Overview of Mechanical Working Processes: Part One Abstract: During the process of shape change which accompanies mechanical

working the volume of the mass remains constant and an increase in length such as in rolling is accompanied by a decrease in thickness. As deformation is applied to a structure consisting of one kind of deformable grains, they will become elongated. At the same time mechanical properties become directional and the structure and properties are anisotropic. It is proposed to deal with the effect of mechanical work on the structure and macroproperties of metals and to follow this with a classification of the processes used for mechanical working. Effects of Mechanical Work on Metals During the process of shape change which accompanies mechanical working the volume of the mass remains constant and an increase in length such as in rolling is accompanied by a decrease in thickness. As deformation is applied to a structure consisting of one kind of deformable grains, they will become elongated. At the same time mechanical properties become directional and the structure and properties are anisotropic. The behavior of a duplex structure is very similar except that the two phases or types of grains, α and β, are likely to react differently to the deformation process. α may be soft and ductile, whilst β may be hard and brittle, will therefore tend to fracture and appear as orientated fragments or stringers in the longitudinal direction. A duplex structure will tend to become more anisotropic than a single-phase structure. At very high degrees of deformation the structure appears fibrous because the grains have been so elongated as to lose their individual characteristics. Deformation also affects mechanical properties, in that the hardness, ultimate tensile and yield stresses all increase to a maximum, whilst the ductility falls to a very low value. The toughness, as measured by the Izod or Charpy test, increases with working up to a maximum and then gradually decreases. It is found in practice that the hardness and strength of most metals increase by 2.5 to 3 times the annealed value as a result of cold working. All structural metals have approximately the same ductility as measured by percentage elongation. An annealed metal will have approximately 35% elongation; whilst a metal which has been cold worked 80% will have only approximately 2% elongation before failure in a tensile test. The best combination of properties is usually found in the longitudinal direction, and

Increasing the temperature by 10°C doubles the diffusion rate. With no cold work there are no high stress centers so no recrystallisation on heating. a temperature will be reached at which new nuclei begin to form in the distorted grains. This is called grain growth. Cold work increases the internal energy of the metal. diffusion of atoms still occurs and some grains grow at the expense of others. but increasing temperature has a far more critical effect on diffusion since the rate is an exponential function of temperature. and the greater the cold work the higher the residual internal energy. The grains will be softer and much larger than the worked grains and the atomic orientation will be random as between grains. If the metal is held at the recrystallisation temperature after it has completely recrystallised. the greater the number of atoms that will diffuse to the nuclei and occupy positions of minimum energy. It is important to understand the mechanism of nucleation and the factors which control the number of nuclei formed. These growth volumes become grains and the interstititial zones of distorted atomic pattern are the grain boundaries. With the critical amount of cold work there are a few and these grow excessively to give very large grains. and if the sample is heated to a temperature substantially above the . It is recognized that nucleation will occur in those regions with the highest residual stresses. Grain growth occurs by a diffusion process and all such processes are affected by time and temperature. It has been seen that diffusion is a linear function of time. The Effect of Heat on Cold-Worked Metals A metal sample which has been cold worked 80% will be hard and brittle.worked one. This means that less thermal energy is required to nucleate a heavily cold-worked metal than a lightly cold. Each nucleus has grown to form one grain and this gives the recrystallised grain size. replacing the common forced orientation in the worked material. This occurs due to the fact that the thermal energy supplied allows the atoms to diffuse to sites and form stable nuclei. If the sample is heated. The longer the time that the worked sample is held at a nucleating temperature. The volume around each nucleus will grow to visible size and after some time further growth will be prevented by the interference of one growth volume with another. It is quite possible in an industrial process that quite an appreciable amount of grain growth occurs so that the final or annealed grain size is much coarser than the recrystallised grain size. How much thermal energy is needed depends upon the amount of prior cold work carried out on the metal. the grains will be elongated and there will be a considerable degree of anisotropy.the worst in the short transverse direction. and these occur at multiple boundary intersections. The greater the degree of cold works the smaller the recrystallised grain size.

In practice the effects of deformation are instantaneous but recrystallisation requires time and unless the hot deformation system is slow enough to allow complete recrystallisation. if either the cooling after hot rolling is very slow or the finishing temperature is very high. Cementite may appear as a massive form on the ferrite grain boundaries. have totally different recrystallisation temperatures. Final grain size after cold working and annealing is very important in industrial processes. pearlite. resulting from a relatively high finishing temperature. whilst ensuring complete recrystallisation in adequate time. The two phases. Steel consists of two phases. This should be as low as possible. Hot Working of Metals Cold working followed by annealing can be compared to working at above the recrystallisation temperature. The most important factor in the industrial process is the final temperature in the furnace. The ferrite recrystallises at around 600°C whereas the cementite requires temperatures between 700°C and 900°C. however. Two precautions are taken to avoid this. it can occur as fine dispersed spheroids if . then evidence of working persists at the end of the process. i. and secondly the form of the second phase is controlled so that it is in an innocuous form. Grain size also affects the toughness. the presence of the cementite in an oriented formation prevents the development of equiaxed grains and mechanical anisotropy persists giving "pan caked" grains.e. This concept gives us the true definition of hot and cold working: • • Hot working is working at such a temperature and strain rate that recrystallisation keeps pace with deformation. Cold working is working under conditions such that recrystallisation does not keep pace with deformation. The best structure for further working consists of small. uniform equiaxed grains. ferrite and cementite. Even if the ferrite recrystallises after hot working. Finally. is obtained if the cooling rate is intermediate.1% maximum to reduce the amount of second phase. If the grains are too coarse the metal will exhibit a rough surface finish on machining and an "orange peel" effect after pressing.recrystallisation temperature the grain growth will result in a coarse structure. The final material should consist of small equiaxed grains exhibiting the minimum amount of mechanical anisotropy. This is described as hot working and deformation of the grains is followed by instantaneous recrystallisation. The effects of deformation on structure and properties are therefore instantly removed. depending upon the carbon content. firstly the carbon content is limited to 0. An interesting example of the application of the above principles to hot working is in the hot rolling of steel strip for deep drawing. A lamellar form. This is the idealized situation in hot working.

extrusion and . Liquid metal may be cast to shape in moulds. then the required shapes can be achieved by the application of calculated forces in specified directions at controlled rates. If this can be determined. The type of tool can be used to classify the different categories of deformation processes. forging. • • • • • • Deformation Processes and Classification Deformation is only one of several processes which may be used to obtain intermediate or final shapes in metal. rolling. Common industrial processes fall into six categories: • • • • • deep drawing or pressing. stretching. The study of plasticity is concerned with the relationship between metal flow and applied stress. sprayed to form intermediate or final shapes or made into powder which is pressed into shape and sintered to produce strong components. While each of these has a field of application the overwhelming bulk of metal is shaped from the simple cast ingot by a series of deformation processes. The type of tool can be used to classify the different categories of deformation processes.the cooling rate is an optimum value achieved by a relatively low hot-working temperature. Overview of Mechanical Working Processes: Part Two Abstract: In practice the external load is applied by a tool and its shape controls the direction of application necessary to achieve the desired flow. Common industrial processes fall into six categories: deep drawing or pressing. The applicability and development of these processes is completely dependent on the plasticity of the solid metal. stretching. forging. extrusion and wire drawing. rolling. In practice the external load is applied by a tool and its shape controls the direction of application necessary to achieve the desired flow.

Can ends in food and beverage containers are the most widespread examples. the hammer is replaced by a tup or die sliding in a frame and impelled by mechanical. This process can only be carried out cold. spray forming. While forging can be carried out on either hot or cold metal. They can also be grooved or textured on the surface in order to change profile as well as emboss patterns. etc. The sheets are drawn over shaped formers to the extent that they deform plastically and assume the required profiles. Extrusion In this process a cylinder or billet of metal is forced through an orifice by means of a ram to such effect that the elongated and extruded metal has a transverse shape which is that of the die orifice. The rolls are generally cylindrical producing a flat product such as sheets or strip. but these are not yet of great industrial significance.• wire drawing. limit cold forging applications. An outline of each of the important processes is given in the following. Deep Drawing and Pressing Deep drawing is an extension of pressing in that the metal blank is given a substantial third dimension after flowing through a die. Hot working is very widely used because it is possible to achieve rapid and cheap change of shape. roll forging. For bulk production and the shaping of large sections.g. the metal is compressed between a hammer and an anvil and the final shape is obtained by turning and moving the work piece between blows. More metal is rolled than the total treated by all other processes. Any attempt at hot drawing results in the metal necking and failing. Cold rolling is carried out for special reasons such as the production of good surface finish or special mechanical properties.. hydraulic or steam power. the high expenditure of power and wear on the dies. This deformation process can be carried out either hot or cold. There are other working processes. Forging In the simplest case. Rolling This is a process which reduces the thickness of the material passed between a pair of revolving rolls. It is a cold-working process and is currently the least used of all the working processes. e. Stretch Forming This is essentially a process for the production of shapes in sheet metal. There are two kinds of extrusion. as well as the relatively small extent of deformation possible. In the former case the . direct and indirect or inverted. Simple pressing is carried out by loading a blank between a punch and a die so as to indent the blank and give the product a measure of rigidity.

Wire Drawing Metal rod is pointed at one end and then drawn through the tapered orifice of a die. can produce very large quantities of wire in long lengths at high speed. by this process. using very little manpower. Modern installations. In the early examples of this process. With indirect extrusion the die is held at the end of a hollow ram and is forced into the billet so that metal is extruded backwards through the die. By using the appropriately shaped orifice it is possible to draw a variety of shapes such as ovals. squares. in which long lengths are drawn continuously through a series of dies by the use of a number of mechanically driven blocks.ram and die are at opposite ends of the billet and the metal is pushed up to and through the die. . The rod entering the die has a large diameter and leaves with a smaller diameter.. etc. hexagons. short lengths were drawn by hand through a series of holes of diminishing size in a cast-iron or forged-steel "draw plate".

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