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Raw Gyaan

Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA):

Passed in 1999 Objective: To replace FERA (Foreign Exchange Regulations Act), 1973 which had become incompatible after economic reforms and proliberalization policies of the Government of India. Seeks to make offenses related to foreign exchange civil offenses. Allows only the authorized people to deal with foreign security or foreign exchange.

MoU inked b/w DGFT and Government of Delhi to use e-BRC (Bank Realization Certificate) An MoU was signed b/w the Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) and Commissioner (Trade and Taxes) and Government of NCT of Delhi for making use of electronic Bank Realization Certificate (e-BRC). With this, Delhi has become the second state to sign the MoU. The first state to sign this MoU was Maharashtra. What is e-BRC?

e-BRC is electronic form of earlier physical Bank Realization Certificate. It was launched in 2012 by thethe Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) to reduce transaction cost to exporters, who will not be required to make any request to bank for issuance of bank export and realisation certificate (BRC). BRC is issued by a bank after realization of export proceeds in the country. It is an important document required for claiming benefits under various Foreign Trade Policy schemes. In addition, BRC data is used by VAT, Income Tax and Drawback departments.

Fact Box: ROSHNI A new programme launched by Rural Development Ministry in 24 naxal affected districts
June 8th, 2013

The Ministry for Rural Development has launched a new skill development scheme called Roshni for rural youth from 24 most critical left-wing extremism affected districts in the country. ROSHNI:

Aim: Skilling and Placement of 50,000 youth from 24 selected naxal affected districts. Cost : Rs 100 crore over the next 3 years, will be shared jointly by the centre and state governments in the ratio of 75:25 Districts Targeted: Six districts each from Jharkhand andOdisha, five from Chhattisgarh, two from Bihar and one each fromAndhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradeshand Maharashtra. Monitoring and coordination of the programme will be done by national level agencies. At least 50% of the candidates covered under the scheme shall be women and special efforts will be made to proactively cover Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups on a priority basis. Beneficiaries aged b/w 18-35 years with requisite aptitude depending upon the trade or job requirements are to be selected as per the Participatory Identification of Poor. Training will be imparted through public-private and public-public partnerships.

Coal is found mainly in four varieties: 1. Anthracite: Highest rank of coal, is a harder, glossy black coal used primarily for residential and commercial space heating. 2. Bituminous: It is also of good quality, used primarily as fuel in steamelectric power generation, with substantial quantities used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke. 3. Peat: It has industrial importance as a fuel in some regions, for example, Ireland and Finland. In its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water. It is also used as a conditioner for soil to make it more able to retain and slowly release water. 4. Lignite: Lowest grade of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for electric power generation.

What is Downs syndrome?

Downs syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.Downs syndrome is the most common chromosome abnormality in humans.It is typically associated with a delay in cognitive ability (mental retardation, or MR) and physical growth, and a particular set of facial characteristics Fact Box: What is Citrus greening?
June 13th, 2013

Citrus greening or Huanglongbing is a deadly disease of citrus which greatly affects the production of the fruits in several parts of India. Causing agents:

It is caused by motile bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter Symptoms:

Yellowing of leaf veins and adjacent tissues Premature defoliation Dieback of twigs Decay of feeder rootlets and lateral roots. Infected fruits are small, lopsided with bitter taste, may fall prematurely How does it spread?

In India the bacteria are spread by a vector- the Asian psyllid (Diaphorina citri). It is a sap-sucking, hemipteran bug in the family, Psyllidae. How can it be controlled?


It can be managed by focus Integrated Pest Management (IPM) efforts using disease-free nursery trees, reducing infection sources (inoculum) by frequent surveys and diseased tree removal, and suppressing Asian citrus psyllid through area-wide management. Fact Box: Who was William Lambton?
June 13th, 2013

Lieutenant-Colonel William Lambton was a British soldier, surveyor, and geographer.

He made remarkable contribution as the Superintendent of the Trigonometrical Survey of India, which he began in 1802.

He launched his work from St Thomas Mount in Chennai and mapped the south India. Trigonometrical Survey of India was launched by the British who had conquered vast territories in India but didnt have geographic knowledge of the areas they conquered. An extensive survey was essential for their administrative purposes, which eventually became the Great Trigonometrical Survey. He took part in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799. After the capture of Mysore Lambton proposed that the territory be surveyed, using the new techniques of geodesy employed by William Roy in Great Britain, and this was approved. It was Lord Wellesley who realized the necessity of a survey in the southern part of India after the fall of Srirangapatnam in 1799. Three surveys started simultaneously. While Francis Buchanan started the agricultural survey of Malabar and Mysore, Colin Mackenzie began a survey based on topography. William Lambton, who participated in the Mysore war in 1799, was made the superintendent of the Trigonometrical Survey. What is Space-based Solar Power?

Space-based solar power (SBSP) is an idea of collecting solar power in space (using an SPS, that is, a solar power satellite or a satellite power system) for use on Earth. Research in this directions has been going on since the early 1970s. How it differs from current solar power systems?

SBSP would differ from current solar collection methods in that the means used to collect energy would reside on an orbiting satellite instead of on Earths surface. What are its benefits?

As the outer space lacks a diffusing atmosphere and nighttime such a system can have a higher collection rate and a longer collection period. Part of the solar energy is lost on its way through the atmosphere by the effects of reflection and absorption. Space-based solar power systems convert sunlight to microwaves outside the atmosphere, avoiding these losses, and the downtime (and cosine losses, for fixed flat-plate collectors) due to the Earths rotation. The Ministry of Human Resource & Development (HRD) will constitute a 7member Task Force headed by Prof. Sanjay Dhande, Ex-Director, IIT. The team which will have representatives from CBSE, UGC, NCERT, AICTE and from the Ministry, will be tasked to prepare a blue print for creating

a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) for the setting up of National Testing Agency (NTA).

The HRD Ministry will also provide financial assistance to needy meritorious students who have passed with minimum B1 grade under CBSE grading system of 10th or 12th examination. The amount of grant provided to such students shall not exceed Rs. 20,000 for class 10th and Rs. 40,000 for class 12th during any one financial year. What will NTA do?

The NTA will formulate a uniform entrance examination for admission in different branches of higher education which will reduce the stress on students who have to go through multiple examinations.
The telegram service provided by the BSNL will be discontinued from July 15, 2013. The BSNL Board has already approved for the end of the service and it has sought final clearance from the Department of Telecommunications. Why this step? Today, when the mobile phones and Internet services have reached the depths of Indias population, the telegraphic service is finding few customers to sustain itself. The BSNL who offers the service is now facing financial constraints as it faces an annual loss of Rs.300 400 crore from its telegraph service alone. In India, the first telegraph message was transmitted live through electrical signals between Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Diamond Harbour, a distance of about 50 km, on November 5, 1850; and the service was opened for the general public in February 1855.

About TAM: TAM Media Research is one of the two Television Audience Measurement analysis firms of India (the other being aMap). Appointed by the Joint Industry stakeholders of Indian Society of Advertisers (ISA), Indian Broadcast Foundation (IBF) and Advertising Agencies Association of India (AAAI) in 1998, the reason for being for TAM is to be the central Industry provider of Media and Consumer Insights to the various stakeholders of the Indian Media and Entertainment Industry Advertisers & Marketers, Media Owners, Media Agencies and the Academia. Besides measuring TV Viewership, since the year 2000, TAM has been monitoring Advertising Expenditure of various Advertisers, Brands and Product Categories across Television Channels, Print & Radio through its division AdEx India.

Fact Box: Hindu rate of growth

June 18th, 2013

Are we moving towards Hindu rate of growth again? As India registered a meager GDP growth of 4.8% in the first quarter of 2013 it has rendered dreams of achieving a double-digit growth somewhat blurred. It has also opened the window to the vilipending term Hindu rate of growth. What is Hindu rate of growth? The term Hindu rate of growth was coined by Professor Rajkrishna, an Indian economist, in 1978 to characterize the slow growth and to explain it against the backdrop of socialistic economic policies. The term came into being to show Indias contentment with the low growth rate, post independence. While the other countries clamored for more growth, Indian fatalism was cited as a possible reason why policy makers were not seeking ways to boost the economy. The word Hindu in the term was used by some early economists to imply that the Hindu outlook of fatalism and contentedness was responsible for the slow growth. However many later economists pointed out that the so-called Hindu rate of growth was a result of socialist policies implemented by the then staunch secular governments and had nothing to do with Hinduism. Counter-views: In contrast to the term, GDP data estimates by Paul Bairoch, a Belgian economic historian, published in 1982 questions this contentment. This data, later confirmed by British economist Angus Maddisson, showed that India held close to a quarter of the worlds share of GDP in 1750. After colonization started, Indias share dropped to 20% by 1800 and fell precipitously to 3% in 1880. When do we say that a country is having Hindu rate of growth? Small growth rate alone does not characterize Hindu rate of growth. Prolonged low growth rate, albeit not an economic contraction, is not sufficient to be deemed as the Hindu rate of growth. In addition to growth being low and extending over a long period of time, the term also captures a low per-capita GDP, by factoring in the population growth.

For eg: Indias annual population growth rate was over 2% in the 1980s and the per-capita GDP growth rate, with 3.5% GDP growth, was a meager 1 % characterizing Hindu rate of growth. Current Picture: Annual population growth has been on a decline and is around 1.4 per cent currently, helping higher per capita income growth. So, while the phrase Hindu rate of growth may have characterized a phase, it cannot be considered a generic term for Indias growth rate. In an open global economy, we cannot get back to this phase, even if we try. The phrase may have been obsolete in a few years of being coined, as we entered the neoHindu cycle of growth being in tune with the global economy.