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In order to ensure safety, it is essential to operate and maintain your batteries in accordance with the recommendations in this booklet. a) ACID : Batteries contain dilute sulphuric acid which is poisonous and corrosive. It can cause burns on contact with skin and eyes. If acid is split on skin or clothing, wash plenty of clean water. If acid gets in to the eyes wash well with plenty of clean water and get IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION. GASES : Batteries can give off explosive gases. Keep sparks, flames and lighted cigarettes away from battery and battery room. Ensure connections are tight before switching on, using only insulated tools. Areas where batteries are kept or charged must be adequately ventilated. ELECTRICITY : Use only insulated tools to make connections to a battery. Check the circuit to ensure it is safe before making a connection to the battery. Before working on a battery, always remove personal metal effects, such as rings, watches, bracelets, necklaces, etc.





1. Loading / Unloading & handling: The Plante type cells are packed in such a manner so as to avoid rough handling by the transporter. Care should be taken during loading / unloading of the cases / pallets on / from the trucks, preferably with forklifts or suitable mechanical means, without pressure on the sides, jerk, tilt etc. 2. Storage & Preservation: The maximum shelf life of dry & uncharged cells is 24 months from the date of manufacture, provided the cells are kept as advised below. The cases / pallets having cells and cases having accessories to be stored in dry & cool covered place, away from direct sunlight and rain. The cells are to be stored in single layer only. If the dry & uncharged cells are kept loose, adequate care should be taken to keep the Vent Plugs totally closed and the vent holes kept closed with adhesive tapes. They should be kept in a dry cool place avoiding chance of mechanical damage. 3. Unpacking / Handling: Care should be taken in the unpacking and subsequent handling of cells and other components of the battery. It is advisable to unpack all the cases and crates as soon as possible upon arrival at site It is preferable to unpack all the materials supplied in one go for checking correctness of materials quantity wise and quality wise before erection rather than going for unpacking and erection cell by cell. It is advisable to carry the packed cells in crate pallet upto the Battery Room floor by overhead crane. The pallets are designed for lifting with sling wires, care should be taken to avoid pressure on the sides of the crate pallet, to avoid damage. The crates should be opened in the battery room floor and shifted to the battery room with care. Never handle cells using the terminals as this might create fatal damage to the cells. To open the crate pallet, cut the hoop iron straps and lift the outer part of the crate from the top. Then cut the hoop iron straps of the inner crate and dismantle the crate carefully by using crowbar / hammers etc, to avoid damages. Take out the cells one by one manually. Care should be taken in handling the cells and other components to avoid damages. The cells to be shifted to battery room by convenient way ensuring no damages during such handling. Unpack and check all items carefully against the accompanying delivery challan / material specifications. Report shortages/ damages promptly to Exide Industries Limited in writing within 30 days of receipt. Request for free replacement would only be entertained if such reports are received within the stipulated time period, provided the transit insurance is covered by the Company. Arrange for repairs/ replacement of damaged/ short received materials to ensure the complete battery material is available when installation commences.

Store the cells (with the vent plugs screwed on firmly), and other accessories in a dry cool, dust fee covered place. 3. Battery Room The battery room should be well ventilated, clean and dry. A damp room is dangerous due to possible earth leakage from the battery. A notice should be exhibited in the battery room PROHIBITING SMOKING, ELECTRICAL OR ANY SPARKS AND USE OF NAKED FLAMES. The battery room should be well lit at all times of the day and night. Direct sunlight on the cells should be avoided. If it is not possible to provide windows, good artificial light should be made available. Although the battery shall have satisfactory performance between 5 0 C and 500 C, the most preferred operating temperature is between 20 0 C and 350 C. Higher temperatures shall decrease the life of the cells. Low temperatures, within the above mentioned range, will reduce the capacity available but do not harm the battery so far as the life is concerned. A wash basin is to be provided in the battery room, suitably placed for washing of accidental acid splash on eyes, body, garments etc., for the personnel working in the battery room. Any spillage of acid on the floor is to be washed and neutralised, to avoid leakage path. It is advisable to provide acid proof tiles on the floors and on the sides of the wall. Alternately acid proof paints to be provided which would require periodic renewal. Proper exhaust fans to be provided to remove hydrogen gas from the battery room during boost charging. The ventilation system of the battery room has to be designed accordingly. It is always better to pump in filtered cool air in the battery rooms, having provision for natural exhaust, so that the battery room will be slightly at higher pressure. The capacity requirement of the exhaust system depends on the relative size of the battery room and the battery being accommodated in that. The exhaust calculation can be available from the Guaranteed Technical Particular of the specific installation. Site should demand a copy of the same from the procurement authority. Warning signs should be put on the walls indicating dangers of explosion in using naked flames for smoking inside the battery room. The layout of the cells should be in line with the layout suggested by Exide Industries Limited for the specific case. For any deviation and / or modification please contact Exide Industries Ltd. 4. Power Requirement: A D. C. supply capable of delivering the constant current specified in the technical specifications will be required. The voltage required for initial charging is about 3 times the number of cells in the battery bank, i.e. charger design to be 3 volts per cell. This is required to charge the battery banks e.g. 12 Amps DC Constant Current up to 2.36 vpc & 6 Amps DC Constant Current (finishing rate) up to 2.75 vpc per 100 Ah C10 capacity of the battery bank.


5. Stands and Supports Suitable Stands / Stillages are normally provided for the support of the cells and are designed in a manner so that each cell will be easily accessible for inspection, maintenance etc. Each installation shall have a dedicated relevant layout drawing of the battery. They should be followed very carefully.

6. Charger: The charging system must be capable of providing a steady voltage within 1%V. Battery charger should be available at site for necessary initial charging of the battery bank. This should be a constant current charger capable of supplying 12 Amps DC per 100 Ah C10 capacity of the battery to start with and 6 Amps DC per 100 Ah C10 capacity of the battery at the finishing stages of charging. The charger should be capable of providing 6% of the rated capacity of cells at 2.75 volts per cell during boost charging. The charger should also have facility for float charge at a voltage of 2.24 to 2.30 volts per cell. For equalizing charge, the charger shall be capable of supplying 3 Amps DC per 100 Ah C10 capacity of the battery. Charger output or load induced current ripple can cause permanent damage and a reduction in battery life. The RMS limit is 5% in amperes of the C10 capacity over the frequency range of 100 Hz to 360 Hz. 7. Polarity of Charging Leads It is of utmost importance that the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the positive lead of the charging source. To ascertain the polarity of the charging leads connect a lamp in series and dip the end in a glass of slightly saline water. Switch on the supply. Fine bubbles of gas will be give off from the negative lead The lamp connected in series eliminates the dangers of accidental short circuits.



8. Acid / DM Water i) The acid to be used in the battery for initial filling is battery grade Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4)of specific gravity 1.190 + 0.005, at 270 C, conforming to IS: 266 - 1993. This is normally supplied with the battery. A copy of IS:266 1993 is enclosed at the end of the manual. DM water should conform to IS:1069 - 1993 for topping up of cells. A copy of IS:1069 enclosed. If the acid is obtained in concentrated form it is necessary to dilute it to 1.190 Sp. Gr. The acid as well as the distilled water to be used for diluting the acid should conform to Indian Standard Institution specification IS: 266 1993 & IS: 1069 1993 respectively.



To dilute strong acid, the quantities required for mixing are given below : For 100 litres Dilute Acid: Initial Sp. Gravity 1.840 1.825 1.825 1.400 Final Sp. Gravity 1.190 1.400 1.190 1.190 Quantity of water in litres 87 66 86 56 Quantity of acid in litres 18 40 18 45

Note : When acid and water are mixed, there is a volume contraction, hence columns 3 & 4 do not total 100. (iv) Caution: 1. All job to be done under supervision of authorised personnel only. 2. Clean vessels of hard rubber, plastics, porcelain or leadlined MS tanks/ Wooden Boxes only should be used for storage & handling of acid & DM water. Do not use metal vessels other than lead. 3. When working with acid or electrolytes always use protective goggles, rubber gloves and rubber apron. 4. Keep ready Bi-carbonate of Soda solution or 5% to 10% Ammonia solution to take care of accidental spill / splash of acid on skin, eyes or garments. Remove garment immediately, neutralise spot with 5 to 10% ammonia or soda solution and wash thoroughly in water. On skin / eyes: flush with large quantities of water. Seek medical aid immediately. 5. NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID. IT WILL SPURT DANGEROUSLY. ALWAYS ADD ACID TO WATER. Add the acid in a thin stream, slowly, stirring the solution with a long glass rod or tube.

6. Smoking, Welding Arcs, Electrical Sparks and Open Flame should be strictly prohibited in the battery room. 7. Only insulated tools should be used for live parts. Extreme care should be taken while handling of metallic parts within battery room to prevent their accidental falling / touching of live parts and causing short circuit.


Temperature Correction The specific gravity of the electrolyte varies with temperature. Any reading observed on the hydrometer should therefore be corrected to 27 0 C ,as all the specific gravity values indicated by us are at 270 C. The correction should therefore be made as follows : For every 10 C above 270 C add 0.0007 to the specific gravity as read on the hydrometer. Similarly, for every 10 C below 270 C subtract 0.0007 from the specific gravity as read from the hydrometer.


Installation The following should be kept in mind while finalising the battery layout: a) b) Easy access to the individual cells of the battery Locating the take-offs for easy connection to the charging equipment/load. Keeping interior connections adjacent to walls for providing easy support and keeping the passage in between clear. This is desirable for easy access to the cells for allowing easy removal of cells for service attention , whenever required. The positive end of the battery has to be connected to the positive output of the charging equipment and negative end of the battery to the negative of the charger . The positive and negative take-off of the battery should have sufficient space between them to avoid short circuits





Place the cells in position on the Stand/ Stillage Suitable insulators should also be used between the stand or Stillage and the floor. Arrange cells to that the positive terminal lug of one cell adjoins the negative terminal lug of the next throughout the battery. Use a wooden spacer to ensure even spacing out of cells. For Seismic stands no Stand/ Stillage Insulator required as these are grouted to the floor.



Fasteners (Bolt & Nuts) Before connecting up, apply an even coating of petroleum jelly to the bolts, nuts, washers, connectors and terminal pillars. Cover the whole length of each terminal pillar with petroleum jelly and tighten the bolt connectors firmly using two spanners, one on the bolt head and one on the nut. Note particularly that the positive terminal of one cell is connected to negative terminal of the next throughout the battery leaving the positive terminal of the first cell and negative terminal of the last cell of the battery bank free for connection to the charging source. Finally, check again that the cells are connected in the correct sequence. Charging a cell of the whole battery in the wrong direction will cause permanent damage.


Connect cells together : When the cells are in position on the stands, connect them together Smear a little petroleum jelly on the threads, bolting faces and in the bolt holes before bolting up. If necessary, warm the petroleum jelly to ensure a thin even coating. After bolting-up the cells smear petroleum jelly over the nut, bolt head and washers.


Cells in Rows If the cells are arranged in more than one row, ensure that the positive terminal lug of the end cell of one row is connected to the negative terminal lug of the end cell of the other row. The connection between the two rows may be made with the necessary length of copper of the size used between the switchboard and the battery. Each end of the copper rod/ cable (For YKP & YAP) is soldered into the socket of the cable-ends provided or Crimped type Flexible cable connectors, the ends of the latter being bolted on the terminal lugs of the battery. For YHP range Copper bars/ Crimped Cable Ends for Flexible Connectors are used. Clean off any flux and bind the exposed end of the cable with self adhesive tape starting well back on the cable insulation and ending just at the lead cable socket. All copper work should be painted with two coats of acid resisting enamel paint before the cells are filled with acid.


Connecting to charger : Connect positive terminal of the battery to the positive lead of charging source and negative terminal of the battery to negative lead of the charging source after identifying the polarity of the connections.

11. INITIAL FILLING-IN OF ELECTROLYTE Sufficient quantity of battery-grade sulphuric acid and a little spare must be available at the site for the initial filling of the cells. The sulphuric acid should be 1.190 +/- 0.005 Sp. Gr. (at 270 C ).

The approximate quantity of acid required per cell is given in the data sheet. The total quantity of acid required is obtained by multiplying the quantity per cell by the number of cells adding 10% to compensate for spillage. The acid should be brought to equilibrium with the room temperature and of 1.190 Sp. Gravity. This acid should be carefully poured into the cells, up to the maximum recommended level. After filling in allow the cells to stand for a period of 8-12 hours. The plates will absorb the electrolyte and the electrolyte level will drop. Restore the electrolyte level at the end of this 8-12 hours period by adding more acid of 1.190 Sp. Gr. After filling in all the cells, following are to be ensured prior to commencement of initial charging:a) b) c) Checking of correct polarity of all the cells connected in the circuit. Recording of individual cell voltage. Recording the total battery voltage and comparison thereof with the sum total of individual cell voltage.

The battery is now ready for initial charging. Initial charging must commence with in 24 hours of electrolyte filling & it is therefore essential to ensure that the charger is in proper working condition prior to electrolyte filling of the cells.

12. (i)

First Charge Charging Equipment Ensure that the charging equipment is in order and is capable of delivering the specified current and voltage .


Connections Polarity Check and check again to ensure the cells are all connected in series and all fastenings and connections are tight. Test polarity of the charging leads and connects the positive terminal of the battery to the positive lead of the charger. Caution : Charging a cell or battery in the wrong direction will ruin it.


First Charge Commence charging not later than 24 hours after filling in the first cell with acid.


First Portion The first portion of the charge should be given at any rate between the starting/ finishing currents depending on the output of the charger. Reduce charging current if temperature of electrolyte exceeds 50 0 C. Charging at this rate shall continue till the potential of the battery rises to 2.36 volts per cell. At the completion of this portion of the charge a rest of not more than 12 hour and not less than 2 hours should be given.


Second Portion The second portion of the charge must be given at the finishing rate as mentioned in the relevant technical particulars. This stage to continue till either the signs of completion of charge as described in clause 12(vii) are observed or the minimum Ah input required (as mentioned in the relevant technical particulars) is administered, whichever happens later. This is very important for the life of the battery that the first charge be administered very particularly so far as the Ah input is concerned.


Pilot Cells As pilot cells select any one cell (except the end cell or regulating cell, if any) out of every 24 cells or part thereof. Voltage and specific gravity readings from the pilot cells will indicate the state of charge of the whole battery. During charge take reading every 4 hourly reading up to 80% of charge followed by 1 hourly readings of : a. b. c. Specific Gravity Voltage Temperature


Completion of charge The signs of the completion of charge are as under a) Specific Gravity : For some hours after starting the charge , the specific gravity of the electrolyte will fall after which it will begin to rise slowly and continue to rise throughout the charge until finally it ceases to rise and remain constant. The charge should be continued until the specific gravities have attained constant figures for three (3) successive hourly readings in all cells. Voltage : The cell Voltage at the beginning of the charge will be a little over 2 volts and will rise during the charge finally attaining a steady figure. The exact figure is not so important as long as a Voltage around 2.65 Volts is attained. Typical
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figures range from 2.65 2.75 Volts per cell at the finishing rate of charge , depending on the prevailing electrolyte temperature , which, when higher than 27 Deg C, tends to depress the voltage slightly from the ideal top of charge of 2.75V at 27 Deg C. c) Gassing: The reduction of current during charge, as mentioned above, is to limit the amount of gassing, but at the end of the charge all the cells should gas freely and vigorously. If any cell fail to gas or is late in gassing or if it s gravity is lower than those of other cells, it should be closely examined to find the cause. When found and corrected the charge should be continued until the cell is brought upto the fully charged state like the others. Colour of plates: The positive plates should assume a full rich chocolate colour and negatives a smooth light grey when fully charged. This can be observed in transparent containers only.


When all these signs of completion of charge have been observed, and the minimum Ah input required (as mentioned in clause 12(v)) is administered, the charge should be terminated. About one hour afterwards, when the gas bubbles have cleared away, the specific gravity and temperature should be recorded. During charging the electrolyte temperature of the cell should not exceed 500C. Suspend the charge if the temperature reaches 50 0 C and resume charging after the battery has cooled to about 45 0C. If necessary, slightly lower the recommended charging rate in case of very high ambient temperatures. Where ambient temperatures are normally high, it is recommended that charging be carried out during the night and suspended during the day. If necessary, use the finishing rate for the first portion of the charge as well. When charging is suspended due to attainment of high temperatures, such stoppages should be noted carefully and the duration shall be suitably extended to compensate for such stoppages. (viii) Interruptions The charging of the battery can be carried out either continuously or in cycles of 8 hours charge and not more than 16 hours rest, till it is completed. (ix) Electrolyte Level Maintain the level throughout charging adding 1.190 Sp. Gr. Acid if necessary.

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Adjust Specific Gravity of Each Cell If at the end of the first charge the specific gravity of the electrolyte exceeds 1.205, withdraw some electrolyte and add pure water, continue the charge so that the water and acid mix thoroughly. If at the end of first charge the specific gravity of the electrolyte is below 1.195 after both voltage and specific gravity have remained constant over 3 consecutive hours, withdraw some electrolyte and add acid of 1.400 specific gravity continuing the charge in the meantime. Never make an adjustment on cell which does not gas on charge. Final specific gravity should be 1.200 +/- 0.005 in all the cells. Adjust the levels of electrolyte in all cells by adding 1.200 specific gravity acid or by withdrawing excess electrolyte, as required.


Final Readings/ Record Book After correcting specific gravity and electrolyte levels, start a record book for the whole life of the battery. The first page should record the specific gravity readings of each cell, and the temperature of the pilot cell, and a note that levels were correct in each cell. Record details of periodical charges and discharges etc. A record book is supplied with each battery of 60 volts and above; for smaller batteries this can be obtained at nominal charge. If one copy of this record sheet is sent periodically to the nearest office of the Company, free technical advice will be given so that the battery is maintained in optimum conditions. The first charge sheet supplied with the battery should be filled up with the readings obtained during initial charge and returned to the Company for comments.


Cleaning up Wipe down the outside of all cells and clean up any acid which may have dripped or have been split on the cell lids, stand on floor. Check generally that everything, is in order.

(xiii) Putting into service After cleaning up the cells clean and dry , secure all connections and reapply the petroleum jelly on the connectors , pillars , bolts, nuts and washers. Clean up any acid which may have dripped or spilled on the cells, stand or the floor. Check that the specific gravity of the electrolyte in all the cells is fairly uniform and of correct value i.e. between 1.195 to 1.205 at 27 Deg C and the
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level of the electrolyte is at the Max line in the cells. The battery is then ready for service. It is important to operate and maintain the battery in accordance with the instruction provided in the interest of trouble free operation throughout its extended service life. At installation where the battery is likely to be on float for prolonged periods without discharge, it is preferable to carry out 3 charge / discharge cycles before putting the battery into service.

(xiv) Storage If the battery is to remain unused for 2 to 6 months after commissioning, give an extended charge at least once every month. Keep plates covered by adding pure distilled water to the prescribed level. Before using the battery again, give it an extended charge until the hydrometer shows a constant specific gravity reading for 3 hours.

13. Operation (i) It is important that the battery should be operated in accordance with the instructions given by the manufacturer. Make sure that the instruction Display Board is hung in a prominent and accessible location in the battery room. (ii) It is strongly recommended that the batteries which are to be operated on Float / Trickle charge be subjected to 2-3 cycles of charge and discharge. The battery should then be put on Float / Trickle charge when in a fully charged condition. Adjust Float / Trickle charge current to the required value as per instructions given by the manufacturer. The Float / Trickle charge should be adjusted to give an optimum battery voltage of 2.25 2.27 volts per cell based on the ambient temperature as per the chart given below :

Temperature <5 deg. C 0 5 C 190 C 200C 350C 360C 450C

Float 2.30 2.28 2.26 2.24

Voltage 0.02 vpc 0.02 vpc 0.02 vpc 0.02vpc

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Additional Information All specific gravitys referred to above are at 270 C. Additional information/ clarification if required can be obtained from the nearest office of Exide Industries Ltd at the addresses shown on the outside back cover.

NOTE ON BATTERY CHARGING Constant Potential Charging on Service: The proper operation and correct adjustment of the charging supply ensures trouble-free operation and life of the battery. It determines the rate and amount of charge received and thus indirectly its topping-up requirements. The re-charging of the batteries is accomplished with the float charger supplying current to the battery. The load current as well as any other current supplied by the battery must be restored to the battery in service. If sufficient current is not available from the charger, the battery will run down and eventually fail to cater the back-up time. On the other hand, if more current than necessary is furnished, the battery life will be shortened. It is therefore highly important than the charging is proper for the life & performance of the battery bank. The battery is float charged from a D.C source. The output of which is controlled to keep the voltage at the battery terminals at nominal value 2.26 vpc. Under these conditions of constant voltage charging, the battery regulates its own charging current. However, to protect the charging source from overload, an adjustable series resistance is installed to limit the current with a discharged battery. Under normal conditions, the battery should always be in a full state of charge ready for an emergency discharge, and shall be drawing a low steady Trickle Current. The value of the charging current, therefore, gives a rough indication of the state of charge, if charging voltage is maintained the recommended float voltage. Charging voltage: This is controlled by means of suitable regulators. Under ordinary conditions, voltage should be adjusted between 2.24 to 2.30 volts per cell the exact value depending upon the ambient temperature of the installation. When properly adjusted, the charger shall bring the battery to a fully charged condition promptly and then furnish only the current to maintain it fully charged. It is, therefore, very necessary that the voltmeter used is accurate. Any deviation from the standard setting should be corrected immediately as a very small variation in voltage, produces a large variation in current.
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Correct adjustment of the charging rate ensures: a) b) c) d) Proper amount of charge without applicable overcharge. Minimum water consumption. Safe limits of operating temperature. Prolonged life.

The effect of HIGH and LOW voltage settings are: HIGH VOLTAGE SETTING: a) b) c) d) The battery will be overcharged. Water requirement will be high and possible fall in the level of electrolyte. Temperature will be high which in turn aggravates the condition (a) & (b) above. Life of the battery will be shortened.

LOW VOLTAGE SETTING: a) b) c) Insufficient charge will cause starvation and resultant operating failure. Possible damage to the battery due to over-discharge and stoppages for repairs. Shortened life.

Specific gravity is an indication of the state of charge of a battery. In the fully charged condition, the specific gravity of the battery would read as 1.200 0.005 measured at 27 C. A higher specific gravity every time would indicate that voltage setting is too high, due to excessive water loss and a lower specific gravity would indicate that the battery is not receiving sufficient amount of charge. When temperature of the electrolyte differs from the standard temperature of 27 C it is necessary to correct readings of Specific Gravity observed on the hydrometer to the equivalent specific gravity at 27 C. EQUALISING CHARGE: During the operation of the battery, under constant potential charge, there is a chance of imbalance amongst the cells in the bank. This may occur due to various reasons, e.g. initial differences between individual cells, differences in charge acceptance, or abnormal working conditions. As a result some cells shall remain continually undercharged. If the Lead Acid cell remains under-charged over long periods, the resulting sulphation in the cells may become so heavy that the cells may go beyond repair. Equalising charge is an extended charge at low Amps, given in order to bring all the cells in the battery bank to a healthy state. Equalising Charge is to be administered to a battery bank standing on constant current float charging for a long duration and the cell to - cell variation of the float voltage is of the order of 0.03 volts or the specific gravity variation is of the order of 0.010. The battery should be charged at a constant current of 3 Amps DC per
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100 Ah rated C10 capacity for 12 24 hours. Equalising charge should also be administered every time the battery is subjected to a C10 capacity discharge. A NOTE ON WATER LOSS :

Water loss is caused by gassing and evaporation loss, which occurs during later part of charging; i.e. after the battery reaches about three-fourths of its charged conditions. It is therefore; very important that there should be an optimum consumption of water since this indicates that a full state of charge is being maintained. Lower water consumption indicates abnormal conditions; e.g., either a low charging voltage or excessive non-emergency discharges in consequence of which the battery is not being kept in a charged condition. Steps should be taken immediately to eliminate the cause of low water consumption. Water consumption markedly higher than usual suggests that the existence of a high charging voltage and this should be checked immediately and adjusted if necessary.

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Routine maintenance must take account of the following factors and maintain proper record, which are inter-related and are of equal importance: 1. 2. 3. 4. Charging voltage across the battery. Specific gravity measurement. Water consumption. Proper cleaning.

INSPECTION & RECORD: In order to determine the nature of routine maintenance needed in service, and particularly the time interval between the inspections, these should be made initially at short intervals of a week or so and the results carefully logged and reviewed on each occasion. Once this experience has been gained, the interval between inspections can probably be increased. The batteries should not be allowed to over-charge. At the same time it should be ensured that they do not depart from the fully charged condition for the reason that partly discharged battery would not be very reliable source of power in case of emergency. Systematic inspection programme and carefully kept records of the operation of the battery and its charging equipment as found at each inspection is one of the bestknown methods of controlling battery maintenance. Symptoms of developing trouble can be quickly detected by regular study of the battery records card and the necessary corrective measures can be taken in time to prevent any serious trouble, which might possibly result in a service failure. The Inspection Register should be kept in a holder located on each Battery Room so that the desired information can be recorded. Each cell should be marked with an identifying number. Batteries shall receive regular monthly and annual inspection in addition to any other attention that the user may desire to give or which may be necessary. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS : a) b) c) Do not work on battery bank unless main battery leads are disconnected. Never allow a flame, sparks, lighted pipe or cigarette near the battery. Top up as often as necessary with battery Grade Water conforming to IS 1069 (Latest Revision), to keep the electrolyte at the correct level.
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Take particular care, avoid short circuit by bridging the terminals with spanner while tightening terminal nuts & bolts. Leave no metal tools on the top of the cells. Take precautions particularly during charging. Give Equalising Charge as recommended, on periodical basis. Do not exceed finishing rate, when cells are gas Keep battery and surroundings clean and dry. Attend to weak cells immediately. If the battery is to stand idle, first give it an equalising charge and if possible, repeat this equalising charge once in 20 days during idle stand.

e) f) g) h) i) j) k)


Some important instruments and tools that are necessary for proper maintenance of battery are listed below: a) Digital Multimeter: To enable voltage readings of individual cells as well as total battery and main source voltage. Should be calibrated at regular interval or should be compared with a standard meter periodically to ensure accuracy. Syringe Hydrometer: A clean and accurate syringe hydrometer suitable to read specific gravity readings from 1.100 to 1.300 should be used. Thermometer: An accurate thermometer of 0 C to 100 C range should be used to read the electrolyte temperature. Tong Tester: To enable readings the current flowing during charge, Float and during discharge through the battery and form the main source. Should be calibrated at regular interval or should be compared with a standard meter periodically to ensure accuracy.




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The maintenance schedule given here is divided in daily, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and yearly maintenance. The actions to be taken, checks and recording required are given herewith. A. DAILY MAINTENANCE A daily general maintenance should include a check and record of the following : 1. 2. 3. Overall float voltage measured at the battery terminals Charger output current and voltage Specific gravity, voltage and temperature of pilot cells. 2 nos cells out of every 60 cells to be chosen as pilot cells.

B. FORTNIGHTLY MAINTENANCE A weekly maintenance should include all the items mentioned in daily maintenance and the following : 1. 2. Check voltage, specific gravity and temperature for all cells. Visually check the conditions of each cell and battery bank. Any abnormality observed to be immediately noted and observed for next 15 days. Visually check the cleanliness of battery, battery stands and battery room area for accessibility, cell integrity and acid leakage.


C. MONTHLY MAINTENANCE A monthly maintenance shall include all checks listed under daily and fortnightly maintenance schedule and also the following :


Check condition and tightness of all vent plugs and connectors. Clean all the cells with dry cloth to wipe out any dirt or dust accumulated on the vent plugs. Check electrolyte level in all the cells and note. Plante cells are not expected to show much of a water loss in a month but any abnormal drop in electrolyte level should be noted and cause to be investigated.
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Visually inspect all the cells for sediment level and colour of plates. Any abnormality found to be immediately brought to the notice of concerned people.

D. QUARTERLY MAINTENANCE A quarterly maintenance shall include all checks listed under daily, fortnightly and monthly maintenance schedule and also the following :


If the specific gravity of most of the cells are found to be lagging by an average of 10 to 15 points, the battery bank would call for an equalizing charge at a current equivalent to 3% - 5% of its rated value for 6 10 hours to restore the state of charge to full. The temperature of the electrolyte normally is higher than the ambient. But for a bank, unless it has undergone a discharge within previous 24 hours, the electrolyte temperature should lie within 3 5 deg. C higher than the corresponding ambient temperature. In case of a deviation from this range, the charger needs to be checked for its quality of power output in terms of the ripple contents in the charging voltage and current. Corrective action should be immediately taken to avoid any deterioration in the battery bank due to this anomaly. The voltage and specific gravity data of all the cells from the earlier fortnightly data sheets to be observed. If any cell other than the pilot cells are observed to have different record compared to the other cells in the bank, those cells may be chosen to be the pilot cells for the next quarter. The pilot cell selection set thus shall be changed every quarter to ensure rotational attention to all the cells during a fixed period of time.



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E. HALF YEARLY MAINTENANCE A half yearly maintenance shall include all checks listed under daily, fortnightly, monthly and quarterly maintenance schedule and also the following : 1. Remove all corrosion product and clean connector thoroughly. Use enough amount of petroleum jelly on the connectors to prevent farther corrosion and put back shrouds in place. Retighten all the electrical connections between the cells and between battery bank and charger to the prescribed torque value. This would ensure proper connection and operation with the minimal loss of electrical energy. Plante cells shall, normally, not require any topping up at this stage. However, in case any cell shows an abnormal drop in electrolyte level, top up with battery grade DM water. The cell needs to be observed for other manifestation of abnormality like higher than normal temperatures, high corrosion in the plates etc. The cell may require special investigation and analysis if this becomes a repetitive phenomenon for the particular cell. Do not use metallic vessel for topping-up as this may contaminate the watet and would run a risk of creating an accidental short circuit.



F. YEARLY MAINTENANCE A yearly maintenance should include all items listed under daily, weekly and monthly maintenance schedule and also the following : 1. Isolate the battery bank from the load. This would require matching the annual maintenance schedule with an annual shutdown. The battery bank at this stage is almost at a fully charged condition. After isolation, the bank is to be put on charge in the constant current mode at a current of 6% of the rated C10 capacity of the bank ( 6 Amps per 100 Ah). The battery bank is to be charged till all the cells are gassing freely and the voltage and specific gravity readings of pilot cells have become constant over 3 half hourly reading. The charging however should run for a minimum period of 5 hours even if the fully charged conditions are achieved before that. The specific gravities and electrolyte levels of all the cells are to be measured and to be adjusted with DM water to specified values 4 hours after the charging is switched off. The electrolyte level should remain near the maximum mark. After the adjustment the bank is to be charged again for 1 hour at the same current to enable proper mixing of electrolyte and DM water.


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After a rest of 12 hours from the time the charging was switched off, the battery shall be discharged at C10 current for 10 hours. The end of discharge voltage at the end of 10 hours is to be noted. The temperature and specific gravity readings are to be noted for the entire length of discharge for the pilot cells. The discharged bank should immediately undergo recharge in the constant current mode. The charging to start at the starting rate as mentioned in the product catalogue for the respective size till the cell voltage reached 2.36 volts per cell followed by charging at finishing rate pertaining to the specific size of the battery as mentioned in manufacturers catalogue. The charging to be stopped when the cell voltage and specific gravity readings are constant for four consecutive half hourly readings. The expected end-of-charge voltage is of the order of 2.7 2.75 volts per cell. During charging it has to be ensured that a minimum Ah input of 125% of the previous discharged Ah is administered to the battery. The temperature during charging should not increase beyond 450 C. In such cases, the charging to be stopped and the cells to be allowed to cool down till 400 C when the charging can be resumed. The timings are to be noted so that the duration of charge can be compensated accordingly to ensure that the minimum Ah input requirement is fulfilled. After the charging is over, specific gravity and electrolyte level of all the cells are to be adjusted to specified values after 4 hours of rest period. The battery bank, then, is to be given an equalisation charge at a current equivalent to 3% - 5% of rated C10 capacity for 16-24 hrs. The battery bank can be given back to the system after the equalising charge is over.






EMERGENCY INSPECTION If battery failure or other difficulty is reported, include the following checks and tests in sequence: a) Measure total voltage of battery on open circuit and under load. If this is normal, the actual failure is elsewhere than the battery. Check all battery connections to ensure they are clean and tight. Read and record specific gravity of all cells. If it is low as a whole, the battery has discharged with suitable load. Recharge the battery. Locate the cause and rectify.

b) c)

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Read voltage of individual cells at the same time looking for any hot cells or any other abnormal conditions. If one or more cells are found reading low voltage, read their voltage under load and if it is quite low in comparison with other cells, which is probably the immediate cause of trouble. Rectify the low voltage cells / Replace with spare Cells to get the battery in service quickly.

OVERHAULING Depending on visual inspection at site Plante battery bank may need partial or complete overhauling after 8-10 years. SPARE BATTERIES STORAGE AND MAINTENANCE: a) General care: Spare charged battery should be given regular good house keeping care. A clean, cool dry place, free from dust and debris should be selected for storage space. Keep them with vent plugs on. Testing: Spare charged batteries should be checked at regular monthly intervals to determine the specific gravity. Batteries should be charged before the specific gravity drops 30 points below the specified fully charged readings. Temperature affects the need for charges. Charging: When charging is required, use the finishing rate. Continue charging until free gassing occurs. Charging should not be suspended until specific gravity (corrected for temperature) of majority of the lowest cells has risen to the maximum and has shown no further rise for three consecutive hourly readings.



ADVICE AND INSPECTION : It is of utmost importance to Exide Industries that our customers spend worryless time whilst using our product. The company is ready to provide all supports and assistance to its valued customers on various issues related to the battery banks in use. Requests for such assistance should be addressed to the Head Industrial service & Customer Applications, Exide Industries Limited, 91, New Chord Road, Athpur- 743 128, Shamnagar, 24 Parganas (North), West Bengal. giving full details of the battery, inclusive of reference number shown on battery.

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