You are on page 1of 17




So far, weve seen two dierent ways to describe sounds:

What is the state of the glottis? Is the sound voiced or voiceless?

[p] [b] [n]

What is the place of articulation?

[p] [t] [k]



Some sounds are the same for voicing, but have a dierent place of articulation:

[p] and [t]

Both voiceless, but [p] is bilabial and [t] is alveolar

[z] and [g]

Both voiced, but [z] is alveolar and [g] is velar


Some sounds have the same place of articulation, but dier in voicing

[p] and [b]

Both bilabial, but [p] is voiceless and [b] is voiced

[z] and [t]

Both are alveolar, but [z] is voiced and [t] is voiceless

Manner of Articulation

Today, well learn about a third way to describe sounds: their manner of articulation [d], [n], and [z] are all voiced alveolar sounds What makes them dierent sounds? (video) eir manner of articulation is dierent.

[t] is a stop (complete closure) [s] is a fricative (incomplete closure)


Manner of Articulation

Manner of articulation: the various con gurations produced by positioning the lips, tongue, velum, and glottis in dierent ways.

Oral vs. nasal Stops Fricatives Aricates Liquids Glides


Manner of ArticulationIPA

Oral vs. nasal

e velum: so part at the back of the mouth behind the uvula. e velum can be raised and lowered. When raised: blocks air ow through the nasal passage (the nose) oral sounds When lowered: air ows through the nasal passage nasal sounds

Why does the doctor ask you to say ahhh?


Oral vs. nasal

Look at the animations of [p] and [m] on the UIowa Phonetics Website. english_main.swf

Oral vs. nasal

Nasal consonants in English:


bilabial nasal, as in map


alveolar nasal, as in nap


velar nasal, as in sang

Vowels can be nasal too (dont worry about this for now)

Camp, bank, wink nasal leak What happens when you have a cold?


Stops: consonants made with a complete closure either in the oral cavity or in the glottis.

English stops: bilabial, alveolar, velar, glottal

Try holding the sounds [p], [t] and [k]: what happens to the air ow?



Oral stops: complete closure in the oral cavity and the velum is raised.

Oral stops: [p, t, k, b, d, g]

Glottal stop: [] complete closure in the glottis.

Always voiceless

Nasal stops: complete closure in the oral cavity, but the velum is raised. Air escapes through the nasal passage.

Nasal stops: [m, n, ] More sonorous than other stops (louder, more intense): air ow is not as restricted. Always voiced


Look at the animations of stops on the UIowa Phonetics Website. english_main.swf


Stops of English

Bilabial Oral Voiceless Voiced Nasal (Voiced) [p] [b] [m]

Alveolar [t] [d] [n]

Velar [k] [g] []

Glottal []



Fricative: consonants made with a continuous air ow through the mouth, accompanied by a continuous audible noise.

Can be held for a long period of time noisy, white noise Can be voiced or voiceless Never nasal (why?) Fricatives: [f, v, , , s, z, , , h]


Look at the animations of fricatives on the UIowa Phonetics Website. english_main.swf


Fricatives of English

Labiodental Voiceless Voiced [f ] [v]

Interdental [ ] []

Alveolar [s] [z]

Alveopalatal [] []

Glottal []