Edward Said and the Interplay of Music, History and Ideology
Derek B. Scott

In the last twenty years of his life Said wrote frequently about music. Musicologists remain, in general, unfamiliar with much of that work, since it appeared mainly in reviews and nonmusicology journals. As a consequence, the best known of his musical writings are his book Musical Elaborations (1991), and the essay on Verdi’s Aida in Culture and Imperialism (1993). Said’s impact on the cultural history and sociology of music, however, has been considerable, and has come about largely by applying his ideas to an understanding of the way musicians have contributed to Orientalism, which Said defi ned, in his ground-breaking book of that title, as ‘a Western style for dominating, restructuring and having authority over the Orient’.1 In doing so, it has been necessary to examine the role of stereotypes in domination, the role of invention in restructuring and the role of silencing or marginalizing in exercising authority. Said’s analysis of the ways in which philology and colonialist discourse embraced the ideological values he termed ‘Orientalist’ has also been reworked as an analysis of the ideological values embedded within the musical stylistic conventions for representing the East that developed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In this chapter, I explore the extent to which musicologists writing on these issues have been indebted to Said, and I also examine what it was that made critics either love or hate what he had to say. Said’s Culture and Imperialism differs from Orientalism in that it moves beyond the Middle East and it discusses resistance to imperialism. Said believes that seeing works of art in social context (which includes the imperial context) enhances our understanding of them. 2 The question he asks of a work of art is, in a nutshell, how it relates to culture and empire. Musical metaphors crop up frequently in his writing: for example, his suggestion that we reread the cultural archive ‘not univocally, but contrapuntally’.3 In the counterpoint of Western classical music, various themes play off one another, with only a provisional privilege being given to any particular one; yet in the resulting polyphony there is concert and order, an organized interplay that derives from the themes, not from a rigorous melodic or formal principle outside the work. In the same way, I

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Edward Said and the Interplay of Music, History and Ideology 105 believe, we can read and interpret English novels, for example, whose engagement (usually suppressed for the most part) with the West Indies or India, say, is shaped and perhaps even determined by the specific history of colonization, resistance, and fi nally native nationalism.4 Said who, in this book and Musical Elaborations, has been criticized for his focus on Western high art, actually advocates ‘reading the canon as a polyphonic accompaniment to the expansion of Europe’.5 Later, pursuing the same musical metaphor, he explains ‘whereas the whole of a culture is a disjunct one, many important sectors of it can be apprehended as working contrapuntally together’.6 He is also aware that when you criticize artists you have to take into consideration the limitations placed on them by the aesthetic forms in which they are working.7 Section IV of chapter 4 of Culture and Imperialism (pp. 133–59) is entitled ‘The Empire at Work: Verdi’s Aida’. This section originated in ‘The Imperial Spectacle’, a piece written for Grand Street in 1987.8 He relates the performance of this opera to European ‘universal’ expositions and their exhibiting of subaltern cultures (model villages, etc) for the eyes and ears of Europeans.9 He states that it was Italy and the Italians who were being addressed in Nabucco (in the contemporary context of the risorgimento), but that it was Egypt and the Egyptians of early antiquity in Aida.10 However, the fi rst remark appears to be about subject position, the second about content. Indeed, Said makes evident later that a European (if not specifically Italian) audience is being addressed, and that the audience is being presented with an Egypt backed by European intellectual authority. Khedive Ismail commissioned the opera from Verdi for 150,000 francs in gold. The Khedive was a Europhile and keen to promote Western culture in Cairo. Said comments, ‘Aida’s Egyptian identity was part of the city’s European façade’.11 Perhaps it would be more accurate to say Aida does not have an Egyptian identity, only a pseudo-Egyptian identity. It was for the new Cairo Opera House, which had actually opened with Rigoletto in 1869. Antonio Ghislanzoni was the librettist, and the scenarios were by a French Egyptologist, Auguste Mariette. Verdi was, nonetheless, keen to have full control over the opera; and this creates another seeming contradiction in Said’s argument, since Verdi was not an intellectual authority on Egypt. Here, we must remember that the authority of Europeans was invested in them though the political, economic and military power they wielded, rather than through their intellectual standing—except, of course, where knowledge was itself a tool of power, or could function as textual power in the production of dominant discourses. Said suggests a parallel with Verdi’s desire for control and an imperialist notion that the non-European world had ‘minimal or noexistent’ claims on a European composer.12 Said contends that the opera has to be seen in the context of Napoleon’s former threat to British power in Egypt. Its contemporary political

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The opera contains stereotypical images of the East. at the same time. He proceeds to argue that the music suggests a ‘Europeanized Egypt’ and an ‘orientalised Ethiopia’.18 Further ways of teasing out the ideological dimension of Aida can be found by considering its selectivity (what is included and what excluded) and its use of spectacle—especially during the triumphal scene in Act 2.13 The British encouraged him because the French and Italians had ambitions in Ethiopia. aware that the meaning of Aida is constrained by what typifies an opera of this period: ‘Aida is about a tenor and soprano who want to make love but are prevented by a baritone and a mezzo’.16 That is why a ‘contrapuntal’ interpretation can alone explain some of the peculiarities of Aida. Mariette had been the principal designer of antiquities for the Egyptian pavilion. Scott relevance was that it ‘dramatized the dangers of a successful Egyptian policy of force in Ethiopia. Said picks out the presence of women priests (since Verdi wanted soprano and alto lines in his chorus) and the Europeanized faces (with moustaches and beards) in the fi rst production. Said provides an astonishing list of animals that were included in a Cincinnati production of 1986. too. Said mentions its ‘overdeveloped music’ and ‘strangely unaffecting visual and musical effects’—having cited Joseph Kerman’s comments on these features. he declares. though he concedes that ‘a not inconsiderable Ghosh 3rd pages. Moreover. and maintains that Aida is an Orientalist opera ‘only if its ideological agenda is significantly embodied in its music’.106 Derek B. such as Ramfi s the High Priest.15 Said is.14 Said suggests that Mariette took ideas for Aida from Napoleon’s Description de l’Egypte. the circumstances of the commission and the entire social-political environment count for nothing. the costumes. Another important context for the opera was the rise of Egyptology with its fondness for reconstructing models of ancient Egypt. Robinson thinks a stumbling block to Said’s argument is that Egypt in the opera is an imperial power trying to subdue Ethiopia. the Act 3 Nile scene and. especially since Ismail himself—as Ottoman Viceroy—was interested in such ventures as a way of achieving more independence from Istanbul’. and the ‘antithesis between militaristic Egypt and suffering Ethiopia’ is ‘deeply embedded in the music’. Citing Joseph Kerman’s argument in Opera as Drama that the composer is the dramatist in opera.20 This is a questionable assertion.indd 106 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:24 PM .19 Paul Robinson challenges Said’s reading. At the Paris International Exposition of 1867. In addition. such as the medieval modes and the harp and flute. ‘Things that can be identified solely in the text and that do not fi nd expression in the music for all practical purposes cease to exist’. there are the melodic and timbral features that connote exoticism in this period. who performs the role of Oriental despot. such as the temple in the fi rst scene. No wonder Said complained about a lack of attention to context on the part of musicologists. Moving on to detail. and one that rules out costume and scenery as well as text. more generally.17 Among the contradictions in representing the ancient Egyptians.

Would an audience have been inclined to see the opera as a critique of imperialist ambition by interpreting the actions of the ancient Egyptians as parallel to the way some Western powers were then behaving? That is undoubtedly a possibility. 27 Ralph Locke has surveyed a large body of literature on the opera. Surely. but it is unlikely to have been a typical reception.21 All the same. “Ancient Egypt” as ancient (not recent/modern) Egypt. however. other critiques of Said’s reading of Aida. 7. Robinson already mentioned an entirely different interpretation in Mussolini’s Italy. he holds that this association with Egyptians is undermined because instances of exotic music are almost always answered immediately ‘with music of impeccably occidental credentials’ by unambiguously Egyptian characters. then Orientalist ideology is at work here? This third meaning also accords with Robinson’s desire that the ideology should be located in the music. room here for what Roland Barthes might have called a ‘third meaning’24 lying fi rmly though obtusely alongside this symbolic reading. when a black-shirted Radames was presented as subduing the ‘Ethiopian hordes’.indd 107 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:24 PM . Yet.25 Here. spectacle. and ‘the music of the Occident seems to negate that of the putative Orient’. 23 There is.Edward Said and the Interplay of Music. The opera offers the European audience rituals. in fact. “Ancient Egypt” as. as may be expected. “Ancient Egypt” as a pageant-like allegory of current-day Egypt (c. and revealed by interrogating the signifier rather than the signified. 3. violence and cruel death sentences— just the sorts of things. 2. but locates its “heart” in Amonasro’s impassioned call for his daughter to remember her conquered and tormented people (this plea occurs in their duet). Robinson does find ideology in Aida. 1. “Ancient Egypt” as stand-in for European imperialist ventures outside of Ghosh 3rd pages. he sees a link with Verdi’s feelings for his own native land and with the composer’s earlier risorgimento operas. just that: ancient Egypt. if Western music is found to ‘trump’. There were. “Ancient Egypt” as ancient Egypt. that functioned as stereotypes of the Orient in the nineteenth century. 1870) and its campaign against Sudan/Ethiopia/Eritrea. “Ancient Egypt” as symbol of an imperial power acting within Europe. 6. 8. we must ask if the European audience saw the Egyptians of this opera as being like themselves (as later Italian fascists may have seen them). However. this cannot be an Orientalist opera.26 Robinson’s short essay rests on an assumption that if Egypt is represented as acting like a Western imperialist power. 22 His conclusion is that in this opera ‘the exotic East is trumped by the conventional West. “Ancient Egypt” as stand-in for the oppressors of risorgimento-era Italy. ‘cancel’ or ‘negate’ the East. but the portrayal is somehow unconvincing or limited. 28 He lays them out in nine headings ranging from the most literal to the most metaphorical.’ the exotic music is ‘ideologically cancelled’ by Western harmonies. History and Ideology 107 amount’ of pseudo-Oriental music is associated with the Egyptians. and categorized the interpretations by type. 4.

he goes along with Adorno’s theory of the regression of listening. and insists that he does not believe music affi xes itself opportunistically to one orthodoxy or social authority—on the contrary. are no longer studies in pianistic technique. such as ideology and power. Said states that his own intention is to look at Western classical music as a cultural field. He names Theodor Adorno as a thinker about music who took on the big issues.33 Adorno believed that a culture industry (which included radio as well as recordings) had eroded the facility for concentrated listening. he declares. It was based on the Welleck Library Lectures in Critical Theory that he was invited to give at the University of California at Irvine. He does recognize that.indd 108 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:24 PM . Scott Europe. producers and consumers. He makes a distinction between his own epistemological standpoint and that of Adorno. change was in the air.36 The source of this state of affairs is the previous century. Musical Elaborations. 32 In the fi rst chapter. at the time of his writing. entitled ‘Performance as an Extreme Occasion’.30 In the book. [Locke’s descriptions] Said wrote one book. His main complaint is that few are writing about music as Raymond Williams wrote of literature or Michel Foucault of the history of knowledge. Chopin’s Études. Julia Kristeva and Pierre Bourdieu.35 Performers used to be involved heavily with contemporary music.108 Derek B.29 In this book he accuses much musicology of being positivistic and reverential in character but lists a number of scholars he admires. instead. Richard Leppert and others). “Ancient Egypt” as metaphor for any societal structures and individuals that abuse power. In contrast to earlier times. purposes. they are flawless displays of virtuosity consumed via recordings. the importance of diversity of practice—its places. twentieth-century performances became grounded in ‘specialized training in interpretation’ rather than in composition. he also mentions the relevance of the insights of Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida. which presumes an inescapable historical teleology’. 31 Said stresses. Evidence of Said’s acceptance of Adorno’s idea of regression is found in a later comment about Hindemith’s Third Sonata: ‘a fi ne piece hardly ever played in concert today for reasons that have to do with the intellectual cowardice and low aesthetic standards of a majority of today’s musicians’. times. thus implying an alignment with ‘field’ thinkers such as Mikhail Bakhtin. He reviews knowledgeably what was then recent work informed by cultural theory (by Susan McClary. Said also applies Adorno’s theory in novel ways. 9. but now ‘the concert professional’s programs are if not antiquarian. who is ‘a creature of the Hegelian tradition. when the concert performance of piano transcriptions of opera and symphonic music made ‘a new kind of statement about the act of performance Ghosh 3rd pages. then curatorial’. in 1989. He does not want his arguments to be accused of reductive rigidity.34 Yet. he recognizes that Western classical music ‘is a much contested thing’. that took music as its focus.

by which he means that it lies beyond the everyday. Surprisingly. and how certain ‘masterpieces’ of serial composition established themselves in the concert repertoire (Adorno. which he means literally as the ability of music to ‘cross over.42 Said immediately moves to the wider issues.37 It became not so much an assertion of the transcriber’s skill as an assertion of the performer’s virtuosity. For Adorno. With reference to the title of his book.Edward Said and the Interplay of Music. Discussing performance as an occasion. drift from place to place in a society’. it must be said. Said then discusses another of Adorno’s theories. History and Ideology 109 itself’.40 But Gould sometimes mixed different takes in his recordings.indd 109 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:24 PM .41 He begins this chapter by stating that when thinking about the arts we are led to consider what is intrinsic and extrinsic in their make-up. as a cultural experience. Said has clarified earlier his use of the term transgression. splicing two different takes of a Bach fugue together as a single performance. Jean-Jacques Nattiez had provided an overview of intrinsic/extrinsic theories in 1990. my own experience of teaching composition in the late 1980s and early 1990s demonstrated to me that students regarded serialism as an academic orthodoxy for high-status composition. Against Adorno’s position. asking if canons serve aesthetic or social interests. and if an author’s beliefs. there is little discussion of Gould’s innovative use of recording technology—except to note that his transcription of Wagner’s Meistersinger prelude required overdubs in the studio. He goes on to make an interesting and perceptive analysis of Arturo Toscanini’s conducting and Glenn Gould’s pianism. lectures and awards oil society’s wheels. In the case of music. Indeed. ‘What attracts audiences to concerts is that what performers attempt on the concert or opera stage is exactly what most members of the audience cannot emulate or aspire to’. Said explains that Gramsci used the term elaboration to describe how such maintenance works—how such things as music. he mentions the lack of performances of Wagner in Israel. and points out how academic and respectable Schoenberg’s serial technique became. Said thinks Adorno mistaken. Those artists are discussed because they present clear illustrations of the ways in which a ‘performance occasion’ has taken over from an interest in contemporary composition.39 He calls it an ‘extreme occasion’. did begin to recognize this himself). In this context. modern music expressed social concern by ‘denying itself the illusion of beauty’38 rather than espousing a false humanitarianism. Said argues that ‘music remains situated within the social context’ and that. and contrasts this portrayal of the Ghosh 3rd pages.43 He then comments on the unadorned style of Hans Sachs’s music in Die Meistersinger with its associations of Lutheran chorales. Chapter 2 is entitled ‘On the Transgressive Elements in Music’. that Beethoven’s music at the end of his life. moved from social to aesthetic concerns and established the idea of an autonomous sphere for musical development or evolution. Said remarks. for example. behaviour or morals affect the aesthetic reception of his work. it contributes to the maintenance of civil society.

51 Another example that illustrates the range of trangressive possibilities afforded by music may be found in Lawrence Kramer’s discussion of the way Bertholdt Brecht’s and Kurt Weill’s attempts to produce an alienation effect was transgressed in performances of ‘Mack the Knife’ (from Die Dreigroschenoper) by Ella Fitzgerald and others.47 Adorno railed against any attempt to produce ‘affi rmative’ music in the twentieth century. of course. Said stresses that the big questions about music.52 Said accuses much musicology of failing to comment on the ‘transgressions from the purely musical to the social’ (patronage. and eroded resistance to oppressive social mechanisms. and of thus promoting the idea that music ‘has an apolitical and asocial autonomy’.110 Derek B.46 Said illustrates this neatly by contrasting Beethoven’s last humanist statement. transgressions. this tactic protected against change and a supposed contamination brought forward threateningly by the very existence of the Other’. none of which is easily reducible either to simple apartness or to a Ghosh 3rd pages. 45 Said has perceptive words to say about Thomas Mann’s novel Dr Faustus (1947) and the way in which the demonic career trajectory of its protagonist. with the opening of Alban Berg’s opera Lulu.48 Said maintains that to focus on what is German or Jewish or Indian or Black or Muslim. is to accept the principle of separate essences.44 The latter is. The point is a straightforward one and stressed regularly by Said: ‘there was often the tactic of drawing a defensive perimeter called “the West” around anything done by individual nations or persons who concentrated a self-appointed Western essence in themselves. the ‘Ode to Joy’ setting in the Ninth Symphony. follows the path to a dehumanized alienation that Adorno saw beginning in Beethoven’s late style. Scott upright. German. the composer Adrian Leverkühn.50 Wagner’s attempt to erect fences around holy German art. for instance. honest German with the ‘sickly. like those about literature. To think about music and history is ‘to map an ensemble of political and social involvements. The one is a ‘ringing affi rmation’. overlearned.49 Said rejects all theoretical totalisations. arrived too late in the day. Turning such essences into universals is ‘the legacy of the imperializing process by which a dominant culture eliminated the impurities and hybrids that actually make up all cultures’. politics etc). too—a non-German could not have held the position of notary in medieval Nuremberg—but the question of there being elements of Jewish caricature in Wagner’s portrayal of Beckmesser (and certain other characters in his music dramas) has been much debated. begin to be asked simultaneously with Western imperial expansion and must be seen in that context. while the latter suggests ‘antihuman desperation’. ridiculously hypocritical and consequently unmusical traits’ of Beckmesser. none of which he believes exhausts the practices within its domain: ‘There is always the possibility to transgress’.53 At the same time. since it merely gave false hope in a barbaric age. affi rmations.indd 110 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:24 PM . since it had already transgressed ‘the clutches of one owner’. he is emphatic that music should not be understood in crude terms as a reflection of society.

when memory plays a part in the consumption and meaning of that music. The title of chapter 3. Said possessed a pessimistic. but the same it is hardly the case with Adorno (even if the work Crowley admires—the Introduction to the Sociology of Music— receives scanty attention). and Affi rmation’. 1982). even of the rarely cited pieces found in the volumes of Gesammelte Schriften published by Suhrkamp (Frankfurt. and so this connects with his earlier remarks on Proust. but requires that we recollect past events in the music as we listen to its present events. although the general tenor of the proposition may be accepted.54 It may be Said’s confidence in the processes of transgression that kept him politically committed and active while some of the French theorists he admired lost momentum.55 There are. History and Ideology 111 reflection of coarse reality’. Robert Crowley berates Said for having few ideas of his own and of stating commonplaces about the importance of social context. even though Adorno saw none. we fi nd polarized views about the quality and insight of the criticism elaborated therein. It is a subject he had previously written about in a Harper’s article. 59 Whether he might have felt a little more optimistic now is difficult to say. Moving to the reception of his book Musical Elaborations. we still need to be clear that enjoyment of music is not a purely synchronic experience. evidence of Said’s ignorance of Max Weber and Theodor Adorno. for Crowley. Said goes on to discuss informatively and unaffectedly his own experience of listening to music and of playing music as a pianist. several objections that may be made to this. Memory plays an important role in the meaning music has for him. the question of what constitutes logic in music is problematic. 57 What Said most admires in performers is the ability to allow the audience to believe that they are actually creating the music spontaneously. Said demonstrates considerable knowledge of Adorno. Solitude. of the audible’. which in his mind consisted of either ‘extreme hermetic academism’ or ‘commodified and commercialized record and concert packaging’. located within an environment of ‘continuous noise pollution’. indicates that Said envisages room for affi rmation.56 Even if ‘logic’ is interpreted in music only in a loose fashion as ‘implicative power’. painting) music insists that you submit to ‘the tyranny of its forward logic or impulse’. We are assured that Said is completely misguided in the Ghosh 3rd pages.indd 111 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:25 PM . nonetheless. since (unlike.60 It is true that Weber does not feature in Musical Elaborations. when those principles do appear to be operating. Said’s complaint that musicology has neglected social context is merely. Not all music is governed by principles of forward logic and. since it is evidently not mathematical or syllogistic logic. especially since in this fi nal chapter he once more endorses emphatically Adorno’s ideas about regressive listening. dichotomous vision of the contemporary music scene.Edward Said and the Interplay of Music. for instance. Reflections on Proust and music lead Said to an argument that knowing a piece of music means ‘always to acknowledge the ineluctable temporal modality. 58 which may seem something of a paradox. ‘Melody. or one-timeness.

a scholar known for his writings on literature and psychoanalytic theory. negative and distinctly lacking in courtesy. he implies. Critical Musicology Ghosh 3rd pages. composing and listening. Crowley also takes some of Said’s jokes as offensive remarks. she states that she has come to see that his focus on the making and receiving of a performance evokes a ‘sense of our contingency in relation to all that is in our minds and in our world’.70 He regards Said’s criticism of musicologists’ lack of interest in social and cultural context as being some ten years out of date.61 Moreover. for example. But I believe Said was right to stress the neglect of this area.66 Subotnik is the most enthusiastic of the reviewers of Said’s book. In contrast. and also praises him for his ‘readiness to be speculative and to take risks’. the review is bitter. She does comment that musicology is no longer the intellectual backwater described in Said’s preface. the year after Said’s book. Crowley out-does anything cited from Said. and is also struck by Said’s linking of the idea of musical autonomy with ideas of racial and cultural purity.65 and she does not believe that these models have yet crumbled.68 Nick Cook. ‘for all his jaded facility.63 Rose Rosengard Subotnik’s review of Musical Elaborations is one of the warmest. when it comes to insult. the idea that music developed or evolved according to its own internal laws was still very much a musicological orthodoxy at this time (serialism. He commends Said for ‘enlisting new rhetorical tools for the description of musical composition and performance’. that he despairs at correcting so many misreadings in the space available. London). 64) to the inner space of tonality in Beethoven’s (pp. such as Said’s comment that New York’s Metropolitan Opera has encouraged the idea that opera is about overweight and disturbed people who sing unintelligibly and loudly.62 In short. instead. with performing.64 She says Said ‘casts his book as a challenge to longstanding models of autonomy’. in turn. The very fi rst international conference on music and gender was not held until 1992 (at King’s College. was usually portrayed as evolving out of romantic chromaticism). is full of admiration for the book.69 but is less taken with his thoughts on musicology.112 Derek B. but attributes that to the younger generation of scholars who were establishing themselves as Said’s book was prepared for publication.67 Apropos of Said’s last chapter. Cook likes the sections on Toscanini and Gould. though the reviewer does not stop to explain why. writing that Said’s description of ‘the movement of musical space from the outer world of church and court in Bach’s music (p. when he says of the author. makes it clear that he admires Said’s insights into ‘music as a performer’s and listener’s art’. a review by Malcolm Bowie. She is most struck by the third chapter (though it registered initially as disappointing) and Said’s interest in what happens to us when we listen to music. 65–66) is among the most compelling historical accounts of Western art music I have ever encountered’. Indeed. which he thinks deserves fuller treatment. Scott way he interprets Adorno. She notes that Said’s three chapters deal. The U. he lacks an inkling of what susceptible people get out of music’. in his review.K.indd 112 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:25 PM .

Gould’s virtuosic technique and his ‘complete separation from the world of other pianists. ‘Whereas a century ago the composer occupied stage center as author and performer. two years after the publication of this book. As late as 1996. to castigate Said for neglecting popular music and for failing to offer a theoretical framework for discussing the popular. Said leaves the impression that we are at the end of the line for Western music. The fi rst book that for many critical musicologists signalled a distinctively new direction was Richard Leppert’s and Susan McClary’s Music and Society of 198771 (and Said shows he is aware of the work of these scholars). Critical musicology. Ghosh 3rd pages. . although I would suggest that most of them acquired such familiarity only in the 1970s. remains’. and that it was based on reading very little of Adorno’s output. more odd.75 in which performance became ‘more extreme. What.76 However. of other people. however. Kristeva. History and Ideology 113 Forum was founded in 1993. Cook is also correct in saying that many musicologists were already familiar with the work of Adorno. with studio-intensive creations such as ‘Strawberry Fields Forever’ and the Sgt Pepper album. then. is the problem with Adorno for those currently researching the philosophy and sociology of music? There are actually very few of his theoretical tools and concepts that do not raise hackles these days. Barthes.72 Cook is right. very few musicologists had read Foucault. When he claims. or his idea (from Engels) of ‘false consciousness’ which leaves open the question of what is true consciousness.indd 113 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:25 PM .73 it is a persuasive comment largely because Said neglects popular (pop) music. with the intention of championing a socially engaged musicology that the founder members believed to be still marginalized in academic institutions. has been more indebted to French cultural theorists than to the Frankfurter Schule. confronted with arid experimentalism at one extreme and commodified junk at the other. when feelings ran high and arguments became heated. The fi rst book containing selected essays on postmodernism in music was The Last Post (1993). whether it is his idea of the manipulative ‘cultural industry’ using strategies of ‘standardization’ and ‘pseudo-individuation’ to dupe the passive masses. When Said writes that Toscanini and Gould ‘elaborated the logic of what contemporary classical music offered them’. in general. or his ideas of ‘truth content’ and ‘sedimented Geist’ in music.Edward Said and the Interplay of Music. Deleuze or Derrida—and the non-Hegelian thinker Foucault had considerably more impact on Said than Adorno. . edited by Simon Miller. there was a session on critical or what was still being called ‘new’ musicology at the International Musicological Congress in London. For Adorno. the fact remains that. perhaps the Beatles offer examples of that. too.74 it may be argued that this has not been true of most pop music since the Beatles and Bob Dylan. the culture industry has created ‘alienation’ between music culture and the consumer. more unlike the lived reality of humankind’. even by 1990. of other prerogatives’ made him a prime example of what Said calls ‘performance as an extreme occasion’. Yet. now only the performer .

In short.83 The incorporation of elements of Eastern practice was to show what had been lost to Western classical music—but. In the case of Wagner. he declared. He insists that the inner structure of a composition presents a picture of ‘antagonistic society as a whole’. In fact. since he concentrates on structure. too. was the Orient’. what appears lacking to anyone now engaged in the cultural study of music is a developed theory of social semiotics that would allow ideological content in the very style of the music to be teased out. At times he neglects to account for ideology embedded within a musical style.85 The tendency for American experimentalists to regard the East as a repository of musical devices that can be redeployed for Western innovation also chimes in with Said’s argument that the West maintains a positional superiority that denies the East the ability to represent itself. ‘the function of music in society is mainly to act as a diversion’.87 Everist would rather the term ‘Orientalist’ be restricted to the East. He identifies several of Wagner’s characters as Jewish caricatures. as Corbett remarks. in his opinion. He cites Said’s assertion that primitiveness ‘inhered in the Orient. and exotic used for other locations that serve to convey a sense of cultural otherness Ghosh 3rd pages. This resonates with Said’s contention that the Orient is denied development or transformation.79 It is not clear if Adorno ever considered that any of the types of music he lumps together as a ‘diversion’ might be able to convey ideological meanings that are not simply or solely those of diversion.81 Musicologists were at fi rst slow to engage with Said’s ideas. Scott though the consumer is unaware of it. it was perhaps ‘never there in the fi rst place’. Ralph Locke has been pre-eminent in his analyses of Western codings of the East. Classical music was. for it was only the ‘strictness’ of structure that allowed music to ‘assert itself against the ubiquity of commercialism’. and that inner musical tensions are the unconscious phenomena of social tensions.80 In the case of Orientalism and music.84 These elements are perceived as embodying the ancient. and it was only when postcolonial criticism and theory were well under way in the 1990s that the implications for music were seriously considered. mostly commodified. never-changing secrets of the East. The Oriental is persistently linked to the ‘primitive’.indd 114 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:25 PM .78 Adorno’s ideas led to an obsession with form in modernist composition. who tried to link their music to social struggles.86 Mark Everist brought a consideration of Said’s thoughts on Orientalism into an article on Meyerbeer’s Il crociato in Egitto in 1996. Marc Weiner provides an excellent example of how this can be achieved.77 Adorno had no more patience with composers like Kurt Weill and Hans Eisler. than he had with the popular music that he thought distracted people from those struggles. and both become tools for a critique of Western civilization. but fails to examine how this caricature is constructed in the music as well as the libretto. John Corbett detects a ‘familiar nineteenth-century form of Orientalism’82 behind the project of American experimental composers in the fi rst half of the twentieth century.114 Derek B. for example.

Locke’s defi nition deliberately avoids qualifying the place as distant—it is merely a place felt to be different. Taking up Said’s musical metaphor. say. He distinguishes between two types of works.90 While acknowledging that his defi nition is incomplete. with the Middle Ages may have links to the exotic). He connects it to ‘imperialist ideology’. drawing on Said’s work. one being that in which exoticism is an allegorical cover for critique of the Self (like The Mikado).91 He concludes by discussing the significance of the exotic locale in the context of Western attitudes to the East. but is concerned to show that invocations of other cultures are not uniformly repressive and regrettable. Locke defi nes musical exoticism as ‘the process of evoking a place (etc) that is perceived as different from home by the people making and receiving the exoticist cultural product’. such as the tension between reality and imagination—as. to a nineteenth-century Italian audience. even though this may be achieved by relating in a very small way to the actual materials of that culture. by evoking. for example. However. were often racially identified with reference to their supposed Oriental origins. while others are unmarked. for example. Thus. As ever. he holds that research into exotic stylistic devices and their origins should not overtake the need to understand matters of intention and reception. instead. the Orientalist and the exotic bring different ideological meanings as well as spatial and location meanings. Gipsies. as happens with the treatment of the Scots in Brigadoon (1947).92 My own argument concerning Orientalist music stresses that it does not matter if elements are taken from the culture of the Other or not.93 Sometimes a culture is represented in a more specific way. he sticks to this term). he believes it sets us thinking in the right direction by focusing on place (although he can envisage an argument that a fascination.Edward Said and the Interplay of Music. is that it lacks the political punch of the term Orientalism. History and Ideology 115 to audiences88 —as Scotland did. A further complication is that the exotic and the Eastern constantly intertwine: in the nineteenth century. one who ‘seeks to keep both the social and aesthetic levels in mind’. I have had the occasion to remark before on the popular misconception that Orientalist music is merely a poor imitation of another cultural practice. some ‘–isms’ connote opprobrium. for Ralph Locke. In his essay ‘Exoticism and Orientalism in Music’ (2000). the ‘contrapuntal’ critic is. Ralph Locke observes that music is not primarily a representational art and works. and the second being that in which the exotic is a fundamental part of the work (like Madama Butterfly).indd 115 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:25 PM .94 In the example just given. in the use of a real location on which fantasies are projected. even if they resided in Hungary or Spain. Locke brings out the complexities of exoticism (note.89 One of the reasons some writers today are reluctant to use ‘exoticism’ to cover all representations of the cultural Other. it only matters that there are signifiers of difference that construct a sense of Otherness. it is sufficient to prevent Ghosh 3rd pages. when its purpose is fi rst and foremost not to imitate but to represent. and not all are pro-imperialist.

economic and political realities such as the French Revolution. he fails to explain at any length ‘why that isolation should have existed. It is important to remember that the Self/Other binarism is psychological not biological. In his review article ‘The Importance of Being Ghosh 3rd pages. and also considers some of the responses these pieces provoked. The fi nal section of this essay looks at the kinds of issues and concerns that Said raised in his critical reviews and journalism. or the advent of industrialization. what should we make of musical styles that are able to represent the East so vaguely that they may be used unchanged for South America and other non-Eastern places. for instance. and the bearing both the onset of secularism and the end of aristocratic patronage may have had on it’.95 Another caveat in what. then. I would prefer to call those devices Orientalist. for the most part. for example. though the romantic composer’s isolation is one of his themes. Orientalism often synonymous with exoticism except for its being restricted to representations of the East? If that were so. In a review (1995) of Charles Rosen’s The Romantic Generation. but it is still not a million miles from Orientalism because the theme of Self and Other runs through that musical.116 Derek B. Undoubtedly. or the developing interest in economics. but adds. Is this quality necessarily true of exoticism? When Locke argues that exotic devices are ideologically inscribed with Western views of Eastern locales. And even representations of characters biologically different (for example the singing birds in Siegfried and Gurrelieder. Yet. is that Rosen’s ‘understandable reluctance to get involved with either the society of which Romanticism was a part. ‘rarely are direct inferences drawn from all this cultural background—which is itself unnervingly disconnected from social. as informatively discussed by Albert Hirschmann and Michel Foucault’. representation of the American Indian—then it seems to me that exoticism is too weak a term and Orientalism too confusing a term. and because Orientalism.97 Another crucial concern of Said’s was the countering of negative racial caricature or stereotyping. Said acknowledges that the author quotes a range of intellectual and poetic authorities. while often focused on time or place. is at the bottom about alterity. or with cultural theory’ means that he ‘disallows himself insights and concepts exactly where and when in his own argument he might have benefited from them’. What is needed is a term that connects the Self/Other binarism embedded in the concept of the exotic to issues of identity and politics. Scott Brigadoon being thought Orientalist. is a glowing review. influenced Meyerbeer’s L’Africaine (1865). Is. the most important theme for Said is that of social and historical context. when the same ideological inscription occurs but the locale is not the East—it may be. too? Félicien David’s La Perle du Brésil (1851).indd 116 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:25 PM .96 Thus. Said surely put his fi nger on a crucial quality when he identified certain types of representation that enshrine an imbalance of power and reinforce the political and intellectual dominance of the culture of the representer. though perhaps not the one in Die Frau ohne Schatten) may not be perceived as Other.

suggests that roles like Mime or Beckmesser should be played ‘without the offensively caricatural traits so often heaped on them’.98 Nattiez cites as an example the Boulez–Chéreau Ring (Bayreuth. no doubt.109 He rebukes French composers for providing music ‘for male naughtiness and crime’ that is ‘much more interesting than the sugary pap employed for female goodness. hateful and should not be performed in Israel. Rose also wrote to protest about his treatment at the hands of Said.105 He adds incautiously. ‘it is impossible to avoid the gender issues in the production and interpretation of art’ after the work of feminist critics and theorists. unaware of the publication in the previous year of Women Making Music edited by Jane Bowers and Judith Tick. has offered little in the way of music criticism’.107 (McClary’s Feminine Endings did not appear until 1991.indd 117 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:25 PM . ‘feminism .108) Said outlines issues that he believes should interest feminists. He also affi rmed his right to connect the argument that Wagner’s music dramas are anti-Semitic.102 He stressed that his main point was ‘the need for imagination and taste (infidelity) in thinking about and producing Wagner’.100 Said was attacked by Michael Tanner for using this article to air his grievances about Israel and its treatment of Palestinians—the excuse for Said’s doing so being that Paul Rose.103 Said is rarely thought of as someone who espoused gender issues. but most angrily at Tanner. supported the banning of performances of Wagner in Israel. although he stated in Musical Elaborations.99 In the letter pages of the London Review of Books. There. Said. to judge for ourselves the rights and wrongs of watching Wagner’. he remarks that ‘very little has been done to map the female role in the production and performance of music’. 1976). He considers sexuality and music should be explored. with some puzzlement. but had written earlier on this subject in a review in 1987 for the Nation (a periodical for which he had begun writing music criticism in the previous year). Said is not prepared to accept routine opinion. demanding the right ‘to live in a real Israel.104 He did neglect gender issues in that book. also. History and Ideology 117 Unfaithful to Wagner’. with reference to practices of denial and exclusion found in Israel itself. such as a feminine style of playing. or a feminine style of music. A correspondent from Israel then wrote to take issue not with Said but with Rose. . giving an example of an infidelity that would free Wagner from his anti-Semitism. However. the author of another of the books he was reviewing.101 The latter hit back at both correspondents.Edward Said and the Interplay of Music. that is not necessarily true of opéra comique — not if one thinks of a character like Angèle in Auber’s Le Domino noir (1837)—and certainly not true of opéra bouffe (Offenbach’s Eurydice springs to mind). . and suggests that Bellini’s opera I Puritani with its exhibitionist vocal displays and forestalled climaxes presents ‘a vision of sexuality that requires some skeptical attention’. and even Ghosh 3rd pages.106 being. despite the varied and prominent parts women have played. Said draws on Jean-Jacques Nattiez’s argument that one needs to ‘de-familiarize’ Wagner in order to be faithful to him.

113 and also criticizes the music reviews in papers such as the New Criterion. people?’116 It has been evident from this survey of Said’s writings on music that he was prepared to range widely. albeit sometimes criminally intent. ‘in its obsessively patterned structures of aspiration and blockage’. Scott questions whether or not Beethoven’s redemptive Leonore (in Fidelio) is a flattering portrayal of the feminine’ or ‘a chilling derogation of women in Leonore’s supplementary status’.115 He notes that those critics who regard it as ideological do not complain about ‘works that are skewed the other way’.120 Whatever the reasons for his preferences. which he relates to uncritical neoconservatism.112 Having introduced a political theme. if they thought about social context at all.111 In a piece written for the Nation in 1991.117 John Shepherd comments of Musical Elaborations that it is ‘difficult to reconcile Said’s pioneering work in postcolonial thought with a book seemingly so indifferent to the music of other groups and cultures’. while not being uncritical about some aspects of Adams’s opera. and pointed to the influence of his ‘predominantly Western education (both musical and academic)’. as so often. champions it against those who complain that it is too ideological. . showed the ease with which he could engage politically with operas separated by two centuries. New York Times. by reviewing John Adams’s opera The Death of Klinghoffer. yet remain loyal to his own much-trumpeted demand that historical. he next censures the Metropolitan Opera for its ‘uncritical replications of the past’. Said.indd 118 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:25 PM . history and ideology was considerable.118 Said was sensitive to such criticism. ‘how many times you have seen any substantial work of music . Said began writing about music at a time when most musicologists. He begins by stating of both Leonore and Florestan that it is impossible to make them ‘genuinely believable human beings’ because Beethoven is more concerned with abstract French revolutionary ideas about justice and freedom.110 Ahead of the game. mechanical realism and rigid and unimaginative performance style’. social and cultural context should receive proper attention. and Wall Street Journal for conveying the idea that music is a nonideological zone. Said sees the opera as a ‘meditation on historical violence’ and comments that the ‘dominant emotions of the opera are not strictly speaking political but aesthetic ones’. tended to Ghosh 3rd pages. ‘Musical tradition’. that actually tries to treat the Palestinians as tragically aggrieved. has been accused of treating Western classical music as an ‘unquestioned norm’. he declares. is ‘one of those unassailable catch phrases serving profoundly regressive ideas about law and order. however. and asks. . Said looks not just to the libretto but to the music as well.119 He also explained that he analyzed Western canonical works primarily because he found them ‘estimable and admirable works of art and learning’. it is indisputable that his achievement in revealing the interplay of music. Klinghoffer was a disabled tourist aboard the Achille Lauro who was murdered by Palestinian terrorists.118 Derek B. Said returned to the subject of Fidelio and.114 He then turns to The Death of Klinghoffer and.

‘The Third Meaning. Ghosh 3rd pages. Georges Bizet: Carmen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. trans.. Ibid. or as something that was ‘reflected’ in the work of artists. 21. Said. Orientalism (London: Routledge. 1956).. Ibid. Opera as Drama (New York: Knopf. Paul Robinson.. Culture and Imperialism (146). Culture and Imperialism (1993. 5 (1993): 133–40. 1978). 4 (1992): 253–80. 15. 10. See ibid.’ Cambridge Opera Journal. especially in the context of Western imperialism. See ibid. Joseph Kerman.. Ibid. 1992).Edward Said and the Interplay of Music. 20. 7. The Style Hongrois in the Music of Western Europe (Boston: Northeastern University Press.. 59. Ibid. Moreover. 8. no. 6.. 2 (1987): 82–104.indd 119 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:25 PM . 156. Ibid. Richard Taruskin.’ Image–Music–Text. 143–44. Said. 3 (1991): 261-302. Culture and Imperialism (134). 14. 145. See ibid. ed. Said was among the fi rst to note the ideological character of nineteenth-century musical exoticism. 5. xv. History and Ideology 119 conceive of it either in theatrical terms.’ Cambridge Opera Journal 3. in turn. he was also concerned to show how their work. Grand Street. Edward W.. Among the fi rst musicologists to explore this idea were Ralph P. See Said. as a backcloth against which composers and performers carried out their activities. 10 (1993): 33–56. 9. and Elizabeth Wood (London: Routledge. See ibid. 91. 16. gave shape and value to people’s understandings of identity... 147. ‘The Soldier and the Exotic: Operatic Variations on a Theme of Racial Encounter. 17. 234. 4.’ Opera Quarterly. Stephen Heath (London: Fontana. 135. 22. 137.. in Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology.’ Cambridge Opera Journal.. Thomas. 136. 6. Susan McClary. 138. Locke ‘Constructing the Oriental “Other”: Saint-Saëns’s Samson et Dalila. Gary C. 1994). NOTES 1. London: Vintage. 137. Ibid. Ibid. 140. and ed. Roland Barthes. 23. Said replaced these simple metaphors with an emphasis on how artists mediated rather than mirrored the ideas of the social world within which they produced their work. The example I give seems to fall between Barthes’s third meaning and his second-order semiological system 19. James Parakilas. Ibid. 3. 18. 1994). 2. 3. 1977). 139.. ‘“Entoiling the Falconet”: Russian Musical Orientalism in Context. 59–60. 12. 151. 52–68. 1993). Culture and Imperialism (149). no. Eros and Orientalism in Britten’s Operas. 235–56. 71. Said. 11. 160. Jonathan Bellman. Ibid. See ibid. 24. (emphasis in original) Ibid. 13. Philip Brett. Said. Said.. Philip Brett. ‘Is Aida an Orientalist Opera?...

42. ‘Nuremberg Trial: Is There Anti-Semitism in Die Meistersinger?. 111–27. repr. 11. 5. 27. Ibid. 41. orig. Ibid.’ special music and race issue. 1995). 31. as Versuch über Wagner. Ibid. See Rose Rosengard Subotnik. Ibid. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 3 (1991). trans. 1990). gives a positive twist to the negative connotations of cultural hybridity.. 38. 53. See Adorno. incidentally. Barry Millington. As a ‘signifier without a signified’ (61). Musical Elaborations (31). 43. Musical Elaborations (48). 36. Rodney Livingstone (London: NLB. Musical Elaborations (17). Said. it is tempting to relate it to musical experiences. James Deaville. xvi.’ in The Location of Culture (London: Routledge. of course. ‘Signs Taken for Wonders. 37. Postcolonial Theory (London: Verso.. Weiner. 3/1 (2006): 3-23. Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music. 45. 45. 34. Ibid.. 15–41. and that it is ‘not in the language-system’ (60). 1981. thought Said neglected the importance of desire and fantasy in colonialism. xi–xii. Frankfurt am Main. Andrew Amato and Eike Gerbhardt (New York: Urizen Books. Barthes prefers to suggest his third meaning is that of signifi ance. 28. Ibid.” paper given at 13th Biennial International Conference on 19th Century Music.. 1973). Bhabha. 44. 40. In Search of Wagner. London: Vintage. 3. xiv. 26. 32. Said. Nineteenth-Century Music Review. Scott wherein an existing sign becomes a signifier. July 2004. Germany: Suhrkamp Verlag. Ralph P. 30.. 46. NJ: Princeton University Press.. ‘In Search of Genetically-Modified Music: Race and Musical Style in the Nineteenth Century.’ in Developing Variations: Style and Ideology in Western Music (1976.. Ibid. Locke. Musical Elaborations (40). Ghosh 3rd pages. quoted by Said in Musical Elaborations (14). 1994). ‘Is Aida an Orientalist Opera?’ (140). Richard Wagner and the AntiSemitic Imagination (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.. however. Ibid. Said. Anne G. Musical Elaborations (1991. Bart Moore-Gilbert. 29. 247–60. Said calls it Wagner’s only comic opera. Said. 47. 49. ‘Adorno’s Diagnosis of Beethoven’s Late Style: Early Symptom of a Fatal Condition. Ibid. 52. trans. Said. Adorno. see. 1991). Said. 1978). Ibid. Homi Bhabha.indd 120 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:26 PM . Robinson. New York: Seabury Press. The point would misfi re. Philosophy of Modern Music. ed. pub. Marc A. Blomster (1949. Musical Elaborations (xv). 35. Durham. 1992). for example. ‘On the Fetish Character in Music and the Regression of Listening’ (1938). had Said chosen the intensely human last scene of Lulu. 133. See Jean-Jacques Nattiez. 25. Derek B. 102–22.120 Derek B. 6. ed. Adorno. however. in The Essential Frankfurt Reader. “Aida and Nine Readings of Empire. Carolyn Abbate (Princeton. trans.’ Cambridge Opera Journal. See. for example. 1952). 135. Mitchell and Wesley V. Ibid. Scott. 39. See Theodor W. Incidentally. 1997).... 48.. forgetting about Das Liebesverbot. 33.

Malcolm Bowie.. 67. see Max Paddison. International Journal of Comparative Sociology. 156. For other insightful work see Subotnik. 114–15. 1993). 69. Frankfurt am Main. trans. Nick Cook. Journal of the American Musicological Society 46 (1993). Ibid. Essays on Music.. 156.’ review of Musical Elaborations. 52. For a general survey of Adorno and music. Ibid. Essays on the Philosophy of Music. selected.indd 121 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:26 PM . 2003).. 21. November 29. commentary. 216. 484. Ashton (New York: Seabury Press.Edward Said and the Interplay of Music.. Ibid. 51. 1976. Simon Miller. 72. 23. 56. Introduction to the Sociology of Music. Music and Society (Cambridge. England: Cambridge University Press. Musical Elaborations (55).’ Harper’s. 1991). 1985. Musical Elaborations (34). Here. 618. and notes by Richard Leppert. 41–42. Ibid. 54. 70. 1987). 2002). Ibid. 2000). Ibid. Musical Meaning: Toward a Critical History (Berkeley: University of California Press. 66. but I draw the reader’s attention to the freshly and lucidly translated material in Adorno. Philosophy of Modern Music (40–41). Subotnik. Ernst Bloch. 34. 74. England: University of Manchester Press. Said. trans. 71. also in Refl ections on Exile and Other Essays (Cambridge. Developing Variations: Style and Ghosh 3rd pages. 69–75. orig. orig. 217–19. Germany: Suhrkamp Verlag. 63. see Subotnik. 77. 1962). 477. 485. 617. 55. The Last Post (Manchester. 477. ed. Richard Leppert and Susan McClary. Adorno.. Review of Musical Elaborations. Adorno’s Aesthetics of Music (Cambridge. 155. See Said. Frankfurt am Main. England: Cambridge University Press.. 75. 8. 71. Robert Crowley. 64. Ibid. Ibid. 1993). 1991. Ibid. Ibid. ‘A Whole New Approach. 53. review of Musical Elaborations. 68. 76. Music and Letters 73 (1992). Germany: Suhrkamp Verlag. For further discussion on logic and music. 57. Said. 61. November 1985. B. Adorno. 476–85. I am citing book-length translations. 68. and below.. Said.. Lawrence Kramer. 73. Said. 60. Gillespie (Berkeley: University of California Press. 62. 34 (1993): 155–57. 61. 59. with introduction.. Ibid. 76. Musical Elaborations (65). Ibid. Scott. 2002). pub. MA: Harvard University Press. 96. ‘Remembrance of Things Played: Presence and Memory in the Pianist’s Art. Developing Variations: Style and Ideology in Western Music (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Peter Palmer (Cambridge.. Cambridge University Press. new translations by Susan H. as Einleitung in die Musiksoziologie.. E.. 65. 1974). pub. From the Erotic to the Demonic: On Critical Musicology (New York: Oxford University Press... History and Ideology 121 50. 617–19. Times Literary Supplement.. 58. Ibid. Musical Elaborations (89). 216–29. 481. review of Musical Elaborations. Ibid. as Zur Philosophie der Musik.

22 Apr. Music. September 21. 15. 1993. March 25. 99. 1999). 261–302.’ Cambridge Opera Journal. Rodney Livingstone (Stanford. Mark Everist. 100. Georgina Born and David Hesmondhalgh (Berkeley: University of California Press.’ London Review of Books. ‘Meyerbeer’s Il crociato in Egitto: Mélodrame. Said. it offers evidence. 19. 98. Germany: Mohr. that the only Scottish tune he knew was ‘Loch Lomond’. ‘Exoticism and Orientalism in Music: Problems for the Worldly Critic. and his reply to Rose is in London Review of Books.. ed. Locke. Orientalism (208). trans. 85. CA: Stanford University Press. Adorno. NC: Duke University Press. Weiner. Ibid. see comments in footnote 63. See Scott. See ibid. Chopin’s Ruthlessness. Corbett. 1991).. 80. 1949). Paul A. 11. Scott Ideology in Western Music (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. see also his ‘Cutthroats and Casbah Dancers. 104–336. Anne G. Boré (Durham. as Philosophie der neuen Musik. Rosen’s Gift. 11. 83. ‘Experimental Oriental’ (167). Jonathan Bellman (Boston: Northeastern University Press.. 101. Unfortunately. 4. Richard Wagner and the Anti-Semitic Imagination (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Adorno. 3 (1991). excerpted in Scott. 272–73. 90. Ibid. London Review of Books. Letters. 103. 96.’ in The Exotic in Western Music. Mitchell and Wesley V. 163–86. 1993. See ibid. 87. I recollect a comment by Frederick Loewe. Ibid. 15:8. 10. 2000). p. 15. 261. ‘Bach’s Genius. 266. Philosophy of Modern Music . 4. “Orientalism and Musical Style. Sound Figures.. 88. Schumann’s Eccentricity. Ghosh 3rd pages. 97. 4. 1993. February 11. 257–81. 1995). that Said read widely in the field of music criticism. Said.’ in Edward Said and the Work of the Critic: Speaking Truth to Power. See Said. 8 (1996): 215–50. 78. Musical Elaborations (xi). ed. John Corbett. Blomster (New York: Seabury Press. 17. trans. 15. 4.indd 122 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:26 PM . 1993. 104. see especially. 95. New York: Continuum. 82. 86. repr. Orientalism. London Review of Books. Muezzins and Timeless Sands: Musical Images of the Middle East. 92. March 25. 89. 84. 1993. 15. 233. 1998). 223–26. 2003. Opera. February 25.. Since this work was only published in French. 93. 15. Said. 1973. Orientalism (231). pub.’ reviews of recent books on Wagner. 91. 11–12.’ Cambridge Opera Journal. 81. 4. who composed the music. The source is Tétralogies: Essais sur l’infi délité (1983). April 22. 6–9. London Review of Books.” in From the Erotic to the Demonic (174). London Review of Books. Ibid. Yitzhak Laor. Said. 2000). I am no longer able to provide an accurate source for this comment. 10–11.122 Derek B.. Culture.” in Western Music and Its Others ed. 4. and Society (103–9). “Experimental Oriental: New Music and Other Others. orig. 79. 94. if any be needed. 102. Locke’s pioneering article was ‘Constructing the Oriental “Other”: SaintSaëns’s Samson et Dalila. 1993. 1995. Tübingen. See my forthcoming article ‘In Search of Genetically-Modified Music’. ‘The Importance of Being Unfaithful to Wagner. Said’s reply to Tanner is in London Review of Books.

599. 117. ed. 160. ‘Contemporary Music and the Public. McClary. February 7. Ibid. 159. Ibid. 159. Ibid.Edward Said and the Interplay of Music. (London: Macmillan. 2000). 120. ed.’ in New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.’ trans. 596–600. Music. England: Oxford University Press. Culture. “Music”. 1150–1950 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 112. Ghosh 3rd pages.’ The Nation. thinks he may have missed: Michel Foucault and Pierre Boulez.. February 7. 114. in her review of Musical Elaborations. John Rahn. 158–60. History and Ideology 123 105. Jane Bowers and Judith Tick. 244. Stanley Sadie. 1991. 164–67. 109. 1987. 118. 2nd ed. ‘Music. The Nation. Musical Elaborations (98).. 111. Said. 158. John Shepherd. ‘Music. November 11. 597. Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition. 2000). 107. This article also shows Said was aware of the Boulez–Foucault dialogue that Subotnik. and Society (Oxford. 1987.. Ibid. 598. Said. 596. Said. 1986). 23. 110.. 119. 605.. 106. 115. Ibid. Western Music and Its Others (51).. vol. Perspectives of New Music (Fall–Winter 1985). ‘Sociology of Music.indd 123 T&F Proofs: Not For Distribution 3/10/2009 4:15:26 PM . 116. 603–14. ed. 1991). Said. 113. Ibid. Born and Hesmondhalgh. 244. 6–12. Culture and Imperialism (xv).. Ibid. Feminine Endings (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Said. 108.’ The Nation. excerpted in Scott. 253.

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