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Cloning is the process of producing one or more genetically-identical individuals. The most common cloning method is known as "somatic cell nuclear transfer" or simply "nuclear transfer". It requires two kinds of cell: a somatic cell and an egg cell. The somatic cell is collected from the animal that is to be cloned (known as the "genetic donor"). A somatic cell is any cell other than a sperm cell or egg cell. It contains the complete DNA or genetic blueprint of the animal it came from. For cloning purposes, somatic cells are typically obtained by a routine skin biopsy performed by a veterinarian. The egg cell is collected from a female of the same species (known as the "egg donor"). In the lab, a scientist extracts and discards the nucleus of the egg cell, which is the part of the cell that contains the egg donor's genes. The scientist then inserts the somatic cell from the genetic donor into the egg and "fuses" the two with electricity. The resulting fused egg contains the genetic donor's DNA. The scientist stimulates the fused egg and activates the egg. It causes to divide just as an egg is fertilized by a sperm cell in conventional reproduction. The activated egg is then placed in a culture medium. As cellular division continues for several days, a blastocyst forms. After about a week, an embryo transfer specialist transfers the blastocyst to a recipient female ("surrogate mother") where it continues to develop. After a full-term pregnancy, the recipient gives birth to an animal that is essentially the identical twin of the genetic donor. Dolly was a female domestic sheep. It was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the on animal cloning are going on. Human cloning is prohibited for ethical reasons process of nuclear transfer. She was cloned by Ian Wilmut , Keith Campbell, and colleagues at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh in Scotland. She was born on 5 July 1996 and she lived until the age of six. 2. ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES Artificial Satellites are man-made objects revolving around the earth. There are two types of artificial satellites - geostationary satellites and polar satellites. For geostationary satellites, period of their revolution is equal to the period of earth’s rotation. They revolve in the equatorial plane. Orbits in which they revolve are called geostationary orbits or parking orbits. Height of the orbit is 36000 km above the earth’s surface. The orbital velocity is equal to 3.08 km per sec. Geostationary satellites are used for communication purpose. The polar satellites pass over the north and south poles of the earth. The earth rotates on its axis. The polar satellites pass over the front part of the earth while revolving. They are very close to the earth. They are used by the army for the surveillance of tanks, ships, and other vehicles. They are used for weather monitoring and remote sensing. The satellites require orbital velocity to move around the earth. If the velocity is less, the satellite may hit the earth at any point. If the velocity is very high, it may move away from the
garbage. Flood control. gas. The sun produces energy in the form of light. They are the important sources of energy for the future. The rocket gets tilted now. Satellites require orbital velocity to revolve around the earth. wood. Wind energy is the world’s fastest growing energy technology.01 km per sec to orbit around the earth in a closed path. It does not make noise. recreational activities like boating and fishing can be done at the same time. Longer blades and speedier winds produce more electricity. Biomass energy is produced using plants and waste such as trees. In the first stage. The electricity is produced by generators at a power plant.earth. It is the oldest and largest energy in the United States. In the second stage. The US has more than 6300 megawatts of wind-electricity which can power approximately 2. Photovoltaic (PV) technology converts light energy into direct current (DC) electricity. while having little impact on the environment. When the wind blows. The generator is about the size of a school bus. Biomass comes from plants. 1200 homes can be powered . Every day the sun provides energy to meet the earth’s needs for 27 years. it burns off and falls back to the earth. crops. it burns and attains higher velocity. it is captured by large. sunlight. water. The generator produces electricity. Solar energy is produced from the sun’s light. and biomass will never run out. petrol. 3. This is called escape velocity. RENEWABLE RESOURCES Energy sources like coal. or paper. The light frees electrons in the solar cell. exhaust gases build enough thrust that exceeds the rocket’s weight. many solar cells are connected together in a solar panel. The turbine blades. crop production. It rises vertically and rises through the denser atmosphere. Wind turbines are grouped on wind farms to make even more clean energy. The water falls. The final stage of the satellite tilts it in the horizontal direction. People have used falling water as an energy source since the time of the Roman Empire. These are called non-renewable sources. It prevents pollution. After lift-up. The required velocity is imparted using multi-stage rocket. and diesel have a limited supply. agricultural waste (manure). Hydroelectric energy is produced from falling water. PV can be used in a wide range of products from small consumer items such as calculators and wristwatches to more complicated systems that provide power for satellites in the space. It has two main components: a magnet and copper wire. The electrons flow though wires in an electrical circuit to make electricity. The United States produces 9733 megawatts of electricity from biomass including landfill gas. To make more power. The force of the upthrust greater than the rocket accelerates it in the upward direction. Energy sources like wind. It gives a proper speed of 3.2 million homes. It makes about 83 megawatts of electricity for approximately 31. These are called renewable energy sources. The turbines inside the power plant spin. The second stage gets detached. PV power is considered a form of renewable energy. which are connected to the generator inside the nacelle. Photovoltaic cells or solar cells are made of semiconductor materials similar to computer chips. It is produced from moving air. free-standing wind turbines that are up to 400 feet high. Higher waterfalls and faster water flows produce more electricity. move fast.500 homes.
Cyber revolution is the result of an essential free-will in the Internet. Facebook. Telecommunications play an important role in the world economy. A different opportunity was introduced by the birth of Web 2. 5. semaphore telegraphs. In the modern age of electricity and electronics. Barack Obama. Bacteria are mixed. and Wikipedia are becoming more popular. The digester breaks it down and makes methane gas. Plants grow. Animals eat the plants along with corn. People are not consuming culture.they can play a role in this virtual world. 4. Methane is burned in an engine to make electricity in the generator. Other highly notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications include Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse (telegraph). smoke signals. The procedure for producing biomass is simple.0. and newspapers are getting outdated. and the manure is kept inside a digester oven. and teleprinters. major media use the amateur reports to satisfy their audience. or loud whistles. Edwin Armstrong.85 trillion in 2008. TELECOMMUNICATION Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. CYBER REVOLUTION Cyberspace provides an alive environment for everyone to witness what is actually going on around the world. Bloggers and amateur reports are the sources of some important news. as well as John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth (television). Instead. was the first politician who widely utilized the internet for the presidential campaign.7 trillion by 2013. The 2009 presidential election of Iran was one of the most challenging elections in the world . lung-blown horns. It is expected to touch $2. TV. The service revenue of the global telecommunications industry was estimated to be $1. Major media are no longer the exclusive sources of breaking news. hay. and Lee de Forest (radio). The worldwide telecommunication industry's revenue was estimated to be $3. It also includes audio messages through coded drumbeats. Marconi won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for his efforts. and soy and make waste (manure). telecommunications now includes the use of electrical devices such as telegraphs. In earlier times. You tube. they are creating their own culture in the Internet. telecommunications involved the use of visual signals such as beacons. Orbiting satellites and the Internet are also used for telecommunication. and optical heliographs.7 trillion in 2008. where people are not only users . as the users are free to choose their source of news.for one year with 1 million tons of garbage. But it was merely a utilization of the Internet as a broad medium. TV. A revolution in wireless telecommunications began in the first decade of the 20th century. signal flags. It involves the use of radio. This opportunity was indeed introduced by the growth of numerous satellite TV channels. The manure is baked at 100 degree F for 3 weeks. It started with the pioneering developments in wireless radio communications by Nikola Tesla and Guglielmo Marconi. telephones. The US president. microwave communications as well as fiber optics and their associated electronics. Radio. Alexander Graham Bell (telephone).
6. and the magnetosphere. medicine. materials science. It includes the use of space technology for a broad spectrum of research disciplines.g. The start of satellite-based space research is the detection of the Van Allen radiation belt by Explorer 1 in 1958. internet usage was the subject of a real cyber-revolution. and physics. biology. e. It has activated Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching IRS type of satellites and Geostationary . tracking and command network 4. detectors on V-2 rocket flights detected x-rays from the sun. Sounding rockets proved useful for the studies of the structure of the upper atmosphere. facilities for the development of satellites and launch vehicles and their testing 2. Dr Vikram Sarabhai is considered as the father of Indian Space Program me. telemetry. You can create your own website and voice out your opinions on any local or international issue. there was hot competition between two parties. Sputnik 1. Space research emerged as a field of research based on the advancing rocket technology of the 1940s and 1950s. As higher altitudes were reached. This emphasized the necessity and importance of security in cyberspace. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has successfully operationalized two major satellite systems namely Indian National Satellites (INSAT) for communication services and Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for management of natural resources. the ionosphere. which is only part of the broader field of space research. The term includes scientific payloads everywhere from deep space to low earth orbit. four months after the launch of the first satellite. the first photographs of the far side of the moon by Luna 3 in 1959. In the following year space planetology emerged with a series of lunar probes. There are bloggers who openly criticize Indian politicians. They include: 1. everything under the term ‘cyber revolution’. Although it was significantly different from the Obama’s campaign in 2008. In 1948-1949. India has established a strong infrastructure for executing its space research. launch infrastructure for sounding rockets and satellite launch vehicles 3. By the start of protests against the election results. Space research is the set of scientific studies carried out in the outer space using scientific equipment. News about the anti-humanitarian activities of the Sri Lankan government was circulated by the 4oD channel. a cyber-war was started as both parties attempted to attack the other party’s websites. The interesting feature is that Iranians were the first nation who made such a cyber-revolution. Since the state TV is the only broadcasting tool in the country. Space research is frequently defined to include research in the upper atmosphere using sounding rockets and high-altitude balloons.history. Anna Hazare gains popularity through the Internet. Regardless of the political consequences. Space science and space exploration involve the study of outer space itself. In addition. the field of space physics emerged with studies of aurorae. the candidates paid particular attentions to the Internet as an open medium. data reception and processing systems for remote sensing. including earth science. both were based on a one-way concept. SPACE RESEARCH World Space Week is celebrated from October 4 to 10 by the whole world.
The plastic wraps around their intestines or choke them to death. In this respect. plastics are considered to have a favorable environmental profile. and lakes. it takes several centuries until it is efficiently degraded. Fossil fuels are formed from the remains of dead plants by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years. It is a petroleum product. and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. associated with oil. Americans use over 380 billion polyethylene bags per year. Approximately 1 billion seabirds and mammals die per year by eating plastic bags. or in the form of methane catharses. only 1% is recycled. As resources are running out. etc. include coal. Polythene production contributes to air pollution and high energy consumption. 8. and natural gas. The fossil fuels. POLYTHENE POLLUTION Polyethylene or polythene is the most widely used plastic. Of those 100 trillion plastic bags.Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for launching INSAT type of satellites. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields. polyethylene breaks down into toxic substances which leach into the soil and enter the food chain. the necessity to recycle polythene has occurred. plastic films. It causes dangerous hazards to the environment. rivers. 7. The low weight reduces energy use. When buried. Except when it is exposed to UV from sunlight. Its primary use is within packaging (plastic bag. This biogenic theory was first introduced by Georg Agricola in 1556 and later by Mikhail Lomonosov in the 18th century.000 marine mammals die yearly by eating plastic bags. It can be alone. They choke landfills too. . It reduces the amount of food disposed of by the consumer. They also include nonvolatile materials with almost pure carbon like anthracite coal. Plastic bags are often mistaken as food by marine mammals. Polyethylene is not biodegradable. Fossil fuels include the volatile materials with low carbon-hydrogen ratios like methane and liquid petroleum. which contain high percentages of carbon. It also reduces the cost related to transportation compared to goods made from wood or paper.) It has an annual production of approximately 80 million metric tons. These animals suffer a painful death. They throw away approximately 100 billion polyethylene bags per year. petroleum. geo membranes. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years. Plastic bags are carried by the wind into forests. Aryabhatta is the first Indian satellite sent to the space. Development of advanced food packaging prolongs the life of products. 100. It releases CO2 and other toxic gases when burnt. ponds. Polythene is made from non-renewable resources like petrol or oil. FOSSIL FUELS Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.
wood. smoke from vehicles and industries.level . The production and use of fossil fuels raise environmental concerns. nuclear 8. These greenhouse gases act as a blanket and protect it from the harmful ultra violet rays of the sun. Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that enhances radioactive forcing and causes ozone depletion. etc. World energy consumption was growing about 2. land clearing. and nitrous oxide. and temperature. changes in the climate take a long time to settle in and are therefore less obvious. etc. It contributes to global warming. They amount to an 86. The atmosphere surrounding the earth is made up of nitrogen (78%). is made up of trace gases (called so because they are present in very small quantities) that include the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide. methane. and natural gas 23. earth’s tilt. waste) amounting to 0. volcanoes. Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form. agriculture.4%. There have been well-marked cold and hot periods and all life forms adapted naturally to this change.3 billion tones (21. It results in accelerated sea. oxygen (21%) and the remainder. wind.5%. sunshine. causing the average surface temperature of the Earth to rise. Changes in land use pattern. ocean currents are the natural causes for it. The climate of a place is the average weather that it experiences over a period of time. 1%. water vapour.The primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36. It causes melting of glaciers and polar ice sheets.9 percent.3 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year.0%.65 billion tones of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year. deforestation. humidity. solar. wind. floods. They can also be regarded as natural controllers of the earth's temperature system. ozone.4% share for fossil fuels in primary energy consumption in the world. It is estimated that our atmosphere can only absorb about half of that amount. Renewable energy is produced to meet the increasing energy needs. and others (geothermal. It causes major adverse effects around the world. While changes in the weather may occur suddenly and noticeably. Non-fossil sources included hydroelectric 6. heavy rainfall.3%. have all led to a rise in the emission of greenhouse gases resulting in global warming. Over the last 150-200 years climate change has been taking place too rapidly and certain plant and animal species have found it hard to adapt.0%. Change in rainfall and snowfall patterns leads to increased droughts and floods. affect crop production. 9. Extreme weather conditions such as high temperature. Continental drift. So there is a net increase of 10. Human activities are said to be responsible for the speed at which this change has occurred and it is now a cause of worry to scientists.3% per year. CLIMATE CHANGE Ever since the earth came into being there has been a climate system. The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21. tide. The factors that determine the climate at a location are the rainfall. coal 27. Throughout the earth's history there have been changes in the climate. The reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being made. droughts.
A decreased ozone layer will increase rates of malaria and other infectious diseases. ECOLOGICAL THREATS The world has become a global village. factories. and automobiles. CFCs (Chloro Fluoro Carbons) are used in industries in a variety of ways and have been amazingly useful in many products. The planet's climate could also be affected by depletion of the ozone layer. tourism. fog. UV-B increase is one of the most harmful consequences of ozone depletion because it can cause skin cancer. all of the other animals that are above plankton in the food chain would also die out. acid rain. 60 million Americans born by the year 2075 will get skin cancer because of ozone depletion. global warming. 17 million more cases of cataracts can also be expected. Global warming is the most dangerous effect of ozone depletion. OZONE DEPLETION The ozone layer protects the earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. the main reason of development of a nation. The most basic microscopic organisms such as plankton may not be able to survive. 2% more UV-B is able to reach the surface of the planet. If the ozone layer is depleted by human action. Discovered in the 1930s by American chemist Thomas Midgley. resulting in climatic changes throughout the world. plastic foam. Every time 1% of the ozone layer is depleted. and salt-water intrusion. toxic wastes. and health. Industrialization. ACID RAIN Acid rain describes rainfall with high levels of nitric and sulphuric acids. freshwater resources. Smoke from cars and industries also emit CFC. the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. There are a lot of ecological threats – overpopulation. etc. It can also occur in the form of snow. The production and emission of CFCs is the leading cause of ozone depletion. . These could adversely affect coastal agriculture. The biggest culprit is the burning of fossil fuels by coal-burning power plants. the industrialization is widespread in every corner of the world. An increase in the number of cyclones and hurricanes over the last few years has been attributed to changes in temperature. Tsunamis occur due to sea-level rise. fisheries and aquaculture. Marine organisms are affected by this phenomenon. is also the root of threats posing before our environment. and tiny bits of dry materials that settle on the earth. 10. If that happened. human settlements. Other ecosystems such as forests and deserts will also be harmed. Rotting vegetation and erupting volcanoes release some chemicals which cause acid rain. urbanization. including loss of land due to inundation and erosion. home insulation. deforestation. increased flooding.rise. Sea-level rise could have a number of physical impacts on coastal areas. Wind patterns could change. pollution. Rising sea levels threaten the survival of many low-lying island nations such as the Maldives and Marshall Islands. greenhouse effect. When the rift between developed and developing nations is dwindling. ozone depletion. and throwaway food containers. CFCs came to be used in refrigerators. smog.
it flows across the surface in runoff water. Winds may spread these acidic solutions across the atmosphere and over hundreds of miles. and other substances to form mild solutions of sulphuric and nitric acid. During the 20th century. hazardous and dangerous to both nature and human life. Only 3% is fresh water of which slightly over two thirds is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. Often. as more areas of the world industrialize and new products are produced. fresh water is steadily decreasing. aquatic animals. one method of reducing the hazardous waste problem may be to simply stop producing so much of it. and sinks into the soil.000 different chemicals are used in industries worldwide. sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides release into the atmosphere.When fossil fuels are burned. oxygen. household. thyroid problems. Tamilnadu. 97% of the water on the earth is salt water. Often. This combination makes waters toxic to crayfish. the toxic wastes from the dye factories in Tirupur district. Acid rain causes allergy and skin diseases in human beings. industrial. Acid rain makes waters acidic and causes them to absorb the aluminum that makes its way from soil into lakes and streams. Fresh water is a renewable resource. HAZARDOUS WASTE: Humans produce waste that is dumped on the environment. Biodiversity-rich freshwater ecosystems are currently declining faster than marine or land ecosystems. Leaves and roots are slightly burnt. so does the water demand. Fruits become acidic and inedible. Wastes from industries are dumped into water resources causing diseases like cholera. this waste is Chemicals used for industrial processes often create dangerous forms of waste. 11. Only after someone has died or become seriously ill. with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air. The amount of these chemicals has risen heavily in the past. When acid rain reaches the earth. Around the world. Awareness of the global importance of preserving water for ecosystem services has emerged recently. Rather than cleaning up or storing waste more carefully. and non-aquatic birds. etc. yet the world's supply of clean. malaria. more than half the world’s wetlands have been lost along with their valuable environmental services. . For example. WATER RESOURCES Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. The framework for allocating water resources to water users (where such a framework exists) is known as water rights. Over 80. Uses of water include agricultural. As the world population continues to rise. hundreds of millions of tons of hazardous waste are produced annually. cancer. These chemical gases react with water. Buildings are corroded by the acid. Water demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world. clams. The remaining unfrozen fresh water is mainly found as groundwater. governments intervene and reduce the levels of dumped hazardous waste. recreational and environmental activities. enters water systems. fish. it is difficult and expensive to get rid of these chemicals or to store them in a way that does not endanger human life or the environment.
However. texture. there are concerns about safety and radioactive waste management. Channel characteristics are the carrying capacity and storage capacity. Exporting nuclear technology to other countries might lead to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY Nuclear energy is a curse in the disguise of a blessing! Nuclear energy is released by the splitting (fission) or merging together (fusion) of the nuclei of atoms. Recently nuclear energy is used to produce electricity. etc. Nuclear reactors cannot be built fast enough to slow down climate change. Rainwater harvesting can supplement the subsoil water level and increase urban greenery. surface infiltration conditions. and evapo-transpiration. soil types. It is then used to generate electricity. The physiographic features (including geological factors) influence the occurrence and distribution of water resources within a region. . Lithological factors include composition. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses and ground pits can make an important contribution to the availability of drinking water. water for irrigation. Nuclear power is the power produced from non-explosive nuclear reactions.are expected to fuel its nuclear power program me long-term. sequence of rock types. Nuclear fission is the breaking of a heavy nucleus into two or more lighter nuclei. Electric utility reactors heat water to produce steam. snow. India has limited coal and uranium reserves. duration. It has been used to provide drinking water. reduces carbon emissions. In nuclear fusion.The water resources of a region are conceived as a dynamic phase of the hydrologic cycle. Rainwater harvesting is the process of accumulating and storing rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. and increases energy security by decreasing dependence on foreign oil. Its huge thorium reserves . and distribution). water for livestock. nuclear power is expected to provide 25% of the country's electricity. and are potentially successful in most habitable locations. and wind. 12. etc. two atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus. and the thickness of rock formations. Physical factors consist of land use. Radioactive waste cannot be stored safely for long periods of time. 14% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power. humidity. slope. India has 14 reactors in commercial operation and nine under construction. In 2007. and stream density. Nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that does not create air pollution. By 2050.about 25% of the world's total . Rainwater harvesting systems can be simple to construct from inexpensive local materials. Geometric factors include the drainage area. Nuclear power plants convert nuclear energy into electricity by nuclear fission. They also play a significant role in influencing rainfall and other climatic factors such as temperature. shape. Nuclear power supplies about 3% of India's electricity. There is a continuing possibility of radioactive contamination by accident or sabotage. They are influenced by the following groups of factors: Climatic Factors include rainfall (its intensity. Roof rainwater can't be of good quality and may require treatment before consumption. They use nuclear fission reactions. Nuclear power is a potentially dangerous energy source.
there were leaks and accidents. Three were tested on 11th May and two on 13th May 1998. But the radiation emitted from its reactors is three times as much as the international norms. India nuclear plants are poorly built and maintained. ‘Shakti’ means ‘strength' in Sanskrit. Only three Indian nuclear reactors fall under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards. On 18th May 1974. India exploded its first nuclear device code named ‘Smiling Buddha’. It has joined India and criticized the human rights situation in Burma. India has signed agreements with the US. Bush said that the trade between the two countries was growing. Before a few years. In turn. it will open its nuclear facilities to the US inspection. According to it. These parts are used in building the reactors. It has promised to help India fight climate change and non-proliferation efforts.P. It is also the name of the Hindu Goddess of strength. on Buddha Jayanti 11th May 1998. R. India and Pakistan are rivals. France also has signed a treaty with India. India has ended its years of international isolation over its nuclear policy. 14 of 22 nuclear facilities of India are allotted for civilian use and opened for inspection. Kakrapara Atomic Power Stations (KAPS) is the safest nuclear power station. Nearly 300 workers have got very serious physical damage. But it does not meet the international standards in constructing the nuclear power plants. Shakti was the codename for Pokhran-II. Leaks are witnessed. Manufacturers cut deals with politicians in India’s Department of Energy and sell defective parts. The US will speak with India and Pakistan to resolve the Kashmir dispute. ‘Operation Shakti’ was carried out. After about a quarter century. Pokhran-II tests resulted in a variety of sanctions against India by a number of major states. Some are against this deal for two reasons: By signing this. Critics say that India has lost its traditional non-alignment policy by signing this treaty. Others satisfy only the national standards set by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). But nuclear catastrophe is worse than Pakistan’s war or terrorism. India follows the US in using the nuclear power. India has separated its military and civilian nuclear facilities. Nuclear energy has its own advantages and disadvantages. They were followed by nuclear testing by Pakistan. The tests were conducted by India at the Pokhran test range. The Project Chief Coordinators of Pokhran-II were Dr. Chidambaram.J. India which has high energy needs will get access to the US civil nuclear technology. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Defense Research & Development Organization (DRDO) formed the development and test teams of Pokhran-II. Due to turbine blade failures. nuclear tests are conducted in India. Nuclear power stations are poorly constructed and maintained.The US President George Bush and Indian Prime Minister Man Mohan Singh have finalized a controversial nuclear deal. and India’s safety is under question. By joining with the US. They have planned to cooperate militarily and prevent terrorism. In spite of warnings. India can gain the hatred of the Muslim countries which are against the US already. . Pokhran-II refers to the test explosion of five nuclear devices in India. There are many terrorist groups in India. Abdul Kalam and Dr. there was a series of defects in Rajasthan power reactor. A.
Chemical fertilizers are used to increase yield per unit of land. Yet unavoidably killing or starving natural predator insects and animals cause an ultimate increase in the pest population. It has to use more fuel. fuel oil. Integrated Pest Management is a multifaceted strategy that can include synthetic pesticides as a last resort—both organic and conventional farms use IPM systems for pest control. field works can be done effectively. and natural materials such as potassium bicarbonate and mulches are used to control disease and weeds. plants. politicians. It can make the plants and fruits less nutritious. Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and modern technology with traditional farming practices.Whoever it is . more powerful controls. But it has a few disadvantages. Biotechnology is widely used to improve plant species. causing air pollution. While conventional agriculture uses synthetic pesticides and water-soluble synthetically purified fertilizers. It may lead to desertification. necessitating the increased use. Organic farming methods are studied in the field of agro-ecology. crops are rotated to confuse pests and renew soil. causing different diseases. The principal methods of organic farming include crop rotation. It may lead to salty soil. mechanical energy and finally . It has to open more farmland. It may cause soil erosion and soil degradation. green manures and compost. a specific insecticide may be applied to quickly kill off a particular insect pest (animal). It employs less farm labour. and mechanical cultivation. For example. organic farmers are restricted by regulations to using natural pesticides and fertilizers. SCIENTIFIC FARMING Scientific farming uses science and technology to improve water supplies by better irrigation and drainage system. In scientific farming. These measures use the natural environment to enhance agricultural productivity: legumes are planted to fix nitrogen into the soil. It increases the farm output. While fundamentally different. and organic researchers produce hardier plants through plant breeding rather than genetic engineering. It makes the plants easier to grow and yield. herbicides. It uses equipment like harvesters and tractors to improve farming efficiency. the chemical energy stored in fossil fuels such as coal. It may affect our health. natural insect predators are encouraged. or other organisms. natural gas is converted successively into thermal energy. Enriching chemical pesticides ensures a good harvest by controlling pests. Organic farmers are careful in their selection of plant breeds. and pesticides also encourages rapid natural selection of resistant insects. Such issues are carefully avoided in organic farming. or common men – everybody should take responsibility to save India from nuclear disaster in the future. THERMAL POWER PLANTS In a thermal power plant. biological pest control. Repeated use of insecticides.scientists. or requiring new. 13. Chemical controls can dramatically reduce pest populations for the short term. It grows more crops in better quality. 14. large-scale agriculture and organic farming are not entirely mutually exclusive. In scientific farming.
as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal.electrical energy for continuous use and distribution across a wide geographic area. it becomes high-pressurized steam. they need to remain reliable and demonstrate that every effort has been made to minimize environmental impacts and maximize efficiency. waste incineration plants. fuel oil. As the turbine is rotating (from the force of the steams). 15. nuclear. The steam thus changes back to its liquid form and returns to the boiler. High pressure and high temperature steam raised in a boiler is expanded through a steam turbine that drives an electric generator. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster: their resilience. The turbine is connected to a generator via a coupler. There is tardy communication and poor or no budgetary allocation for disaster prevention in developing countries. Power plants burning coal. the turbine will rotate very fast. Some biomass-fueled thermal power plants have also appeared. Natural gas is frequently combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers. Ensuring flexible. Asia tops the list of casualties due to natural disasters. The whole process repeats. As well. unstable land forms. solar thermal electric. Human vulnerability and a lack of appropriate emergency management lead to financial. environmental. landslides. thus rotating the turbine. and unplanned growth proliferation of non-engineered constructions make the disaster-prone areas more vulnerable. flood. (As the steam is high-pressurized. As water in the boiler evaporates due to intense heat. NATURAL CALAMITIES A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural calamity affects humans and/or the built environment. Almost all coal. reliable operation with minimum forced outages. volcanic eruptions. After the steams have passed through the turbine. Various disasters like earthquake. Thermal Power Plant assets need to be flexible to meet rapidly fluctuating demand levels. geothermal. The tropical climate. deforestation. They suffer more or less chronically by natural disasters. and cyclones are natural hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of habitat and property each year. implementing innovative strategies that reduce emissions and dealing with volatile power markets while achieving the lowest operating costs possible are the new industry reality. . The condenser has got a cooling agent (namely seawater) and the steam will go through the cooling agent via a pipe. electrical energy is being produced. The rapid growth of the world's population and its increased concentration often in hazardous environment has escalated both the frequency and severity of natural disasters. The waste heat from a gas turbine can be used to raise steam in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency. it enters a condenser. Coal is used as fuel for the generation of heat energy. or human impact. The steam passes through a conduit and forces its way through the turbine. or natural gas are often called fossil-fuel power plants.
and has become an important measure for human and nature sustainable development. and Meinü robot have particularly good robot navigation hardware and software.g. the way they are instructed to perform their jobs and especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. engineering. so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive. prediction and early warning. landslides. Most of these robots employ a GPS navigation device with waypoints. different professions and different scientific fields. Some highly advanced robots as ASIMO. It is possible to reduce the impact of disasters by adopting suitable disaster mitigation strategies.Among various natural hazards. These natural disasters are of (i) geophysical origin such as earthquakes. manufacture and application of robots. ROBOTICS Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design. monitoring including relief management capability. and software. 16. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics. Disaster management involves: pre-disaster planning. damage assessment. Science fiction authors also typically assume that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through speech. structural disposition. floods. Ernst Dickmanns' driverless car. There is an increasing interest in robots that can operate autonomously in a dynamic environment. and the entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge are capable of sensing the environment well and making navigational decisions based on this information. efforts could be made to avoid disasters and alleviate their effects on human lives. prepare and implement developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters. In particular unforeseen events (e. The word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov in his science fiction short story "Liar!" Most of the robots are either human controlled. and facial expressions rather than a command-line interface. EveR-1. landslides and (ii) climatic origin such as drought. and to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reduction. mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services. If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments. and sensory data such as LIDAR. operating in a static environment. and cyclones are the major disasters adversely affecting very large areas and population in the Indian sub-continent. gestures. radar. locust. mechanics. and inertial guidance systems for better navigation between waypoints. Robotics is related to the sciences of electronics. earthquakes. and property. people and other obstacles that are not stationary) can cause problems or collisions. Disaster mitigation mainly addresses the following: minimize the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies. cyclone. Disaster reduction is a systematic work which involves with different regions. Though it may not be possible to control nature and stop the development of natural phenomena. flood. construction. volcanic eruptions. forest fire. infrastructure. and relief management. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to . These robots require some combination of navigation hardware and software in order to traverse their environment. video cameras. Self-controlled cars. operation. preparedness.
One commercial example is Pleo. speaker’s nose and throat condition. something which may or may not be desirable in the commercial robots of the future. with an accuracy of 95%. the previous word. situations. The central problems of AI include traits such as reasoning. Among the things that AI needs to represent are: objects.communicate. up to 160 words per minute. It becomes even harder when the speaker has a different accent. neural net research attempts to simulate the structures inside human and animal brains that give rise to this skill. facial expressions. and Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100% accuracy" in 1952. and the ability to move and manipulate objects. Biddulph. AI has made some progress at imitating this kind of "subsymbolic" problem solving. in real time. . researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality: they use sounds. the best systems can recognize continuous. knowledge about knowledge (what we know about what other people know). is a difficult task for a computer. and body language to try to convey an internal state which may be joy. intuitive judgments rather than the conscious. 17. General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals. etc. Some straightforward applications of natural language processing include information retrieval (or text mining) and machine translation. great strides have been made in the field since Davis. it is unnatural for the robot. by reading the existing text available over the internet. It will probably be a long time before robots interact as naturally as the fictional C-3PO or ‘Enthiran’ Chiti. or fear. volume. Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human. natural speech. causes and effects. Many of the problems machines are expected to solve will require extensive knowledge about the world. which can exhibit several apparent emotions. spoken by the same person may sound different depending on local acoustics. mostly because of the great variability of speech. sadness. etc. communication. Nevertheless. events. A great many systems have been developed to recognize human hand gestures. It is likely that gestures will make up a part of the interaction between humans and robots. Knowledge representation and knowledge engineering are central to AI research. learning. It is defined as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. states and time. The same word. Human beings solve most of their problems using fast. perception. Natural language processing gives machines the ability to read and understand the languages that humans speak. Currently. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. properties. knowledge. a toy robot dinosaur. Many of the robots in science fiction have a personality. Many researchers hope that a sufficiently powerful natural language processing system would be able to acquire knowledge on its own. planning. step-by-step deduction. Nevertheless. The embodied agent approaches emphasize the importance of sensorimotor skills to higher reasoning. The field was founded on the claim that the intelligence of humans can be simulated by a machine. categories and relations between objects.
The related area of computational research is Artificial Intuition and Artificial Imagination. cars). with sub-problems of localization (knowing where you are). The advantages of fibre optics are: less expensive. In mechanical imaging. 19. space shuttles. Hundreds or thousands of these optical fibers are arranged in bundles in optical cables. These fibers have a large core and transmit visible red light from LEDs. Because of these advantages. light signals. and buffer coating (plastic coating that protects the fiber from damage and moisture). They are used to transmit light signals over long distances. non-flammable. rockets. Optical fibers come in two types: Single-mode fibers and Multi-mode fibers. A sub-field of AI addresses creativity both theoretically (from a philosophical and psychological perspective) and practically (via specific implementations of systems that generate outputs that can be considered creative. Some optical fibers can be made from plastic. Single-mode fibers have small cores and transmit infrared laser light.The field of robotics is closely related to AI. higher carrying capacity. Over a period spanning two millennia Europeans have made many important observations of this Red Planet. instead of "channel". fibre optics is used in bronchoscopes. The bundles are protected by the cable's outer covering called a jacket. They carry digital information over long distances. endoscopes. Parts of a single optical fiber are core (thin glass center of the fiber where the light travels). low power. In medical imaging. it is used in inspecting mechanical welds in pipes and engines (in airplanes. Multi-mode fibers have larger cores and transmit infrared light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). lightweight. and flexible. digital signals. 18. Mars has captured the imagination of humankind. Intelligence is required for robots to be able to handle such tasks as object manipulation and navigation. or systems that identify and assess creativity). less signal degradation. sparking an interest in scientists and artists. and laparoscopes. . cladding (outer optical material surrounding the core that reflects the light back into the core). mapping (learning what is around you) and motion planning (figuring out how to get there). ROLE OF FIBRE OPTICS Fiber optics (optical fibers) are long. This term was translated into English as "canal". They are also used in medical imaging and mechanical engineering inspection. It is used in plumbing to inspect sewer lines. thinner. with the associated connotation of a manmade construction. thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. The association of Mars with life was strengthened in the 19th century when the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli observed bright and dark straight-line features which he called "canali". fiber optics is used mostly in telecommunications and computer networks. EXPLORATION OF MARS Since ancient times.
an essential element for the formation of life . The energy given up to the turbine comes from the reduction in the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gas. turboshaft engines. Most scientists now believe that the results can be explained by chemical processes and they do not demonstrate the presence of life on Mars. During the early part of the 20th century.For a long time. writers. It can used to power aircraft. aero-derivative gas turbines. This aroused great interest even beyond the world of science inspiring visionaries. and philosophers: the myth of the Martians was born. Jet engines. for some turbines. There. 20. Gas turbines are used in many liquid propellant rockets. drives their mechanical output. Later that century the start of the space age brought about a change in how the search for extraterrestrial life was carried out. which saves considerable dry mass. . The Viking biology package looked for signs of metabolism in soil samples. trains. it was popularly believed that these canals had been built by intelligent beings to form a huge irrigation network on the Red Planet. low pressure tanks. but for evidence for the presence of water .either on the surface or hidden underground. Scientists no longer look for intelligent beings. radial gas turbines. the high velocity and volume of the gas flow is directed through a nozzle over the turbine's blades. compressed air or thrust. industrial gas turbines for power generation. Looking for evidence of extant life was one of the objectives of the Viking biology experiments in 1976. or even tanks. micro-turbines are the different types of gas turbines. spinning the turbine which powers the compressor and. though other explanations may also be possible. GAS TURBINES A gas turbine is also called a combustion turbine. compressed air energy storage. scale jet engines. Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor. The recent detection of plumes of methane in the northern hemisphere of Mars is of great interest because of its potential biological origin. The Exo Mars Rover will therefore include a powerful instrument to study organics and their relation to the distribution of oxidants on Mars. The products of the combustion are forced into the turbine section. In the high pressure environment of the combustor. It produced very provocative results that could have been interpreted as proof of biological activity. auxiliary power units. generators. The twin landers conducted the first in-situ measurements focusing on the detection of organic compounds and life on Mars. Energy can be extracted in the form of shaft power. or any combination of these. It is a type of internal combustion engine. It has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a downstream turbine and a combustion chamber in-between. where fuel is mixed with air and ignited. Air breathing jet engines are gas turbines optimized to produce thrust from the exhaust gases or from ducted fans connected to the gas turbines. the canal controversy ended when better telescopes allowed scientists a clearer view of the planet's surface. They are otherwise called turbojets. combustion of the fuel increases the temperature. They are used to power a turbopump to permit the use of lightweight. amateur gas turbines. ships.
and handle load changes more quickly than industrial machines. . They are otherwise known as Turbo alternators or Turbo-generators. Micro turbines are touted to become widespread in distributed power and combined heat and power applications. They are also used in the marine industry to reduce weight.A turboprop engine is a type of turbine engine which drives an aircraft propeller using a reduction gear. Aero derivative gas turbines are also used in electrical power generation due to their ability to be shut down. Turbo shaft engines are often used to drive compression trains (for example in gas pumping stations or natural gas liquefaction plants) and are used to power almost all modern helicopters. They are one of the most promising technologies for powering hybrid electric vehicles.
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