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To determine Total Dissolved Solids in a given sample of water. Chemical parameters of water: To determine the Total Hardness of water using EDTA method.  To determine the best coagulant/optimum coagulant dose using JAR test. To determine the pH of a various samples of water. To determine the Alkalinity of a given sample of water using Indicator method. .  To determine Chloride Content in a given water sample by Argentometric method.      Bacteriological parameters of water: Presumptive test for Coliform Bacteria by multiple tube method. To determine the turbidity of a given sample of water using Nephelometric method.     Physical parameters of water: To determine Total Suspended Solids in a given sample of water.

 Treatment of a dirty effluent (= dealing with the present).  .Typical problems:  Remediation of a contaminated site (= fixing the past).  Pollution avoidance (= planning for the future).

Environmental Engineering is a discipline of engineering devoted to the development and application of scientific knowledge through technology to eliminate or minimize adverse effects associated with human activities. and care for future generations  .  It operates at four different levels: remediation of contaminated sites. treatment of effluents. pollution prevention.

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 Total solids is the term applied to the material left in the vessel after evaporation of a sample of water/waste water and its subsequent drying in an oven at a definite temperature. . Total solids include “total suspended solids” the portion of total solids retained by a filter and “total dissolved solids” the portion that passes through the filter.

 Fixed solids are the residue remaining after ignition for 1 hour at 550°C. The solid portion that is volatilized during ignition is called volatile solids. .

High concentrations of suspended solids can cause many problems for stream health and aquatic life. . TSS can include a wide variety of material. such as silt. industrial wastes. Suspended solids in water refer to the solids which are suspended in the water and would be caught by a filter. and sewage. decaying plant and animal matter.

. metals. sugar. cations . Dissolved solids in water are salts. then drying the water which passes through. The solids remaining after the filtered water is dried are the dissolved solids. anions . Solids which are dissolved in the water and would pass through a filter. Dissolved solids are measured by passing the sample water through a filter.

. run-off. industrial wastes and chemicals used in wastewater treatment plants TDS shows GENERAL water Quality. herbicides. pesticides) and 60% Inorganic (Ca. Bicarbonates) Water is a good solvent so it pick up impurities easily Pure water is tasteless. solvents for cleansing. odorless and colorless TDS originate from Natural sources. Sulfates.     Dissolved solids are 40% Organic (fuels.

ions.   High TSS can block light from reaching submerged vegetation. liquid or dissolved solids to a surface) for chemical and biological impurities Impurities around adsorption site . molecules of gas. As the amount of light passing through the water is reduced. Reduced rates of photosynthesis causes less dissolved oxygen to be released into the water by plants Objectionable in water Aesthetically displeasing and provide adsorption sites (adhesion of atoms. photosynthesis slows down.

salty and decrease the efficiency of hot water heaters High concentration of TDS may reduce water clarity.    Concentration of TDS that are too high or too low may limit the growth and may lead to the death of many aquatic organisms (constant level of minerals is necessary for aquatic animals because TDS like nitrogen. which contributes to a decrease in photosynthesis and to an increase in water temperature . phosphorous etc are the building blocks of molecules for life) Concentration of dissolved ions may cause the water to be corrosive.

Max desirable  Max permissible  W.H.O guideline value  = 500mg/lit = 1500 mg/lit = 1000 mg/lit .

For industrial and municipal effluents N.H.Q.O guideline value  =3500 mg/lit =500 mg/lit .E.S value  W.

Now pass the water sample over filter paper.     Take a filter paper and record its weight as W1. Now place the filter paper for drying in oven at 103-105 degree centigrade for 1 hour and then in desiccator for 30 minutes and record weight of filter as W2 & determine amount of suspended solids as Suspended solids(mg/lit) = (W2-W1)* 10^6 / V(50 ml) . Now take water sample about 50 ml in flask.

 Now take the china dish and place it in oven for 1 hour at 103 degree centigrade for 1 hour.Take a china dish and weigh it as W1.  Now weigh the china dish again as W2 and apply the above formula to find dissolved solids.  Take the china dish and place it in water bath for 3 hrs at 90 degree centigrade. Take the water sample which pass the filter paper and into the china dish.   .

The desiccator is used to store dried samples in a dry atmosphere. usually silica gel is used as desiccant  Purpose of water bath is to heat materials gently and gradually to fixed temperature or simply to control the temperature more precisely that is possible with an open flame  .

 Quiz #1 COMING CLASS .

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