You are on page 1of 19

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam

me of this topic of term paper and give the golden opportunity to prepare of term paper. My term paper topic is shared memory organisation. This topic is related on my subject computer archietecture; this. This topic will clear my more concept. I wish to express to my gratitude to all the people involved in the writing of this project, specially jasleen Kaur mam who was very

Acknowledgment
Firstly I say to thanks of my subject teacher and education management, because they think able

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
friends who give help and support me. I am thankful to my elder brother and LPU Wi-Fi; they are give fully support me to prepare my project. My sincere thanks go to my teacher jasleen Kaur mam & LPU Wi-Fi because they are help to search and give hints to prepare of my term-paper. generous in sharing their time and knowledge with me.I thank to my some other teacher and

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
Introduction
A multiple processor system consists of two or more processors that are connected in a manner that allows them to share the simultaneous (parallel) execution of a given computational task. Two basic requirements are inevitable for the efficient use of the employed processors. These requirements are: Low communication overhead among processors while

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
executing a given task and A degree of inherent parallelism in the task. The organization and performance of a multiple processor system are greatly influenced by the interconnection network used to connect them. Single bus Multi-bus system PPP MMM PPP MMM

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam

Multi-stage Interconnection Network

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
Crossbar system Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Mostafa Abd-El-Barr & Hesham El-Rewini Classification of Computer Architectures Flynns Classification: SISD: SIMD: Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Mostafa Abd-El-Barr & Hesham El-Rewini Classification of Computer Architectures Flynns Classification: MISD: MIMD:

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
Architectures Kuck Classification Scheme: Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Mostafa Abd-El-Barr & Hesham El-Rewini 11.2 Classification of Computer Architectures Hwang & Briggs Classification Scheme: The main new contribution of the classification due to Hwang & Briggs is the introduction of the concept of classes. This is a further refinement on Flynns classification. The SISD category is further refined into two sub-categories, i.e.

Classification of Computer

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
SISD (SISD-M). The MIMD category is further refined into loosely-coupled MIMD (MIMD-L) and tightly-coupled MIMD (MIMD-T). The SIMD category is further refined into word-sliced processing (SIMD-W) and bit-sliced processing (SIMD-B). single functional unit SISD (SISD-S) and multiple functional units

Classification of Computer Architectures


Erlangen Classification Scheme Skillicorn Classification Scheme

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
machine is modeled: Architectures Skillicorn Classification Scheme Possible connection schemes: Sample connection classes: 11.3 SIMD Schemes First Possible Scheme: According to this classification, an abstract von Neumann

Classification of Computer

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
Message-Passing Organization Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Mostafa Abd-El-Barr & Hesham El-Rewini 11.5 Interconnection Networks Mode of Operation Synchronous: A single global clock is used by all components in the system (lock-step manner) Asynchronous: No global clock required Hand shaking signals are used to coordinate the operation of

MIMD Schemes

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
asynchronous systems. Control Strategy Centralized: one central control unit is used to control the operations of the components of the system. Decentralized: the control function is distributed among different components in the system.

Interconnection Networks
Switching Techniques Circuit switching: a completepath has to be established prior to the start of communication between a source and a destination.

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
entities, called packets. Packet switching: communication between a source and a destination takes place via messages divided into smaller

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam

Topology Describes how to connect processors and memories to other processors and memories. Static: direct fixed links are established among nodes to form a fixed network. Dynamic: connections are established when needed.

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam

Analysis and Performance Metrics


In executing tasks (programs) using a multiprocessor, it may be assumed that a given task can be divided

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
processor. Therefore, the expected speedup will be given by the efficiency E(n)=100%. processors using time Execution into nequal subtasks each can be executed by one

processor single a using time Execution = processors n of consisting system ssor multiproce a of use the to due speed in increase = factor up - Speed = ) ( n nS 100% n

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
S(n) Efficiency ) ( = =nE

Summary
In this chapter, we have navigated through a number of concepts and system configurations related to the issues of multiprocessing. In particular, we have provided the general concepts and terminology used in the context of multiprocessors.

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
been introduced and analyzed. A number of taxonomies for multiprocessors have

Termpaper Submitted by:-subhash pal singh Submitted to:- jasleen kaur mam
introduced: Shared-memory Message passing In addition, we have introduced the different topologies used for interconnecting multiple processors. Fundamentals of Computer Organ Two memory organization schemes have been