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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- 02 Basic Math for Directional Drilling Calculations
- Introduction to Directional and Horizontal Drilling - Jim Short
- Calculating a Slide Sheet
- Directional Drilling
- Note for Directional Drilling Calculation
- Calculation Equations for directional drilling
- Directional Drilling Calculation
- Tech Drilling Directional Drilling
- Directional Drilling Equation
- Directional Drilling
- Directional Drilling
- Curso Directional Drilling II log
- An Introduction to Directional Drilling
- NeXT Course_Practical Directional Drilling Problems and Solutions
- Directional Drilling
- DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
- Directional Drilling
- Directional Drilling Survey Calculations
- Directional Drilling Training Manual
- Chapter 03 Dogleg Serverity Directional and Horizontal Drilling

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S URVEY C ALCULATIONS

INTRODUCTION

Directional surveys are taken at specified intervals in order to determine the position of the

bottom of the hole relative to the surface location. The surveys are converted to a North-South

(N-S), East-West (E-W) and true vertical depth coordinates using one of several calculation

methods. The coordinates are then plotted in both the horizontal and vertical planes. By

plotting the survey data, the rig personnel can watch the progress of the well and make changes

when necessary to hit a specified target.

There are several methods that can be used to calculate survey data; however, some are more

accurate than others. Some of the most common methods that have been used in the industry

are:

1. Tangential,

2. Balanced Tangential,

3. Average Angle,

4. Radius of Curvature and

5. Minimum Curvature

Of these methods, the tangential method is the least accurate, and the radius of curvature and

the minimum curvature are the most accurate. The industry uses primarily minimum curvature.

The first three calculation methods are based on the trigonometry of a right triangle; therefore, a

review of these trigonometric functions would be in order.

By definition, a right triangle has one angle which is equal to 90. The sum of the other two

angles is 90. Therefore, the sum of all three angles is 180. Referring to the triangle in Figure

2-1, the angles are A, B, and C with C being the right angle (90).

C = 90

A + B = 90

A + B + C = 180

In Figure 2-1, the length of the triangle sides are designated a, b, and c. Therefore we can say

that for a right triangle: a 2 + b 2 = c 2 when c is the hypotenuse of the triangle. The hypotenuse

is always the side opposite the right angle (90). The length of the hypotenuse can be

determined by rearranging the equation to read:

c = a2 + b2

2-1

Chapter 2

Sine of angle A

Sin A =

opposite side a

=

hypotenuse

c

Cosine of angle A

Cos A =

adjacent side b

=

hypotenuse

c

Tangent of angle A

Tan A =

2-2

opposite side a

=

adjacent side b

Survey Calculations

Sine of angle B

opposite side b

=

hypotenuse

c

Sin B =

Cosine of angle B

Cos B =

adjacent side a

=

hypotenuse

c

Tangent of angle B

Tan B =

opposite side b

=

adjacent side a

The values of sine, cosine and tangent of angles from 0 to 90o are given in the Appendix.

Example 2-1

Given:

Well XYZ in Figure 2-2, assume the triangle represents the plan view of a

well. In this well, B is the surface location and A is the position of the

bottom of the hole. The length "b" would then be the East coordinate and

is equal to 450 feet. The length "a" would be the North coordinate and is

equal to 650 feet.

Determine:

1.

2.

Solution:

To aid in solving the problem, a plan view similar to Figure 2-2 should be

constructed and labeled. Then, use the trigonometric functions of a right

triangle to solve the problem.

1.

c 2 = a2 + b2

c = a2 + b2

c=

(450)2 + (650)2

c = 790.57ft

2.

always given in azimuth from 0 to 360 or from the north or south

such as:

N 4813'W

2-3

Chapter 2

N 10 43'E

S 420'E

S 2432'W

In this example, angle "B" would be the closure direction. Solving for

angle "B":

Sin B =

opposite side

450'

=

hypotenuse

790.57'

Sin B = 0.5692 .

B = 34.70 (See Appendix for Sine table and interpolate)

North: 650, East: 450,

o

Closure Distance: 790.57, Closure Direction: N34 42E (Azimuth 34.70)

2-4

Survey Calculations

expressed in the coordinate system. Converting the decimal to minutes:

Minutes = (decimal)(60)

Minutes = (0.70) (60)

Minutes = 42'

Therefore, the closure distance and direction are: 790.57' and N3442' E.

Presented next is a brief explanation of the most commonly used survey calculation methods

and the appropriate calculations.

TANGENTIAL

At one time the tangential method was the most widely used because it was the easiest (Table

2-1). The equations are relatively simple, and the calculations can be performed easily in the

field. Unfortunately, the tangential method is the least accurate method and results in errors

greater than all the other methods. The tangential method should not be used to calculate

directional surveys. It is only presented here to prove a point.

The tangential method assumes the wellbore course is tangential to the lower survey station,

and the wellbore course is a straight line. Because of the straight line assumption, the

tangential method yields a larger value of horizontal departure and a smaller value of vertical

displacement when the inclination is increasing. This is graphically represented in Figure 2-3.

In Figure 2-3, Line AI 2 is the assumed wellbore course. The dashed line AB is the change in

true vertical depth and the dashed line BI 2 is the departure in the horizontal direction. The

opposite is true when the inclination is decreasing. In Type I, III and IV holes, the error will be

significant. In a Type II hole, the error calculated while increasing angle will be offset by the

error calculated while decreasing angle but only when the build and drop rates are comparable.

2-5

Chapter 2

With the tangential method, the greater the build or drop rate, the greater the error. Also, the

distance between surveys has an effect on the quantity of the error. If survey intervals were 10

feet or less, the error would be acceptable. The added expense of surveying every 10 feet

prohibits using the tangential method for calculating the wellbore course especially when more

accurate methods are available.

The North-South, East-West coordinates are determined by assuming the horizontal departure

of the course length is in the same direction as the azimuth recorded at the lower survey station,

but this assumption is wrong. The actual wellbore course will be a function of the upper and

lower survey stations. Therefore, the tangential method results in an additional error because

an error already exists due to the method used to calculate the horizontal departure. The error

is compounded when the North-South, East-West coordinates are calculated.

Table 2-1. Directional Survey Calculation Formula

Tangential

TVD = MD Cos I 2

Equation 2-1

Equation 2-2

Equation 2-3

Balanced Tangential

TVD =

MD

(Cos I1 + Cos I 2 )

2

North =

East =

Equation 2-4

MD

[(Sin I1 Cos A1 ) + (Sin I 2 Cos A2 )]

2

MD

[(Sin I1 Sin A1 ) + (Sin I 2 Sin A2 )]

2

Equation 2-5

Equation 2-6

Average Angle

I + I

TVD = MD Cos 1 2

2

Equation 2-7

A + A2

I + I

North = MD Sin 1 2 Cos 1

Equation 2-8

A + A2

I + I

East = MD Sin 1 2 Sin 1

Equation 2-9

2-6

Survey Calculations

Radius of Curvature

TVD =

(180)(MD)(SinI 2 SinI1 )

(I 2 I1 )

North =

East =

DEP =

r =

2 (I 2 I1 )(A2 A1 )

2 (I 2 I1 )(A2 A1 )

(I 2 I1 )

180

( )(DLS )

MD =

Equation 2-10

Equation 2-11

Equation 2-12

Equation 2-13

Equation 2-14

I 2 I1

Br

Equation 2-15

Minimum Curvature

MD

TVD =

(Cos I1 + Cos I 2 )(FC )

2

Equation 2-16

MD

North =

[(Sin I 2 Cos A2 ) + (Sin I1 Cos A1 )](FC )

2

Equation 2-17

MD

East =

[(Sin I 2 Sin A2 ) + (Sin I1 Sin A1 )](FC )

2

Equation 2-18

Equation 2-19

1

D 2 = Tan 1 2 1

D1

Equation 2-20

FC =

2

D2

Tan

D2

2

Equation 2-21

Calculations for Closure

East

Closure Direction = Tan 1

North

Closure Distance =

(North )2 + (East )2

Equation 2-22

Equation 2-23

2-7

Chapter 2

Vertical Section

VS = Cos (Az vs Az cl ) (Closure Distance )

Equation 2-24

Dogleg Severity

100

1

DLS =

Cos {(Sin I1 Sin I 2 )[(Sin A1 Sin A2 ) + (Cos A1 Cos A2 )] + (Cos I1 Cos I 2 )} Equation 2-25

MD

or

2

A A1

I I

200

DLS =

Sin 1 (Sin I1 )(Sin I 2 )Sin 2

+ Sin 2 1

MD

2

Equation 2-26

BALANCED TANGENTIAL

The balanced tangential method is similar to the tangential method in that the wellbore course is

determined by the tangent to the angle. The difference between the two methods is the

balanced tangential uses both the upper and lower survey stations. The top half of the wellbore

course is approximated by the upper inclination line I1A in Figure 2-4 and the lower half of the

wellbore course is approximated by the lower inclination line AI 2 . The azimuth is approximated

in the same manner. Both the upper and lower portions of the assumed wellbore course are in

error, but the errors are opposite and will nearly cancel each other. Therefore, the balanced

tangential method is accurate enough for field applications. The balanced tangential equations

are more difficult to perform (Table 2-1) and are more likely to result in an error because of

mechanical mistakes while making the calculations.

2-8

Survey Calculations

AVERAGE ANGLE

When using the average angle method, the inclination and azimuth at the lower and upper

survey stations are mathematically averaged, and then the wellbore course is assumed to be

tangential to the average inclination and azimuth. The calculations are very similar to the

tangential method (Table 2-1), and the results are as accurate as the balanced tangential

method. Since the average angle method is both fairly accurate and easy to calculate, it is the

method that can be used in the field if a programmable calculator or computer is not available.

The error will be small and well within the accuracy needed in the field provided the distance

between surveys is not too great. The average angle method is graphically illustrated in Figure

2-5. The average angle method does have problems at low inclinations with large changes in

azimuth so it should not be used for vertical wells.

I1 + I 2

2

RADIUS OF CURVATURE

The radius of curvature method is currently considered to be one of the most accurate methods

available. The method assumes the wellbore course is a smooth curve between the upper and

lower survey stations. The curvature of the arc is determined by the survey inclinations and

azimuths at the upper and lower survey stations as shown in Figure 2-6. The length of the arc

between I1 and I 2 is the measured depth between surveys. In the previous methods, the

wellbore course was assumed to be one or two straight lines between the upper and lower

survey points. The curvature of the wellbore course assumed by the radius of curvature method

will more closely approximate the actual well; therefore, it is more accurate. Unfortunately, the

equations are complicated (Table 2-1) and are not easily calculated in the field without a

programmable calculator or computer.

A closer inspection of the radius of curvature equations show that if the inclination or azimuth

are equal for both survey points, a division by zero will result in an error. In Figure 2-6 the

radius, r, will become infinitely long. In that case, the minimum curvature or average angle

2-9

Chapter 2

methods can be used to make the calculations. It is also possible to add a small number (such

as 1 x 10-4) to either survey point. The resulting error will be insignificant.

Generally, the radius of curvature calculations are used when planning a well. Using one of the

three previous methods to plan a well will result in substantial errors when calculating over long

intervals. This will be further explained in the section on planning a well.

MINIMUM CURVATURE

The minimum curvature method is similar to the radius of curvature method in that it assumes

that the wellbore is a curved path between the two survey points. The minimum curvature

method uses the same equations as the balanced tangential multiplied by a ratio factor which is

defined by the curvature of the wellbore. Therefore, the minimum curvature provides a more

accurate method of determining the position of the wellbore. Like the radius of curvature, the

equations are more complicated and not easily calculated in the field without the aid of a

programmable calculator or computer. The equations can be found in Table 2-1.

Figure 2-7 is a graphic representation of the minimum curvature calculations. The balanced

tangential calculations assume the wellbore course is along the line I1A + AI 2 . The calculation

of the ratio factor changes the wellbore course to I1B + BI 2 which is the arc of the angle B .

This is mathematically equivalent to the radius of curvature for a change in inclination only.

So long as there are no changes in the wellbore azimuth, the radius of curvature and minimum

curvature equations will yield the same results. If there is a change in the azimuth, there can be

a difference in the calculations. The minimum curvature calculations assume a curvature that is

the shortest path for the wellbore to incorporate both surveys. At low inclinations with large

changes in azimuth, the shortest path may also involve dropping inclination as well as turning.

The minimum curvature equations do not treat the change in inclination and azimuth separately

as do the radius of curvature calculations.

2-10

Survey Calculations

Table 2-2. Surveys for a Near Vertical Well

MEASURED DEPTH

DRIFT ANGLE

DRIFT AZIMUTH

(feet)

(degrees)

(degrees)

0.00

0.00

0.00

100.00

1.00

94.80

200.00

1.50

140.00

300.00

1.75

186.00

400.00

1.50

120.00

500.00

2.00

240.00

600.00

2.00

350.00

700.00

1.50

260.00

800.00

1.25

200.00

900.00

1.75

180.00

1,000.00

1.50

340.00

The tangential and average angle methods treat the inclination and azimuth separately.

Therefore, larger horizontal displacements will be calculated. The radius of curvature method

assumes the well must stay within the survey inclinations and will also yield a larger horizontal

displacement though not as large as the tangential and average angle. The minimum curvature

equations are more complex than the radius of curvature equations but are more tolerant.

Minimum curvature has no problem with the change in azimuth or inclination being equal to

zero. When the wellbore changes from the northeast quadrant to the northwest quadrant, no

adjustments have to be made. The radius of curvature method requires adjustments. If the

previous survey azimuth is 10 and the next survey is 355, the well walked left 15. The radius

of curvature equations assume the well walked right 345 which is not true. One of the two

2-11

Chapter 2

survey azimuths must be changed. The lower survey can be changed from 355 to -5, and

then the radius of curvature will calculate the correct coordinates.

Table 2-2 shows survey data for a near vertical well to 1,000 feet. The survey data exhibits

large changes in azimuth which is common in near vertical wells. Figure 2-8 shows a plot of

that survey data. Note that the minimum curvature calculations always yield the least amount of

departure. There will also be a slight difference in TVD. The minimum curvature calculations

are recommended for near vertical wells and for the vertical portions of a directional well.

The minimum curvature equations are more complex than the radius of curvature equations but

are more tolerant. Minimum curvature has no problem with the change in azimuth or inclination

being equal to zero. When the wellbore changes from the northeast quadrant to the northwest

quadrant, no adjustments have to be made. The radius of curvature method requires

adjustments. If the previous survey azimuth is 10 and the next survey is 355, the well walked

left 15. The radius of curvature equations assume the well walked right 345 which is not true.

One of the two survey azimuths must be changed. The lower survey can be changed from 355

to -5, and then the radius of curvature will calculate the correct coordinates.

2-12

Survey Calculations

Example 2-2

Given:

The survey data for Directional Well No. 1 are shown in Table 2-3.

Determine:

The wellbore position at each survey point using the tangential, balanced

tangential, average angle, radius of curvature, and minimum curvature

method.

Table 2-3. Survey for Example 2-2

MEASURED DEPTH

DRIFT ANGLE

DRIFT AZIMUTH

(feet)

0.00

1,000.00

1,100.00

1,200.00

1,300.00

1,400.00

1,500.00

1,600.00

1,700.00

1,800.00

1,900.00

2,000.00

2,100.00

2,200.00

2,300.00

2,400.00

2,500.00

2,600.00

2,700.00

2,800.00

2,900.00

3,000.00

3,100.00

3,200.00

3,300.00

3,400.00

3,500.00

3,600.00

3,700.00

3,800.00

(degrees)

0.00

0.00

3.00

6.00

9.00

12.00

15.00

18.00

21.00

24.00

27.00

30.00

30.20

30.40

30.30

30.60

31.00

31.20

30.70

31.40

30.60

30.50

30.40

30.00

30.20

31.00

31.10

32.00

30.80

30.60

(degrees)

N 0.00E

N 0.00E

N21.70E

N26.50E

N23.30E

N20.30E

N23.30E

N23.90E

N24.40E

N23.40E

N23.70E

N23.30E

N22.80E

N22.50E

N22.10E

N22.40E

N22.50E

N21.60E

N20.80E

N20.90E

N22.00E

N22.50E

N23.90E

N24.50E

N24.90E

N25.70E

N25.50E

N24.40E

N24.00E

N22.30E

2-13

Chapter 2

Solution:

N21.70E

N20.80E

N20.80E

N19.80E

N20.80E

N21.10E

N20.80E

N20.60E

N21.40E

N21.20E

31.20

30.80

30.00

29.70

29.80

29.50

29.20

29.00

28.70

28.50

3,900.00

4,000.00

4,100.00

4,200.00

4,300.00

4,400.00

4,500.00

4,600.00

4,700.00

4,800.00

Tangential Method

0 North and 0 East.

A survey at 1,100 feet shows the inclination to be 3o in the N21.7E

direction (Azimuth = 21.7). Calculate the position of the wellbore at 1,100

feet. (The nomenclature is defined at the end of the chapter.)

MD = MD2 MD1

MD = 1,100 1,000

MD = 100'

equations, A must equal a value between 0 and 360 where:

N = 360 or 0

E = 90

S = 180

W = 270

When referring to the hole direction as being N21.7E, it is 21.7 East of

North. Therefore, the azimuth is equal to 0+21.7 or 21.7.

Using the tangential method, calculate TVD

TVD = (MD )(Cos I 2 )

TVD = (100 )(Cos 3)

TVD = 99.86ft

2-14

Survey Calculations

TVD 2 = TVD + TVD1

TVD 2 = 99.86 + 1,000

TVD 2 = 1,099 .86ft

Calculate North

North = (MD )(Sin I 2 )(Cos A2 )

North = (100 )(Sin 3 )(Cos 21 .7)

North = 4.86'

North 2 = North + North1

North 2 = 4.86'+0'

North 2 = 4.86ft

Calculate East

East = (MD )(Sin I 2 )(Sin A2 )

East = (100 )(Sin 3)(Sin 21 .7 )

East = 1.94'

East 2 = East + East 1

East 2 = 1.94'+0'

East 2 = 1.94'

Calculate the position of the wellbore at the next survey point of 1,200.

MD = MD2 MD1

MD = 1,200'1,100'

MD = 100'

2-15

Chapter 2

TVD = (MD )(Cos I 2 )

TVD = (100 )(Cos 6 )

TVD = 99 .45'

TVD 2 = TVD + TVD1

TVD 2 = 99 .45'+1,099 .86'

TVD2 = 1,199 .31'

North = (MD )(Sin I 2 )(Cos A2 )

North = (100 )(Sin 6)(Cos 26 .5 )

North = 9.35'

North 2 = 9.35'+4.86'

North2 = 14.21'

East = (MD )(Sin I 2 )(Sin A2 )

East = (100 )(Sin 6 )(Sin 26.5 )

East = 4.66ft

East 2 = East + East 1

East 2 = 4.66'+1.94'

East 2 = 6.60ft

The same calculations are made at each survey depth, and the results

are shown in Table 2-4.

Calculate the position of the wellbore at 1,300 feet using the balanced

tangential method given the values at 1,200 feet from Table 2-5.

2-16

Survey Calculations

MD = MD2 MD1

MD = 1,300'1,200'

MD = 100ft

The azimuth at 1,300 feet is 23.30.

MD

TVD =

(Cos I 2 + Cos I1 )

2

100

TVD =

(Cos 9 + Cos 6)

2

TVD = 99 .11'

TVD 2 = 99 .11'+1,199 .59'

TVD 2 = 1,298 .70ft

MD

North =

(Sin I1 Cos A1 + Sin I 2 Cos A2 )

2

100

North =

(Sin 6 Cos 26 .5 + Sin 9 Cos 23 .30 )

2

North = 11 .86'

North 2 = 11.86'+9.54'

North 2 = 21 .40'

MD

East =

(Sin I1 Sin A1 + Sin I 2 Sin A2 )

2

100

East =

(Sin 6 Sin 26.5 + Sin 9 Sin 23.30)

2

East = 5.43'

East 2 = East + East 1

2-17

Chapter 2

Table 2-4. Survey Calculations for Directional Well No. 1 using the Tangential Method

MEASURE

DDEPTH

INCLINATION

(feet)

(degrees)

AZIMUTH

COURSE

LENGTH

TRUE

VERTICAL

DEPTH

(degrees)

(feet)

(feet)

RECTANGULAR

COORDINATES

NORTH

EAST

VERTICAL

SECTION

10 DEG

DOGLEG

SEVERITY

(feet)

(deg/100)

0.00

0.00

3.00

6.00

9.00

0.00

0.00

21.70

26.50

23.30

0.00

1000.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

0.00

1,000.00

1,099.86

1,199.32

1,298.08

0.00

0.00

4.86

14.22

28.58

0.00

0.00

1.94

6.60

12.79

0.00

0.00

5.12

15.15

30.37

0.00

0.00

3.05

3.02

3.03

1,400.00

1,500.00

1,600.00

1,700.00

1,800.00

12.00

15.00

18.00

21.00

24.00

20.30

23.30

23.90

24.40

23.40

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1,395.90

1,492.49

1,587.60

1,680.96

1,772.31

48.08

71.86

100.11

132.74

170.07

20.00

30.24

42.76

57.56

73.71

50.83

76.01

106.01

140.72

180.29

3.05

3.08

3.00

3.00

3.02

1,900.00

2,000.00

2,100.00

2,200.00

2,300.00

27.00

30.00

30.20

30.40

30.30

23.70

23.30

22.80

22.50

22.10

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1,861.41

1,948.01

2,034.44

2,120.69

2,207.03

211.64

257.56

303.94

350.69

397.43

91.96

111.74

131.23

150.60

169.58

224.40

273.06

322.11

371.51

420.84

3.00

3.01

0.32

0.25

0.23

2,400.00

2,500.00

2,600.00

2,700.00

2,800.00

30.60

31.00

31.20

30.70

31.40

22.40

22.50

21.60

20.80

20.90

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2,293.11

2,378.82

2,464.36

2,550.34

2,635.70

444.50

492.08

540.25

587.97

636.65

188.98

208.69

227.76

245.89

264.47

470.56

520.84

571.59

621.74

672.90

0.34

0.40

0.51

0.65

0.70

2,900.00

3,000.00

3,100.00

3,200.00

3,300.00

30.60

30.50

30.40

30.00

30.20

22.00

22.50

23.90

24.50

24.90

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2,721.77

2,807.94

2,894.19

2,980.79

3,067.22

683.84

730.73

777.00

822.50

868.12

283.54

302.96

323.47

344.20

365.38

722.69

772.24

821.36

869.77

918.38

0.98

0.27

0.72

0.50

0.28

3,400.00

3,500.00

3,600.00

3,700.00

3,800.00

31.00

31.10

32.00

30.80

30.60

25.70

25.50

24.40

24.00

22.30

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

3,152.93

3,238.56

3,323.37

3,409.26

3,495.34

914.53

961.15

1,009.41

1,056.19

1,103.29

387.72

409.95

431.84

452.67

471.99

967.96

1,017.74

1,069.06

1,118.75

1,168.48

0.90

0.14

1.07

1.22

0.89

3,900.00

4,000.00

4,100.00

4,200.00

4,300.00

31.20

30.80

30.00

29.70

29.80

21.70

20.80

20.80

19.80

20.80

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

3,580.87

3,666.77

3,753.37

3,840.23

3,927.01

1,151.42

1,199.28

1,246.03

1,292.64

1,339.10

491.14

509.32

527.08

543.86

561.51

1,219.21

1,269.51

1,318.62

1,367.44

1,416.26

0.67

0.61

0.80

0.58

0.51

4,400.00

4,500.00

4,600.00

4,700.00

4,800.00

29.50

29.20

29.00

28.70

28.50

21.10

20.80

20.60

21.40

21.20

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

4,014.05

4,101.05

4,188.80

4,276.51

4,364.40

1,385.04

1,430.65

1,476.03

1,520.74

1,565.23

579.24

596.56

613.62

631.14

648.40

1,464.58

1,512.50

1,560.16

1,607.23

1,654.04

0.33

0.33

0.22

0.49

0.22

0.00

1,000.00

1,100.00

1,200.00

1,300.00

2-18

Survey Calculations

Table 2-5. Survey Calculations for Directional Well No. 1 using the Balanced Tangential Method

MEASURED

DEPTH

INCLINATION

(feet)

(degrees)

AZIMUTH

COURSE

LENGTH

TRUE

VERTICAL

DEPTH

(degrees)

(feet)

(feet)

RECTANGULAR

COORDINATES

NORTH

EAST

VERTICAL

SECTION

10 DEG

DOGLEG

SEVERITY

(feet)

(deg/100)

0.00

1,000.00

1,100.00

1,200.00

1,300.00

0.00

0.00

3.00

6.00

9.00

0.00

0.00

21.70

26.50

23.30

0.00

1000.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

0.00

1,000.00

1,099.93

1,199.59

1,298.70

0.00

0.00

2.43

9.54

21.40

0.00

0.00

0.97

4.27

9.69

0.00

0.00

2.56

10.14

22.76

0.00

0.00

3.05

3.02

3.03

1,400.00

1,500.00

1,600.00

1,700.00

1,800.00

12.00

15.00

18.00

21.00

24.00

20.30

23.30

23.90

24.40

23.40

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1,396.99

1,494.20

1,590.04

1,684.28

1,776.63

38.33

59.97

85.98

116.43

151.41

16.39

25.12

36.50

50.16

65.64

40.60

63.42

91.01

123.37

160.51

3.05

3.08

3.00

3.00

3.02

1,900.00

2,000.00

2,100.00

2,200.00

2,300.00

27.00

30.00

30.20

30.40

30.30

23.70

23.30

22.80

22.50

22.10

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1,866.86

1,954.71

2,041.23

2,127.57

2,213.86

190.86

234.60

280.75

327.31

374.06

82.84

101.85

121.49

140.92

160.09

202.34

248.73

297.58

346.81

396.18

3.00

3.01

0.32

0.25

0.23

2,400.00

2,500.00

2,600.00

2,700.00

2,800.00

30.60

31.00

31.20

30.70

31.40

22.40

22.50

21.60

20.80

20.90

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2,300.07

2,385.96

2,471.59

2,557.35

2,643.02

420.97

468.29

516.16

564.11

612.31

179.28

198.83

218.22

236.82

255.18

445.70

495.70

546.22

596.66

647.32

0.34

0.40

0.51

0.65

0.70

2,900.00

3,000.00

3,100.00

3,200.00

3,300.00

30.60

30.50

30.40

30.00

30.20

22.00

22.50

23.90

24.50

24.90

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2,728.74

2,814.85

2,901.06

2,987.49

3,074.00

660.24

707.29

753.87

799.75

845.31

274.01

293.25

313.22

333.83

354.79

697.79

747.47

796.80

845.57

894.08

0.98

0.27

0.72

0.50

0.28

3,400.00

3,500.00

3,600.00

3,700.00

3,800.00

31.00

31.10

32.00

30.80

30.60

25.70

25.50

24.40

24.00

22.30

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

3,160.08

3,245.75

3,330.96

3,416.31

3,502.30

891.33

937.84

985.28

1,032.80

1,079.74

376.55

398.83

420.90

442.26

462.33

943.17

992.85

1,043.40

1,093.91

1,143.62

0.90

0.14

1.07

1.22

0.89

3,900.00

4,000.00

4,100.00

4,200.00

4,300.00

31.20

30.80

30.00

29.70

29.80

21.70

20.80

20.80

19.80

20.80

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

3,588.10

3,673.82

3,760.07

3,846.80

3,933.62

1,127.35

1,175.35

1,222.65

1,269.33

1,315.87

481.56

500.23

518.20

535.47

552.69

1,193.85

1,244.36

1,294.06

1,343.03

1,391.85

0.67

0.61

0.80

0.58

0.51

4,400.00

4,500.00

4,600.00

4,700.00

4,800.00

29.50

29.20

29.00

28.70

28.50

21.10

20.80

20.60

21.40

21.20

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

4,020.53

4,107.69

4,195.07

4,282.66

4,370.46

1,362.07

1,407.84

1,453.34

1,498.38

1,542.98

570.37

587.90

605.09

622.38

639.77

1,440.42

1,488.54

1,536.33

1,583.70

1,630.64

0.33

0.33

0.22

0.49

0.22

2-19

Chapter 2

East 2 = 5.43'+4.27'

East 2 = 9.70ft

The same calculations are made at each survey depth, and the results

are shown in Table 2-5.

Average Angle Method

Calculate the position of the wellbore at 1,400 feet using the averaging

angle method and the survey data at 1,300 feet in Table 2-6.

MD = MD2 MD1

MD = 1,400'1,300'

MD = 100ft

The azimuth at 1,400 feet is 20.30.

I +

TVD = MD Cos 1 2

2

9 + 12

TVD = 100 Cos

TVD = 98.33ft

TVD 2 = TVD + TVD1

TVD 2 = 98 .33'+1,298 .80'

TVD2 = 1,397.13ft

A + A2

I + I

North = MD Sin 1 2 Cos 1

9 + 12

23.3 + 20.3

North = 100 Sin

Cos

2

2

North = 16.92ft

North 2 = North + North 1

North 2 = 16 .92 '+ 21 .57 '

North 2 = 38.49ft

2-20

Survey Calculations

I + I

A + A2

East = MD Sin 1 2 Sin 1

2

2

9 + 12

23.3 + 20.3

East = 100 Sin

Sin

2

2

East = 6.77ft

East 2 = East + East 1

East 2 = 6.77'+9.19'

East 2 = 15.96ft

The same calculations are made at each survey depth, and the results

are shown in Table 2-6.

Calculate the position of the wellbore at 1,500 feet using the radius of

curvature method and the survey data at 1,400 feet in Table 2-7.

MD = MD2 MD1

MD = 1,500'1,400'

MD = 100ft

The azimuth at 1,500 feet is 23.30.

TVD =

(180)(MD)(SinI 2 SinI1 )

(I 2 I1 )

TVD =

(15 12)

TVD = 97.23ft

TVD 2 = TVD + TVD1

TVD 2 = 97 .23'+1,397 .08'

TVD 2 = 1,494 .31ft

2-21

Chapter 2

North =

2 (I 2 I1 )(A2 A1 )

North =

2 (15 12)(23.3 20.3 )

North = 21.67ft

North 2 = North + North1

North 2 = 21 .67'+38 .47'

North 2 = 60 .14ft

East =

2 (I 2 I1 )(A2 A1 )

East =

2 (15 12 )(23.3 20.3 )

East = 8.67ft

East 2 = East + East 1

East 2 = 8.67'+15 .95'

East 2 = 24.62ft

The same calculations are made at each survey depth, and the results

are shown in Table 2-7.

Calculate the position of the wellbore at 1,600 feet using the minimum

curvature method and the survey data at 1,500 feet in Table 2-8.

MD = MD2 MD1

MD = 1,600'1,500'

MD = 100ft

The azimuth at 1,600 feet is 23.90.

2-22

Survey Calculations

For the minimum curvature method, all the data must be changed to

radians.

I1 = 15

or

(15)( ) = 0.2618radians

I 2 = 18

or

(18)( ) = 0.3142radians

A1 = 23 .30

or

A2 = 23 .90

or

(23.90)( ) = 0.4171radians

180

180

180

180

D1 = Cos (I 2 I1 ) {Sin I 2 Sin I1 [1 Cos (A2 A1 )]}

D1 = Cos (0.3142 0.2618 ) {Sin 0.1342 Sin 0.2618 [1 Cos (0.4171 0.4067 )]}

D1 = 0.9986

1

D 2 = Tan 1 2 1

D1

1

D 2 = Tan 1

1

2

0.9986

D 2 = 0.0538

FC =

2

D2

Tan

D2

2

FC =

2

0.0538

Tan

0.0538

2

FC = 1.0002408

MD

TVD =

(CosI1 + CosI 2 )(FC )

2

100

TVD =

(Cos 0.2618 + Cos 0.3142)(1.0002408 )

2

2-23

Chapter 2

TVD = 95.87ft

TVD 2 = TVD + TVD1

TVD 2 = 95 .87'+1,494 .31'

TVD 2 = 1,590 .18ft

MD

North =

[(Sin I 2 Cos A2 ) + (Sin I1 Cos A1 )](FC )

2

100

North =

[(Sin0.3142 Cos 0.4171) + (Sin0.2618 Cos 0.4067)](1.0002408)

2

North = 26.02ft

North 2 = North + North1

North2 = 26.02'+59.98'

North 2 = 86 .00ft

MD

East =

[(Sin I 2 Sin A2 ) + (Sin I1 Sin A1 )](FC )

2

100

East =

[(Sin 0.3142 Sin 0.4171) + (Sin 0.2618 Sin 0.4067 )](1.0002408 )

2

East = 11.38ft

East 2 = 11 .38'+25 .12'

East 2 = 36.50ft

The same calculations are made at each survey depths, and the results

are shown in Table 2-8.

2-24

Survey Calculations

Table 2-6. Survey Calculations for Directional Well No. 1 using the Average Angle Method

AZIMUTH

COURSE

LENGTH

TRUE

VERTICAL

DEPTH

(degrees)

(degrees)

(feet)

(feet)

0.00

0.00

3.00

6.00

9.00

0.00

0.00

21.70

26.50

23.30

0.00

1000.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

0.00

1,000.00

1,099.97

1,199.66

1,298.80

0.00

0.00

2.57

9.73

21.57

0.00

0.00

0.49

3.70

9.19

0.00

0.00

2.62

10.23

22.84

0.00

0.00

3.05

3.02

3.03

1,400.00

1,500.00

1,600.00

1,700.00

1,800.00

12.00

15.00

18.00

21.00

24.00

20.30

23.30

23.90

24.40

23.40

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1,397.13

1,494.36

1,590.25

1,684.51

1,776.90

38.49

60.17

86.19

116.65

151.64

15.96

24.63

36.00

49.66

65.16

40.68

63.53

91.14

123.50

160.65

3.05

3.08

3.00

3.00

3.02

1,900.00

2,000.00

2,100.00

2,200.00

2,300.00

27.00

30.00

30.20

30.40

30.30

23.70

23.30

22.80

22.50

22.10

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1,867.16

1,955.04

2,041.55

2,127.89

2,214.19

191.11

234.86

281.01

327.57

374.32

82.36

101.39

121.02

140.45

159.63

202.50

248.90

297.76

346.99

396.35

3.00

3.01

0.32

0.25

0.23

2,400.00

2,500.00

2,600.00

2,700.00

2,800.00

30.60

31.00

31.20

30.70

31.40

22.40

22.50

21.60

20.80

20.90

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2,300.40

2,386.29

2,471.92

2,557.68

2,643.35

421.23

468.55

516.43

564.37

612.57

178.82

198.37

217.76

236.36

254.72

445.88

495.88

546.39

596.84

647.50

0.34

0.40

0.51

0.65

0.70

2,900.00

3,000.00

3,100.00

3,200.00

3,300.00

30.60

30.50

30.40

30.00

30.20

22.00

22.50

23.90

24.50

24.90

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2,729.07

2,815.19

2,901.39

2,987.82

3,074.34

660.51

707.56

754.14

800.02

845.58

273.55

292.80

312.76

333.38

354.34

697.98

747.65

796.99

845.75

894.26

0.98

0.27

0.72

0.50

0.28

3,400.00

3,500.00

3,600.00

3,700.00

3,800.00

31.00

31.10

32.00

30.80

30.60

25.70

25.50

24.40

24.00

22.30

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

3,160.41

3,246.08

3,331.30

3,416.66

3,502.64

891.60

938.12

985.56

1,033.08

1,080.02

376.09

398.38

420.45

441.81

461.88

943.36

993.04

1,043.60

1,094.11

1,143.82

0.90

0.14

1.07

1.22

0.89

3,900.00

4,000.00

4,100.00

4,200.00

4,300.00

31.20

30.80

30.00

29.70

29.80

21.70

20.80

20.80

19.80

20.80

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

3,588.45

3,674.17

3,760.42

3,847.15

3,933.97

1,127.64

1,175.64

1,222.95

1,269.63

1,316.17

481.12

499.78

517.75

535.02

552.24

1,194.05

1,244.57

1,294.27

1,343.24

1,392.07

0.67

0.61

0.80

.0.58

0.51

4,400.00

4,500.00

4,600.00

4,700.00

4,800.00

29.50

29.20

29.00

28.70

28.50

21.10

20.80

20.60

21.40

21.20

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

4,020.88

4,108.04

4,195.42

4,283.01

4,370.80

1,362.37

1,408.14

1,453.64

1,498.68

1,543.28

569.93

587.45

604.64

621.93

639.32

1,440.64

1,488.76

1,536.55

1,583.91

1,630.85

0.33

0.33

0.22

0.49

0.22

MEASURED

DEPTH

INCLINATION

(feet)

0.00

1,000.00

1,100.00

1,200.00

1,300.00

RECTANGULAR

COORDINATES

NORTH

EAST

VERTICAL

SECTION

10 DEGREES

DOGLEG

SEVERITY

(feet)

(deg/100)

2-25

Chapter 2

Table 2-7. Survey Calculations for Directional Well No. 1 using the Radius of Curvature Method

MEASURED

DEPTH

DRIFT

ANGLE

DRIFT

AZIMUTH

COURSE

LENGTH

TRUE

VERTICAL

DEPTH

(feet)

(degrees)

(degrees)

(feet)

(feet)

RECTANGULAR

COORDINATES

NORTH

EAST

VERTICAL

SECTION

10 DEG

DOGLEG

SEVERITY

(feet)

(deg/100)

0.00

1,000.00

1,100.00

1,200.00

1,300.00

0.00

0.00

3.00

6.00

9.00

0.00

0.00

21.70

26.50

23.30

0.00

1000.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

0.00

1,000.00

1,099.63

1,199.63

1,298.77

0.00

0.00

2.56

9.71

21.55

0.00

0.00

0.49

3.69

9.19

0.00

0.00

2.60

10.21

22.82

0.00

0.00

3.00

3.02

3.03

1,400.00

1,500.00

1,600.00

1,700.00

1,800.00

12.00

15.00

18.00

21.00

24.00

20.30

23.30

23.90

24.40

23.40

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1,397.08

1,494.31

1,590.18

1,684.43

1,776.81

38.47

60.14

86.16

116.62

151.60

15.95

24.62

35.99

49.64

65.15

40.65

63.50

91.10

123.47

160.61

3.05

3.08

3.00

3.00

3.02

1,900.00

2,000.00

2,100.00

2,200.00

2,300.00

27.00

30.00

30.20

30.40

30.30

23.70

23.30

22.80

22.50

22.10

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1,867.06

1,954.93

2,041.44

2,127.78

2,214.08

191.06

234.81

280.96

327.52

374.27

82.35

101.37

121.01

140.44

159.61

202.46

248.85

297.70

346.93

396.30

3.00

3.01

0.32

0.25

0.23

2,400.00

2,500.00

2,600.00

2,700.00

2,800.00

30.60

31.00

31.20

30.70

31.40

22.40

22.50

21.60

20.80

20.90

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2,300.29

2,386.18

2,471.81

2,557.57

2,643.24

421.18

468.50

516.37

564.32

612.52

178.80

198.35

217.74

236.34

254.70

445.82

495.83

546.34

596.79

647.45

0.34

0.40

0.51

0.65

0.70

2,900.00

3,000.00

3,100.00

3,200.00

3,300.00

30.60

30.50

30.40

30.00

30.20

22.00

22.50

23.90

24.50

24.90

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2,728.96

2,815.08

2,901.28

2,987.71

3,074.23

660.46

707.50

754.08

799.96

845.53

273.53

292.78

312.74

333.36

354.32

697.92

747.59

796.93

845.70

894.21

0.98

0.27

0.72

0.50

0.28

3,400.00

3,500.00

3,600.00

3,700.00

3,800.00

31.00

31.10

32.00

30.80

30.60

25.70

25.50

24.40

24.00

22.30

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

3,160.30

3,245.97

3,331.19

3,416.54

3,502.53

891.55

938.06

985.50

1,033.02

1,079.96

376.07

398.36

420.43

441.79

461.86

943.31

992.98

1,043.54

1,094.04

1,143.76

0.90

0.14

1.07

1.22

0.89

3,900.00

4,000.00

4,100.00

4,200.00

4,300.00

31.20

30.80

30.00

29.70

29.80

21.70

20.80

20.80

19.80

20.80

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

3,588.33

3,674.05

3,760.30

3,847.03

3,933.85

1,127.58

1,175.58

1,222.89

1,269.57

1,316.11

481.10

499.76

517.73

535.00

552.22

1,193.99

1,244.50

1,294.21

1,343.18

1,392.00

0.67

0.61

0.80

0.58

0.51

4,400.00

4,500.00

4,600.00

4,700.00

4,800.00

29.50

29.20

29.00

28.70

28.50

21.10

20.80

20.60

21.40

21.20

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

4,020.76

4,107.92

4,195.30

4,282.89

4,370.69

1,362.31

1,408.08

1,453.57

1,498.62

1,543.22

569.90

587.43

604.62

621.91

639.30

1,440.57

1,488.69

1,536.48

1,583.85

1,630.79

0.33

0.33

0.22

0.49

0.22

2-26

Survey Calculations

Table 2-8. Survey Calculations for Directional Well No. 1 using the Minimum Curvature Method

AZIMUTH

COURSE

LENGTH

TRUE

VERTICAL

DEPTH

(degrees)

(degrees)

(feet)

(feet)

0.00

1,000.00

1,100.00

1,200.00

1,300.00

0.00

0.00

3.00

6.00

9.00

0.00

0.00

21.70

26.50

23.30

0.00

1000.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

0.00

1,000.00

1,099.95

1,199.63

1,298.77

0.00

0.00

2.43

9.54

21.40

0.00

0.00

0.97

4.27

9.70

0.00

0.00

2.56

10.14

22.76

0.00

0.00

3.05

3.02

3.03

1,400.00

1,500.00

1,600.00

1,700.00

1,800.00

12.00

15.00

18.00

21.00

24.00

2030

23.30

23.90

24.40

23.40

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1,397.08

1,494.31

1,590.18

1,684.44

1,776.81

38.34

59.98

86.00

116.45

151.44

16.40

25.12

36.51

50.17

65.65

40.61

63.44

91.03

123.40

160.54

3.05

3.08

3.00

3.00

3.02

1,900.00

2,000.00

2,100.00

2,200.00

2,300.00

27.00

30.00

30.20

30.40

30.30

23.70

23.30

22.80

22.50

22.10

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1,867.06

1,954.93

2,041.45

2,127.79

2,214.08

190.90

234.66

280.81

327.37

374.12

82.86

101.88

121.51

140.94

160.11

202.39

248.78

297.64

346.87

396.23

3.00

3.01

0.32

0.25

0.23

2,400.00

2,500.00

2,600.00

2,700.00

2,800.00

30.60

31.00

31.20

30.70

31.40

22.40

22.50

21.60

20.80

20.90

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2,300.29

2,386.19

2,471.81

2,557.58

2,643.25

421.02

468.34

516.22

564.16

612.36

179.30

198.86

218.25

236.85

255.20

445.76

495.76

546.27

596.72

647.38

0.34

0.40

0.51

0.65

0.70

2,900.00

3,000.00

3,100.00

3,200.00

3,300.00

30.60

30.50

30.40

30.00

30.20

22.00

22.50

23.90

24.50

24.90

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2,728.96

2,815.08

2,901.29

2,987.72

3,074.23

660.30

707.35

753.92

799.80

845.37

274.03

293.28

313.24

333.86

354.82

697.86

747.53

796.86

845.63

894.14

0.98

0.27

0.72

0.50

0.28

3,400.00

3,500.00

3,600.00

3,700.00

3,800.00

31.00

31.10

32.00

30.80

30.60

25.70

25.50

24.40

24.00

22.30

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

3,160.31

3,245.98

3,331.20

3,416.55

3,502.54

891.39

937.90

985.34

1,032.86

1,079.80

376.57

398.86

420.92

442.28

462.36

943.23

992.91

1,043.47

1,093.97

1,143.68

0.90

0.14

1.07

1.22

0.89

3,900.00

4,000.00

4,100.00

4,200.00

4,300.00

31.20

30.80

30.00

29.70

29.80

21.70

20.80

20.80

19.80

20.80

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

3,588.34

3,674.06

3,760.31

3,847.04

3,933.87

1,127.42

1,175.42

1,222.72

1,269.40

1,315.94

481.59

500.26

518.23

535.50

552.71

1,193.91

1,244.43

1,294.13

1,343.10

1,391.92

0.67

0.61

0.80

0.58

0.51

4,400.00

4,500.00

4,600.00

4,700.00

4,800.00

29.50

29.20

29.00

28.70

28.50

21.10

20.80

20.60

21.40

21.20

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

4,020.77

4,107.94

4,195.31

4,282.90

4,370.70

1,362.14

1,407.91

1,453.40

1,498.45

1,543.05

570.40

587.93

605.12

322.41

639.80

1,440.49

1,488.61

1,536.40

1,583.77

1,630.71

0.33

0.33

0.22

0.49

0.22

MEASURED

DEPTH

INCLINATION

(feet)

RECTANGULAR

COORDINATES

NORTH

EAST

VERTICAL

SECTION

10 DEG

DOGLEG

SEVERITY

(feet)

(deg/100)

2-27

Chapter 2

The results of the survey calculations for Directional Well No. 1 in Example 2-2 are compared in

Table 2-9 and Table 2-10. The comparison shows a significant difference when using the

tangential method. The difference is much less pronounced with the other four methods. Table

2-10 shows the difference in the calculated TVD, North and East assuming the minimum

curvature method is the most accurate. The average angle, balanced tangential and radius of

curvature methods are all within one foot of each other at total depth. It must be remembered

that as the distance between surveys increases, the average angle and balanced tangential

errors will increase significantly.

Table 2-9. Comparison of the Survey Calculation Methods for Example 2-2 Results

METHOD

TVD

Feet

4,364.40

4,370.46

4,370.80

4,370.69

4,370.70

Tangential

Balanced Tangential

Average Angle

Radius of Curvature

Minimum Curvature

NORTH

Feet

1,565.23

1,542.98

1,543.28

1,543.22

1,543.05

EAST

Feet

648.40

639.77

639.32

639.30

639.80

Table 2-10. Relative Difference between the Survey Calculation Methods for Example 2-2 Results

METHOD

Tangential

Balanced Tangential

Average Angle

Radius of Curvature

Minimum Curvature

DIFFERENCE

IN TVD

Feet

-6.30

-0.24

+0.10

-0.01

+0.00

DIFFERENCE

IN NORTH

Feet

22.18

-0.07

+0.23

+0.17

+0.00

DIFFERENCE

IN EAST

Feet

+8.60

-0.03

-0.48

-0.50

+0.00

The line of closure is defined as "a straight line, in a horizontal plane containing the last station

of the survey, drawn from the projected surface location to the last station of the survey." The

line of closure is identified in Figure 2-9. Simply stated, the closure is the shortest distance

between the surface location and the horizontal projection of the last survey point. The closure

is always a straight line because a straight line is the shortest distance between two points. The

closure is the polar coordinates at a given survey point as opposed to north and east being

rectangular coordinates.

When defining closure, the direction must also be given. Without indicating direction, the

bottomhole location projected in a horizontal plane could be anywhere along the circumference

of a circle with the radius of the circle being equal to the closure distance. The direction and

closure exactly specifies where the bottom of the hole is located in relation to the surface

location.

2-28

Survey Calculations

Figure 2-9. Graphic Representation of the Difference between Closure Distance and Vertical Section in the

Horizontal Plane

The closure distance and direction are calculated using the following equations:

Closure direction = Tan 1

Closure distance =

East

North

Equation 2-27

(North)2 + (East )2

Equation 2-28

These are the same equations used for calculating an angle and hypotenuse of a right triangle.

Example 2-3

Given:

To illustrate the use of these equations, the closure and direction of the

Directional Well No. 1 in Example 2-2 for the results of the minimum

curvature method are calculated below

From Table 2-7, the coordinates of the last survey point in the example

well are:

North = 1,543.05 ft

East = 639.80 ft

2

2-29

Chapter 2

Closure distance =1,670 .43 ft

East

Closure direction =Tan 1

North

639.80

Closure direction =Tan 1

1,543.05

Closure direction = 22.52 or 22 31'

Since the bottomhole location is in the northeast quadrant, the closure

distance and direction are:

1,670.43 ft

N22.52E

Then, the horizontal projection of the bottom of the hole is 1,670.43 feet

away from the surface location in the N22.52E direction.

VERTICAL SECTION

The vertical section is the horizontal length of a projection of the borehole into a specific vertical

plane and scaled with vertical depth. When the path of a wellbore is plotted, the vertical section

is plotted versus TVD. The closure distance cannot be plotted accurately because the plane of

closure (closure direction) can change between surveys. The vertical plot of a wellbore is in

one specific plane. Figure 2-9 graphically shows the difference between the closure distance

and vertical section. The closure distance and vertical section are equal only when the closure

direction is the same as the plane of the vertical section.

The vertical section azimuth is usually chosen as the azimuth from the surface location to the

center of the target. If multiple targets are present and changes in azimuth are required to hit

each target, the vertical section azimuth is usually chosen as the azimuth from the surface

location to the end of the wellbore.

The vertical section is calculated from the closure distance and direction. The equations for

calculating the vertical section can be seen in Table 2-1 and are as follows:

VS = Cos (Azvs Azcl ) (Closure distance )

Equation 2-29

Example 2-4

Given:

The plane of the vertical section is 10.

Calculate:

2-30

Survey Calculations

Closure distance = 1,670.43 feet

Closure direction = 22.52

Calculate the vertical section:

VS = Cos (Azvs Azcl ) (Closure distance )

VS = Cos (10 22 .52 ) (1,670 .43 )

VS = 1,630.71ft

section. Figure 2-10 and Figure 2-11 are respectively the plan view and

vertical section for Example 2-2.

2-31

Chapter 2

Plan View

1800

1600

1400

North, feet

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

East, feet

Figure 2-10. Plan View for Directional Well No. 1 of Example 2-2

2-32

Survey Calculations

Vertical Section

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Figure 2-11. Vertical Section for Directional Well no. 1 in Example 2-2

2-33

Chapter 2

PROBLEMS

1.

Given the following survey data, calculate the TVD, North and East using the

average angle and radius of curvature methods.

MD1 = 1000 feet

I1 = 0

A1 = S42W

I2 = 40

A2 = S42W

2.

Given the following rectangular coordinates, calculate the vertical section of the survey

point if the vertical section azimuth is 215.

North = -1643.82 feet and East = -822.16 feet

3

Given the following survey data, calculate the TVD, North and East using the

average angle, radius of curvature and minimum curvature methods.

MD2 = 200 feet

I2 = 1

A2 = 180

I1 = 1

A1 = 0

NOMENCLATURE

2-34

A1

A2

Azcl

Azvs

Br

Build rate.

D1

D2

DLS

FC

I1

I2

MD

Measured depth.

Radius of curvature.

VS

Change in parameter

Survey Calculations

DEP

East

MD

survey points.

North

North

TVD

East

2-35

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