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HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points HACCP is a preventative approach to food safety to prevent human health hazards.

It diverges from the command and control type of inspection-based programs of the past. It is designed, operated, monitored and verified by plant personnel Responsibility for safety is placed upon the manufacturer. Origin of HACCP Pillsbury (1959) originated HACCP to address food safety during manned space flights. Early 1970s: FDA published the low-acid and acidified canned food regulations to control risk of Clostridium botulinum--HACCP concepts Meat Industry: E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks General Principle Most food borne illness results from accumulated errors from farm to table HACCP Principles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Conduct a Hazard Analysis Identify Critical Control Points Set Critical Limits Establish Monitoring procedures Establish Corrective Actions Establish Record Keeping procedures Verification that HACCP works

Food Hazards Food can initially be or can become unacceptable (quality problem) or unsafe (health hazards) Types of hazards: Biological hazards: cause foodborne illness Physical hazards: cause physical harm (choking) Chemical hazards: may have an immediate toxic effect or a delayed effect

How Do We Do HACCP?? Pre-Requisite Programs Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) Standard Operating Procedures Generic E. coli testing program

Prepare a Product List Together by PSlaughter--all species Raw product--not ground

Raw product--ground Thermally processed--commercially sterile Not heat treated--shelf stable Heat treated--shelf stable Fully cooked--not shelf stable Heat treated but not fully cooked--not shelf stable Product with secondary inhibitors--not shelf stablerocess

Describe the Product (Group) Common name How will it be used? Cooked, reheated, cold Packaging: PVC Shelf life: time /temp Where will it be sold? Retail, wholesale, catering. Labeling instructions: Safe Handling Keep Refrigerated Heat Before Serving Special distribution?? Is the end-point consumer a special group--children, elderly.

Conduct a Hazard Analysis--Does This Hazard Exist? Biological hazards: microbes, parasites. Chemical: controlled use substances (nitrite, phosphate), sanitizers, detergents, antibiotic or pesticide residues, heavy metals (water). Physical: foreign objects such as machinery parts, hairpins, rocks, ear tags, needles Significant Hazard: hazard of a nature that its prevention, elimination or reduction is essential for safe foods.

Identify Critical Control Points (CCPs) in the Process: A CCP is a step, point or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level.

CCPs are for safety issues NOT for quality issues (eg. Cooking to a high enough temp. to kill bacteria, not cooking to the optimal temp. for juiciness or tenderness).

Establish Critical Limits Critical Limits tell whether the CCP is in control range. If critical limit is exceeded, CCP is out of control = potential for a health hazard. Critical Limits are the boundaries for CCPs that affect the safety of the product. Critical limits are stated in specific (numeric) terms: temperature, time, pH, nitrite content, % salt, etc.

Critical Limits--What to Include Only steps which are CCPs need to have Critical Limits. Critical Limits should be measurable--temperature, pH, % salt, ppm nitrite Consider Monitoring at this step: o Who o What o When o How

Monitoring Procedure: What will be monitored (temp, time, pH)? Who will do the monitoring (smoke house operator, receiving personnel, manager)? How will monitoring be done (take temperature, inspect incoming boxes, metal detector)? When will monitoring be done (continuous or intermittent)?

Corrective Actions: A Corrective Action is one that will bring a process that is out of control at that process step (CCP) back under control to avert a food safety hazard. Examples of corrective actions: Re-cook Rapid chill in freezer Send ingredients back to supplier Condemn product in cooler that is beyond its code date Reroute an ingredient to a product where it does not pose a safety hazard (cooked product)

Establish Record Keeping Procedures: Record keeping procedures document the HACCP system = legal implications. HACCP (and USDA) requires documentation relating to all CCPs. Records are the ONLY reference available to trace the production history of a finished roduct. Records should be reviewed DAILY HACCP TeamTasks

Verification Is Done by the Cooler temperatures

Smoke house thermocouples Product dates in cooler or freezer Employee work patterns SSOPs Critical limits OK Receiving logs vs inventory of product Dry spice logs and batch number Walk through plant to review operations Meet with employees to discuss HACCP plan/process control