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NASA Technical Memorandum 105176

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7

Divergence Thrust Loss Calculations for Convergent-Divergent Nozzles: Extensions to the Classical Case

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Jeffrey J. Berton Lewis Research Center Cleveland, Ohio

August

1991

;irl

N/ 1%

W
x

Width Axial Axial. Nozzle Gas

of two coordinate angular exit density

dimensional

nozzles

e P _F

coordinate plane divergence angular

specific half coordinate

to nozzle angle specific

geometry

Circumferential

to nozzle

geometry

Introduction Nozzle thrust factor analysts losses which, by when frequently applying ideal multiplied of an prefer nozzle. by to The the account factors velocity ideal for the to the many ideal for types of nozzle is a for by of of an

correction

performance example, factors derived flow accounts

characteristics

coefficient, Similarly, may be integrated momentum

thermodynamic

velocity, correction analytically axial of the

for some of the viscous losses the non-axial flow of various expressing the ideal thrust for the diverging the ratio flow of the across all of the we would the

in the nozzle. divergent jets of all exit nozzle

momentum

components in non-ideal expressions

to the

nozzle where calculations, nozzle

exit flow is axial. To aid analysts like to derive geometry-dependent defined as

divergence

coefficient,

FGA_a' 1 '
C O -Foideal, .

._ , I.

where ideal most fraction nozzles The

C o is one

of possibly thrust. order nozzle degrees losses of .in

several These of one

correction divergence percent), loss

coefficients losses but may and may

to be

applied

to the

gross momentum nozzles (on the of the with divergence can losses is simple analytical data for source a nozzle are two nozzle, and (See, total large

are typically represent be quite

small for a sizeable in

performance of divergence. simple 1940 not by only more

significant

axisymmetric Malina these 1. divergence

nozzles Currently, losses nozzles.

were but

originally flow also approach, this paper, the

analytically simulations divergence however, Malina's Little complex relations dimensional point such

predicted predict

computer Malina's

of geometrically

complex degree to other loss and White to

and provides a high approach is extended available For dimensional however, divergent Reference e.g., to have on example, is divergence Korst and assumed

of accuracy. In nozzle designs. analyses 2 derive flow for nozzles. emanating

geometrically thrust The from for two a a

nozzles.

non-axial

elliptical sidewalls--an 3).

supersonic have unlikely

configuration

The following is a traditional, mathematical calculus to calculate the non-axial thrust interfering Documented previously inviscid in this unaddressed flow is nozzles, nozzle, and supersonic the basis for the other the are simplifying relations specifically: report

approach using losses. Uniform, assumption for the the for

simple attached, the

vector nonof the The This the

analysis. losses nozzle,

divergence

two-dimensional

axisymmetric plug classical axisymmetric initial analogous analysis relations

the two-dimensional nozzle is the first and understanding nozzles.

wedge nozzle. to be examined. for determining

provides

Analysis The Simple the lip Axisymmetric axisymmetric is conical; same of the angle The mass Nozzle supersonic however, as the axial flow rate gross and nozzle contoured conical the nozzle momentum axial exit shown nozzles shown thrust in Figure with may velocity: 1. flow Note exiting that the with

Consider the the nozzle nozzle as the

shown at the

be treated

following product

analysis.

may

be expressed

FGAxial = In VeA_a1 Note that since the familiar pressure thrust term is omitted of gross pressure axial of the "0" the may from Equation

2. 2,

this relation treatment underexpansion, must only

represents the of divergence since the to the be applied flow

momentum component losses ignores any divergence momentum from and axial the the loss is an component source exit point across velocity

thrust only. This thrust due to loss and thrust. non-separating, exit as surface

momentum gross and spherical be written

Assuming radial "S", the flow

originating density and rate

of uniform flow

velocity

mass

rh = fp S

v e-n

dS

V,A_

= V." i = Ve COS _

4.

where incremental we see

the that

boldface surface dS

type dS may

denotes d_/d_

a for

vector as this

quantity. r dw R d_. particular

In Examining nozzle.

general, Figure Substituting

the 1,

be expressed

= R 2 sin

Equations circumferentially

3 and

4 in from

Equation zero

2 and

integrating at the result

_ from

zero

to

0 and

to _, we arrive

FGA _

= _ p ve 2 R 2 sin 2 0

5.

Similarly

manipulating

Equation

3,

Th= 2 _p Combining at the Equations

veR2(1-

cos 0)

I, 5 and 6, and using trigonometric relation for the common

relations, we arrive axisymmetric

familiar divergence

simple

supersonic nozzle

Ce-

1 + cos 2

7.

If the

exit

and the

throat divergent

areas half

are angle

known, may

and

if the as

divergent

walls

are

not

contoured,

be written

where throat fixed changes

L is the plane and the

divergent exit pressure nozzle

axial plane. ratio

length, This and/or of varying

defined expression its flow

as the geometric conditions.

axial areas

distance if the

from

the L is

to the

is useful

distance

is capable

to accommodate

in nozzle

The

Two.Dimensional

Nozzle or rectangular, exit is illustrated would most likely have variable sidewalls. source width to the and mass incremental of the procedure flow rate
.

A supersonic in Figure 2. geometry axisymmetric linear. dS may nozzle. the For

nozzle with a two dimensional, Note that a nozzle of this type walls above, the and the fixed nozzle this hypothetical

divergent

parallel flow

Unlike nozzle surface two-dimensional above

the is area yields

"O" for this

geometry, integration gross

cylindrically-shaped W is the similar thrust analysis

be expressed A single for axial

as W R d_, where momentum

relations

FGA_

= p ve 2 W R (sin

0] + sin

02)

_a = p v_ W R (e 1 + e 2)

10.

Combining these expressions as before for the two-dimensional nozzle sin Co = 0_ + 0 2 For unequal exit angles, as in the 01 + sin 02

leads

to the

divergence

loss

coefficient

11.

case small case

of

some

vectorable-thrust

military

applications, bearing such nozzle (i.e.,

there may be a very a nozzle. For the special 01 = 02 = 0),

moment exerted of the symmetric

on an aircrai_ two-dimensional

sin Co0

12.

And if the divergent walls are not contoured, written in terms of the nozzle areas as

the

divergent

half

angle

may

be

0=arctan[

2LWJ

The The half the

Axisymmetric axisymmetric angles hypothetical reveals along

Plug annular the flow dS

Nozzle plug shroud the source nozzle and for this 02 + sin is illustrated the and nozzle @) d_/d@. plug in Figure are An denoted examination surface 3. The nozzle 02,

along

01 and nozzles

respectively. figure

Unlike

axisymmetric

two-dimensional is circular. The incremental

above, of the area 2

- R 2 (sin

dS is, in this case, a "dimpled" spherical section. and 3 over the surface dS, the expressions for thrust and mass flow rate become

By integrating the axial gross

Equations momentum

FaA_i_l = n p V_2 R 2 (sin

01 + sin

02 )2

14.

,h = 2 n p v e R 2 [(01 + 02) sin Thus we may write the divergence

02 + cos 02 - cos

01] plug nozzles

15.

coefficient

for axisymmetric

! (sin 01 + sin 02) 2 2 Co = (01 + 02 ) sin 02 + cos 02 - cos

16. 01

For the

special

case

of the

symmetric

plug

nozzle

(i.e.,

01 = 02 = 0),

Co-

sin 0 0

17.

And

if the

divergent

walls

and

plug

are

not

contoured,

18. 0 = arctan[ Ae- A_ 2 L _f_-_J case -]

For nozzle

the

additional (i.e, 01 = 0 and

special 02 = 0),
1

of the

internally

cylindrical

shrouded

plug

sin 2 0 Co = 0 sin 0 + cos 01 19.

And

if the

plug

is not

contoured,

0 arcta {
An example of (See, for this this e.g., geometry Reference is 4.). of plug and the conditions coplanar rays at which nozzles, the plug the and the shroud exit the Low-Angle Plug Nozzle in its orientation Note that treatment are assumed These are divergence and angles space Within plug and the would to be coplanar not, however, coefficient which still would limits are not plug and necessary One the conical made, might exit, would shroud for the the exit on are both accuracy divergence some circle

20.

cruise

lip

conical. of the shroud half "O" in

expression. describe

envision but converge

a contoured

correspond to the of the assumptions

geometry shown in the figure. the expressions derived for these are exit. known

divergence coefficients and the inviscid flow

are valid as long as the lip exit half angles remains uniform and attached at the nozzle

The The

Two-Dimensional two-dimensional case is two as

Wedge wedge parallel W R d_.

Nozzle nozzle line is illustrated and the the integration in Figure incremental over the 4. The surface exit plane, flow origin area dS

in this

sources

is expressed

Performing

FoA_

, = 2 p ve 2 W R (sin

01 + sin

02)

21.

rh = 2 p v e W R

(01

0 2)

22.

Combining these as before, the divergence wedge nozzle may be written as sin 01 + sin 02 Ce = 01 + 02

coefficient

for the

two-dimensional

23.

For the 02 ffi 0,

special

case

of the

symmetric

two-dimensional

wedge

nozzle

(i.e.,

01 --

sin Ce 0

0 24.

And

if the

divergent

walls

and wedge

are

not

contoured,

[Ae- A hl
O= arctan ['_ W_ j

25.

For nozzle

the

additional (i.e, 01 occurs: 0

special and

case 02 -- 0),

of the the

internally same result

parallel for the

shrouded divergence

wedge loss

coefficient

Ce -

sin 0 0

26.

And

if the

wedge

is not

contoured,

0=arctan An Noise example Exhaust of this Nozzle

2LWJ geometry 5, prior is an to the early removal design of the of the wedge. General Electric

27.

Low

Results In Figure 5, half the angle relationship is illustrated wedge, 17, 19, of symmetric the for six divergence nozzle plug, types: plug with loss coefficient cylindrical with Four to the

divergence symmetric

simple

axisymmetric, shroud, parallel of these

two-dimensional,

symmetric two-dimensional shroud (Equations 7, 12,

and two-dimensional wedge 24, and 26, respectively).

nozzles curve. imply Figure divergent m 2 and

conform This similar flow

to

the

same

divergence for the

rule of the four

and nozzles.

are

plotted

as and

single not

conformity

is a consequence

mathematics

does

characteristics the relationship for the same m 2 (See

6 illustrates axial exit length areas

of the six nozzle Equations

divergence types 8, 13, with 18,

loss 20, the L.

coefficient areas and 25, 27.).

to the of 0.05 For W,

throat

of 0.25

plotting the two-dimensional is assumed to be identical It is worst plug evident divergence nozzles with effects. plug effects from Figure

nozzle data to the divergent 5 that for a given the has simple any shroud,

in this figure, axial length, axisymmetric particular however, angle, Plug ten seventeen

nozzle

width,

nozzles divergence which may Nozzle degree have plug exhibit

exhibit angle. the appreciable slope, of its

the Even best

performance a cylindrical for which losses.

divergence divergence shrouded divergence cruise

performance nozzle

divergence Low-Angle shallow for nearly a very

For example, which account

6, a cylindricallyhas total

percent

configuration

Divergence

Loss

Additions effects of the

to the are current

NNEP89

Computer

Program

These divergence prediction routine Program, the These original very NNEP896.

incorporated in (1989) version code

the nozzle performance of the Navy/NASA Engine which the codes descended Navy/NASA have been from both

NNEP89 Engine perform

is a FORTRAN Program, chemical cycle

Navy/NASA which can general

NNEP 7, and equilibrium analysis

Engine NNEPEQ used 8.

Program extensively of Brayton supersonic ability fans,

calculations,

thermodynamic

to predict both the design engine cycle configurations variable cycle to turbines, which the code engines. on ducts, user assemble

and off-design performance ranging from subsonic NNEP89's a piecemeal nozzles, etc., versatility basis into an the arbitrary

of a variety turboprops to from matrix gas turbine performance the of

results

of the compressors,

a complete engine

engine model characteristics. The NNEP89

interprets

to compute

user loss

is offered

a choice These

of six six

supersonic are the

nozzle obvious

geometries choices

for from

divergence the preceding is desirable

calculations.

nozzles

analysis to keep

and these user inputs

nozzles are illustrated to a minimum, nozzles

in Figure 7. Since it with differing wall

angles are not available to the user since another component specification must be used to describe their geometry. For the same reason, the width of all two-dimensional nozzles is assumed to be identical to the divergent axial length. This restriction is, of course, of no consequence if the user inputs the divergent half angle directly. extra specifications are added As the nozzle for supersonic subroutine now nozzle divergence stands, three calculations.

They are: the nozzle divergence half angle, the divergent axial length (which, in addition to the known throat and exit areas, allows the alternate method for the calculation of the divergence half angle), and a geometry type switch. These inputs are described in greater detail in Table 1. One example
attempting to conical nozzle assume includes extracts coefficient particular coefficient specifications. that of the use of this option performance geometry position, this in NNEP89 of and a follows: simple known suppose the user is

simulate the with variable geometric

convergent-divergent dimensions. Further coefficient the (which The user first overall velocity which, in this

at one

nozzle's

velocity

divergence the effects by using

effects) is available from of this nozzle's divergence the appropriate divergence The user for friction code again NNEP89

experiment. loss from relation;

case, is Equation 7. (which now accounts Then, when the

then inserts losses alone) with

the resulting velocity into the nozzle input the proper divergence The advantage the nozzle's for which no

is executed

inputs, the effects of divergence this method offers is that divergence performance losses data which exist.

are taken into account. now will approximate to nozzle positions

correspond

The input specifications Table 1. Changes relative

for the new to divergence

NNEP89 losses

nozzle routine are shown are marked in boldface.

in

Summary Since inviscid pedagogical. this manner, the simplifying flow is made, Valuable however, assumption this treatment estimates necessitating losses, nozzle first-order without of uniform, of attached, losses losses can fluid most loss non-interfering is be somewhat made dynamics cases, may and may be in

divergence of these complex

computations. These non-axial thrust represent a sizeable fraction of the total quite significant in First-order screenings first-order be imposed divergence upon some nozzle of candidate relations nozzle concepts nozzle and limits designs.

small in performance

with large degrees of divergence. designs may be made using these of operational feasibility may also

selected

References 1. 2. Malina, of Perfect Korst, Nozzles, 3. 4. F.: H.H.; Based Characteristics J. Franklin White, R.A.: Flow. at the 117, on Source Aimed Vol. and of the Rocket Inst., 230, Divergence Journal F-15 Sept. Motor p. 433 Losses Unit (1940). for Noncircular and Rockets, Aviation C-D Vol Week Based on the Theory

Gases.

of Spacecraft and F-16 Aircraft.

6, No. 5, May 1969. New Nozzle Design and Space Technology, D.L.: Bresnahan,

13, 1982. of a 10 Conical Shroud NASA at Mach NAS3Sept. 24, Turbojet

Experimental

Investigation

Plug Nozzle with Iris Primary and Translating Numbers from 0 to 2.0. NASA TM X-1709, 1968. 5. Majjigi, 25414: 1990. 6. 7. 8. Plencner, User's Fishbach, Program. Fishbach, NavyNASA R.K.: Preliminary Exhaust and and and Snyder, Caddy, Gordon, Program. Design Nozzle C.A.: M.J.: 1975. S.: NNEPEQ: Review for Low-Noise R.M.; Manual. L.H.;
NASA

Contract

Technology The NNEP:

Development. Engine 1991.

NavyNASA Memorandum,

Program--A Engine of the

Proposed
TM X-71857,

NASA Technical

The Navy/NASA Chemical 1988. Version

L.H.;

Engine

NASA TM 100851,

10

Table

1:NNEP89

Nozzle

Input

Specifications

The new divergence NNEP89 user's guide

loss information is denoted by boldface type. (Reference 6) for more complete information.

See

the

INPUT
The configuration = = = input is defined as follows:

KONFIG(1,N) KONFIG(2,N) KONFIG(3,N) KONFIG(4,N)= KONFIG(5,N)=

'NOZZ', 4HNOZZ, or 9 Main upstream flow station number 0 Main downstream flow station number 0 the component for a nozzle. are input number. Note there are no secondary

where N represents flow stations defined The nozzle specifications

as follows:

SPEC(1,N)=

Flow area (in2); exit for convergent, throat nozzles. The choked flow area is calculated point. Discharge Nozzle Ambient Velocity coefficient (C D) or table (psia). (psia). If zero, reference reference

for C-D at the design

SPEC(2,N)= SPEC(3,N)= SPEC(4,N)= SPEC(5,N)=

number.

exit static static

pressure

pressure

see SPEC(9,N). number.

coefficient

(C v) or table

SPEC(6,N)=

Geometry (nozzle type) Switch: =0; Convergent nozzle. =1; "Type 1" C-D nozzle. Perfect expansion to ambient static pressure. If SPEC(3,N) > 0, then perfect expansion to SPEC(3,N). =2; "Type 2" C-D nozzle. Nozzle exit to throat area ratio is calculated at design. That calculated area ratio is then used for subsequent off-design cases (unless redefined by changing SPEC(8,N)). =3; "Type 3" C-D nozzle. Nozzle exit to throat area ratio is supplied by user (see SPEC(8,N)). If this area ratio is less than unity, errors will occur.

II

Table

1:NNEP89

Nozzle

Input

Specifications

(Cont.)

SPEC(7,N)=

Nozzle area (SPEC(1,N)) switch: =0; Fix area to input value. =1; Vary area in nozzle subroutine to match area required. (Note: Even if SPEC(7,N) = 0, nozzle area (SPEC(1,N)) can be varied outside the nozzle routine by using controls or inputting a new value for SPEC(1,N).) Nozzle exit to throat area ratio. Used at design point and off-design for Type 3 nozzles. Also calculated for Types 1 and 2 nozzles at design point, but only Type 2 nozzles will use this for off-design nozzle calculations. It will be ignored for Type 1 nozzles. If SPEC(4,N) = 0, set SPEC(9,N) to the component number of the inlet. If SPEC(4,N) and SPEC(9,N) are less than or equal to zero, the program will use SPEC(3,1) (the freestream static pressure of inlet 1) for the nozzle ambient static pressure. C-D nozzle exit divergence half angle for divergence loss calculations (deg). This angle may be the exit angle of the shroud, the plug (if any), or both the shroud and plug, depending on the nozzle type switch for divergence loss calculations (see SPEC(12,N)).

SPEC(8,N)=

SPEC(9,N)=

SPEC(10_N)=

SPEC(11_)-

C-D nozzle divergent axial length for divergence loss calculations (in). When supplied, the divergence half angle (SPEC(10,N)) is calculated from the known throat and exit areas. This angle will take precedence over any angle specified in SPEC(10,N). Geometry (nozzle type) switch for C-D nozzle divergence loss calculations: _0; Disables divergence calculations, divergence loss coefficient set to unity. =1; Simple axisymmetric C-D nozzle. =2; 2-D C-D nozzle. =3; Axisymmetric plug C-D nozzle with equal wall exit half angles on plug and shroud. =4; 2-D wedge C-D nozzle with equal wall exit half angles on plug and shroud. =5; Axisymmetric plug C-D nozzle with cylindrical (non-divergent) shroud. =6; 2-D wedge C-D nozzle with parallel (non divergent) shroud walls.

SPEC(12_N)-

12

Table

1:NNEP89

Nozzle

Input

Specifications

(Cont.)

SPEC(13,N)SPEC(15,N)=

Blank

DATOUT(1,N)= DATOUT(2,N)= DATOUT(3,N)= DATOUT(4,N)= DATOUT(5,N)= DATOUT(6,N)= DATOUT(7,N)=

Gross Actual Total Nozzle Nozzle

jet thrust jet velocity to static

(lbf) (i_Js) ratio at throat

pressure (in 2) (in 2)

exit area throat

area

Flow coefficient, Velocity Critical coefficient, (choked)

CD Cv pressure pressure ratio ratio: at throat nozzle entrance total to

DATOUT(8,N)= DATOUT(9,N)=

Overall nozzle exit static

13

Ath

Figure

1: The

Axisymmetric

Nozzle

<

>1

Jk

<

"__/

"A e

Figure

2:

The

Two-Dimensional

Nozzle

14

Figure

3:

The

Axisymmetric

Plug

Nozzle

<

>

<

>

Figure

4:

The

Two-Dimensional

Wedge

Nozzle

15

.99

"I:I
.98
O

eD

Nozzle

Geometry:

"\

.97
i

_0 .96

2-D Wedge with Parallel Shroud

.95 0

8 Divergent

10 Half

12 Angle,

14 0 (deg) Half

16

18

20

22

24

Figure

5: Influence

of Divergent

Angle
i

on Ce

_D

.99

/ .98
Q

/ /' .' ," / " _

"_,/ '/;/ Nozzle Geometry: _ Ath = .05m 2, Ae_- .25m 2

1/ /

e_
O

i
.97 I I I .96 ,] /

..' .'" S"


/ / /',' i / / / / _ _edgewith .' /

--S_metric Symmetric Symmetric .... -- -_.-Dor Parallel Plug 2-D Wedge Shroud

L)

/, ll' I/

,""

....

Plug with Cylindrical Shroud

.95
.2

.4

.6 Divergent Axial

.8 Length Axial (m) Length on

1.2

Figure

6:

Influence

of Divergent 16

Co

(
Type 1: Simple Axisymmetric Type 2: Symmetric
ii Ii

ili,

il,iii!_!_', Eiil!! ,t!i! ti_ 11_Hliilln !!l


1_ 'l;l' t_ > '

L_ili!,H_,tlnili',i!.'.llllliHltll!i_litl i!7 iili!lTlii_ili!iii+iil_iM_i,!!i!liili!_ill_lii_,l_i_l,ilii

2-D

.iii

i_,t"i l:_ti " iJlif _ 'i


iIIt!ili_ .,i,l_l!ii

i!ilii _-L ----_

_!1_

Type

3: Symmetric

Plug

Type

4: Symmetric

2-D Wedge

Type 5: Plug with Cylindrical Shroud

Type

6: 2-D Wedge

with

Parallel

Shroud

Figure

7: Nozzle

Types

for NNEP89

Divergence

Calculations

17

REPORT

DOCUMENTATION

PAGE

Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

Public reporting burden for this coflection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and oompleting and reviewing the collection of information. Send comment= regarding this but'den estimate or any other a=pe_ of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for informatio_ Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and 1o the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED

August 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Divergence Extensions 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey J. Berton Thrust Loss Calculations to the Classical Case

1991

Technical

Memorandum

5. FUNDING NUMBERS for Convergent-Divergent Nozzles:

WU

537-

01 - 22

7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) National Aeronautics and Lewis Research Center Cleveland, Ohio 44135Space 3191 Administration

8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

E-6472

9.

SPONSORING/MONITORING

AGENCY

NAMES(S)

AND

ADDRESS(ES)

10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER

National Washington,

Aeronautics D.C.

and Space 205460001

Administration NASA TM105176

11. SUPPLEMENTARY Responsible person,

NOTES Jeffrey J. Berton, (216) 9777031.

12a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY

STATEMENT

12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE

Unclassified Subject

- Unlimited 07

Category

13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report describes how geometries the analytical these calculations are: considered derivations simple plug of the non-axial classic axisymmetric A simple, thrust thrust divergence engine nozzles, inviscid of the nozzle losses computer for convergent-divergent program. The convergentnozzles, is used to and rectangular approach angle. nozzles

and describes divergent axisymmetric deduce the

are embodied nozzles.

in the Navy/NASA traditional,

two-dimensional mathematical exit

and two-dimensional influence of the ineffectual

non-axial

as a function

divergence

14. SUBJECT TERMS Convergent-divergent nozzles; Divergence; Nozzle thrust coefficients; Losses; Efficiency

15. NUMBER OF PAGES 18 16. PRICE CODE A03

17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified NSN 7540-01-280-5500

18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified

19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified

20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

Standard Prescribed 298-102

Form by ANSI

298 Std.

(Rev. Z39-18

2-89)