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19. a What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a long-term condition where blood glucose levels (sugar levels) become too high because the body either produces little or no insulin, or cannot use insulin properly. b) Explain the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes In Diabetes Type 1 the body is not producing insulin, while in Diabetes Type 2 the cells are not responding properly to the insulin, and/or there is not enough insulin being produced. c) What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and usually goes away after the baby is born.

20. Why is it a concern if a teenager follows a vegan diet?

A vegetarian diet can be very unbalanced and damaging to the body in the long term. Can suffer from depression, mood swings, hormonal imbalances, thyroid imbalances, weight issues, no energy, lack of mental concentrationbrain fog, vision problems, anemia, mental and growth retardation, scurvy, rickets and many other health issue

21. What nutrients do vegetarians risk consuming when they don't eat meat? Iron, vitamin b 12, protein, calcium and zinc

22. Why do people choose to follow a vegetarian diet?

Environmental - Easier to grow more food per hectare Cost - It is cheaper to buy grains, cereals, and vegies than meat Moral/Animal welfare - Some people believe it's wrong to kill animals for food Health - Some think it's healther than having a meat diet and meat products

23. What nutrients are beneficial in an athlete's diet?


Carbohydrates Fat is important in the athletes diet as it provides energy Vitamins and Minerals Calcium

24. Explain the concept of carbohydrate loading.

Carbohydrate loading is a strategy involving changes to training and nutrition that can maximise muscle glycogen (carbohydrate) stores prior to endurance competition Involved a 3-4 day 'depletion phase' involving 3-4 days of hard training plus a low carbohydrate diet.

This depletion phase was thought to be necessary to stimulate the enzyme glycogen synthase.

25. What foods contain cholesterol?


Egg yolk Caviar (Fish roe) Butter Shrimp Fast foods Processed meats Shellfish

26. List the risk factors for heart disease


Smoking High total blood cholesterol High blood pressure Diabete Being physically inactive Being overweight Depression, social isolation and a lack of quality social support.

27. What is atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plague builds up inside your arteries.

28. What is hypertension and what other health conditions does it potentially lead to?

A condition in which the arteries have persistently elevated blood pressure. Can damage your body for years heart attack and heart failure

29. Certain religious abstrain from food during festivals. Give 2 examples.

30. What nutrients supply the body with energy?


water minerals carbohydrates vitamins protein

31. There are 4 taste zones on our tongues. What are they and where are they located on the tongue?

sweet, sour, salty and bitter

(need to be familiar with the modification of recipes for certain requirements, eg. vegans, diabetics, and heart disease)