Brief Report on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) conducted at Benakanakatti

An effort was made to understand the status of millet cultivation, the extent of utility of the minor millets now and three decades earlier by the rural community n in the village Benakatti of Dharwad district through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). A team (annexure 1) headed by Dr. Prakash Bhat interacted with the residents of Benakatti village for three non consecutive days on 2nd, 15th and 29th September, 2012. The head master of the high school of Benakatti was kind enough to provide space for us to conduct this important exercise. The details on the outcomes of these valuable discussions are narrated here below. Discussions held on first day (2nd September, 2012): During the discussions, a group of 9 men and 10 women from the village (annexure 2) were present for interaction with the team. This group of 19 consisted mainly of the farmers and farm women. Mr. Anand Chougula, the field officer. SCOPE welcomed the gathering and Dr. Prakash Bhat set the context by explaining about millets and the purpose of the team’s visit to the village. The participants shared the following information. Crops grown: In Benakatti, paddy is the main crop since this village is almost on the border of the malnad belt. Cowpea, Sunflower, Mung, Soybean and Jowar occupy the subsequent positions on the Benakatti farmers’ fields. Millets grown: The participants were shown the photographs of the millet crops – Jowar, Ragi, Bajra, Savi (little millet), Navane (foxtail millet). The participants informed the team that these were part of their agriculture but said they never grew the other two – Haraka (Kodo millet) and Baragu (Proso millet) even before three decades. They were then requested to rank the cultivation of millets 25 years back. Jowar, Ragi, Navane, Bajra and Savi were the millets that occupied the 1st to 5th rank respectively.

Since last six years. Varieties. It was sold only when it was cultivated more. Ragi survived even if a couple rains failed. Farmers never sold ragi. savi is not being grown. Gattibeeja were predominantly cultivated. During Kharif. Farmers shared that over the last two decades the extent of hybrid jowar cultivation rose slowly. bajra in that order which means that they the crops thar grew more were consumed more. which was used only for self consumption iii) Savi: Kari savi and Mallige savi were grown. Villagers exchanged jowar with other crop produces and materials. Neerajola variety was mixed with ground nut.Millets consumed and recipes: They consumed jowar. This happened more often in kharif only. yield and marketing: i) Jowar: Local varieties were grown earlier. Nandyal white (Biligoni) and Nandyal black (Karigoni). Chowri variety of Jowar was invariably used to prepare corns. While Nandyal and Gattibeeja were of 5-6 months duration. Neerajola was harvested in 3 months. The growers consumed it and never sold it. the participants said. At present jowar occupies around 25% of the total cultivated area. Jowar was consumed more and sold less. Savi yielded on an average 10 quintals per acre. Now hybrid jowar dominates the farms. ii) Ragi: White ragi (Dundu ragi) and red ragi were grown 25 years back. savi. . navane. ragi.

iv) Navane: Halu Navane and Hurupalu navane varieties were being cultivated. savi rice. Right now. chakli. Now laddus are prepared from rice flour. Kichdi. v) Bajra: Local bajra varieties were being cultivated which were slowly displaced by the hybrids albeit partially. The grains were soaked and seasoned and the vegetable called usali was consumed. porridge and ganji (pudding) were consumed. ii) Ragi: Ragi rotis. Also the tender grains of jowar on the earhead were separated and the burnt tender grains were consumed as Sihitene or belasi. Also navane floor was mixed in milk whole preparing cheese. They believed that savi rice gave lot of strength and if consumed ensured people did not feel hungry for long time. iii) Savi: Villagers consumed idli. milk and jaggery and sweet pudding (payasa) was prepared. Most of these recipes find place in today’s diet as well despite jowar is not being cultivated to the extent it was 25 years back. hurakki holige. Chakli. Savi was ground and pounded and then mixed with rice. ragi porridge has remained as a part of their diet to a larger extent than the other recipes. During drought. etc. Recipes: i) Jowar: The recipes they prepared 25 years back from jowar were roti. v) Bajra: Rotis. Bana are prepared . iv) Navane: Navane rice. uppittu. ambali (porridge). sweet cakes.The villagers consumed jowar and ragi porridge. Bana (bits mixed with curds or butter milk and then cooked). Vada. They consumed the tender stalks of jowar just like the sugarcane. laddu were prepared. balls. Kichdi. Some aged farmers said they had also seen red bajra and white bajra types being cultivated. Sandige. ragi balls. uppittu. nuchchu (bits). sweet cake (kadubu). The former is white in colour and has no hairs on it where as the latter has hard grains and has hairs. It is invariably fed to the babies even now. rotis.

The cattle were also fed bajra boiled in water for 15 consecutive days after they deliver calf. v) Bajra: The fodder was fed to the cattle 25 years back before they were milked. Navane flour mixed with cactus milk is pasted on the fractured part of patient’s body.Millets as fodder: Fodder: i) ii) Jowar: Especially. lie in many other villages is a medicine for cough (kirunalige). Navane. . This practice increased the milk yield. fodder is also not available. Ragi: Eldest participant farmers said they used to feed the cattle with ragi bran only during summer and not during rainy season since the cattle found it hard to grind the fodder in the latter season. The navane plants are burnt and the cattle are made to walk on the burning plants. iv) Navane: Navane fodder was fed to the cattle 25 years back. the Nandyal variety of jowar was fed to the cattle. iii) Savi: In fact the cattle liked savi fodder more than ragi or jowar. The elder participants in the group were not so happy when they shared that the youngsters of the village go straight to the clinics for treatment now a days and that they seldom listen to the elders’ advices. An interesting practice was shared which is seen during Deepavali festival. Now since bajra is not at all grown. all the above are not seen to be practiced. Now since its cultivation is almost scarce. Savi was used to cover the fodder stack since it did not hold rain water and drained off. The patients were offered navane recipes more to facilitate quick healing. The bone fractures are also treated by using navane. thus protecting the fodder within. People believe that this brings good health for the cattle and prosperity to the family. Thus we came to know that the farmers knew bajra was a galactogogue.

ii) Navane: During Sheege Hunnime and Kanahabba. During Deepavali.Festivals. 5 types of seedlings are grown even now – maize. For preparing this recipe they used hurupalu variety of navane. People buy navane to prepare this recipe if they don’t have it. During especially the naming ceremony. kichdi are given to the women along with little wheat avoiding rice totally. In case of injuries. Also during marriages jowar occupies an important place. During another important festival. From Sheege Hunnime (Full moon day) to Amavasya (new moon day) they also worship the cattle using this. joear grains will be showered upon the bride and the bride groom who will be seated on a blanket (made of sheep wool). During Dasara. the villagers had a ritual called ‘haasakki hoyyuvudu’. in which. This practice is found to be existent even now. This practice is prevalent even now. the villagers prepare sweet pudding using navane which is popularly called Hurakki Holige. wheat. . the villagers prepare a small nest like structure using the leaves of jowar and other crops and keep a lamp inside and then visit 5 houses to perform Arati at their houses to the God. bajra. Boiled navane when administered helped easy discharge of the placenta. Even during difficult deliveries. jowar roti .Navane – which suggests that out of the five. Jowar along with maize and paddy are important grains used during Dasara festival. 3 were and are millets. Navane: Navane was fed to the cattle during calving. During marriages. Medicinal uses: i) Jowar: The patients suffering from jaundice were usually given sorghum bits (nuchchu) along with buttermilk. ii) iii) Ragi: Ragi was consumed when people suffered from loose motion or dysentery. religious and other special occasions: i) Jowar: Jowar stalks were also part of the pooja materials. where the women poured the grains into the pouch made by other women by folding their saree at waist height which is locally called ‘Udi Tumbuvudu’. only recipes of jowar are given even now. jowar. The earheads of jowar were tied to the festoons (torana). the soaked jowar grains were cooked and consumed as Guggari.during the Mahanavami festival. The seed drills were worshipped using jowar sweet cakes. the jowar corn were prepared and consumed. Naga Panchami.

ii) Ragi plant residues were used for manuring. the pith inside the stalk of jowar was used to prepare toys like bullock cart. The stalks and the residual part of the plant including roots of jowar were used as fuel. The farmers harvested maximum of 2 to 3 quintals of ragi from an acre. mung. Ragi: Ragi was never grown mixed with any other crop.iv) Bajra: Despite farmers not growing bajra now. etc. An interesting practice also prevailed where in immediately after sowing operations concluded. Pest and diseases: Jowar: Jowar in this village has been attacked by smut and leaf curl diseases. Jowar was stacked at the bottom of the underground storage tanks to control moisture within. the jowar Guggari was fed to the bullocks. Millets vs. Ragi was grown usually on the hakkala lands where water never stagnated. matki. . cowpea. Bajra rotis are invariable part of the festival. niger and in rare cases with navane. Millets in Mixed /Intercropping: i) ii) Jowar: Benakatti farmers have been growing jowar mixed with tur. they nevertheless have continued the old practice of preparing bajra rotis during the Sankranti festival. Interestingly. The participants drew pie charts to depict the pattern of utility of millets now compared to the situation 25 years back. They were also used for thatching. horse gram. Of course the jowar plant parts were also used as raw materials for composting. It was grown on the border of paddy fields after the paddy was harvested. Other uses: i) Jowar: The jowar plants were also used for pandals during festive occasions.

Savi is also on the way of disappearing from the farmers’ fields. While the millets remain a part of several religious celebrations / formalities. Farmers have almost stopped cultivating bajra. all the other millets have taken the beating. There are clear and threatening signs that unless serious efforts are done. millets may soon disappear totally from the farmers’ fields. Jowar too appears now on a reduced area. . it was evident that paddy has found more area than two and half decades back. Excepting jowar. the farmers rather purchase the millets but do not grow them.Cultivation percent NOW Paddy Jowar Wheat Ragi Navane Savi Bajra Cultivation percent 25 Years back Paddy Jowar Wheat Ragi Navane Savi Bajra From the charts they drew.

Annexure 1. Dasanakoppa Kenchappa D Devarahalli Mallayya S Pujar Basalingayya Basappa Kuruvinakoppa Banigayya Shivayya Rasayya Yallavva Ningavva Gutyama Basavva Savakka Neelavva Mallavva Kuruvinakoppa Shantavva Iravva Yaragambalimath Ulavva Yaragambalimath List of participants Gender Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Age 48 60 70 63 80 64 70 77 68 60 60 70 45 60 50 54 55 50 57 Teacher Agricultural labourer Farmer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer 1st day PRA Occupation . Shivaraj Hungund 3. Ms.No. WatSan fellows (four in number) Annexure 2 Sl. Mr. Vani Purohit 4. Mr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Name S G Rayatappa Gangappa N. Prakash Bhat 2. 1. Umesh Chinchani List of the team which conducted the PRA 5. Dr.

While use of navane 25 years back as medicine for cough. medicine and taste. Navane. Ragi. etc was more 25 years back. Jowar: Out of the five millets that were grown in the village. they finally arrived at the total scores based upon which rankings were given to all these millets. also intended to know the utility pattern of the five millets that find place in the village – Jowar. During the discussions. fodder. it is replaced by paddy. 2012. the participants shared that now the youth straight away approach doctors and clinics for treatment and hence we observe from the table below that the medicinal use of navane also has decreased. navane was consumed more frequently but now it seems that the villagers prepare recipes of navane only during festivals and hence as a food navane has got less marks compared to 25 years back. Totally seven parameters were decided to be rated by the participants viz. While ragi ranked third 25 years back. this PRA. The advent of hybrid jowar and the market price that it enjoys might be the reasons for this trend. it was also found that 25 years back. it is ranked 3rd now slipping one rank down. (Annexure) The team that facilitated the first day PRA remained the same. Ragi: The cultivation of ragi is on the decline. Bajra: It was observed from the marks that the villagers gave to this crop. as food. It is the only millet crop that has sustained its place even after two decades. It certainly is being consumed now but not to the extent that it was 25 years back. millet as a part of mixed cropping/intercropping. Since the other millets are grown less. Earlier. farmers seem to have been feeding the cattle more jowar fodder than before. (25 . jowar fodder was the most fed while today. jowar seemed to be the dominant one. While the first day of the PRA reflected upon the cultivation pattern solely. Seven male and 11 female participants from the village shared their valuable knowledge. that there wasn’t much difference in the marks they gave for the present status and for the earlier situation. bone fractures.Discussions held on Second day (15th September. Increase in the areas of cultivation of paddy is found to have eaten the space of millets especially the crops other than jowar. cultivation. At the end of the exercise. 2012): The PRA for the second time was organised at Benakatti on 15th September. bajra and Savi. Hence the fodder that was used more to feed the cattle is also being used less. the farmers gave it 2nd rank and thus ragi has overtaken navane now. Navane: Since the use of navane is restricted to festivals and to some extent as medicine. They put score 1 for the least / lowest and 5 for the best / highest. in addition to this aspect. Hence the farmers gave it 1st rank amongst the five millets that are being used by them.

savi getting the least marks. Uppittu. savi breakfast has been bare minimum. It seems that if bajra finds at least some place in the millet matrix of this village. In earlier days. Looking to the trend. breakfast with savi recipes like idli. payasam was very common but now. One feels savi in this village could be considered as endangered millet! As for taste the villagers gave highest marks to Jowar followed by navane. it is only because of its use in festivals especially the sankranti. . it appears that villagers may start buying it totally from the market in the years to come. thanks to paddy being supplied especially through PDS. Savi: Two and half decades back savi was being cultivated and hence its fodder was also available for the villagers to feed their cattle.years back). But now savi ceases to be cultivated and thus there does not remain any question of its fodder.

Navane 4. Bajra Grand 54 Total RANKINGS: 1.Before 25 Years TOT AL 27 12 14 5 9 67 Taste Cultivat ion 3 4 1 2 Medic inal use 3 Festiv als 5 3 1 Fod der 4 2 1 2 Foo d 5 4 3 2 4 Mixed /Inte rcrop ping 5 Mixe d /Inte rcrop ping 5 Foo d 5 3 1 1 2 Fod der 5 1 - At Present Festiv als 5 3 1 Medic inal use 1 Cultiv ation 5 3 Taste TOTAL MILLETS 5 2 3 2 1 Jowar Ragi Navane Bajra Savi 5 2 3 2 1 30 9 8 4 3 Grand Total RANKINGS: Jowar 2. Savi 5. Ragi 3. Navane 3. Bajra 5. Savi Savi Bajra Pattern of millet use inBenakanakatti Now Pattern of millet use inBenakanakatti 25 years back Navane Ragi Jowar 0 10 20 30 . Jowar 2. Ragi 4.

5. UlavvaYaragambalimath 17. BasavvaKuruvinakoppa 11. 7. IravvaYaragambalimath 16. Name Mallayya S Pujar MahadevapppaDasankoppa RachayyaKuruvinkoppa Basalingayya BasappaKuruvinakoppa ShantammaKambar YallavvaMadivalvar NingavvaMadivalvar GutyavvaKuvunkoppa Gender Male Male Male Male Male Female Female Female Female Female Male Female Female Female Female Female Female Male Age 63 48 68 80 64 55 60 60 70 45 75 50 54 55 50 57 45 70 Farmer Farmer Occupation Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer 10. 2. ShantavvaDharwad 15. 6.No. 9. 1. 3. MallavvaKuruvinakoppa 14. DundayyaBellakkinmatt .Annexure List of Participants 2nd day PRA Sl. BassappaMadivalr 12. GullavvaYergamblimatth 18. NeelavvaKammar 13. 4. 8.

Murom soils During the appraisal. a. 19 villagers (10 women and 9 men) as enlisted in annexure. The uplands and low lands also appeared in the map. Goudara Kere. shared valuable information with the dam team led by Dr. Red loam b. soil and crop mapping and the festivals that are celebrated season wise. Prakash Bhat. Sodic soils d. Marginal soils c. The participants first mapped their village on the floor of a temple. . Then they went on to map the temple. the two hillocks one to the east and another to the south as well as the forest area. roads. They mapped four tanks of their village – Oora Kere.Discussions held on third day (29th September. Most of them were the ones who participated in the first two rounds of discussions. 2012): On the third day. Revannavara Kere and Sakkarevvana Kere. The group of participants identified the following soil types in their village. it came out that the total land in Benakanakatti was found to be about 1000 acres out of which around 30 acres is occupied by tanks. The information that the team gathered this time pertained to mapping their village.

jowar. paddy is grown. . jowar is sown. In the low lands. On the marginal soils. they grow ragi.Soil types and existing mixed cropping systems: The participants gave information on the millets and soils / areas on which they are grown. In the upland red loams. navane (foxtail millet) and savi (little millet).

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Holi Hunnime Festival/s . Ayudha Pooja. Ellu Amavasye Sankramana. Arati is done to mud statues of pandavas) Kartika Margashira Pushya Magha Phalguna Kartika Amavasye. Gouri Hunnime Hostilu Hunnime / Rande Hunnime.Festivals celebrated in the village: Later the team sought to know the various festivals that are celebrated in the village and the millets that are invariably a part of these festivals. Navalu Hunnime Hindu year) Vaishakha Jyeshtha Ashadha Shravana Bhadrapada Ashwayuja Basava Jayanti. Akshaya Tritiya Kara Hunnime Mannettina Amavasye. seasons and millets used as follows. Deepavali (Neeru Tumbuva Habba. Dasara. Shavige Habba. Mahanavami. Sheege Hunnime Navaratri. Season Chaitra masa (first month of the Ugadi. The participants listed the festivals. Shivaratri Amavasye. on which day. Banada Hunnime / Muttaide Hunnime Bharata Hunnime / Gudi Hunnime. Haalu Hoyyo Amavasye Nagara Panchami Ganesha Chaturthi. Amavasye and Padya.

Bhaji Kara Hunnime: Sweet Cake (Kadabu). Vade (made of sorghum and Bengal gram) Banada Hunnime: Sweet Cake. millets do not find any place. Huggi (sweet pudding made of wheat) Sankramana: Bajra roti. instead of maize. Sweet Pancake (Holige consumed with mango pulp) Mannettina Amavasye: wheat). Bhaji (Vada) On all Amavasyas: Bele Kadubu (Dal sweet cake). vermicelli pudding. But in other recipes prepared. Bhaji. Sheege Hunnime: Hurakki Holige (sweet pancake). laddus of wheat and gram (Maadli laddu) Deepavali: Sweet cake. Chakkuli made of rice Fried Sweet Cake. Sajjaka (sweet recipe prepared from . Rice. Twenty five years ago. Rice dosa. On Mondays in this month. sorghum. sweet pancake. Navaratri / Dasara: Seedlings of Navane. Cucumber seeds Nagara Panchami: Laddu (Tambittu) mostly prepared from wheat and gram and rarely from Navane. Huggi (wheat pudding) is prepared. Wheat and Maize are grown on a small mud strip. On padya.Recipes prepared during festivals: Ugadi: Vermicelli. villagers do not consume roti bread. Allittu (prepared from jowar pop flour) During Shravana Masa: Almost every day. savi was being used. Sweet Pancake.

etc). sweet cake and ragi ball Navane: Hurakki Holige (sweet pancake). jowar bran. navane seeds are used to be dropped while the dead are taken for cremation. sweet cake. along with rice.Other occasions: Whenever a child is born. Kodubale (spicy ring shaped recipe fried in oil) Ragi: Roti. . During deaths. pop. porridge (ambali). jowar Guggari (soaked jowar seeds) is prepared. Recipes prepared from millets in the village: Jowar: Roti. Idli and Uppittu Bajra: Roti. ambali(porridge). which they accept with part of their saree folded to create a shape of a small basket). bhaji. jowar grains are used. like in other villages. For the ritual of Udi tumbuvudu (Women are offered some items by other women. Bana (Liquid prepared from pounded jowar). Chakkuli and rice Savi: Rice. jowar balls. rice (fed to the cattle). coriander. Talipittu (roti prepared by baking after adding chilli powder. especially performed by the parents of the married woman.

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Name Mallayya S Pujar List of Participants Gender Male Male Male Male Male Female Male Male Female Female Female Female Female Male Female Female Female Female Male Age 63 77 60 60 60 62 80 64 55 60 60 70 45 75 50 54 55 57 70 3rd day PRA Occupation Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Agricultural labourer Shivvaya Yaragambalimath Gangapppa Dasankoppa Gadagayya Yaragambalimath Gangappa Jodalli Shantavva Dharwad Basaningayya Narendra Basavanneppa Kuruvinakoppa Shantavva Kammar Yallavva Madivalvar Ningavva Madivalvar Guttevva Kurunkoppa Basavva Kurunakoppa Basappa Madivalar Neelavva Kammar Mallavva Kurnakoppa Savakka Walikar Uluvavva Yaragambalimath Dundayya Bellakkimath .Annexure 1 Sl.