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TOPIC 1.0 MATTER
1. Identify and describe protons, electron and neutrons as sub-atomic particles. 2. Define proton number Z, nucleon number A and isotopes. Write isotope denotation. 3. Define relative atomic mass Ar and relative molecular mass Mr based on C-12 scale. 4. Sketch and explain the function of the following main components of a simple mass spectrometer: i. Vaporisation chamber ii. ionisation chamber iii. acceleration chamber iv. magnetic field v. ion detector 5. Analyze mass spectrum of an element. Calculate the average atomic mass of an element given the relative abundances of isotopes or a mass spectrum. 6. Name cations, anions and salts according to the IUPAC nomenclature.
Include polyatomic ions. 3 Hours Exclude complex ions.
Atoms and molecules
6. % V/V 5.p and room temperature iii. Define and perform calculations for each of the following concentration measurements: i. volume and concentration of solutions. chemical equation by inspection method ii.2 Mole Concept . 3. mass. Determine the oxidation number of an element in a chemical formula. 4. mole fraction.t. X iv. percentage by mass.ρ . Interconvert between moles. number of particles. 2. NA. Define limiting reactant. molarity or amount concentration. c ii. percentage by volume. reacting masses ii. molality. volume of gases at s. 7 Hours 1. molar volume of gas at s. to concentration measurements when necessary. % w/w v.m iii.CHEMISTRY TOPIC LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. Define mol in terms of mass of carbon-12 and Avogadro constant. percentage yield 8. redox equation by ion-electron method. REMARKS HOUR Relate density.p and room temperature. Calculations involve: i. 7.t. Determine empirical and molecular formulae from mass composition or combustion data. Perform stoichiometric calculations using mole concept including limiting reactant and percentage yield. Write and balance: i.
2. Explanation on the positive and negative deviations of a gas is not required . Explain the ideal and non-ideal behaviours of gases in terms of intermolecular forces and molecular volume. 7. Perform calculation involving gas laws.1 Gas 6. Define gas laws: Boyle's law. Explain qualitatively van der Waals equation. 7 Hours . 2.CHEMISTRY TOPIC 2. ρ. 3. Define and perform calculation using Dalton's law. Sketch and interpret the graphs of Boyle's and Charles' laws. Use the graph of PV/RT versus P to show the non-ideal behaviour. Perform calculations using the ideal gas equation. Explain qualitatively the basic assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory of gases for an ideal gas. 4. State the conditions at which real gases approcah the ideal behaviour. Avogadro's law. 9. M and density. 5. Charles' law. Calculation involving van der Waals equations is not required. 8. Exclude the formula that relates average speed of gas molecules and temperature.0 STATES OF MATTER LEARNING OUTCOMES REMARKS HOUR 1. Calculation includes the determination of molar mass. State and explain the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases as applied to an ideal gas.
compressibility and diffusion. sublimation iv. 1. volume. 1 Hour 2. intermolecular forces to vapour pressure ii. Define amorphous and crystalline solids.CHEMISTRY TOPIC LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. freezing (solidification) ii. ionic iii. vapour pressure to boiling point. Define vapour pressure and boiling point. metallic ii. 3. viscosity. melting (fusion) iii. Mention the type of interparticle bonding or forces only. Describe the properties of liquid: shape. surface tension. molecular covalent iv. 2 Hours Limited to shape and molecular motion. Exclude 7 crystal systems. Explaination involves molecular motion and phase changes only. Deposition REMARKS HOUR 2. 2. State the properties of solid 2. Explain the process of i.2 Liquid Limited to molecular energy and molecular motion. giant covalent . Relate: i. Explain vaporization and condensation processes based on the kinetic molecular theory and intermolecular forces. State the following types of crystalline solids with appropriate examples: i.3 Solid 3.
State the dual nature of the electron using de Broglie's postulate and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.CHEMISTRY TOPIC 3. Calculate the ionisation energy of hydrogen atom from Lyman series.1/n22) where RH = 1. RH = 2.RH (1/ n2).1 Bohr's atomic models Introduce ΔE = hυ where υ = c / λ 5 Hours .18 x 10-18J 5. Calculate the energy of electron using: E = . Brackett and Pfund series: 1/λ = RH (1/n12 . Describe the formation of the line spectrum of hydrogen atom.0 ATOMIC STRUCTURE LEARNING OUTCOMES REMARKS HOUR 1. 2.1/nf2) where RH = 2. Paschen. (Calculation is not required) 3. Differentiate between line spectrum and continuous spectrum 4. Perform calculations involving the Rydberg equation for Lyman. Balmer.18 x 10-18 J 3.097 x 107 m-1 and n1<n2 ΔE = RH (1/ni2 . Describe Bohr's atomic postulates. 6. Outline the weakness of Bohr's atomic model 7. Explain the existence of electron energy levels in an atom.
2 Hours 3. Explain the anomalous electronic configuration of chromium and copper. 3. orbital diagram. Write the electronic configuration of atoms and monoatomic ions.3 Electron configuration Limit the proton number. Z to 36 3 Hours . 2. p and d orbitals with correct orientations. 1. electron spin quantum number. Sketch the shapes of s. magnetic quantum number. n ii. Describe the term orbital. 2. Write the electronic configuration of an atom using: and orbital diagram.2 Quantum mechanical model Other terms for ℓ are azimuthal / subsidiary/ orbital quantum number. s. spdf notation ii. 3. i.CHEMISTRY TOPIC LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. REMARKS HOUR 3. State and use Aufbau principle. principle quantum number. ℓ iii. m iv. 4. angular momentum quantum number. State the four quantum numbers of an electron in an orbital i. Hund's rule and Pauli's exclusion principle in filling of electrons in orbitals of an atom.
Specify the position of metals. 2. 4. f). Deduce the position of elements in the periodic table from its electronic configuration. Indicate period. metalloids and non-metals in the periodic table.1 Classification of elements 3.CHEMISTRY TOPIC 4. p. 1 Hour . d. group and block (s.0 PERIODIC TABLE LEARNING OUTCOMES REMARKS HOUR 1.
8.2 Periodicity . metallic character ii. 5. 6. Explain the variation in atomic and ionic radii: Across period 2 and 3. down groups 1 and 2. melting point iii. Deduce the electronic configuration of an element and its position in the periodic table based on successive ionisation energy data. Explain the variation in electronegativity of elements: across periods 2 and 3. Explain the increase in the successive ionisation energies of an element. Highlight the anomalous behaviour. 4. Z to 20. 2. 4. Explain the variation in the radius of isoelectronic species. boiling point 9. Describe and explain the acid-base character of oxides of elements in period 3. Define the first and second ionization energies. Explain the variations in the first ionization energy: Across periods 2 and 3. Include chemical equations. down a group.CHEMISTRY TOPIC LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. Define electron affinity and electronegativity 7. Describe the periodicity of elements across period 3 and down groups 1 and 17 for the following physical properties: i. 3. REMARKS HOUR Include comparison between atomic radius of an element and its corresponding ionic radius for periods 2 and 3 only. 5 Hours Limit proton number. Relate boiling point to the molecular structure and types of interparticles forces. down a group. accross the first row of transition elements.
7. 2. 5.1 Lewis structure 5. expanded octet and odd number electrons 8. Include the stabilities of cations and anions with noble gas. Describe the formation of the following bonds using Lewis dot symbols i. B and Al. double and triple bonds. 6 Hours . Determine the formal charge and the most plausible Lewis structure.CHEMISTRY TOPIC 5. Explain the concept of resonance using appropriate examples. Compare the bond length between single. Highlight the covalent character of Be. 6. Dative or coordinate bond 4. Explain the exception to the octet rule: incomplete octet. State the octet rule and describe how atoms obtain the octet configuration 3. Draw Lewis structure of covalent species with single. Write the Lewis dot symbol for atom. double and triple bonds. Covalent bond iii. Ionic or electrovalent bond ii.0 CHEMICAL BONDING LEARNING OUTCOMES REMARKS HOUR 1. pseudo noble gas or half-filled orbital configurations.
4 Intermolecular forces 2 Hours . sp3. van der Waals forces: dipole-dipole interactions or permanent dipole London forces or dispersion forces ii. 3. 1. C2H2 and C6H6 to explain the formation of pi. π in molecules 1. Tshaped. using approriate examples . sp3d and sp3d2.2 Molecular shape and polarity 3. Include bond angles Include species with lone pairs: V-shaped. Explain factors that influence der Waals forces.CHEMISTRY 1. Explain Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model (VSEPR) 2. trigonal bypiramidal and octahedral. Draw and explain hybrid orbital of a central atom:. linear. CH4. tetrahedral.3 Orbital overlap and hybridization 2. 4. Predict and explain the shapes of molecule and bond angles in a given species. σ and pi. Use CO2. 5. trigonal planar. C2H4. distorted tetrahedral (seesaw). Describe intermolecular forces i. 4 Hours 3 Hours 5. 5.π bonds from overlapping of orbitals 5. Explain bond polarity and dipole moment. sp2. Draw and describe the formation of sigma.π in molecules. trigonal pyramidal. σ and pi. sp. Draw the basic molecular shapes: linear. hydrogen bonding 2. Deduce the polarity of molecules based on the shapes and the resultant dipole moment. Explain the formation of sigma. square pyramidal and square planar.
Explain the formation of the metallic bond using electron sea model 3. boiling point ii. electrical conductivity iv. Explain the effects of hydrogen bonding on the following physical properties: i. Explain the factors that affect the strength of metallic bond 4.CHEMISTRY 3. density of water compared to ice. thermal conductivity 2. State the following properties of metal: i. solubility iii.5 Metallic bond 1 Hour . ductility iii. Explain the effects of the strength of metallic bonding on boiling point. 1. malleability ii. 5.
3. Q and predict the direction of net reaction by comparing the values of Q and Keq. 6.CHEMISTRY TOPIC 6.0 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM LEARNING OUTCOMES REMARKS HOUR 1.1 Dynamic equilibrium Mass action law is also known as equilibrium law 1 Hour Refer to single step reversible reaction only Calcualtion of α is based on decomposition reaction 3 Hours . 5. State the characteristics of a system in equilibrium. 2. Explain a reversible reaction. Define homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. KP = KC (RT) . dynamic equilibrium and law of mass action 2. 1. KP or the quantities of species present at equilibrium. Δn 6. α. KC and partial pressure. Explain the features of a graph of concentration against time for a reversible reaction. Define and determine the degree of dissociation. Calculate KC. Deduce and write expressions for equilibrium constants in terms of concentration. 6. Derive and use the equation. Deduce the expression for reaction quotient. 3. KP for homogeneous and heterogeneous systems.2 Equilibrium constants 4.
0 IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. Kw at 25oC. pH and pOH. Define acids and bases according to the Arrhenius. 2. Kw.1 Acids and bases 9 Hours . Pressure and volume (include the addition of inert gas at constant Pressure and at constant volume) iii. Define strong acid and base. Define pH and pOH. 7. Calcualtions are limited to problems with quadratic equation: ax2 + bx + c = 0 Apply approximation method if Ka or Kb ≤ 10-14 Description on the preparation of buffer solution is not required. 5. weak acid and base 4. Use synthesis of HI. Define and identify conjugate acids and conjugate base according to Bronsted-Lowry theory. pKb. 2. 3. hydrolysis of ester. Temperature iv. Calculate the pH values of a strong acid and base Include examples for each theory. pKw. Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis theories.3 Le Chatelier's principle 2 Hours 7.CHEMISTRY TOPIC LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. Relate pH and pOH to the ionic product of water.2O4 and synthesis of NH3 etc as examples. Concentration of reacting species ii. Haber process: create the awareness of industrial application HOUR 6. Catalyst REMARKS Discuss the equilibrium position. equilibirum concentrations and the value of K. State Le Chatelier's principle. Perform calculations only on weak monoprotic acids and weak bases. Exclude calculations for every dilute acids or bases (< 10-7 M) Relate Ka. decompositon of N. Kb. pKa. Explain the effect of the following factors on a system at equilibrium using Le Chatelier's principle: i.
α. Derive the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. equilibirum concentration and the degree of dissociaiton. initial concentration. strong acid and strong base ii. 10 Describe buffer solutions. weak acid and strong base (Calculation is not required). Relate the strength of a weak acid and a weak base to the respective dissociation constants. 9.CHEMISTRY 6. Ka and Kb. Describe qualitatively how a buffer solution controls its pH 12. dissociation constant. 7. strong acid and weak base iii. acidic or basic. Calculate the pH of buffer solutions. 8. Classify the salts as neutral. Explain salt hydrolysis and write hydrolysis equation for the salt formes from the reaction between: i. 11. Perform calculation involving pH. pH = pKa + log [conjugate base] / [weak acid] pOH = pKb + log [conjugate acid] / [weak base] .
4.3 Solubility equilibria 3. Identify suitable indicators for acid base titrations 1. 2 Hours . REMARKS HOUR 7.CHEMISTRY TOPIC LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. strong acid-weak base iii. Sketch and interpret the variation of pH against titre value for titrations between: i. 2. weak acid-strong base 4. Define solubility. Q to Ksp. Ksp. Perform calculations involving titrations 3. Describe the titration process and distinguish between the end point and equivalence point.2 Acid-base titrations Calculations are limited to titration between a strong acid and a strong bases 3 Hours 7. Predict the possibility of precipitation of slightly soluble ionic compounds by comparing the values of ion product. Define and explain the common ion effect. Exclude calculation on the mass of precipitate formed. strong acid-strong base ii. Calculate Ksp from concentrations of ions and vise versa. 2. Perform calculations related to common ion effect. molar solubility and solubility product.
Explain the positive and negative deviations from Raoult's law for non-ideal solutions 5. Sketch and explain the phase diagram of H2O and CO2. pressure (at constant temperature). 6 Hours . Use nitric acid-water as an example of solution with negative deviation. Define triple point and critical point. temperature (at constant pressure). ii. vapour pressure-composition ii. Immiscible 2. 8. State the properties of an ideal solution 3. Miscible ii. boiling point-composition 8.1 Single component system 2 Hours Use benzene-toluene as an example of ideal solution. 4. 1.CHEMISTRY TOPIC 8. Sketch and interpret the following curves for a mixture of two miscible liquids: i. Describe the changes in phase with respect to: i.2 Two components system 4. State the miscibility of a liquid mixture: i. 3. Define and apply Raoult's law. Explain the anomalous behaviour of H2O. Partially miscible iii.0 PHASE EQUILIBRIA LEARNING OUTCOMES REMARKS HOUR 1. Define phase and component 2. Use water-ethanol as an example of solution with positive deviation.
iv. Define colligative properties 2. ii. Explain the principle involved in simple and fractional distillations of a binary mixture. Describe the colligative properties of a solution: i.CHEMISTRY 6. .3 Colligative properties iii. Define azeotropic mixture. Determine the composition of azeotropic mixture from a boiling point-composition diagram. 8. 8. Perform calculation on colligative properties of non electrolyte solution containing non-volatile solutes. Determine the distillate and residue of a distillation from the boiling point-composition diagram. 1. freezing point depression osmotic pressure lowering of vapour pressure boiling point elevation 2 Hours 3. 7.
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