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Prepared by Dr.

Mohiy Bahgat
Faculty of Engineering Helwan University

Practical Systems
1. Central Heating System. 2. Mixing Process Application.

3. Packing Application.
4. Testing an Automatic Door Control System. 5. Filling / Draining Control Operation. 6. Flag Operated Packaging System. 7. Automation of Parking Garage. 8. Sequence Control Process.


Product Packaging.

10. Parts Sorting. 11. Robot Movement Control. 12. Overhead Crane Control foe Degreasing Pro. 13. Drilling Control Operation .

14. Automatic Control of Warehouse Door.

15. Automatic Lubrication of a Gear. 16. PBC Packing Conveyor. 17. Conveyor Belt Motor control. 18. Ball Sorter Mechanism.

Programming Examples
1. A signal lamp is required to be on if :
A pump is running.
And The pressure is satisfactory. Or The test lamp is closed.
Pump Presu. X400 X401 Lamp Y430
Step 0 1 2 3 4 5 Instruction LD X400 AND X401 LD X402 ORB OUT Y430 END

Test X402

2. A machine has 4 sensors to detect the

safety and is required to be off if :
Any of the sensors gives input. when the machine is stop, an alarm is sound.
X401 X403 Mamchine Y430



X400 X401 Alarm Y431 X402 X403

Step 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Instruction LDI X400 ANI X401 ANI X402 ANI X403 OUT Y430 LD X400 OR X401 OR X402 OR X403 OUT Y431 END

Central Heating System

Consider a central heating system with the following features :


boiler is




supplies the radiator system in addition to a hot

water tank.


are used to supply hot water to either or

both the radiator and the tank according to the

desired sensors.


whole system is controlled by a clock to

operate a certain time a day.

Motorized Pump M1

Radiator System

Room Timers

Hot water tank Boiler M2 Motorized Pump

Boiler Temp. sensor

Hot water tank Temp. sensor

Mixing Process Application

Automatic mixing processes of




compounds in the chemical and food industries are very

The mixing station goal is to mix two liquids for a

specified time and then output the final product to a storage tank.

The system consists of :

1. Two level sensors to monitor the flowing of the

liquids into the tank.

2. Three solenoid valves to control the flow of liquids. 3. A motor connected to an agitator to mix the liquids
into the tank.

Input Valves VA1


MS1 Motor & Agitator

LS1 Level Sensors

Mixing Tank


Mixing Station


Output to Storage Tank

The sequence of events for this automatic mixing process will be as follows :

1. Open valve 1 until level 1 is reached for the first liquid . 2. Then close valve 1 . 3. Open valve 2 until level 2 is reached for the second
liquid .

4. Then close valve 2 . 5. Start the motor and agitate to mix the liquids into the
tank for a specified time .

6. Then stop the motor . 7. Open valve 3 up to a specified time to empty the mixed
product to a storage tank .

8. Then close valve 3 .

9. Repeat or end the mixing process as required .

PACKING Application
Consider the following packing machine, where it is required to pack 6 objects in a box and then pack 12 objects in another box in another path as shown :

12 in box

6 in box

Testing an Automatic Door Control System

A door system for trains is tested by automatic opening and closing the doors about 1000 times. On every fifth closing of the doors, a pneumatic cylinder out-strokes to simulate an obstruction.

The cylinder will remain in the obstruction

position while the doors attempt to close three times. After the third attempt, the cylinder in-strokes to allow the doors to be fully closed.





Filling / Draining Control Operation

and discharge of a reservoir is a common process in industry as well as a need for mixing two or more substances using automated valves.


the charge and discharge system

displayed in figure, it is required to :

a) Operating the process in accordance to the displayed operating panel.

b) Pressing (T1) on the operating panel, will

opens valve (V1) to start filling up with running the motor (M) until reaching (S1).

c) When completing filling up, valve (V1)

closes, motor stops and valve (V2) opens to start emptying until reaching (S2) to

close (V2).
d) It is required that the reservoir has to be filled up and emptied four times with the same cycle before activating the Endlamp.


Consider figure : the conveyor system displayed in


is required that the components to be 2 minutes down route (B) by

channeled down route (A) for 5 minutes and

another controlling the flap (F).

start and stop facility is required to start

and end the process.

The flap (F) is controlled by a piston via pivot


Draw the system ladder logic diagram showing

the addresses of all inputs and outputs and write down the corresponding statement list

program using the Mitsubishi PLC notation.

Automation of Parking Garage

Consider a simple system that can control 100

car at the maximum.


time a car enters, PLC automatically adds it to a total sum of other cars found in the garage. each car that comes automatically be taken off. garage is full will turn on. out will


When 100 cars park, a notifying signal that the Otherwise a Vacancy signal should turn on.


Consider the motor movement control system displayed in figure with the following features : 1. When the start button is pressed, the

motor will move from left to right.

2. When LS2 is on, the motor stops, delays for 5 sec. and then moves back to home. 3. When LS1 is on, motor cuts off signifying that the sequence is completed

LS1 Stop Start



Motor Right Motor Left

Product Packaging
Consider the packaging system shown in figure with the following features : 1. By pushing START key a Flag1 is activated. 2. Resetting depends only on a STOP key.

3. When started, motor of a conveyor for

boxes is activated. The conveyor takes a box up to the limit switch, and a motor

stops then.

4. Starting the product conveyor is activated by a limit switch when a box is detected. 5. The presence of a box allows counter to

count 10 products.
6. On activating the conveyor with boxes, a

limit switch resets counter to be ready to

count 10 products again. 7. Operations pressed. repeat until STOP key is