusuallycalledanass,abrute,abeast,andsoon, even"it."(E.g.,inaletterfromMarxtoEngels,August10,1869.)Theirownpartygetsthesametreatment:"Whatsignificancedoesa'party'have,i.e.,agangofasses, blindlybelievinginusbecausetheyconsiderusequaltothemselves....Intruthwewouldlosenothingifweweretobeconsiderednolonger'arealandadequate' expressionofthesemediocredogswithwhomwehavespentthelastyears."(EngelstoMarx,February13,1851)Theproletariatisnotexcluded:"...stupidnonsense regardinghisbeingcompelledtodefendmefromthatgreathatredtheworkers(i.e.,fools)feelforme."(MarxtoEngels,May18,1859)Neitherisdemocracy:"...apack ofnewdemocraticbastards."(MarxtoEngels,February10,1851)"...democraticdogsandliberalscoundrels."(MarxtoEngels,February25,1859)Thepeopleare sneeredat:"Well,asforloving us,thedemocratic,thered,eventheCommunistmobneverwill."(EngelstoMarx,May9,1851)Andeventhehumanraceevokes disgust:"Notasingle livingsoulvisitsme,andIamgladofthat,forhumanityherecango...Thepigs!Withregards.Yours,K.M."(ToEngels,June18,1862) ThetacticaldevicesthatderivedfromthisperceptionoflifeareverysimilartothoseusedbyNechayevofBakunin.Kautsky,whoaccusesBakuninofleadingapartyto whichhehadappointedhimselfhead,mighthaverecalledMarx'slettertoEngels(May18,1859):"Ideclaredtothempointblank:wehavereceivedourmandateasthe representativesoftheproletarianpartyfromnoonebutourselves. Anditisconfirmedasoursbytheexceptionalanduniversalhatredwhichallsegmentsoftheoldworld andallthepartiesharborfor [278] us.Youcanimaginehowthesefoolsweretakenaback."IncriticizingBakunin'spenchantforconspiracy,KautskyshouldhavekeptinmindaletterfromEngelstoMarx (September16,1868):"Themethodofengagingintriflesatpublicmeetingsanddoingrealbusinessonthequietjustifieditselfbrilliantly."Andinclaimingthattheideaof terrorandviolencewasanerroroftheyoung MarxandEngels,itwouldhavebeenwelltoexplainwhyEngelswritesinAntiDhring: "Itisonlywithsighsandgroans thathe[Dhring]admitsthepossibilitythatforcewillperhapsbenecessaryfortheoverthrowoftheeconomicsystemofexploitationunfortunately,don'tyousee, becauseanyuseofforcedemoralizesthepersonwhousesit.Andthisinspiteoftheimmensemoralandspiritualimpetuswhichhasresultedfromeveryvictorious revolution!"(98:p.185)AndhowisitthatintheprefacetoHistoryofthePeasantWarinGermany, EngelsadvisescontemporaryGermanstofollowtheexampleof the"healthyvandalism"ofthePeasantWar?HowcanweexplainhiswordsinalettertoBebel:"If,thankstowar,weshouldcometopowerprematurely,thetechnicians willbecomeourspecialenemies,andwilldeceiveandbetrayuswherevertheycan.Wewillhavetoresorttoterror...."(3:XXVIII:p.365) AndatthesametimeitisimpossibletodenythattheseideascameintobeingattheverybeginningoftheactivityofMarxandEngels."Thisisatleastthebestthingthat remainsforustodo,whilewearecompelledtousethepenandcannotbringourideasintolifewiththehelpofourhandsor,ifnecessary,withourfists."(EngelstoMarx, November19,1844)Kautskyundoubtedlyknewallthesepassagesandotherslikethem,sincehetookpartintheeditingoftheGermaneditionoftheMarxEngels correspondence,fromwhichmostexpressionsofthistypewereeliminatedbytheeditors.ItisclearfromhisbookswhatitwasthatevokedsuchdislikeforBolshevism andthedesiretoprove,atanycost,thatitdistortsMarxism:theastonishingcontagiousnessofBolshevikideasandtheirrapiddiffusionintheWesternsocialistparties raisedtheoldfearsof"Russiandominance"intheInternational.(ThismisgivingwasfirstvoicedbyEngelsaboutBakunin.) Theotherlinkconnectingsocialistideologywiththeideaofhumanity'sdemiseisthenotionofmankind'sinevitabledeaththatispresentinmanysocialistdoctrines.We haveseen,forinstance,thattheCathars,whoseteachingcontainedideasofasocialistcharacter,believedthatafterthefallenangelsarefreedfrommaterialcaptivity,the remaining [279] peoplewilldie,andtheentirematerialworldwillbeplungedintoprimevalchaos. Asasecondexample,wetaketheviewsofthefutureofmankindheldbythreeprominentideologuesofsocialism:SaintSimon,FourierandEngels.InSaintSimon'sOn UniversalGravitation thereisasectionon"TheFutureoftheHumanRace."Here,indetailandwithgreatfeeling,hedescribesthedeathofmankindpresentedin reversechronologicalorderforeffect,somethinglikeafilmshownbackward. Ourplanethasatendencytodesiccation....Onthebasisoftheseobservations,geologistsarriveattheinevitableconclusionthatatimewillcomewhenour planetwillhavedriedupcompletely.Itisclearthatitwillthenbecomeuninhabitableand,consequently,fromacertainpointonwardthehumanracewill graduallybegintodwindle....SectionTwo:Atthebeginningofthissectionweshalldescribethesensationsofthelastman,ashediesafterhavingdrunkthe

Asasecondexample,wetaketheviewsofthefutureofmankindheldbythreeprominentideologuesofsocialism:SaintSimon,FourierandEngels.InSaintSimon'sOn UniversalGravitation thereisasectionon"TheFutureoftheHumanRace."Here,indetailandwithgreatfeeling,hedescribesthedeathofmankindpresentedin reversechronologicalorderforeffect,somethinglikeafilmshownbackward. Ourplanethasatendencytodesiccation....Onthebasisoftheseobservations,geologistsarriveattheinevitableconclusionthatatimewillcomewhenour planetwillhavedriedupcompletely.Itisclearthatitwillthenbecomeuninhabitableand,consequently,fromacertainpointonwardthehumanracewill graduallybegintodwindle....SectionTwo:Atthebeginningofthissectionweshalldescribethesensationsofthelastman,ashediesafterhavingdrunkthe lastdropofwateronearth.Weshallshowthatthesensationofdeathwillbefarmoreburdensomeforhimthanforusbecausehisowndeathwillcoincide withthedeathoftheentirehumanrace.Then,fromthedescriptionofthemoralstateofthelastman,weshallproceedbackwardtotheinvestigationofthe moralstateoftheremnantsofmankind,untilthatpointwhenitshallseethebeginningofitsdestructionandbecomeconvincedthatitisinevitable,a convictionthatwillparalyzeallmoralenergy...thedesiresofthesepeoplewillbethesameasthoseofanimals.(153:pp.275276) ItiscuriousthatSaintSimonbeginshisworkwiththisdepiction,apparentlysupposingtherebytocreateabackgroundagainstwhichthemeaningandspiritofhissystem willbeclearer. Engelsnotonlydepictsthedeathofeverylivingthing,butregardsdeathastheothersideoflife,oritsgoal."Itisalreadyacceptedthatthekindofphysiologywhichdoes notconsiderdeathanessentialmomentoflifecannotberegardedasasciencethisisthekindofphysiologythatdoesnotunderstandthatthe denial oflifeisinnatetolife itself,sothatlifeisalwaysseeninrelationtotheinevitableresultthatisinevitablypartofitfromthebeginningdeath.Thisistheessenceofthedialecticalperceptionof life."(3:XIV:p.399)Andmoresuccinctly:"Tolivemeanstodie." Engels'pictureoftheendisoneofthemostvividpagesofhiswriting: Everythingthatarisesisworthyofdeath.Millionsofyearswillpass,hundredsofthousandsofgenerationswillbebornandgodownintothegrave,but inexorablythetimewillcomewhentheweakeningwarmth

[280] ofthesunwillnotbeabletomelttheiceadvancingfromthepoleswhenmankind,crowdedtogetherattheequator,willceasetofindthenecessarywarmth eventhereandtheearthafrozendeadspherelikethemoonwillcircleinprofounddarknessaroundasunwhichisalsodeadandintowhichitwillfinally fall.Theotherplanetswillexperiencethesamefate,somesooner,theotherslaterthantheearth,andinsteadofanorderly,brightandwarmsolarsystem therewillremainacolddeadballcontinuingonitslonelywayintheuniverse.Andthefatethatwillhavebefallenoursolarsystemwillsoonerorlaterbefallall othersystems,eventhosewhoselightwillneverreachtheearthwhilethereisonitahumaneyecapableofperceivingit."(3:XIV:pp.488489) Fourier,whoinothercasesseemedtoshowsuchasincereattachmenttolifeanditspleasures,alsogavethisideaitsdue.His"TableofSocialMotion,"encompassingthe entirepastandfutureoftheearth,concludesthus: "Theendoftheanimalandvegetablekingdom,afterapproximately80,000years. (Thespiritualdeathofthe earth,thestoppingofrotationonitsaxis,theviolenttranslocationofthepolestotheequators,fixationonthesun,naturaldeath,fallanddisintegrationintheMilkyWay.)" AlthoughEngelsforesawtheendoflifeonearthfrommaterialcausesthatdiffergreatlyfromthosesuggestedbyFourier,thebasicideaevokedhisobviousapproval: "Fourier,aswesee,isjustasmasterfulatdialecticsashiscontemporaryHegel.Inthesamedialecticalfashionheasserts,incontrasttostatementsaboutman'scapacity forunlimitedperfection,thateachhistoricalphasehasnotonlyitsascendinglinebutalsoitsdescendingone,andheappliesthismethodofperceptiontothefutureof mankindasawhole.JustasKantintroducedintonaturalsciencetheideaofthefuturedeathoftheearth,Fourierintroducedintotheperceptionofhistorytheconceptof thefuturedeathofmankind."(98:p.264) Wenotehowdifferentthisnotionofthedeathofmankindisfromtheconceptionofthe"endoftheworld"inanumberofreligions,includingChristianity.Thereligiousidea oftheendoftheworldpresupposes,inessence,itstranslation,afterhumanhistoryhasachieveditsgoal,intosomeotherstate.Socialistideologyputsforwardtheideaof thecompletedestructionofmankind,proceedingfromanexternalcauseanddeprivinghistoryofanymeaning. AnewsynthesisofsocialistideologywiththeideasofdeathanddestructionappearsinMarcuse'sworks,whichhavegreatlyinfluencedthecontemporaryleftist movements.Here,too,MarcusefollowsFreud. [281] IntheFreudianview(firstexpressedinthearticle"BeyondthePleasurePrinciple"),thehumanpsychecanbereducedtoamanifestationoftwomaininstincts:thelife instinctorErosandthedeathinstinctorThanatos(ortheNirvanaprinciple).Botharegeneralbiologicalcategories,fundamentalpropertiesoflivingthingsingeneral.The deathinstinctisamanifestationofgeneral"inertia"oratendencyoforganiclifetoreturntoamoreelementarystatefromwhichithadbeenarousedbyanexternal disturbingforce.Theroleofthelifeinstinctisessentiallytopreventalivingorganismfromreturningtotheinorganicstatebyanypathotherthanthatwhichisimmanentinit.

Marcuseintroducesagreatersocialfactorintothisscheme,assertingthatthedeathinstinctexpressesitselfinthedesiretobeliberatedfromtension,asanattempttorid oneselfofthesufferinganddiscontentwhicharespecificallyengenderedbysocialfactors.IntheUtopiaproposedbyhim,thesegoalscanberealized,Marcusebelieves. Hedescribesthisnewstateinanextremelygeneralway,makinguseofmythologicalanalogies.AgainstPrometheus,theheroofrepressiveculture,hesetsNarcissusand OrpheusbearersoftheprinciplesuponwhichhisUtopiaisbuilt.Theysymbolize"theredemptionofpleasure,thehaltoftime,theabsorptionofdeathsilence,sleep, night,paradisetheNirvanaprinciplenotasdeathbutaslife."(119:p.164)"TheOrphicNarcissisticimagesdoexplodeit[reality]theydonotconveya'modeofliving' theyarecommittedtotheunderworldandtodeath."(119:p.165)AboutNarcissushesays:"Ifhiseroticattitudeisakintodeathandbringsdeath,thenrestandsleepand deatharenotpainfullyseparatedanddistinguished:theNirvanaprinciplerulesthroughoutallthesestages."(119:p.167) Thelessthedifferencebetweenlifeanddeathis,theweakerwillbethedestructivemanifestationsofthedeathprinciple:"ThedeathinstinctoperatesundertheNirvana principle:ittendstowardthatstateof'constantgratification'wherenotensionisfeltastatewithoutwant.Thistrendoftheinstinctimpliesthatits destructive manifestationswouldbeminimizedasitapproachedsuchastate."(119:p.234)"Intermsofthe[death]instinct,theconflictbetweenlifeanddeathisthemorereduced, thecloserlifeapproximatesthestateofgratification."(119:p.235) Thisviewhasamoreconcreteinterpretation:"PhilosophythatdoesnotworkasthehandmaidenofrepressionrespondstothefactofdeathwiththeGreatRefusalthe refusalofOrpheustheliberator. [282] Deathcanbecomeatokenoffreedom.Thenecessityofdeathdoesnotrefutethepossibilityoffinalliberation.Liketheothernecessities,itcanbemaderationalpainless. Mencandiewithoutanxietyiftheyknowthatwhattheyloveisprotectedfrommiseryandoblivion.Afterafulfilledlife,theymaytakeituponthemselvestodieata momentoftheirownchoosing."(119:pp.236237)

refusalofOrpheustheliberator. [282] Deathcanbecomeatokenoffreedom.Thenecessityofdeathdoesnotrefutethepossibilityoffinalliberation.Liketheothernecessities,itcanbemaderationalpainless. Mencandiewithoutanxietyiftheyknowthatwhattheyloveisprotectedfrommiseryandoblivion.Afterafulfilledlife,theymaytakeituponthemselvestodieata momentoftheirownchoosing."(119:pp.236237) Thereis,finally,thecasewherethenotionofthedeathofmankindcombineswithsocialistideologyinsuchawayastoaffectdirectlythefateoftheindividualmembersof socialistmovements.IntheCatharistmovement,forexample,obvioussocialisttendencieswerejoinedtothepracticeofritualsuicide.Runciman(11)believesthattheir idealwasthesuicideofallmankindeitherdirectlyorbynonreproduction.WemayplaceAbbeMeslier'ssuicideinthesamecategory:sointimatelywassuicidelinkedto hisgeneralviewoftheworldthatheconcludeshisbook (Testament) onthisnote:"Thedead,withwhomIintendtotravelthesameroad,aretroubledbynothingthey carefornothing.AndwiththisnothingIshallfinishhere.I,myself,amnownomorethannothing,andsoonshallbeinthefullsenseofthewordnothing." ThisframeofmindwasparticularlyapparentintheRussianrevolutionarymovement.Inthearticle"OnIntellectualYouth"includedinthecollectionLandmarks[Vekhi, 1909],A.S.Izgoevwrote:"NomatterwhattheconvictionsheldbythedifferentgroupsofRussianintellectualyouthwere,inthefinalanalysis,ifwegodeeperintotheir psychology,weseethattheyareinspiredbyoneandthesameideal....Thisisanidealofdeeplypersonal,intimatecharacter,anditfindsexpressioninthestrivingfor death,inthedesiretoprovetooneselfandtoothersthelackoffearofdeathandareadinesstoacceptitatanymoment.Thisis,inessence,theonlylogicalandmoral substantiationofone'sconvictionsthatisacceptedbythepurestrepresentativesofourrevolutionaryyouth."(154:p.116)Izgoevpointsoutthatthedegreeof"leftness" amongpoliticalgroupsMensheviks,Bolsheviks,SocialRevolutionaries,AnarchistsandMaximalistsasthiswasevaluatedbytheintelligentsia,wasnotbasedonthe politicalprogramofthegivenparty."Itisclearthatthecriterionof'leftness'lieselsewhere.'Furtherleft'ishewhoisclosertodeath,whoseworkismore'dangerous' not forthesocialsystemagainstwhichheisstruggling,butfortheactivisthimself,theindividualinquestion."(154:p.117), HequotesaMaximalistpamphlet:"'Werepeattothepeasantandtotheworker:whenyougotofightandtodieinthestruggle,go [283] andfightanddie,butforyourownrights,yourownneeds.'Inthis'goanddie'isthecenterofgravityofeverything....Butthisisnothingbutsuicide,anditisundeniable thatformanyyearstheRussianintelligentsiawasanexampleofapeculiarmonasticorderofpeoplewhohaddoomedthemselvestodeath,andthesoonerthe better."(154:pp.117118) Indeed,therecollectionsoftheterroristsofthedayconveyastrangesenseofecstasypersistentlyinterfusedwiththoughtsofdeath.Hereare,forexample,someexcerpts fromtherecollectionsofBorisSavinkov(155),speakingabouthiscollaboratorsintheattemptonPlehve'slife:"Kaliaevlovedtherevolutionasdeeplyandtenderlyas onlythosewhogiveuptheirlivesforitcanlove....Hecametoterrorbyhisownpeculiarandoriginalrouteandsawinitnotonlythebestformofpoliticalstrugglebutalso amoraland,perhaps,areligioussacrifice."Kaliaevusedtosaythat"aSocialRevolutionarywithoutabombisnotaSocialRevolutionary."Anotherparticipant,Sazonov, felt"strengthbeneathKaliaev'sexpansiveness,burningfaithbeneathhisinspiredwords,andbeneathhisloveoflife,areadinesstosacrificethislifeand,evenmore,a passionatelongingforsuchasacrifice."AndforSazonov,too,"terroristactivitymeantaboveallapersonalsacrifice." Aftertheassassination,Sazonovwrotetohiscomradesfromprison:"Yougavemeanopportunitytoexperiencemoralsatisfactionincomparabletoanythingintheworld. ...IhadhardlycometoaftertheoperationwhenIsighedwithrelief.Finally,it'sover.Iwasreadytosingandshoutwithdelight."AthirdparticipantwasDoraBrilliant.For her,justasfortheothers,"terror...wascolored,firstofall,withthesacrificethattheterroristmakes....Politicalquestionsdidnotinteresther.Perhapsshehadleftall politicalactivitywithacertaindegreeofdisenchantmentherdayspassedinsilence,insilentandconcentratedcontemplationoftheinnersufferingwithwhichshewas filled.Sheseldomlaughed,andeventhen,hereyesremainedcoldandsad.Forher,terrorpersonifiedtherevolutionherwholeworldwasenclosedwithinthemilitant organization."Savinkovrecallsaconversationontheeveoftheassassinationattempt: DoraBrilliantarrived.Shewassilentforalongwhile,staringinfrontofherwithherblack,sadeyes. "Veniamin!"[BorisSavinkov'spseudonym] "What?" "Iwantedtosay..."Shestopped,asifhesitatingtofinishthesentence.

[284] "Iwanted...IwantedtoaskagainthatIbegiventhebomb." "You?Thebomb?" "Iwanttotakepartintheattempt,too." "Listen,Dora..." "No,don'tsayanything...Ialsowantto...Imustdie...."* Amultitudeofsimilarexamplesleadsustosupposethatthedyingand,ultimately,thecompleteextinctionofmankindisnotachanceexternalconsequenceofthe embodimentofthesocialistidealbutthatthisimpulseisafundamentalandorganicpartofsocialistideology.Toagreaterorlesserdegreeitisconsciouslyperceivedas suchbyitspartisansandevenservesthemasinspiration. Thedeathofmankindisnotonlyaconceivableresultofthetriumphofsocialismitconstitutesthegoalofsocialism. Onereaderofmyearlieressayonsocialism(156)drewmyattentiontothefactthatthisthoughthadalreadybeenexpressedinDostoyevsky's"LegendoftheGrand Inquisitor."ItistruethatDostoyevsky'sargumentwasdirectedatCatholicism,butheconsideredsocialismtobeadevelopmentoftheCatholicismthathaddistorted Christ'steachings.(Thisviewiselaboratedinhisarticlesthatappearedin TheDiaryofaWriter.) Indeed,thepictureoflifepresentedasanidealbytheGrandInquisitor closelyresemblesPlatoorCampanella."Oh,weshallpersuadethemthattheywillonlybecomefreewhentheyrenouncetheirfreedomtous,andsubmittous....Yes,we shallsetthemtowork,butintheirleisurehoursweshallmaketheirlifelikeachild'sgame,withchildren'ssongsandinnocentdance....Andtheywillhavenosecretsfrom us.Weshallalloworforbidthemtolivewiththeirwivesandmistresses,tohaveornottohavechildren,accordingtowhethertheyhavebeenobedientordisobedient,and theywillsubmittousgladlyandcheerfully."AndtheGrandInquisitorunderstandstheultimategoalforwhosesakethislifewillbebuilt:

Onereaderofmyearlieressayonsocialism(156)drewmyattentiontothefactthatthisthoughthadalreadybeenexpressedinDostoyevsky's"LegendoftheGrand Inquisitor."ItistruethatDostoyevsky'sargumentwasdirectedatCatholicism,butheconsideredsocialismtobeadevelopmentoftheCatholicismthathaddistorted Christ'steachings.(Thisviewiselaboratedinhisarticlesthatappearedin TheDiaryofaWriter.) Indeed,thepictureoflifepresentedasanidealbytheGrandInquisitor closelyresemblesPlatoorCampanella."Oh,weshallpersuadethemthattheywillonlybecomefreewhentheyrenouncetheirfreedomtous,andsubmittous....Yes,we shallsetthemtowork,butintheirleisurehoursweshallmaketheirlifelikeachild'sgame,withchildren'ssongsandinnocentdance....Andtheywillhavenosecretsfrom us.Weshallalloworforbidthemtolivewiththeirwivesandmistresses,tohaveornottohavechildren,accordingtowhethertheyhavebeenobedientordisobedient,and theywillsubmittousgladlyandcheerfully."AndtheGrandInquisitorunderstandstheultimategoalforwhosesakethislifewillbebuilt: "Heseesthathemustfollowthecounselofthewisespirit,thedreadspiritofdeathanddestruction,andthereforeacceptlyinganddeception,andleadmenconsciouslyto deathanddestruction,andyetdeceivethemallthewaysothattheymaynotnoticewheretheyarebeingled."(157:pp.325327)**

*"Iknowthathewasobsessedwiththeideaofdeath,"saysSartreaboutthewellknownleftistNizan."HehadbeenintheU.S.S.R.andhadspokenaboutitwithhisSoviet comrades,andhetoldmeaboutthisonhisreturn.'Arevolutionthatdoesnotmakeusobsessedwithdeathisnorevolution.'Aninterestingthought."(143:p.81) **Inhisletters,Dostoyevskysaysthatin"TheLegendoftheGrandInquisitor"hewantedtoshowa"synthesis"ofthefundamentalideasofcontemporarysocialism.

[285]

XI. Conclusion
Thisparadoxicalphenomenonmaybeunderstoodonlyifweallowthattheideaofthedeathofhumanitycanbeattractivetomanandthattheimpulsetoselfdestruction (evenifitisonlyoneofmanytendencies)playsaroleinhumanhistory.Andthereisinfactmuchevidencetosupportthishypothesis,particularlyamongphenomenathat playanessentialroleinthespirituallifeofmankind.Quiteindependentlyofsocialism,eachoftheseleadstothesameconclusion.Wecanciteseveralexamples. Wehaveinmindphenomenathatrelatetoavastandancientreligiousandphilosophicalcurrent:pessimism or nihilism. Inthemanyvariantsofthesedoctrines,eitherthe deathofmankindanduniversaldestructionareregardedasthedesirablegoalofthehistoricalprocess,orelseNothingnessispronouncedtheessenceoftheworldthe goalisthentounderstandthatallrealityisbutareflectionofthisessence.VladimirSoloviev,whodevotedanarticletothenotionofpessimism,singlesoutwhathecalls absolutepessimism, whichcorrespondstothetendencythatinterestsus.(109:X:pp.254258)ItsfirstcompleteexpressioniscontainedinBuddhism.Soloviev characterizesBuddhismasadoctrineof"thefournobletruths:(1)Existenceis suffering (2)thecauseofsufferingissenselessdesire whichhasneitherbasisnoraims(3) deliverancefromthissufferingispossiblethroughdestructionofalldesire,and(4)thepathtodeliveranceleadsthroughtheunderstanding ofthetiesbetweenphenomena andobservationoftheperfectmoralcommandmentsgivenbytheBuddhathegoalofthispathisNirvana,thecomplete'extinction'ofexistence."(109:X:p.254) [286] IsNirvana(literally,"extinction"asintheblowingoutofaflame)actuallyawayto"Nothingness"?Buddha'sviewsonthisquestionhavebeeninterpreteddifferently.Max Mller,forexample,thoughtthatforBuddhahimselfNirvanawasthefulfillmentandnottheeliminationofexistence,assumingthatareligionthatoffered Nothingness as anultimategoalcouldneverhaveexisted.H.Oldenbergdevotesasectioninhisbook(158)tothisquestion.HecitesanumberofepisodeswhichcharacterizeBuddha's attitudetothequestionwhetherthe'T'existsandwhatthenatureofNirvanais.Theimportoftheseepisodesisthesame:Buddharefusestoanswersuchquestionsandby hisauthorityforbidshisdisciplestoconsiderthem.Butwhatisthemeaningconcealedhere?Theauthorbelievesthat"iftheBuddhaavoidsdenyingtheexistenceofthe'I,' hedoessoonlyinordernottoperplexthelistenerswholackinsight.Inthisdenialofthequestionconcerningtheexistenceornonexistenceofthe'I,'anansweremergesin anycase,somethingtowhichallthepremisesoftheBuddha'steachinginevitablylead:the'I'doesnotintruthexist.Or,whatisoneandthesamething:Nirvanaissimply annihilation....ButitisclearthatthethinkerswhograspedandmasteredthisviewdidnotwanttopromoteittothestatusofanofficialdoctrineoftheBuddhistcommunity. ...Theofficialdoctrinestoppedshortofquestionsonwhetherthe'I'exists,whethertheperfectsaintlivesonordoesnotliveonafterdeath.TheGreatBuddhaissaidto havegivennoprecept."(158:p.227) ThefactthattheBuddhaleftunansweredthequestionsoftheexistenceofthe'I'andthenatureofNirvananaturallyledtodifferentinterpretationsoftheseproblemswithin Buddhism.ThetwomainBuddhistsectsHnaynaandMahayanaBuddhismgiveoppositeanswerstothequestionofNirvana.InHnaynaBuddhism,Nirvanais consideredtobethecessationoftheactivityofconsciousness.AcontemporaryIndianauthorcharacterizestheHnaynateachingasfollows:"IntheHnayna,Nirvana becameinterpretednegativelyastheextinctionofallbeing....Thisviewisanexpressionofwearinessanddisgustwiththeendlessstrifeofbecoming,andoftherelieffound inmereceasingofeffort.Itisnotahealthymindeddoctrine.Asortofworldhatredisitsinspiringmotive."(159:pp.590,589)InMahynaBuddhism,Nirvanais understoodasamergingwiththeinfinite,withtheGreatSouloftheuniverse,butitisnotidentifiedwiththeannihilationofexistence. [287] However,itwastotheMahynatrendthatNgrjunabelonged(helivedatatimearoundthebeginningoftheChristianera).Hisfollowers,theMdhyamikas,are sometimescallednihilists. Ngrjunaproceedsontheassumptionthatthatwhichisnotunderstandableisnotreal.Hethenprovesthatthefollowingareneitherunderstandablenorexplicable:motion andrest,time,causality,thenotionofthepartandthewhole,thesoul,the"I,"Buddha,Godandtheuniverse."ThereisnoGodapartfromtheuniverse,andthereisno universeapartfromGod,andtheybothareequallyappearances."(159:p.655)"Thereisnodeath,nobirth,nodistinction,nopersistence,nooneness,nomanyness,no comingin,nogoingforth."(159:p.655)"Allthingshavethecharacterofemptiness,theyhavenobeginning,noend,theyarefaultlessandnotfaultless,theyarenot imperfectandnotperfect,therefore,OSariputta,hereinthisemptinessthereisnoform,noperception,noname,noconcept,noknowledge."(159:p.656) InChina,thephilosophyofLaotse(sixthcenturyB.C.)maybeseenasapartofthenihilistcurrent.ThisistheteachingoftheTao,or"TheWay."Wefindhereacallfor renunciationandquiescencethatvergesonthecessationofallactivity:* Onewhoisawaredoesnottalk. Onewhotalksisnotaware. Ceasingverbalexpressions, Stoppingtheentryofsensations, Dullingitssharpness, Releasingitsentanglements, Temperingitsbrightness, Andunifyingwiththeearth: ThisiscalledtheidentityofTao.

Ceasingverbalexpressions, Stoppingtheentryofsensations, Dullingitssharpness, Releasingitsentanglements, Temperingitsbrightness, Andunifyingwiththeearth: ThisiscalledtheidentityofTao. Hence,nonearnesscanreachhimnor distanceaffecthim. Nogaincantouchhimnorlossdisturbhim. Noesteemcanmovehimnorshamedistresshim. Thus,heisthemostvaluablemanintheworld.... Muchlearningmeanslittlewisdom. ...oncetheWayislost, TherecomesthenVirtue Virtuelost,comesthencompassion Afterthatmorality
*ThetextsaregiveninthetranslationofChangChungyuan (Tao:ANewWayofThinking,N.Y.,1977)andRaymondB.Blakney (LaoTzu,TheWayofLife,N.Y., 1955).

[288] Andwhenthat'slost,there'setiquette, Thehuskofallgoodfaith, Therisingpointofanarchy.... Letthepeoplebefreefromdiscernmentand relinquishintellection, Thentheywillbemanytimesbetteroff. Stoptheteachingofbenevolenceandgetridofthe claimofjustice, Thenthepeoplewillloveeachotheroncemore. Ceasetheteachingofclevernessandgiveupprofit, Thentherewillbenomorestealingandfraud.... TheWiseMan'spolicy,accordingly, Willbetoemptypeople'sheartsandminds, Tofilltheirbellies,weakentheirambition, Givethemsturdyframesandalwaysso, Tokeepthemuninformed,withoutdesire, Andknowingonesnotventuringtoact.... Tenthousandthingsintheuniversearecreatedfrom being. Beingiscreatedfromnonbeing.... InTaotheonlymotionisreturning Theonlyusefulquality,weakness.... TheWayisavoid. "Absolutepessimism"isexpressedinadifferentwayinancientScandinavianmythologyinthecollectionofsongsknownasthe ElderEdda. (160)Inthistradition(and especiallyinthe"ProphecyoftheVala,"thesocalled"Voluspo"),weseeapictureofaworldruledbygodspersonifyingtheforcesoforderandlifeandelemental destructiveforces,embodiedinthewolfFenrir,sonofLoki,heldincheckbyamagicnet.Butattheappointedhour,theWolfbreakslooseanddevoursthesunthe worldSerpentrisesfromthebottomoftheoceanandgainsvictoryoverThor.Ashipbuiltfromthefingernailsofthedeadsailsthesea,bringinggiantswhocometofight thegods.Allpeopleperish,heaveniscleft,theearthsinksintothesea,andthestarsfall.(Theconcludingstanzasofthe"Voluspo"describethebirthofanewworld,but differsosharplyfromtherestofthetextthatonetendstoagreewiththescholarswhoseethisasalaterinterpolation,possiblyreflectingtheinfluenceofChristianity.) ReturningtoSoloviev'sarticleonpessimism,wefindSchopenhauerandHartmannpresentedasthemajorEuropeanrepresentativesof [289] thistendency.SchopenhauerconsiderstheWorldWilltobethatessencewhichcannotbereducedtoanythingelse.But,atthesametime,allwillisdesireunsatisfied desire,sinceithasstimulatedthemanifestationofwillhencewillissuffering."Thewillnowturnsawayfromlife....Manattainstothestateofvoluntaryrenunciation, resignation,truecomposureandcompletewilllessness....Hiswillturnsaboutitnolongeraffirmsitsowninnernature,mirroredinthephenomenon,butdeniesit." (The WorldasWillandRepresentation, I:section68) TheaimofthisprocessisNothingness,achievedthroughthevoluntaryrenunciationofwill. "Nowill:norepresentation,noworld. "Beforeusthereiscertainlyleftonlynothingbutthatwhichstrugglesagainstthisflowingawayintonothing,namelyournature,isindeedjustthewilltolivewhichwe ourselvesare,justasitisourworld.Thatweabhornothingnesssomuchissimplyanotherwayofsayingthatwewilllifesomuch,andthatwearenothingbutthiswilland knownothingbutitalone....Thatwhichremainsafterthecompleteabolitionofthewillis,forallwhoarestillfullofthewill,assuredlynothing.Butalsoconversely,tothose inwhomthewillhasturnedanddenieditself,thisveryrealworldofourswithallitssunsandgalaxies,isnothing."(op.cit., section71)

"Nowill:norepresentation,noworld. "Beforeusthereiscertainlyleftonlynothingbutthatwhichstrugglesagainstthisflowingawayintonothing,namelyournature,isindeedjustthewilltolivewhichwe ourselvesare,justasitisourworld.Thatweabhornothingnesssomuchissimplyanotherwayofsayingthatwewilllifesomuch,andthatwearenothingbutthiswilland knownothingbutitalone....Thatwhichremainsafterthecompleteabolitionofthewillis,forallwhoarestillfullofthewill,assuredlynothing.Butalsoconversely,tothose inwhomthewillhasturnedanddenieditself,thisveryrealworldofourswithallitssunsandgalaxies,isnothing."(op.cit., section71) TothissystemHartmannaddstheideathattheworldprocessbeganthroughaninitialirrationalactofwillandconsistsofthegradualpreparationfortheeliminationofreal existence.Theaimistoreturntononexistence,implementedbythecollectivesuicideofmankindandthedestructionoftheworld,bothofwhicharemadepossiblebythe developmentoftechnology. ThenotionofNothingness,whichenteredphilosophyfromtheologythroughHegel'ssystem,playsanincreasinglyimportantroleinthenineteenthcentury,untilinthe twentiethitbecomesoneofthedominantconceptions.Forexample,MaxStirnerendshisfamousbookTheEgoandHisOwn withthewords:"Iamtheownerofmy mightandIamsowhenIknowmyselfasunique. Intheuniqueone theownerhimselfreturnsintohiscreativenothing,ofwhichheisborn.Everyhigheressenceabove me,beitGod,beitman,weakensthefeelingofmyuniqueness,andpalesonlybeforethesunofthisconsciousness.IfIfoundmyaffaironmyself,theuniqueone,thenmy concernrestsonitstransitory,mortalcreator,whoconsumeshimself,andImaysay: [290] Ihavefoundedmyaffaironnothing."(161:p.246) Butitwaswithintheframeworkofmodernexistentialism,especiallyintheworksofHeideggerandSartre,thatNothingnessfounditsmostimportantexpression. Heideggerbelievesthatman'sindividualityperishesinthelevelingandtheimpulsetowardmediocritythatisproducedinsociety(somethingthatisconveyedbythe untranslatableGermanlocution"man").Theonlytrueindividualityisdeath,whichisalwaysthedeathofaparticularmanandinwhichnothinglinkshimtoothers. Therefore,amancangaingenuineexistenceonlyonthevergeofdeath,onlyinwhathecalls"beinguntodeath."(162:p.144f.)Thebeingofeveryindividualityis,from thispointofview,merelyNochnicht [notyet],asortofperiodwhendeathhasnotyetripened.(162:p.244)Thisconcernsexistenceingeneralalso:existenceis NothingnessandNothingnessisexistenceitself.(163:p.104)Nothingnessisthelimitofexistencedeterminingitsmeaning.ForHeideggerNothingnessisevidentlyan activeforce,foritfunctionsDasNichtnochtet. Itdetermineshistory'smeaning,whichisrevealedintheattemptstoovercomethesenselessnessofexistenceandto breakthroughintoNothingness. NothingnessisalsothecentralcategoryinSartre'sprincipalphilosophicwork, BeingandNothingness. Itisnothingnessthatconnectsconsciousnessandbeing.Itisafundamentalpropertyofconsciousness"Nothingnessisputtingintoquestionofbeingbybeingthatis, preciselyconsciousness."(164:p.121)Consciousnesspenetratesintothecoreofbeingasawormintoanappleandhollowsitout.Asitisonlymanwhoconsciously strivesfordestruction,heisthebearerofNothingness."ManisthebeingthroughwhomNothingnesscomestotheworld."(164:p.60)Nothingnessissocloselylinkedto manthat,accordingtoSartre,humanbeinginitselfisalsooneofthemanifestationsofNothingness."ThebeingbywhichNothingnesscomestotheworldmustbeitsown Nothingness."(164:p.59) Itisinterestingtonotethatofthesetwobestknownrepresentativesofcontemporarynihilism,SartreadherestoMarxism,andHeidegger(untiltheendofWorldWarII) inclinedtowardNationalSocialism.Heidegger,moreover,alsoviewsCommunism(i.e.,socialismoftheMarxistbrand)asasortofincompletenihilism.(165:pp.145 395) ItseemstobenoaccidentthatthegrowthofinfluenceofnihilisticphilosophycoincidedinEuropeandintheU.S.A.withanextraordinaryinterestinBuddhism,particularly ZenBuddhism,whichisaproduct [291] oftheinteractionbetweentheconceptionsofBuddhismandTaoism.Zentypicallystressestheillusorynatureoflife'sproblems,andtheirabsurdity.Forexample,Gustav Mahler's"Kindertotenlieder"presentsanimageofasenselessallconsumingdeath,ablackholeintowhichlifecollapses.Consciousofhisapproachingdeath,Mahler composedhis"DasLiedvonderErde."ThisworkbeginswithapoemofLiPo(aChinesepoetclosetoZen)settomusic,whichisconstantlyinterruptedbyarefrain: "Lifeisdarknessanddeathisdarkness."ButthespectacularspreadofZenoccurredafterWorldWarII,especiallyintheU.S.A.Itwaspropagatedbysuchwellknown modernwritersasJ.D.Salinger.TheheroofaseriesofhisstoriesdispensesZenwisdomtothosearoundhimandcommitssuicide,notasanactofdespair,butforthe sakeoftheovercomingoftheseemingdifferencebetweenlifeanddeath.ZenwasalsothefavoritephilosophyoftheAmericanbeatniks,whofrequentlycompared themselvestowanderingmonks. Freud'sworldviewisalsopessimistic.Hediscernsaviciouscircleinwhichsocietyandhumanculturearelocked:culturalactivityispossibleonlyattheexpenseofthe suppressionofsexuality,butthisincreasestheroleofaggressiveanddestructiveforcesinthepsyche,andtokeepthemincheck,stillgreaterpressuresonthepartof socialforcesisneeded.Inthisway,cultureandsocietyarenotonlyorganicallytiedtomisfortunetheyarealsodoomedtodestruction.ThisisinconformitywithFreud's viewontheroleofthe"deathinstinct,"aviewthatleavestolifeonlythechoiceofthe"rightpathtowarddeath."Freud'smethod,especiallyinestablishinghisbasic concepts,isfarfromscientific.Ingeneral,Freudcannotbeverifiedwithconcretefacts,sohemustbeacceptedorrejectedonthebasisofone'sinnerfeeling.Inourday, whenscienceislosingitsroleasanabsoluteauthority,thischaracteristicofFreud'stheoriesmaynotberegardedasadefect.InconnectionwithFreud'santhropological andhistoricalideas,Marcusewrites:"Thedifficultiesinscientificverificationandeveninlogicalconsistencyareobviousandperhapsinsurmountable."(119:p.59)"We useFreud'santhropologicalspeculationonlyinthissense:foritssymbolic value."(119:p.60) Injustthisway,wemayregardFreud'sconceptionsnotasindisputablescientifictruthbutasevidenceofacertainperceptionoftheworld(thescopeofwhoseinfluence maybejudgedbythesuccessFreudianismhasenjoyed). [292] Finally,thesametendencymaybeseenintheoriesaccordingtowhichman(oranimal)isregardedasamachine.Alltheaspectsoflifeinman(orinanimals)canbe reducedinthiswaytotheactionofseveralsimpleforces.ThusDescartesexpressedtheopinionthatananimalisanautomatonincapableofthinking.Thesameideawas developedbyLaMettrieinhisbook L'hommemachine. Heassertsthat"thehumanbodyisaselfstartingmachine"andthenextendsthisprincipletothehumanpsyche. Descartes'sideawaslaterrealizedinLoeb'stheoryoftropisms,accordingtowhichtheactionsoforganismsaredeterminedbycertainsimple,physicalfactors(for example,thebendingofaplantinthedirectionofthesunisexplainedbythefactthatsunlightretardsthegrowthonthesideofthestemthatitstrikes).Accordingto Dembowski,thistheoryregardstheorganismas"apuppet,whoseeverymotiondependsuponsomeoutwardfactorpullingacorrespondingstring."(166:p.55)Similar viewsbecamepopularagaininthesecondhalfofthetwentiethcentury,inthewakeoftheinventionofcomputers.Theoriesthatholdthatman(oranimal)isamachine differcompletelyintheiropinionastowhatsortofmachineisinvolvedmechanical,electricorelectronic.Andasalltheseexplanationscannotbecorrectsimultaneously, itisevidentthatthepointofdepartureineachcaseisasimilaraprioriassumption,animpulsethatderivesfromelsewhere,toprovethatmanisamachine. Theconclusionswehavedrawnasaresultofouranalysisofsocialismarealsoconfirmed,aswesee,byaseriesofindependentarguments.Wemayformulatethese

example,thebendingofaplantinthedirectionofthesunisexplainedbythefactthatsunlightretardsthegrowthonthesideofthestemthatitstrikes).Accordingto Dembowski,thistheoryregardstheorganismas"apuppet,whoseeverymotiondependsuponsomeoutwardfactorpullingacorrespondingstring."(166:p.55)Similar viewsbecamepopularagaininthesecondhalfofthetwentiethcentury,inthewakeoftheinventionofcomputers.Theoriesthatholdthatman(oranimal)isamachine differcompletelyintheiropinionastowhatsortofmachineisinvolvedmechanical,electricorelectronic.Andasalltheseexplanationscannotbecorrectsimultaneously, itisevidentthatthepointofdepartureineachcaseisasimilaraprioriassumption,animpulsethatderivesfromelsewhere,toprovethatmanisamachine. Theconclusionswehavedrawnasaresultofouranalysisofsocialismarealsoconfirmed,aswesee,byaseriesofindependentarguments.Wemayformulatethese conclusionsasfollows: a. Theideaofthedeathofmankindnotthedeathofspecificpeoplebutliterallytheendofthehumanraceevokesaresponseinthehumanpsyche.Itarouses andattractspeople,albeitwithdifferingintensityindifferentepochsandindifferentindividuals.Thescopeofinfluenceofthisideacausesustosupposethat everyindividualisaffectedbyittoagreaterorlesserdegreeandthatitisauniversaltraitofthehumanpsyche. b. Thisideaisnotonlymanifestedintheindividualexperienceofagreatnumberofspecificpersons,butisalsocapableofunitingpeople(incontrastto delirium,forexample)i.e.,itisasocialforce.Theimpulsetowardselfdestructionmayberegardedasanelementinthepsycheofmankindasawhole. c. Socialismisoneoftheaspectsofthisimpulseofmankindtoward [293] selfdestructionandNothingness,specificallyitsmanifestationinthesphereoforganizingsociety.ThelastwordsofMeslier'sTestament(". ..withthisnothingI shallendhere")expressthe"finalmystery"ofsocialism,touseFeuerbach'sfavoriteexpression. Wehavearrivedatthisviewofsocialisminattemptingtoaccountforthecontradictionsevidentinthephenomenonatfirstglance.Andnow,lookingback,wefeel confidentthatourapproachindeedaccountsformanyofsocialism'speculiarities.Understandingsocialismasoneofthemanifestationsoftheallureofdeathexplainsits hostilitytowardindividuality,itsdesiretodestroythoseforceswhichsupportandstrengthenhumanpersonality:religion,culture,family,individualproperty.Itisconsistent withthetendencytoreducemantothelevelofacoginthestatemechanism,aswellaswiththeattempttoprovethatmanexistsonlyasamanifestationofnonindividual features,suchasproductionorclassinterest.Theviewofmanasaninstrumentofotherforces,inturn,makesitpossibletounderstandtheastonishingpsychologyofthe leadersofthesocialistmovements:ontheonehand,thereadinessandeventhestrivingtoeraseone'sownpersonality,tosubmititcompletelytotheaimsofthemovement (soobviousinthestatementsofPiatakovandTrotskycitedearlier)and,ontheotherhand,thecompletecollapseofwill,therenunciationofone'sconvictionsincaseof defeat(MntzerandJohannofLeyden,Bakunininhis"Confession,"thebehaviorofZinoviev,Bukharinandothersatthetrials,etc.).Infact,iftheinstrumentisnolonger needed,allmeaningforitsexistenceislost,andinman'ssoulthesourceofcourageandspiritualstrengthrunsdry.(Bakunin,forexample,bothbeforeandafterhis imprisonmentisquiteadifferentpersonfromtheutterlybrokenandselfabasingauthorofthe"Confession."AndBukharin,inhisemotional"Testament,"saysthathehas nodifferenceswithStalinandthathehashadnoneforalongtime.Hetherebydismisseshisentireactivityandevendepriveshimselfoftherighttoprotestagainsthisown execution,sincethatwouldinvolveadisagreement.)Thispointofviewisconsistentwiththecallstouniversaldestruction,withtheattractivenessofdestructiveforceslike warsandcrises,withtheallureofdeathandtheideaofNothingness. Thesamesetoffactsthathasledustothepointofviewexpressedaboveallowsustodiscernthemechanismoftheforceofwhichsocialismistheincarnationandtolearn throughwhatchannelsitactsontheindividual. Itwouldseem,firstofall,thatthisisanexampleofactivitythat [294] isnotguidedbyconsciousintent.Thepropositionthatastrivingforselfdestructionisthemainimpulseinsocialismhasbeenextractedfromamultistageanalysisof socialistideology,andisnottakendirectlyfromthewritingsofsocialistthinkersortheslogansofsocialistmovements.Itseemsthatthoseinthegripofsocialistideology areaslittlegovernedbyanyconsciousunderstandingofthisgoalasasingingnightingaleisconcernedwiththefutureofitsspecies.Theideology'simpactisthroughthe emotions,whichrendertheideologyattractivetomanandinducehimtobereadyforsacrificeonitsbehalf.Spiritualelationandinspirationarethekindsofemotions experiencedbytheparticipantsinsocialistmovements.Thisaccounts,too,forthebehavioroftheleadersofsocialistmovementsinthethickofthefight,downthroughthe agestheirseeminglyinexhaustiblereservesofenergyaspamphleteers,agitators,andorganizers. Fortheveryreasonthatthebasicdrivingforceofsocialistideologyissubconsciousandemotional,reasonandrationaldiscussionoffactshavealwaysplayedonlya subordinateroleinit.Thesocialistdoctrinesarereconciledwithcontradictionswithaneasereminiscentof"prelogical,"primitivethinking,whichfunctionsoutsideany frameworkofconsistency,asdescribedbyLvyBruhl.Theyareequallyunconcernedwiththefactthatsocialistconclusionsareradicallyatoddswithexperience.Most astonishingofallisthatthesecontradictionsdonotdiminishtheimpactofthedoctrineintheleast. Marxismreflectsallthesetraitstoaremarkabledegree.Wellknownthinkershavepointedoutnumerousfundamentalcontradictions,eachofwhichwouldhavebeen sufficienttodemonstratethegroundlessnessofatheorythatlaysclaimtobeingscientific. Forexample,Berdiaevdemonstratedthattheconceptofdialecticalmaterialism iscontradictory,sinceitattributestomatteralogicalcategorydialectics.Stammler(167)showedthattheideaofhistoricaldeterminismpostulatedbyMarxism contradictsitsownappealtoinfluencehistory,sinceitisequivalenttotakingaconsciousdecisiontoturnwiththeeartharoundthesun.(SergiusBulgakovparaphrasedthis thoughtasfollows:"Marxismpredictstheonsetofsocialismjustasastronomypredictsthebeginningofalunareclipse,andtobringabouttheeclipseitorganizesaparty.") TheveryheartofMarxistdoctrinethelabortheoryofvaluewasdemolishedbytheworkoftheAustrianschool(inparticularbyBhmBawerk)andhasbeen abandonedbypoliticaleconomy.Yetevenwithoutthisheart,Marxismprovedtobecapableofsurvival. [295] JustasextraordinaryisthereactionofMarxistthinkerstotheexperimentalevidenceofhistoryoverthelastcentury.Take,forexample,thearticlebyProfessorRappoport oftheUniversityofMichigan.(168:pp.3059)HecitesanumberofMarxistpredictionswhichhistoryhasdisprovedandaskswhetheritispossible"todeclarethetheory refuted."Suchaconclusion,hedeclares,appealstopeoplewhoviewwithsuspicionanytheorybasedongeneralphilosophicalconcepts(peoplelikeBerdiaev,Bulgakov, MaxWeberorKarlJaspers).Asfortheconcreteprojections,Rappoportacknowledgesthattheprognosisofatotalimpoverishmentofcapitalistcountriesdidnotcome true.Butifoneconsiderspovertyonaworldwidescale,thenoneseesthatthegapbetweentherichandthepoorcountrieshasincreased.Itistruethat"theconfirmation oftheMarxistconceptionofhistorydoesnotnecessarilyfollowfromthis.ButtherearisesacertainpossibilityofanewunderstandingofthevitalconceptsofMarxist theoryappropriatetoourtime."Afterthesearguments,whicharebeyondlogic,itremainsunclearwhetherornotMarxisttheoryiscorrectinthelightofhistorical verification.Theauthorevadesthisquestionand,withoutbenefitofproof,acceptsthatinsomewaysitis"viable,"asifitwerepossibletoretainpartofastructuredworld viewandthrowawaytherest. OrconsiderSartre,whodeclared,intheheydayoftheStalinepoch,thatallinformationcomingtotheWestaboutconcentrationcampsintheSovietUnionshouldbe ignored,eveniftrue,asitmightcausedespairintheFrenchproletariat(citedinTheGreatTerror byR.Conquest).SartrenowconsidersSovietMarxismtobe "repressive"and"bureaucratic,"andoftheFrenchworkingclasshesays:"Whatisaproletariatifitisnotrevolutionary?Anditis,indeed,notrevolutionary."(143:p.166) Inwhatwaywerehisjudgmentsinthefiftiesincorrect?Hedoesnotinformus.Nofundamentallynewfactsseemtohavecometolightintheinterim.Thereforethechange inhispointofviewcannotbeattributedtoarationalunderstandingofthesituation,andhisnewinfatuationwiththe"directdemocracy"inChinadoesnotproducethat

viewandthrowawaytherest. OrconsiderSartre,whodeclared,intheheydayoftheStalinepoch,thatallinformationcomingtotheWestaboutconcentrationcampsintheSovietUnionshouldbe ignored,eveniftrue,asitmightcausedespairintheFrenchproletariat(citedinTheGreatTerror byR.Conquest).SartrenowconsidersSovietMarxismtobe "repressive"and"bureaucratic,"andoftheFrenchworkingclasshesays:"Whatisaproletariatifitisnotrevolutionary?Anditis,indeed,notrevolutionary."(143:p.166) Inwhatwaywerehisjudgmentsinthefiftiesincorrect?Hedoesnotinformus.Nofundamentallynewfactsseemtohavecometolightintheinterim.Thereforethechange inhispointofviewcannotbeattributedtoarationalunderstandingofthesituation,andhisnewinfatuationwiththe"directdemocracy"inChinadoesnotproducethat impressioneither,foritleavesunansweredsuchelementaryquestionsaswhythedetailsofthis"directdemocracy"shouldbesocarefullyconcealedfromforeigners?Why areforeignreportersforbiddeneventoreadthewallposters? Allthesecharacteristicspromptustojuxtaposetheforcedisplayedinsocialismwithinstinct. Instinctiveactionsalsohaveanemotional [296] coloring,theirfulfillmentevokesafeelingofsatisfaction,andtheimpossibilityoffulfillingthem(theabsenceofsignals"switchingon"anaction)causesanxiety,theso appetitivebehavior.Ethologistsspeakofthe"stateofenthusiasm"todescribeacommoninstinctiveactioninmanwhichisconnectedwiththedefenseofwhatone considersmostprecious. called

Furthermore,instinctscombinebadlywithunderstandingandareevenincompatiblewithit:ifananimalcanachieveagoalbyvirtueofitsunderstanding,itwillnever attempttoachievethesamegoalbyinstinct.Instinctiveactionsarenotalteredbytheachievementofagoal,sincetheyarenotaresultoftraining.Inman,theinfluenceof instinctisusuallytolowercriticalabilities(forexample,inthebehavioroflovers),andargumentsagainstthegoalsoughtbyinstinctarenotonlydisregardedbutperceived assomehowbase.Forallthesereasons,thetermproposedbyFreudthe"deathinstinct"reflectsmanyfeaturesofman'simpulsetowardselfdestruction,which,aswe haveargued,isthedrivingforceofsocialism.(WeuseFreud'stermbutdonotacceptthemeaningFreudascribedtoitseetheearlierdiscussionandtheconsiderations offeredbelow.)Thetermisappliedwiththereservationthatitonlypartiallydescribesthephenomenonthisissofortworeasons.First,theinstinctinquestionisnotthatof separatepeoplebutofallmankind,whichinthiscaseistreatedasakindofindividuality.Itisevidentthatsuchanapproachrequiresasoundsubstantiation.Second, instinctpresupposestheachievementofacertainaimusefulfortheindividualoratleastforthespecies.Thisisextremelydifficulttoreconcilewiththe"deathinstinct,"and untilitcanbeshownthatthestrivingforselfdestructionplayssomeusefulroleformankind,theanalogywithinstinctshouldberegardedaspartial,illustratingonlysome aspectofthisphenomenon. Categoriessuchasthestrivingforselfdestructionorthe"deathinstinct"arepopularlyassociatedwithdualism,theconceptionoftwoequallypowerfulforces,the"life instinct"andthe"deathinstinct,"whichdeterminetheflowofhistory.Itwouldbeunfortunateiftheviewsexpressedherewereinterpretedassimplyavarietyofdualism, fordualismtendstobeanunstableandfragmentedworldview.Inthepresentstudyweexaminedtwodualisticphilosophies.Oneisthe'religionoftheManicheansandthe Cathars,whichundertakestoexplainthephenomenonofevilbytheexistenceofgoodandevilgods. [297] Butbyforceofthisreligion'slogic,thegoodGodwasexpelledfromtheworld,andhencethegroundfortheexistenceofgoodintheworldalsodisappeared.S. Runciman,astudentofthisreligion,believesthattheCathars,proceedingfromtheinexplicabilityofevil,arrivedattheinexplicabilityofgood.(11:p.175) Anotherdualistictheory,Freudianism,underwentastrikinglysimilarprocessofevolution.Freudbeganwithanassertionoftheuniversalroleofsexuality,regardedasan elementarylifeforce.Thedevelopmentofthisviewledhimtoadualisticconceptionofthe"lifeinstinct"orEros(coincidingwithbroadlyunderstoodsexuality)andthe "deathinstinct"orThanatos.Butgraduallytheroleofthe"deathinstinct"(or"Nirvanaprinciple")grewuntil,in"TheEgoandtheId,"Freudcallsit"thedominanttendency ofallmentallifeand,possibly,ofallneuralactivityingeneral."MarcusepointsoutapassageinFreud'sessay"BeyondthePleasurePrinciple"wherethepleasureprinciple isdescribedasthe"expressionofthe"Nirvanaprinciple."Freudalsowritesthat"lifeisbutalongdetourtodeath."Marcuse'sestimationofFreud'sconceptionalmost completelycoincideswithRunciman'sviewsofthedualismoftheCathars."TheinabilitytouncoverintheprimarystructureoftheinstinctsanythingthatisnotEros,the monismofsexualityaninabilitywhich,asweshallsee,isthesuresignoftruthnowseemstoturnintoitsopposite:intoamonismofdeath."(119:p.28) Evidentlydualismisingeneralatransitionalformfromonemonismtoanother,aswehaveseeninbothexampleshere.Butthesameexamplesshowthatpuremonism the recognitionofasingleforcewhichpromotesimprovementanddevelopmentalsocontainsacontradiction.Itleadseventuallytothesuppositionoftheexistenceofanother equallypowerfulandactiveforcemovingintheoppositedirectioni.e.,towarddualism,thentowardthemonismofthesecondforce.Butitisalsotruethattheideaof twoforcesactingintheoppositedirectionsdoesnotnecessarilyrequiretherecognitionoftheirequalitywhichwouldbefundamentalfordualism.Toshowhowthe viciouscircleofdualismmaybeavoided,weshouldliketopointtoPlato'ssplendidTimaeus. Platoheredevelopsthenotionoftwosoulsgoodandevilinnateinevery livingbeing.Thewholecosmosisalsoalivingbeingandalsopossessestwosouls.Theirinfluencealternates,andthisisreflectedinanalternationofcosmiccatastrophes. Butoutsidethecosmosandaboveitthereisdivinitytheincarnationofabsolutegood. [298] Returningtoourspecifictheme,weseethatthestrivingforselfdestructionexpressedinsocialismnotonlyisnotanalogousor"equivalent"tootherforcesactinginhistory, butisfundamentallydistinctfromthemincharacter.Forexample,incontrasttoareligiousoranationalideology,whichopenlyproclaimsitsgoals,the"deathinstinct"that isembodiedinsocialismappearsintheguiseofreligion,reason,socialjustice,nationalendeavorsorscience,andnevershowsitstrueface.Apparentlyitsactionisthe strongerthemoredirectlyitisperceivedbythesubconsciouspartofthepsyche,butonlyonconditionthatconsciousnessremainsunaware. Wewouldliketopropose,inapurelyhypotheticalmannerandwithoutinsistingonthispartoftheargument,thatthestrivingforselfdestructionmayperformauseful functioninrelationtoother,creative,forcesinhistory,andthathumanityneedsitinsomewaytoachieveitsgoals.Theonlyrationalargumentinfavorofthissuppositionis thealmostinexorableway,reminiscentofnaturalandscientificlaws,withwhichdifferentnationsoftheworld,especiallyinourcentury,havebeenfallingunderthe influenceofsocialistideology.Thiscouldbeanindicationthatitisanexperiencethroughwhichmankindmustnecessarilypass.Theonlyquestionwouldthenbethelevel onwhichthisexperiencewillrunitscourse.Willitbeonthespiritualplane?Asthephysicalexperienceofcertainpeoples?Orofhumanityasawhole?Soloviev,inhis earlyworks,developedanoptimistictheoryaccordingtowhichmankind,inordertobuildlifeonreligiousprinciples,wouldfirsthavetopassthroughanextremephaseof concernforindividuality,tothepointofhostilitytoGod,finallycomingtoGodbythisroutethroughaconsciousactofthisindividuality.Thisisthereasonforhisinterestin thepessimisticphilosophiesofSchopenhauerandHartmann,whichSolovievregardedasasignofthecomingendoftheindividualisticepoch,astestimonyofthespiritual deathtowardwhichthepathofareligiousdevelopmentleads.However,thispurelyspiritualexperienceprovedtobeinsufficient.Solovievhimselfcametothisrealization, asisclearfromhislastandperhapsmostprofoundworks. Thelasthundredyears,particularlythetwentiethcentury,havebroughtsocialismunheardofsuccess.ThishasbeenprimarilyasuccessofsocialisminitsMarxistform, mostlybecauseMarxismhasbeenable,toanswertwoquestionsthatalwaysstandbeforesocialistmovements:wheretoseekthe"chosenpeople"i.e.,whoistodestroy theoldworldandwhatisthesupremeauthoritysanctioningthemovement? [299] Theanswertothefirstquestionwas theproletariat tothesecond, science. Atpresentbothanswershavebecomeineffective,atleastfortheWest."Theproletariathas becomeasupportforthesystem,"Marcusecomplains."Whatisaproletariatifitisnotrevolutionary?Anditis,indeed,notrevolutionary,"Sartreconfirms.Andscience

Thelasthundredyears,particularlythetwentiethcentury,havebroughtsocialismunheardofsuccess.ThishasbeenprimarilyasuccessofsocialisminitsMarxistform, mostlybecauseMarxismhasbeenable,toanswertwoquestionsthatalwaysstandbeforesocialistmovements:wheretoseekthe"chosenpeople"i.e.,whoistodestroy theoldworldandwhatisthesupremeauthoritysanctioningthemovement? [299] Theanswertothefirstquestionwas theproletariat tothesecond, science. Atpresentbothanswershavebecomeineffective,atleastfortheWest."Theproletariathas becomeasupportforthesystem,"Marcusecomplains."Whatisaproletariatifitisnotrevolutionary?Anditis,indeed,notrevolutionary,"Sartreconfirms.Andscience haslostitsprestigeanditsroleasunquestionableauthorityithasbecometoopopularandwidespread,andceasedbeingthesecretknowledgeofaselectfew.Moreover, manyofitsgiftshaverecentlyprovedtobefarfrombeneficial.Forthisreason,Marcusecallsforreplacingsciencewithautopia,forgrantingtheroleheldbyreasonto fantasy.Untilthesefundamentalquestionsfindanswersadequatetothenewepoch,itwillscarcelybepossibletoexpectsuccessforsocialismcommensuratewiththatof Marxism.Meanwhiletherehavebeenandcontinuetobeattemptsinthisdirection.Forexample,thesearchforthe"chosenpeople"seemstobetherealmeaningbehind the"problemofminorities"whichsoengagestheWesternleftistmovements:studentsorhomosexualsorAmericanblacksorlocalnationalitiesinFrance....Thereisno doubtthatotheranswerswillbefoundthetendencytowardsocialismthatgripstheWestspeaksforthis. Butifwesupposethatthesignificanceofsocialismformankindconsistsintheacquisitionofspecificexperience,thenmuchhasbeenacquiredonthispathinthelast hundredyears.Thereis,firstofall,theprofoundexperienceofRussia,thesignificanceofwhichweareonlynowbeginningtounderstand.Thequestionthereforearises: willthis experiencebesufficient?IsitsufficientfortheentireworldandespeciallyfortheWest?Indeed,isitsufficientforRussia?Shallwebeabletocomprehendits meaning?Orismankinddestinedtopassthroughthisexperienceonanimmeasurablylargerscale? ThereisnodoubtthatiftheidealsofUtopiaarerealizeduniversally,mankind,eveninthebarracksoftheuniversalCityoftheSun,shallfindthestrengthtoregainits freedomandtopreserveGod'simageandlikenesshumanindividualityonceithasglancedintotheyawningabyss.Butwilleven that experiencebesufficient?Forit seemsjustascertainthatthefreedomofwillgrantedtomanandtomankindis absolute, thatitincludesthefreedomtomaketheultimatechoicebetweenlifeanddeath. [300]

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Index
A
Absolutepessimismconcept,286,289 Adamitesect,3133,6768,75 AdventuresofTelemachus,The (Fnelon),104 Agriculture:inCh'inempire,181CodeofNature, 111postrevolutionaryRussiaand,239241,252Shangteaching,176178insocialistnovels,104105 inSumer,154155,157,159in Utopia, 83Yinera,China,168171 Agrodespoticstate,192 n. Ajaoiens,104105 Albigensiansect,19,67,69,73,77 Altman,I.,251 Amalriciansect,67,78 AmalricofBena,2526 Americansects,80,197,268 Anabaptistsect,3440destructiveelements,275asforerunnerofsocialism,78,197,214inMnster,5966nameandorigin,67,6971violenceand fanaticism,3740,6066,73,265 Anarchism,215,248249,267 AncientKingdom.See Egypt AncientOrientsocialiststates,152185,196,202andideology,272summary,189192,255. Seealso "AsiaticSocialFormation" Animalsocieties,264265,269,271272andinstinct,297

Anarchism,215,248249,267 AncientKingdom.See Egypt AncientOrientsocialiststates,152185,196,202andideology,272summary,189192,255. Seealso "AsiaticSocialFormation" Animalsocieties,264265,269,271272andinstinct,297 Anonymoussociety,265,269 Anthropologyofsocialism,227234 Antichrist,25,27,29,46,48 AntiDhring (Engels),208209,212213 Anticulturaltheme,178,184185,196197,233,265266postrevolutionaryRussia,248251 Antiquity:laborpopulation,190andsocialism,318,78. Seealso China,ancientEgyptMesopotamia ApostolicBrethren,29,4650,67,71 Aristophanes,34,6,1415 Arts,218thcenturynovels,105106Enlightenmentliterature,111,119,121inidealsocialiststate,269ofNewLeft,233inPlato's Republic, 910,265in postrevolutionaryRussia,248,250251Utopiansand,85. Seealso Anticulturaltheme Arvatov,B.,250 "AsiaticSocialFormation,"xi,185189,207,256257basicfeatures,187188 Atheism:Deschampsand,115117Levellers,4546as"religion"ofsocialism,130,196,225,233234socialismasresultof,234235 Australianaborigines,205,273 "Axialtime,"255257 Ayala,GuamnPomade,136,139140 Aztecs,205

B
Babeuf,FranoisEmile,121,124,212 Bakunin,M.,186 n., 203,215,219,223confessionof,294destructionandterrortheme,212,275279 Baptism,6870,75 Baptists,70,80 Barilotto, 27,42 Batenburg,40 Bautemple,153155,155 n. Baudin,L.,141142,264 Bazarov,V.A.,226 Beehiveanalogy,218,269

[309] BeghardsandBeguines,2829,67,71 Beingconcept,291 Berdiaev,Nikolai,226,295296 BernarddeClairvaux,Saint,23,70 Berlin'sCommuneNo.1,236,269 Birthrates,274 Blackmasses,68

BernarddeClairvaux,Saint,23,70 Berlin'sCommuneNo.1,236,269 Birthrates,274 Blackmasses,68 Blacks,inAmerica,203,300 Blonsky,P.P.,251 Bogomilheresy,19,6869 Bohemia,2934,37,71 Bokelson,Jan(JohannofLeyden),4041,197,294lifeof,5966 Bolsheviks,213,217218,277279 Bondingtheory,264265 Bookburninganddestruction,31,119,184185 Bourgeoissociety.See MarxismBrethrenoftheFreeSpirit,24,47doctrines,2629,41,69,7677origins,69,254sexualpractices,2728,42andsocialist aspects,28,3233,35,78,236 Brik,Osip,250 Bruys,Pierrede(Peter),21,6970 Buddha,286288 Buddhism,255,286288 Bukharin,Nikolai,212,243,250,294 Bulgakov,Sergius,78,208,210,220onMarxism,295296onsocialismasreligion,225226,233 Buonarroti,Philippe,121,124,128129 Bureaucracy:ancientEgyptian,162164Ch'inempire,180in"Equals"state,122Incaempire,138139 Burialcustoms,120,139140,198

C
Campanella,Tommaso,8788,100,112,124,197 CityoftheSun, xiii,8795,238,254,256,259,300criticismofchurch,9495,129andsocialistideals, 237,285 Capital (Marx),207211,229,266268 Capitalism,bourgeoissociety,5,242243,250comparedwithsocialism,216219Marxismand,202,212213polarizationofsexes,263andsocialjustice, 225 Carpocratiansect,15 Cathars,1925,28,73,75,7778andcharity,221deathnotion,279280,283dualism,297298origins,6971,254 CatholicChurch:Campanellaand,94andcharity,221Dostoyevskyon,234235,285andItalianfascism,253medievalheresiesand,18,2138,7275, 196Moreand,87. Seealso InquisitionReformationperiod Censorship,910,123 Charlevoix,P.F.X.de,145146,148,150 Chernyshevsky,N.G.,222 Childbearing,12,20,22,9192,246 Children:communalupbringing,80,87destructionofparentalties,4,12,1517,118119,179,195,236,270271inEnlightenmentliterature,111,113,118in "Equals,"123Fourieron,228hereticaldoctrineson,37,6869Incaempire,137138,141142inJesuitstate,150inpostrevolutionaryRussia,240 241,244248insocialistnovel,103105Solariansand,91stateregulationandupbringing,5,8992269271andUr,159 Chiliasm,3 Chiliasticsocialism,3130ancientGreece,715contradictions,295definitionanddoctrines,36earlyChristianity,1517EnglishRevolutionera,4146 Enlightenmentliterature,106120"Equals"inFrance,121129hereticalmovementslinkto,6779Hussitemovement,2934MiddleAges,1829new featuresof,129130Reformationperiod,344117thand18thcenturynovels,101106Statesocialism,differenceswith,236,253257Utopians,82 101violence,lossof,80,81 n. visionoffuturesociety,254,257

Chiliasm,3 Chiliasticsocialism,3130ancientGreece,715contradictions,295definitionanddoctrines,36earlyChristianity,1517EnglishRevolutionera,4146 Enlightenmentliterature,106120"Equals"inFrance,121129hereticalmovementslinkto,6779Hussitemovement,2934MiddleAges,1829new featuresof,129130Reformationperiod,344117thand18thcenturynovels,101106Statesocialism,differenceswith,236,253257Utopians,82 101violence,lossof,80,81 n. visionoffuturesociety,254,257 China,ancient:Ch'inempire,180185laborpopulation,190Shangteachings,173180YinandearlyChouera,168172 China,contemporary,252253,262,296 Ch'inempire,179185 Christ,223Christianbeliefs,7476Dostoyevskyonsocietywithout,234235,285"Equals"disagreementon,124medievalheresiesand,19,21,2544,75 Meslierhatredfor,107,130temptationof,220 Christianity:Campanellaon,9495decline,234235earlysects,1517endofworldconcept,281fundamentalprincipleof,74,76individualityconcept, 255256medievalheresiesand,1734,196Meslieron,107,130Reformationand,3441socialismasreactionto,256socialistideologyand,79in Utopia, 87Winstanleyon,45 CityoftheSun (Campanella),8795andidentity,259isolationofsociety,238sexualregulation,91 Classstruggle,229230,262263

[310] Clothing,identical,4,269Anabaptists,3637characteristicofsocialistsociety,259,267,269Incas,136,141JesuitstateIndians,149inMorelly's Codeof Nature, 111Sevarites,103Solarians,9091Utopians,84,259 CodeofNature,The (Morelly),111112,114andidenticalness,259 Collectivizationofagriculture,239240,247,252 Communalityidea:andabolitionofprivateproperty,195anticulturalbias,196197Aristophaneson,4inBuonarroti'ssociety,122ofchildreninCityofthe Sun, 91Christians,early,1516Englishsects,4144hereticalsectsand,3539,4748,57,6063,67,7879inJesuitstate,145146andMarxism,5of menandwomen,118in Republic andDiodorus,11,1417thand18thcenturyliterature,102105,108,118asslogan,213associalistprinciple,196, 200,257. Seealso PrivatepropertyWivesWomen Communes,43,103,123124,181,199China,252253postrevolutionaryRussia,239240,247248 Communism,87,195,213214 CommunistManifesto, xiii,46,195,244 Compulsorylabor:Anabaptists,37inancientChina,170,177,179,182183,189190ancientEgypt,162,189ancientGreeks,4,1314andconscription, 189,241243"Equals"on,122Incas,135Jesuitstate,146,150andmeaningofsocialism,215Mesopotamia,153155,158161,189190Morelly on,111postrevolutionaryRussia,240243socialistnovelon,103,105Utopians,83,85,90Winstanleyon,9697,99. Seealso CommunesWorkand workers Concubines,137138,141 Confucianism,172,185,255 ConspiracyofEquals (Buonarroti),xiii,121129 Consolamentum (consolation),22 CounterReformation,75 Craftworkandartisanship:ancientChina,170,177178,182,190ancientEgypt,165,190Mesopotamia,154,157158,163,165,190Morellyon,111Plato on,8,1314socialistnovels,104105SouthAmericansocieties,135,147,190 Credenti, 2122 CrimeandPunishment (Dostoyevsky),199 Crimesandpunishment:ancientChina,172,174175,179,183,191"Equals"on,123Incas,139140Jesuits,145146Utopians,83,90,9293,97,99. See also Laws CritiqueofPoliticalEconomy (Marx),207 Cromwell,Oliver,4243,45,96Culture. See Anticulturaltheme

D
Death:Cathardoctrine,2223Deschampson,114,120Diodorus'communes,15Incas,139140Platoon,910,13andsocialistideology,275276. See also Extinctionof mankindthemeSelfdestructiveimpulseSuicide

See Anticulturaltheme

D
Death:Cathardoctrine,2223Deschampson,114,120Diodorus'communes,15Incas,139140Platoon,910,13andsocialistideology,275276. See also Extinctionof mankindthemeSelfdestructiveimpulseSuicide Deathinstinct,282285,292,297 Denck,Hans,36,39 Descartes,Rene,293 Deschamps,DomL.G.,114120,198,215onGod,114116,130onlevelingofman,260andPlato,254threestagesofman,117120 Destructionofexistingsocietytheme,xii,3,78,130,217225,237238injusticeandsuffering,221225andrevolutionarymovements,275277tendencyof chiliasticsocialism,254,257 Dialectics,210,277,280281,295 DiaryofaWriter,The (Dostoyevsky),234,285 Diderot,Denis,112114,142 Diggers,4346,95 Diodorus,15 Divorce,247248. Seealso Marriagecustoms Dolcino,Fra,29,4750,73,197,214 Dostoyevsky,F.M.,129,198199,267,269 CrimeandPunishment, 199 DiaryofaWriter,The, 234,285onfailureofCatholicismandsocialism,234 235,285"GrandInquisitor,"285 Possessed,The, 129,198,267 Dualism,297298

E
East,ancient. See AncientOrientsocialiststates EastAfrica,191,201 Ecclesiazusae (Aristophanes),34,6comparedwith Republic, 1415,198 Economicsystems:ancientChina,168185ancientEgypt,162165,173ancientSumer,152161,173AsiaticModeofProduction,185189contemporary China,252253Incas,133142Jesuitstate,142151Kingascenterof,189192SovietRussia,239241,252statecapitalismconcept,216,239

[311] Education:inCh'inempire,184185Deschampson,119"Equals"on,122123Incachildren,139Marxismon,5Platoon,9,1112socialistnovels,103 106Winstanleyon,101 EgoandHisOwn,The (Stirner),290291 Egypt,142,161,173,192AncientKingdom,162164,190191compulsorylabor,21518thDynasty,164165machineanalogy,261262religion,166 167 EiblEibesfeldt,J.,271 ElderEdda, 289 "Elect"(Incacivilization),137138 Enchmen,E.,249250 Encyclopdie, 112,142,197 Endura, 22 Engels,Friedrich,5,33,195onAsiaticModeofProduction,186onfamily,243245onFourierandSaintSimon,204onjustice,212onMarxist contradictions,211n.,onmobilizationofworkers,241reviewsof Capital, 267268onrevolution,238andscientificmethod,208210. Seealso Marx Engelscorrespondence EnglishRevolutionof1648,4146,73,95 Enlightenmentliterature,81n.,106120onequalityandnature,259onJesuitstate,151

contradictions,211n.,onmobilizationofworkers,241reviewsof Capital, 267268onrevolution,238andscientificmethod,208210. Seealso Marx Engelscorrespondence EnglishRevolutionof1648,4146,73,95 Enlightenmentliterature,81n.,106120onequalityandnature,259onJesuitstate,151 Enzensberger,H.M.,266 Epiphanes,1516,236 Equalityconcept:Christiandoctrineandsocialism,79Deschampson,118earlyChristiansects,1617"Equals"socialaim,121asidenticalbehavior,258 261insocialistnovels,104106socialistprinciple,196,200,219andsuppressionofindividuality,262in Utopia, 8586 Equals,Societyof,121129,238disputeoverreligion,124andidenticallives,259260naiveteandinanity,129,267transitionalperiod,124127 Escadn,Juande,145146,150 Ethology,264265,297 Europe:andnihilism,291293andsocialism,200,234235. Seealso WesternEurope Existentialism,114115,291 Extinctionofmankindtheme,274285selfdestructiveimpulse,286300

F
Fadeyev,A.,250 Familistsect,41 Family:abolitionof:Americansects,80actualrealizationof,236237,253ancientOrient,179,183Aristophaneson,4,6andidenticalbehavior,258261 Incas,136137andindividuality,262Marxisttheoryon,56,243245medievalheresies,23,28,67,7677andoverpopulation,253Platoon,12 postrevolutionaryRussia,245248socialistprinciple,195,200,257Utopiansand,87,98. Seealso Marriagecustoms Fnelon,104 Feuerbach,Ludwig,114,294 Foigny,Gabrielde,103 Fontenelle,104105 Food,1112,15,147,240 "Forerunners"notion,197,214 ForestBrethren,268 Fourier,Charles,215,219,224,245,249comparedtoMarxism,204,210,211andFreud,228229,230231inevitabledeaththeme,280281oninstinct andpassions,227228onirresponsibility,266267Marcuseon,6planettheoryandsocialistteachings,204206,256sincerityof,205,205n. "Unitheism,"262 France,24,296,300Dostoyevskyon,234in"Equals,"124,238 Frank,Semyon,226 Freedomofwill,20,115,229,300 FreeSpirits. See BrethrenoftheFreeSpirit Freudiantheory,298deathinstinct,292,297humanpersonalityconcept,228231influenceonMarcuse,263264,281282 Fromm,Erich,277

G
Germany,69,129andmedievalheresies,27,34,3740,5166,74Nazi lebensborn, 253 Gnosticheresies,68,75,77,236andequality,258socialistaspects,254,256. Seealso Manicheansects God:inBuddhism,288Catharbeliefs,1921,7576Deschampson,115117,130Fourieron,228Incasand,135,137138andindividualman,267king worship,166168manicheismand,68,76medievalheresiesand,2527,30,37,41Meslieron,107108Ranters,141142andSocialism,234235 Winstanley'sideaof,101 "Godbuilding"tendency,226 Gorky,M.,226 "GrandInquisitor"(Dostoyevsky),285,285n.

worship,166168manicheismand,68,76medievalheresiesand,2527,30,37,41Meslieron,107108Ranters,141142andSocialism,234235 Winstanley'sideaof,101 "Godbuilding"tendency,226 Gorky,M.,226 "GrandInquisitor"(Dostoyevsky),285,285n.

[312] GreatWallofChina,182 Greece,315,78,190humanpersonalityconcept,255 GuaraniIndians,143151,274 Guilds,81n.,190

H
Hartlib,Samuel,46 Hartmann,Eduardvon,290,299 Hartmann,Johann,2627 HawaiianIslands,191192,201 Hegel,G.W.,114,210 Heichelheim,F.,xi,189192 Heidegger,M.,291 Heinrichians,69 Hereticalsects. See GnosticheresiesManicheansectsMedievalheresies Hetzer,36 Hide,Edward,42 Hierarchies:animalsocieties,265bureaucraticinsocialiststate,261Incas,138139medievalheresies,22,28,77Meslieron,107socialismandabolitionof, 196,200 Historicalmaterialism,185189 History,conceptsof:ancientChinese,180"axialtime,"255Deschamps'sthreestagesof,117118anddualism,297298evolutionaryprogressidea,130 Freudianview,230Heichelheimthesis,xiironlawsof,266JoachimofFloreview,25Morelly'sbasicforceof,112socialistviewof,226 HistoryoftheSevarites (Vairasse),102103,238 "HominesIntelligentia,"28,33 Homosexuality,117,232 Housingarrangements:Anabaptists,37Aristophanes,on,4,198freeentry,198199Incas,133,141,199Jesuitreductions,148149Marxism,5Platoon, 11,198199forthepoorin"Equals,"126127,127n.postrevolutionaryRussiandormitory,199,247248privacy vs. equality,199,259Utopians,85, 198,259Winstanley'ssociety,100 Humanism,2728,81n. Humanpersonality,conceptsof,227233and"axialtime,"255256deathofmankindidea,293294levelingdownof,xiii,233,260Marcuseon,231233 Marxon,xivinreligion,233,255postrevolutionaryRussianliterature,250251insocialistideology,227231. Seealso Individuality Humansacrifice,134,138 Hussitemovement,29,71,73wars,3334 Hut,Hans,36,39 Hydraulicsocieties,191192,201

I
Iconoclasm,7576,95. Seealso Medievalheresies Identicality,xiii,119120,198,258262

Hydraulicsocieties,191192,201

I
Iconoclasm,7576,95. Seealso Medievalheresies Identicality,xiii,119120,198,258262 Ideologyofsocialism:coincidencesandconservatism,197201andcontradictions,xiiixvdefinitionandbasicprinciples,194197,200,236237delusive quality,295296,299dependenceonChristianity,79differentconceptionsof,202235inEnlightenmentandUtopianwritings,129130goalof,285, 285n.andhumanextinctionidea,274285identicalityvs. equality,258261andimplementationof,272275andinstinct,296297modelofideal society,269partycharacterand,216217reconciliationofdoctrineandpractice,236257selfdestructiveimpulseandsocialistorganization,286300 andsocialjustice,221225suppressionofindividuality,262terrorandviolentaspectsof,275279. Seealso Statesocialism Ilyin,Captain,268 Incaempire,113n.,133142,144,192,197,201andbirthrate,274classstructureandpeasantlife,134137,215,246collapseof,141142crimeand punishment,139140isolation,238More's Utopia and,142,198standardization,141,264 Individualbonding,264 Individuality,255256,300Heideggeron,anddeath,291andidenticality,258263Marxon,xivxvsocialisthostilityto,262265Solovievon,299 suppressionof,262,269,272285,294 Informers,xiii,175,179 Inquisition,4748,70,75 Instinct,227228,231232,296298. Seealso Deathinstinct Irrigationsystems,154155,171172,191192 Isolation,103,124,199,238 Italy,4650,253 Izgoev,A.S.,283284

J
Jaspers,Karl,211,219,255,296 JesuitstateinParaguay,142151,215,238,274 Jewishnationalityquestion,206 JoachimofFlore,2526,46,78,130

[313] JohannofLeyden. See Bokelson,Jan JudaicMessianism,225226 Justice:inCityofSun, 9293Epiphaneson,16inPlato's Republic, 8Shangon,174. Seealso Socialjusticeconceptofsocialism

K
Kanler,Konrad,27 Kautsky,Karl,214,243,251,277279 Keller,Ludwig,69,81 n. Kinetictheoryofgases,260261 Kings:centralizedeconomicsystemand,189191deified,166168,166 n., 191,196 Kollontai,Aleksandra,246 Komensky,Jan(Comenius),46 KungsunYang.See ShangYang Kushnir,B.,250

KungsunYang.See ShangYang Kushnir,B.,250

L
Labor. See CompulsorylaborWorkandworkers LaBretonne,Restifde,105106 LaMettrie,Juliende,293 Land:Aristophaneson,4ancientChina,169171,177,179,181,186189ancientSumer,153154,157,161,190Bolsheviksoncommunality,213214 Diggersand,43Egypt,162,165Incas,135Jesuitstate,145146postrevolutionaryRussia,239240Winstanley'sscheme,96 Language,119,144,172,260 Laotse,288 Lassalle,F.,208,225 LawofFreedom,The (Winstanley),xiii,95101 Laws (Plato),7,15 Laws:ofhistory,266ofIncaempire,113,136,140ofMorelly'ssystem,111112Shangreforms,174,179180andsocialistparty,217. Seealso Crimes andpunishmentJusticeScientificsocialismconcept Lebensborn, 253 LeBon,G.,226 LeftFrontoftheArts(LEF),250 Leftness,degreeof,283 "Legislator,The"(Diderot),112113,142 Lenin,V.I.,224,239,241 L'toile,Eonde,21 Levellers,4446 Liadov,M.N.(Mandelshtam),246 Liberationconcept,130,254,257Marcuseoninstincts,231232 Libidinalrationality,232 Lilburne,41 Literature:17thand18thcenturynovels,101106Enlightenmentwriters,106120inpostrevolutionaryRussia,250251socialism'shostilityto,265266 Utopiansocialists,80100 Leob'stheoryoftropisms,293 Lollardsect,41 Lorenz,Konrad,265 Loria,A.,211 n. Lucifer,1920,2728 Lunacharsky,A.,226 Luther,Martin,69,7173andMntzer,5153,55,57,59 Lutherans,40,5960,69 Luxemburg,Rosa,277 LyonsPaupers,71

M
Machinesymbol:andnatureofman,293andsocialistideal,261262

LyonsPaupers,71

M
Machinesymbol:andnatureofman,293andsocialistideal,261262 Mahler,Gustav,292 Manicheansects,16,18,23,67doctrines,68,75,221dualism,297 MaoTsetung,xiv,185,203,262 Marcionites,68 Marcuse,Herbert:deathanddestructionthemes,281283onFreudiandualism,292,298andindividuality,264andPlato,254onworkandplay,6,14,231 232synthesisofFreudandsocialistideology,231233,263264,281283 Marriagecustoms:Americancommunalsettlements,80Anabaptists,35,3740ancientChina,Yinera,171172bourgeoissociety,5Cathars,2124,77 18thcenturysocialistnovels,105Incas,137138,141Jesuitstate,149Marxisttheory,5medievalsectsandsex,28,3233Meslierondivorce,109 Morellyon,111Platoon,12Ranters,41postrevolutionaryRussia,243248Solarians,89Tahitians,113Utopians,85. Seealso Wives,ascommon property Marx,Karl,xiiixv,251andAsiaticModeofProduction,186189onmobilizationofworkers,241onprivateproperty,195andscientificmethod,204, 208209theoryofvalue,211213,211 n. MarxEngelscorrespondence: Capital reviews,andfrivolousness,267268contemptandhatredofothers,224225,278279onscientificcharacterof Marxism,209210sufferingwelcomed,223224 Marxism:allegedRussiandistortionof,277278andchildlabor,223comparedwithFourier,204,210comparedwith

[314] Marxism(cont'd) Freudianthesis,229231contradictions,211 n., 295296andfamily,46,244245andforerunner"notion,214onindividualman,262andnihilism, 277279andoppressionofworkers,219,223224predictionsanderrors,206,295296andproblemof"Asiaticsocialformation,"185189asreaction toChristianity,256andreligion,226asscientifictheory,203213,295socialismconcept,202203twoineffectiveanswers,299300Wellson,23 Masonicmovement,81n. Maspero,H.,168,171172 Massmovements. See PopularsocialistmovementsRevolutionarymovements Materialism,6,96,114,219,226227 Matthijs,Jan,59,6164 Mazdak,1617,203,262 Meals,common,269in CityoftheSun, 89"Equals"on,123124Incas,136postrevolutionaryRussia,240,247248in Utopia, 84 Medievalheresies,1941characteristics,7274andcommunism,87concentricstructure,7879destructionofsocietyidea,130,254,266and Enlightenmentsocialistwriting,81n. equalityandcommunity,258hatredofchurch,7374,196,227ideologyandorigins,6772kinshipwithsocialist doctrines,76,78,197linktosocialistparty,219namingof,69oppositiontocontrol,76,215asreactiontoChristianity,75,256secularityandlossof violence,8081andUtopiansocialism,87,9495worldviewof,7377. Seealso namesofhereticalsects Melanchthon,56,59 Mennonites,70,80 Meslier,Jean,130,215,219onequality,258259onpeasantsuffering,224 Testament, 106111,283,294 Mesopotamia,142,152161,173,190machineanalogy,261262andreligion,167168 Messaliansect,68 Methodists,43 MiddleAges:Christianvaluesandgoals,7475hereticalmovements,1834,6779andsexualfreedom,27 Militarizationofworkers,241243,252 MilitaryorganizationandarmiesancientChina,171172,180184,189,255ancientEgypt,165ancientSumer,153,,155Incasandpeasants,134135 JesuitstateIndians,143,151Plato'sguardians,813Shangon,176177,179Solariansandcrimes,9293Winstanley'sstate,99 Mineandthineconcept,104,113,118,142 Minin,S.,251

Militarizationofworkers,241243,252 MilitaryorganizationandarmiesancientChina,171172,180184,189,255ancientEgypt,165ancientSumer,153,,155Incasandpeasants,134135 JesuitstateIndians,143,151Plato'sguardians,813Shangon,176177,179Solariansandcrimes,9293Winstanley'sstate,99 Mineandthineconcept,104,113,118,142 Minin,S.,251 Minorities,203,300 Money:ancientstates,190Aristophaneson,4"Equals"and,122Incaempire,absenceof,141LevellersandDiggers,4344postrevolutionaryRussia,240 241,252in Utopia, 82Winstanleyon,96 Monism,298 Monogamy,44,85,244 Montagnards,128 Montesquieu,C.L.,Baronde,151 Moralvalues:Fourieron,227228Freudon,229230andidenticality,260Marcuseon,231medievalheresiesand,2627,4142,68,76Shangand,176 177socialistnovel,106socialjusticeandsocialism,219220Tahitians,113 MoravianBrethren,67,77,197,222223 More,Thomas,8182,87,100,102,112,124,129oncrime,222asforerunnerofsocialism,197,214andIncasocialsystem,142,198andisolation,238 onmaterialsatisfaction,227Platoand,254256,258 Utopia, 82 Morelly,111112,114,124,197andidenticality,259 Mller,Max,287 Mumford,Lewis,262 Mummification,198 Mntzer,Thomas,3841,77,129,256,258,294asforerunner,197,214lifeof,5059andLuther,5153,55secretunion,53,59 Music.See Arts Mysticism,25,130,204205 Mythology:NarcissusandOrpheus,232233,254,282Plato's Republic, 1011,14Scandinavian,289

N
NarcissusandOrpheus,232233,254,282283 Nature,stateof,111112,114,130 Naylor,James,4243 NaziGermany,253 Nechayev,S.,198,267,276278 NeoMarxism,6,203,231233 NewChristianity,197 NewEconomicPolicy(NEP),252,272 NewLeft,6,203,233andculture,265266andindividuality,263 Nicetas,Pope,24

[315] Nicolaitessect,15 NicolasofBasel,69 Nihilism,198199,215,222destructionandterrorthemes,275279andreligionofsocialism,226selfdestructiveimpulseandexamples,286293 Nirvanaprinciple,282,287,298 Nizan,Paul,285 n.

NicolasofBasel,69 Nihilism,198199,215,222destructionandterrorthemes,275279andreligionofsocialism,226selfdestructiveimpulseandexamples,286293 Nirvanaprinciple,282,287,298 Nizan,Paul,285 n. Nothingness,286294Deschampsand,115116 Novels,socialist,101106 Nusinov,I.,251

O
Oldenberg,H.,287 OldTestament,19,27,6263,68 "Orgiasticmass,"27 OriginoftheFamily,PrivatePropertyandtheState,The (Engels),243244 Orpheusmyth.See NarcissusandOrpheus Ortliebarians,67,69 Orwell,George,89 Overpopulation,253

P
Pantheisticheresies,6768,100 Paraguay,142143,151 ParisCommunards,214 Partystructure,216219 Paternity,12,247248. Seealso Children,destructionofparentalties Paulicians,68,76 Peasantry:ancientChinese,169172,181183ancientEgyptians,162andappealofsocialism,203Engelson,279inIncaempire,134135post revolutionaryRussiaandmobilizationof,241243,252socialistleadersviewof,224 PeasantWarof1525,3839,5659,129 Perfecti, 2123 Pessimism,286,289 Peru,113,113 n., 142,144 Petrobrusians,67,69 Pfeiffer,Heinrich,5456 "Phalansteries,"205 Pharaohs,164167,191 Phillips,Ubbo,40 Philosophers,inRepublic, 812 Philosophes, 115117,151. Seealso Enlightenmentliterature Philosophy,inpostrevolutionaryRussia,251 Piatakov,G.L.,217218,294 Planettheory(Fourier),204206 Plato,142,197,200201,214andculture,910,196implementationofidealstate,179,237,254256,285andjustice,227andopenhouses,198and religion,14,196 Republic, 715,198,254 Timaeus, 298

Piatakov,G.L.,217218,294 Planettheory(Fourier),204206 Plato,142,197,200201,214andculture,910,196implementationofidealstate,179,237,254256,285andjustice,227andopenhouses,198and religion,14,196 Republic, 715,198,254 Timaeus, 298 Pleasureprinciple:Fourieron,227228FreudandMarcuse,229233,298Megapatagonians,106 Poetry,10,106 Pokrovsky,M.N.,203 Polygamy,40,6365,137 Popesandmedievalheresies,21,2425,2829,3334,4750,196Moreon,87 Popularsocialistmovements,xv,2,78,200comicandnaivetraits,267268contradictionsandseizureofpower,213215differenceswithstatesocialism, 237238"Equals,"121129andreligiousaspects,226 Population:birthrates,274familyandoverpopulation,253IndiansinJesuitstate,143144,274massresettlements,8384,134135,137,181182,191 Possessed,The (Dostoyevsky),129,198,267 Power,seizureof,3,213215 PreColumbianAmericas,189,191,201,272 Preobrazhensky,G.N.,246247 Priestsandmonks:inCityoftheSun, 94persecutionof,31,47,4956,60Winstanleyon,1Ol. Seealso CatholicChurch Primitivepeoples,118,205,273274 PrinciplesofCommunism (Engels),5,214 Principlesofsocialism,195197,200,236237deathofmankindand,275285equalityvs. identicality,258261idealsocietymodel,269implementationand consequences,272275andindividualizedanimalsocieties,265 vs. reality,238239,253257 Privateproperty:abolitionof,inEnlightenmentliterature,108,111112,115,118abolitionof,in"Equals,"122,126abolitionof,andfamily,244abolitionof, andidenticality,258261abolitionof,associalistprinciple,195,200,257Aristophaneson,4andAsiaticmodeofproduction,187earlyChristians,16 Incas,140141Marxismon,4,6medievalheresiesand,2223,2829,3537,76in Republic, 12statecontrol,213suppressionofindividuality,262 andterritoryidea,265inUr,159Utopians,8283,85,95WinstanleyandDiggerson,4345. Seealso Land Production,modeof:Asiatic,185189Marxisttheory,206207,229postrevolutionaryRussia,240241,244

[316] Proletariat:MarxandEngelscontemptfor,278279Marxisttheory,202203,206revolutionaryaspectof,296,300. Seealso WarCommunism Prometheanmyth,232233,282 Protestantism,67 Psychedelicrevolution,233,263

Q
Quakers,4142,80 Quipusystem,134,138139

R
Ranterssect,4143 Rappoport,296 Reason,130lackof,insocialistdoctrine,295297Marcusethesis,232233,263,300 "RedArmy"inJapan,270271 Reductions,143150 Reformationperiod:Anabaptists,3441,75EnglishRevolution,4145andmedievalhereticalmovements,18,25,7173,129,258andstatecontrol,215 Regressionconcept(Marcuse),231232

Reductions,143150 Reformationperiod:Anabaptists,3441,75EnglishRevolution,4145andmedievalhereticalmovements,18,25,7173,129,258andstatecontrol,215 Regressionconcept(Marcuse),231232 Religion:abolitionof,asbasicsocialistprinciple,195196declineof,234235endofworldconcept,281Enlightenmentliteratureon,106109,115117, 130historicalchange,197198kingworship,166168,166 n. Levellersandatheism,4546Marxon,263andnatureofman,227233post revolutionaryRussia,251inRepublic, 14,19617thand18thcenturysocialistnovels,102,105106socialismasa,xii,225227,233234socialist hostilityto,235,251,253,257,267sunworship,9495,102Utopianliterature,8687,9395,100101,129. Seealso AtheismChristianityMedieval heresies Renaissance,81 n. Repressionconcept(Marcuse),231,282 Republic,The (Plato),714,198,254 RepublicofPhilosophersortheHistoryoftheAjaoiens,The (Fontenelle),104105 Revolution:Deschampsprediction,116117in"Equals,"125scientificinevitabilityof,211212socialismandimplementationof,213215 Revolutionarymovements,203Anabaptists,3740,6066,73,265inantiquity,78deathanddestructionmystique,275285,285 n. andfreelove,33 Levellers,45andmedievalheresies,77,256NewLeft,263 Ricardo,David,211 n. Rights,political,9,9899,122,181,261 Roadbuilding,134,141,182 Russia:birthrate,274andculture,248251,273economy,239241,252,272familyandchildren,243248meaningofsocialistexperience,300privacy andhousing,199,247248andreligion,251,272revolutionaryyouthanddeath,283285sexualfreedom,246248andsocialjustice,219War Communismperiod,238252 RussiaintheShadows (Wells),2 RussianOrthodoxChurch,251

S
Sacconi,Rainier,21,2324 SaintSimon,C.H.,Comtede,204,211,280 Salinger,J.D.,292 Sargon,KingofAkkadia,155156,161 Sartre,J.P.,xv,264,277,285 n., 299onbeingandnothingness,291onSovietstate,296 Savinkov,Boris,284285 Sazonov,N.I.,284285 Scandinavianmythology,289 Schlamm,W.,217 Schopenhauer,A.,289290,299 Science:lossofauthority,292,300Enlightenmentliterature,111112,119loyaltyproofdemandedin"Equals,"122postrevolutionaryRussiaand,248249, 252Utopianwriters,85,90 Scientificsocialismconcept,204207,259260criticismofMarxistclaimto,206213,260261 Scriptures,19,34,46 SecretDirectoryofPublicSalvation,121128 Segarelli,Gerard,4647 Selfdestructiveimpulse,286293andsocialism,285,293295,299 Sex:Cathardoctrines,20,23ineconomicsystemofFourier,229Engelson,244245Freudianthesis,230inMarcusethesis,231233inmodelofideal socialiststate,269NewLeftand,263Platoon,12statecontrol, CityoftheSun, 91statecontrol,Russia,246248 Sexes:commonownershipof,118polarizationofundercapitalism,263

Selfdestructiveimpulse,286293andsocialism,285,293295,299 Sex:Cathardoctrines,20,23ineconomicsystemofFourier,229Engelson,244245Freudianthesis,230inMarcusethesis,231233inmodelofideal socialiststate,269NewLeftand,263Platoon,12statecontrol, CityoftheSun, 91statecontrol,Russia,246248 Sexes:commonownershipof,118polarizationofundercapitalism,263 Sexualfreedom:contemporaryrevolution,233,263medievalheresiesand,2728,3233,3840,42postrevolutionaryRussia,246248andRanters,42 Winstanley'sattackon,100. Seealso Women,communalityof ShangYang,173180,272

[317] Simonians,68 Sin,20,23,2627,41,74 Slavery:ancientChina,169,179,182183,190ancientEgypt,165ancientSumer,153,155,158161Aristophanesand,4Asiaticuniversalityof,188 Incas,134135Jesuitstate,14314417thcenturysocialistnovelsand,103104inUtopianliterature,83,8586,90,97 "SleepingSouls"sect,45 Smirnov,241242 Socialism.See ChiliasticsocialismIdeologyofsocialismPrinciplesofsocialismStatesocialism Socialistpoliticalparties,216219 Socialjusticeconceptofsocialism,219225 SocietyofJesus,143,151,219. Seealso Jesuitstate Socrates,255. SeealsoRepublic,The Soloviev,Vladimir,219,286,289,299 Solts,246 Solzhenitsyn,A., 218 SouthAmericanstatesocialism,133151,189 SouthernDiscovery ...(laBretonne),105106 SouthernLand,The (deFoigny),103 SovietRussia. See Russia Spain,andJesuitstateinParaguay,142143,151 Spaniards,andIncaempire,133137,141142 Stalin,Iosif,186,252,262,272,294 Statecapitalism,216 Stateownershipofpropertyandland,103,105,111,190AsiaticSocialFormation,185189positiveabolitionofprivateproperty,195 Statesocialism,132192ancientChina,168185,189192,255ancientEgypt,162168"anonymous"societymodel,269comparedwithchiliasticsocialism, 236,253257deathofmantheme,272274ideologyandrealityof,197201,216,236257Incas,133142Jesuitstate,142151Mesopotamia,152, 162,167168andpartycharacter,216217andreligion,253postrevolutionaryRussia,238252andsocialjustice,221225worldwide,274275 Statism,absolute,189192ancientChina,168185ancientEgypt,162165"Equals"conceptof,122123familyasunitof,195riseof,inMesopotamia, 161162socialismasmeansto,213,215 Staupitz,Johann,71 Sterility,inwomen,9192,103 Stirner,Max,290 Storch,Niklaus,3738,50,258 Sufferingandoppression,eradicationof,219225 Suicide:Cathars,20,22,283collective,290deathinstinct,282285 Sumer,152155,192. Seealso Mesopotamia

Storch,Niklaus,3738,50,258 Sufferingandoppression,eradicationof,219225 Suicide:Cathars,20,22,283collective,290deathinstinct,282285 Sumer,152155,192. Seealso Mesopotamia Surplusrepressionconcept,231,233 Switzerland,3637,74

T
Taborites,2934,265destructionof,275doctrines,3032,7778andMarxistanalysisofsocialism,203 Tahitians,113114 Taoism,288289 Technology,133,231232 TempleestatesofMesopotamia,xii,153156,161,163,173 Torres,FatherDiegode,144 Totalityaspect(Deschamps),115,117 Trade:ancientChina,173,177178,190ancientEgypt,163,165Diggerson,4344"Equals"and,122Incas,141Jesuitstateand,144,148,151 Morelly'sbanon,111andsocialistisolation,238statemonopoly,Ur,158Winstanleyon,96 Tradeunions,42,225,242 Travelrestrictions,85,103,137,144,269 Tropismtheory,293 Trotsky,Leon,199,217,241243,294 TruthoftheTrueSystem (Deschamps),114120,198 Twentiethcenturysocialism,256257,299300. Seealso Russia

U
UnitedStates:blacks,203,300communalsects,80,197,268andZenBuddhism,291292. Seealso NewLeft Urdynasty,156160 Urukagina,KingofLagash,153154,155 n. Utopiansocialism,xiii,80120,300comparedwithIncas,142,198Hellenistic,15andisolation,238asreaction,256

V
Vairasse,Denis,102103,238 Valdes,6970 Valentinov,N.,217 Violenceandterror:Anabaptists,3941,6066lesseningof,inAmerica,80Levellers,45,45n. aspartofsocialistideology,275279Russianrevolutionary

[318] Violenceandterror (cont'd) youthand,283285socialistpartyconceptof,217218. Seealso MedievalheresiesShangYang Vipper,R.,215 VoiceofReason,The (Deschamps),116117 Voltaire,106,110,151

W
Waldensians,29,36beliefs,73,7677origins,67,6971

Voltaire,106,110,151

W
Waldensians,29,36beliefs,73,7677origins,67,6971 Walwyn,William,44 WarCommunism,238252,265 Weber,Max,296 Weitling,Wilhelm,45n., 121 Wells,H.G.,23,273 WesternEurope:contemporaryleftistmovements,268meaningofRussiansocialism,300 Winstanley,Gerrard,4346,95conceptofnewsociety,96101,219 "Witheringawayofthestate"concept,175,206207 Wittfogel,K.,191192,192 n., 201,207ancientEasternSocialism,186187,186 n. onstatecapitalism,216 Wives,ascommonproperty:Americansects,80Anabaptists,36,3840ApostolicBrethren,29,4748Cathars,2324inMnster,6366Platoon, 12,258259asrevolutionaryslogan,214andsocialism,195,236 Women:communalityof,4,12,1517,9192,95DiggersandWinstanleyagainstcommunality,44,100Incaoppressionandstateregulation,134,136138, 141142andmeninDeschamps'paradise,118120Meslier'scompletefreedomto,109inMesopotamia,153,155,158159Plato'sequalrightsto,9 inpostrevolutionaryRussia,245Solarianregulations,9192. Seealso Family,MarriagecustomsWives,ascommonproperty Workandworkers:liberationfrom,Marcusethesis,6,231232andrevolution,203socialistgoalofsocialjusticeand,223224. Seealso Compulsorylabor Worldempireconcept,161162 Worldview:ofDeschamps,120dualism,297298of"Equals,"130ofFreud,292,297inevitabledeaththeme,280285Marxismandnihilism,278279of religion,267ofsocialism,xv,226227,231,237 Writingandrecordingsystems:ancientChina,168,172ancientMesopotamia,153157,161Deschampsprohibition,119Egyptianscribes,162165Incas, 134,134 n., 138139Jesuitstate,144

Z
ZenBuddhism,291292 Zinoviev,G.E.,294 Zulus,141 ZwickauProphets,37 Zwingli,Ulrich,34,37,71,73

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