0 Up votes0 Down votes

7 views18 pagesnasa

Jun 22, 2013

Nasa Tm 105176 Diverge

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

nasa

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

7 views

Nasa Tm 105176 Diverge

nasa

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Neuromancer
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Steve Jobs
- Wheel of Time
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook, Red Letter Edition
- NIV, Holy Bible, New Testament, eBook, Red Letter Edition
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook
- Elon Musk: Tesla, Spacex, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- Leonardo da Vinci
- Make Your Mind Up: My Guide to Finding Your Own Style, Life, and Motavation!
- The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and What to Do About It
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- The Radium Girls: The Dark Story of America's Shining Women
- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Success Principles(TM), The - 10th Anniversary Edition: How to Get from Where You Are to Where You Want to Be
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- The Law of Empowerment: Lesson 12 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership

You are on page 1of 18

/Sf -O );"

/

7

Divergence Thrust Loss Calculations for Convergent-Divergent Nozzles: Extensions to the Classical Case

_"t_':.

Jl .,"]

'_'-

__

C ._"',;-

<

_-

TV_. .,-t-'_ _1

,t'

,._

"

c_'_-L

August

1991

;irl

N/ 1%

W

x

dimensional

nozzles

e P _F

geometry

Circumferential

to nozzle

geometry

Introduction Nozzle thrust factor analysts losses which, by when frequently applying ideal multiplied of an prefer nozzle. by to The the account factors velocity ideal for the to the many ideal for types of nozzle is a for by of of an

correction

characteristics

thermodynamic

for some of the viscous losses the non-axial flow of various expressing the ideal thrust for the diverging the ratio flow of the across all of the we would the

momentum

to the

divergence

coefficient,

FGA_a' 1 '

C O -Foideal, .

._ , I.

C o is one

to be

applied

to the

gross momentum nozzles (on the of the with divergence can losses is simple analytical data for source a nozzle are two nozzle, and (See, total large

significant

were but

analytically simulations divergence however, Malina's Little complex relations dimensional point such

predicted predict

computer Malina's

of geometrically

and provides a high approach is extended available For dimensional however, divergent Reference e.g., to have on example, is divergence Korst and assumed

nozzles.

non-axial

configuration

The following is a traditional, mathematical calculus to calculate the non-axial thrust interfering Documented previously inviscid in this unaddressed flow is nozzles, nozzle, and supersonic the basis for the other the are simplifying relations specifically: report

divergence

two-dimensional

provides

Analysis The Simple the lip Axisymmetric axisymmetric is conical; same of the angle The mass Nozzle supersonic however, as the axial flow rate gross and nozzle contoured conical the nozzle momentum axial exit shown nozzles shown thrust in Figure with may velocity: 1. flow Note exiting that the with

shown at the

be treated

following product

analysis.

may

be expressed

FGAxial = In VeA_a1 Note that since the familiar pressure thrust term is omitted of gross pressure axial of the "0" the may from Equation

2. 2,

momentum component losses ignores any divergence momentum from and axial the the loss is an component source exit point across velocity

thrust only. This thrust due to loss and thrust. non-separating, exit as surface

of uniform flow

velocity

mass

rh = fp S

v e-n

dS

V,A_

= V." i = Ve COS _

4.

the that

boldface surface dS

type dS may

denotes d_/d_

a for

vector as this

In Examining nozzle.

the 1,

be expressed

= R 2 sin

Equations circumferentially

3 and

4 in from

Equation zero

2 and

_ from

zero

to

0 and

to _, we arrive

FGA _

= _ p ve 2 R 2 sin 2 0

5.

Similarly

manipulating

Equation

3,

veR2(1-

cos 0)

familiar divergence

simple

supersonic nozzle

Ce-

1 + cos 2

7.

If the

exit

and the

throat divergent

areas half

are angle

known, may

and

if the as

divergent

walls

are

not

contoured,

be written

axial areas

distance if the

from

the L is

to the

is useful

distance

is capable

to accommodate

in nozzle

The

Two.Dimensional

Nozzle or rectangular, exit is illustrated would most likely have variable sidewalls. source width to the and mass incremental of the procedure flow rate

.

nozzle with a two dimensional, Note that a nozzle of this type walls above, the and the fixed nozzle this hypothetical

divergent

parallel flow

relations

FGA_

= p ve 2 W R (sin

0] + sin

02)

_a = p v_ W R (e 1 + e 2)

10.

Combining these expressions as before for the two-dimensional nozzle sin Co = 0_ + 0 2 For unequal exit angles, as in the 01 + sin 02

leads

to the

divergence

loss

coefficient

11.

of

some

vectorable-thrust

military

on an aircrai_ two-dimensional

sin Co0

12.

And if the divergent walls are not contoured, written in terms of the nozzle areas as

the

divergent

half

angle

may

be

0=arctan[

2LWJ

Nozzle plug shroud the source nozzle and for this 02 + sin is illustrated the and nozzle @) d_/d@. plug in Figure are An denoted examination surface 3. The nozzle 02,

along

01 and nozzles

respectively. figure

Unlike

axisymmetric

- R 2 (sin

dS is, in this case, a "dimpled" spherical section. and 3 over the surface dS, the expressions for thrust and mass flow rate become

Equations momentum

01 + sin

02 )2

14.

02 + cos 02 - cos

15.

coefficient

for axisymmetric

16. 01

For the

special

case

of the

symmetric

plug

nozzle

(i.e.,

01 = 02 = 0),

Co-

sin 0 0

17.

And

if the

divergent

walls

and

plug

are

not

contoured,

For nozzle

the

special 02 = 0),

1

of the

internally

cylindrical

shrouded

plug

And

if the

plug

is not

contoured,

0 arcta {

An example of (See, for this this e.g., geometry Reference is 4.). of plug and the conditions coplanar rays at which nozzles, the plug the and the shroud exit the Low-Angle Plug Nozzle in its orientation Note that treatment are assumed These are divergence and angles space Within plug and the would to be coplanar not, however, coefficient which still would limits are not plug and necessary One the conical made, might exit, would shroud for the the exit on are both accuracy divergence some circle

20.

cruise

lip

expression. describe

a contoured

geometry shown in the figure. the expressions derived for these are exit. known

are valid as long as the lip exit half angles remains uniform and attached at the nozzle

The The

Nozzle nozzle line is illustrated and the the integration in Figure incremental over the 4. The surface exit plane, flow origin area dS

in this

sources

is expressed

Performing

FoA_

, = 2 p ve 2 W R (sin

01 + sin

02)

21.

rh = 2 p v e W R

(01

0 2)

22.

Combining these as before, the divergence wedge nozzle may be written as sin 01 + sin 02 Ce = 01 + 02

coefficient

for the

two-dimensional

23.

special

case

of the

symmetric

two-dimensional

wedge

nozzle

(i.e.,

01 --

sin Ce 0

0 24.

And

if the

divergent

walls

and wedge

are

not

contoured,

[Ae- A hl

O= arctan ['_ W_ j

25.

For nozzle

the

special and

case 02 -- 0),

of the the

shrouded divergence

wedge loss

coefficient

Ce -

sin 0 0

26.

And

if the

wedge

is not

contoured,

2LWJ geometry 5, prior is an to the early removal design of the of the wedge. General Electric

27.

Low

Results In Figure 5, half the angle relationship is illustrated wedge, 17, 19, of symmetric the for six divergence nozzle plug, types: plug with loss coefficient cylindrical with Four to the

divergence symmetric

simple

two-dimensional,

to

the

same

and nozzles.

are

plotted

as and

single not

conformity

is a consequence

mathematics

does

throat

of 0.25

plotting the two-dimensional is assumed to be identical It is worst plug evident divergence nozzles with effects. plug effects from Figure

nozzle data to the divergent 5 that for a given the has simple any shroud,

in this figure, axial length, axisymmetric particular however, angle, Plug ten seventeen

nozzle

width,

performance nozzle

6, a cylindricallyhas total

percent

configuration

Divergence

Loss

NNEP89

Computer

Program

These divergence prediction routine Program, the These original very NNEP896.

the nozzle performance of the Navy/NASA Engine which the codes descended Navy/NASA have been from both

calculations,

thermodynamic

to predict both the design engine cycle configurations variable cycle to turbines, which the code engines. on ducts, user assemble

and off-design performance ranging from subsonic NNEP89's a piecemeal nozzles, etc., versatility basis into an the arbitrary

results

of the compressors,

a complete engine

interprets

to compute

user loss

is offered

a choice These

of six six

nozzle obvious

geometries choices

for from

calculations.

nozzles

analysis to keep

angles are not available to the user since another component specification must be used to describe their geometry. For the same reason, the width of all two-dimensional nozzles is assumed to be identical to the divergent axial length. This restriction is, of course, of no consequence if the user inputs the divergent half angle directly. extra specifications are added As the nozzle for supersonic subroutine now nozzle divergence stands, three calculations.

They are: the nozzle divergence half angle, the divergent axial length (which, in addition to the known throat and exit areas, allows the alternate method for the calculation of the divergence half angle), and a geometry type switch. These inputs are described in greater detail in Table 1. One example

attempting to conical nozzle assume includes extracts coefficient particular coefficient specifications. that of the use of this option performance geometry position, this in NNEP89 of and a follows: simple known suppose the user is

convergent-divergent dimensions. Further coefficient the (which The user first overall velocity which, in this

at one

nozzle's

velocity

effects) is available from of this nozzle's divergence the appropriate divergence The user for friction code again NNEP89

the resulting velocity into the nozzle input the proper divergence The advantage the nozzle's for which no

is executed

inputs, the effects of divergence this method offers is that divergence performance losses data which exist.

correspond

NNEP89 losses

in

Summary Since inviscid pedagogical. this manner, the simplifying flow is made, Valuable however, assumption this treatment estimates necessitating losses, nozzle first-order without of uniform, of attached, losses losses can fluid most loss non-interfering is be somewhat made dynamics cases, may and may be in

computations. These non-axial thrust represent a sizeable fraction of the total quite significant in First-order screenings first-order be imposed divergence upon some nozzle of candidate relations nozzle concepts nozzle and limits designs.

small in performance

with large degrees of divergence. designs may be made using these of operational feasibility may also

selected

References 1. 2. Malina, of Perfect Korst, Nozzles, 3. 4. F.: H.H.; Based Characteristics J. Franklin White, R.A.: Flow. at the 117, on Source Aimed Vol. and of the Rocket Inst., 230, Divergence Journal F-15 Sept. Motor p. 433 Losses Unit (1940). for Noncircular and Rockets, Aviation C-D Vol Week Based on the Theory

Gases.

6, No. 5, May 1969. New Nozzle Design and Space Technology, D.L.: Bresnahan,

Experimental

Investigation

Plug Nozzle with Iris Primary and Translating Numbers from 0 to 2.0. NASA TM X-1709, 1968. 5. Majjigi, 25414: 1990. 6. 7. 8. Plencner, User's Fishbach, Program. Fishbach, NavyNASA R.K.: Preliminary Exhaust and and and Snyder, Caddy, Gordon, Program. Design Nozzle C.A.: M.J.: 1975. S.: NNEPEQ: Review for Low-Noise R.M.; Manual. L.H.;

NASA

Contract

NavyNASA Memorandum,

Proposed

TM X-71857,

NASA Technical

L.H.;

Engine

NASA TM 100851,

10

Table

1:NNEP89

Nozzle

Input

Specifications

loss information is denoted by boldface type. (Reference 6) for more complete information.

See

the

INPUT

The configuration = = = input is defined as follows:

'NOZZ', 4HNOZZ, or 9 Main upstream flow station number 0 Main downstream flow station number 0 the component for a nozzle. are input number. Note there are no secondary

as follows:

SPEC(1,N)=

Flow area (in2); exit for convergent, throat nozzles. The choked flow area is calculated point. Discharge Nozzle Ambient Velocity coefficient (C D) or table (psia). (psia). If zero, reference reference

number.

pressure

pressure

coefficient

(C v) or table

SPEC(6,N)=

Geometry (nozzle type) Switch: =0; Convergent nozzle. =1; "Type 1" C-D nozzle. Perfect expansion to ambient static pressure. If SPEC(3,N) > 0, then perfect expansion to SPEC(3,N). =2; "Type 2" C-D nozzle. Nozzle exit to throat area ratio is calculated at design. That calculated area ratio is then used for subsequent off-design cases (unless redefined by changing SPEC(8,N)). =3; "Type 3" C-D nozzle. Nozzle exit to throat area ratio is supplied by user (see SPEC(8,N)). If this area ratio is less than unity, errors will occur.

II

Table

1:NNEP89

Nozzle

Input

Specifications

(Cont.)

SPEC(7,N)=

Nozzle area (SPEC(1,N)) switch: =0; Fix area to input value. =1; Vary area in nozzle subroutine to match area required. (Note: Even if SPEC(7,N) = 0, nozzle area (SPEC(1,N)) can be varied outside the nozzle routine by using controls or inputting a new value for SPEC(1,N).) Nozzle exit to throat area ratio. Used at design point and off-design for Type 3 nozzles. Also calculated for Types 1 and 2 nozzles at design point, but only Type 2 nozzles will use this for off-design nozzle calculations. It will be ignored for Type 1 nozzles. If SPEC(4,N) = 0, set SPEC(9,N) to the component number of the inlet. If SPEC(4,N) and SPEC(9,N) are less than or equal to zero, the program will use SPEC(3,1) (the freestream static pressure of inlet 1) for the nozzle ambient static pressure. C-D nozzle exit divergence half angle for divergence loss calculations (deg). This angle may be the exit angle of the shroud, the plug (if any), or both the shroud and plug, depending on the nozzle type switch for divergence loss calculations (see SPEC(12,N)).

SPEC(8,N)=

SPEC(9,N)=

SPEC(10_N)=

SPEC(11_)-

C-D nozzle divergent axial length for divergence loss calculations (in). When supplied, the divergence half angle (SPEC(10,N)) is calculated from the known throat and exit areas. This angle will take precedence over any angle specified in SPEC(10,N). Geometry (nozzle type) switch for C-D nozzle divergence loss calculations: _0; Disables divergence calculations, divergence loss coefficient set to unity. =1; Simple axisymmetric C-D nozzle. =2; 2-D C-D nozzle. =3; Axisymmetric plug C-D nozzle with equal wall exit half angles on plug and shroud. =4; 2-D wedge C-D nozzle with equal wall exit half angles on plug and shroud. =5; Axisymmetric plug C-D nozzle with cylindrical (non-divergent) shroud. =6; 2-D wedge C-D nozzle with parallel (non divergent) shroud walls.

SPEC(12_N)-

12

Table

1:NNEP89

Nozzle

Input

Specifications

(Cont.)

SPEC(13,N)SPEC(15,N)=

Blank

area

DATOUT(8,N)= DATOUT(9,N)=

13

Ath

Figure

1: The

Axisymmetric

Nozzle

<

>1

Jk

<

"__/

"A e

Figure

2:

The

Two-Dimensional

Nozzle

14

Figure

3:

The

Axisymmetric

Plug

Nozzle

<

>

<

>

Figure

4:

The

Two-Dimensional

Wedge

Nozzle

15

.99

"I:I

.98

O

eD

Nozzle

Geometry:

"\

.97

i

_0 .96

.95 0

8 Divergent

10 Half

12 Angle,

14 0 (deg) Half

16

18

20

22

24

Figure

5: Influence

of Divergent

Angle

i

on Ce

_D

.99

/ .98

Q

1/ /

e_

O

i

.97 I I I .96 ,] /

/ / /',' i / / / / _ _edgewith .' /

--S_metric Symmetric Symmetric .... -- -_.-Dor Parallel Plug 2-D Wedge Shroud

L)

/, ll' I/

,""

....

.95

.2

.4

.6 Divergent Axial

1.2

Figure

6:

Influence

of Divergent 16

Co

(

Type 1: Simple Axisymmetric Type 2: Symmetric

ii Ii

ili,

1_ 'l;l' t_ > '

2-D

.iii

iIIt!ili_ .,i,l_l!ii

_!1_

Type

3: Symmetric

Plug

Type

4: Symmetric

2-D Wedge

Type

6: 2-D Wedge

with

Parallel

Shroud

Figure

7: Nozzle

Types

for NNEP89

Divergence

Calculations

17

REPORT

DOCUMENTATION

PAGE

Public reporting burden for this coflection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and oompleting and reviewing the collection of information. Send comment= regarding this but'den estimate or any other a=pe_ of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for informatio_ Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and 1o the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED

August 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Divergence Extensions 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey J. Berton Thrust Loss Calculations to the Classical Case

1991

Technical

Memorandum

WU

537-

01 - 22

7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) National Aeronautics and Lewis Research Center Cleveland, Ohio 44135Space 3191 Administration

E-6472

9.

SPONSORING/MONITORING

AGENCY

NAMES(S)

AND

ADDRESS(ES)

National Washington,

Aeronautics D.C.

12a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY

STATEMENT

Unclassified Subject

- Unlimited 07

Category

13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report describes how geometries the analytical these calculations are: considered derivations simple plug of the non-axial classic axisymmetric A simple, thrust thrust divergence engine nozzles, inviscid of the nozzle losses computer for convergent-divergent program. The convergentnozzles, is used to and rectangular approach angle. nozzles

non-axial

as a function

divergence

14. SUBJECT TERMS Convergent-divergent nozzles; Divergence; Nozzle thrust coefficients; Losses; Efficiency

Form by ANSI

298 Std.

(Rev. Z39-18

2-89)

- The Hidden Secrets of General Relativity RevealedUploaded byJohn Winders
- hydraulicresistanceUploaded bylkokoska
- Aircraft EnginesUploaded byLove Angural
- mel341-40Uploaded bynandhu1977
- Tipler&Mosca Ch08 Conservation of Linear MomentumUploaded byIan
- Einstein 1934 Two-blackboard Derivation of Energy-mass EquivalenceUploaded bykubikay
- Mogilevskiy PresentationUploaded byBaileyMorgan
- MI 303 03 NozzlesUploaded byDhavanLal
- AIEEE Sample Paper 26thUploaded byRajeev Gangwar
- 2.Investigation- Ravinder ReddyUploaded byiaset123
- 5.2Uploaded bytocha37
- GrileUploaded byEtc Confort
- BETE ChemicalProcessingUploaded byJames Morearty
- Fundamentals Laws of Motion for ParticlesUploaded byjairoandresmartinez7852
- desuperheatersUploaded byNutthakarn Wisatsiri
- Integral Relation for a Control VolumeUploaded byMuhammad Amni Fitri
- CD-NozzleUploaded byGaurav Vaibhav
- 1-s2.0-S1526612510000320-main.pdfUploaded byyad1020
- 1937-Art of CombustionUploaded byKroze
- 2. Ezddin_121-128Uploaded byWilliam Thomas
- Steady,Invisid Flow in CD NozzleUploaded byGaurav Bhatt
- Intro Propulsion Lect 1Uploaded byLevent Önder
- Review Material for Theoretical MechincsUploaded byParker Daudt
- Answer All QuestionsUploaded byelly_ill
- 11Ch06Uploaded byDavid Hoang
- kelsey sucher lab 8Uploaded byapi-347352172
- Paper Test for General Physics.docxUploaded byJerrySemuel
- PhysicsF42011Uploaded bykentchuan
- what is fuel injector spray patternUploaded byRyan Calica
- 108517_ctts_49_84_91Uploaded bylakshmigsr6610

- Zero 2Uploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- 03 Hardy FreeVehicleDesignUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Young ThesisUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- GetTRDocUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- 2010_PavlakUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Om Assignment#03 Nodal-regressionUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- L19,20,21,W7- Handout - Liquid Rocket Propulsion SystemsUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Reference 1ssUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- UAV WebsiteUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Sanity Check - Data for Aircraf Design BalajiUploaded byBalaji Sankar
- Propulsion Lab 1Uploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- FuelSystemsUploaded byKashif Shahzeb Ahmad
- MS2-IEEE Hyd Systems PresentationUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- HydraulicUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- AE2302-NOLUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Earth at Solstice-EquinoxUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Aaft Elel Sys-b-9-w3-310313Uploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- b-9fuel200313-w21Uploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- b-9-hyd120313-w11Uploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Sdac Lec Final RevisionUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Sdac Lec TorquesUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Sdac Lec 9 10 Space PropulsionUploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- HeatTransfer_3Uploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Aircraft.rotorcraftUploaded bymoj33
- oscillations (1)Uploaded byaaljuhani123
- AerodynamicsUploaded byJoselofap
- 2011-6300Uploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan

- SPWTUploaded byJose Manuel A
- Aw139 Customer Advisory Board MeetingUploaded byJames Edward
- Canopy MoldingUploaded byBerniSomex Somexemos
- Smart Coating for Corrosion Detection and ProtectionUploaded byAnonymous wt2BA7u
- Sopwith Camel BiplaneUploaded byAviation/Space History Library
- 4 Aircraft Design and WeightUploaded byrockschool
- 11.1 Theory of Flight (Repaired)Uploaded byAS Bravo
- MS-88 - Max Baker Aviation CollectionUploaded byStargazer
- dasdUploaded byDragos Calin
- g madhavan nairUploaded byjishnusaji
- The Loneliest Man in the Universe WorksheetUploaded byAaron Scott
- Price List SystemairUploaded bySRL Gamaplast
- Beech Baron 58Uploaded byEdu Moral Rubio
- 1.1-theairplane_000Uploaded byrajapraty
- Suggested Airplane Data SheetUploaded byAnkur Bhatnagar
- Module 08 Que.Paper pdf^.ACAPL BMTUploaded byRishant Sinha
- AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM)Uploaded byjoma11
- AEM528 SyllabusUploaded bywhitet86
- mmgh 10.1.1.120.9455Uploaded bybmsprague
- Genre Analysis (Revision)Uploaded byCassie Rodriguez
- Anatomy of a Stol AircraftUploaded byMaicon
- Suddenly, Tomorrow Came... a History of the Johnson Space CenterUploaded byBob Andrepont
- EMBRAER 170/175 AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUALUploaded byAlexander Knyazev
- 3 Nelson - Up, Up, And Away! - AnswersUploaded bydmccloy28
- Q300_ENUploaded byhenry_aero
- Development of the Autogiro A Technical Perspective.pdfUploaded byjotaefe_culp
- Jet PropulsionUploaded byAdityaa Venkat
- 21 PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM PRESENTATION.pdfUploaded bylsthanhlsthanh
- Buck Rogers 39-04-05 Episode 1Uploaded byOscar Gigia
- 0813031788_U.S. Space-Launch Vehicle Technology – Viking to Space Shuttle.epubUploaded byFr4nk F4ust

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.