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LESSON 4- Analysing electromotive force and internal resistance.

The definition and the S.I. unit of Electromotive force (e.m.f), E E.m.f is the work done/energy used by battery to move one coulomb charge through a complete circuit. The S.I. unit of e.m.f is Volt (V).The symbol of e.m.f is E

When the switch S is opened ,the reading of the voltmeter is 1.5 V. When the switch S is closed the reading of the voltmeter and ammeter are 1.35 V and 0.3 A respectively. Determine (a) the e.m.f. of the cell (b) the internal resistance of the cell (c) the resistance R

Example 2

When the cell or source of electricity in a closed circuit (current is flowing) ,the potential across the cell drops in is call the potential difference across the cell , V Base on the information in the figure above,calculate, (a) the resistance f resistor R (b) the internal resistance ,r of the cell

V<E The relationship between E,V,I,r and R Potential difference across cell when no current flow flowing Potential Potential difference difference = across + across external internal resistance resistance

Example 3 A battery produce a current 4 A when it is connected to a resistor 2. When the same battery is connected to a resistor 3 the current is produced is 3A. Determine the e.m.f and the internal resistance of the battery.

E =IR+Ir E=V+Ir V = IR Example 1 The figure shows a circuit.

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Experiment to determine the e.m.f. and internal resistance a dry cell.

When the reading of the ammeter is 0.5 A, what is the internal resistance of the cell? A 4.0 B 3.0 C 2.0 D 1.0 E 0.5 4 The figure shows a battery is connected to a resistor 5 . When the switch S is opened the reading of the voltmeter is 14 V. When the switched S is closed the reading of the voltmeter is 10V.

From the graph e.m.f is the intercept on the V-axis and r is the gradient of the graph. Questions 1 Which of the following physical quantity has the same unit as the unit of the electromotive force? A Current B Energy C Resistance D Potential difference 2 When the switch S in the following figure is opened the voltmeter reading is 1.5 V. When the switch S is closed the readings of voltmeter and the ammeter is 1.3 V and 0.2 A respectively.

What is the internal resistance of the battery? A 0.5 B 2.0 C 3.0 D 4.0 E 4.5 5 The figure shows a circuit containing three resistors 2 and a cell with an electromotive force of 12 V and internal resistance of 6 .

What is the current flowing through the circuit. A 1.1 A B 1.2 A C 1.3 A D 1.4 A E 1.5A What is the internal resistance of the cell? A 0.1 B 0.3 C0.6 D 1.0 E 1.2 3 The figure shows a dry cell with an electromotive force of 3.0 V , and a resistor 4. 6 The figure shows a circuit containing two resistors 6 and a cell with an electromotive force of 12 V and internal resistance of 3 .

What is the current flowing through each resistor 6? A 0.5 A B 1.0 A C 2.0 A D 3.0 A E 4.0 A

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The figure shows a circuit containing two resistors 10, a resistor 20 , a cell with e.m.f of 1.5 V and internal resistance of 2. What is the internal resistance and the electromotive force of the cell? Internal resistance / 0.25 0.50 1.00 1.25 1.50 E.m.f / V 1.5 3.0 3.0 4.5 4.5

What is the reading of he voltmeter? A C E 8 0.23 V 1.25 V 2.00 V B D 0.46 V 1.50 V 11

A B C D E

An accumulator produce a current 0.6 A when it is connected to a resistor 2. When the same accumulator is connected to a resistor 7 the current is produced is 0.2 A. What is the e.m.f and the internal resistance of the accumulator. A C E 1.0 V, 1.0 2.0 V, 0.5 1.0 V , 1.5 B D 1.5 V, 0.5 0.5 V, 1.5

Which circuit can be used to determine the electromotive force a battery?

A cell produces a current 0.5 A when it is connected to a resistor 2. When the same accumulator is connected to a resistor 4 the current is produced is 0.4 A. What is the e.m.f of the cell? A C E 1.6 V 3.0 V 4.5 V B D 2.6 V 4.0 V 12 Which of the following graphs relates the reading of ammeter and the voltmeter in figure

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Figure(a) shows a circuit to determine the e.m.f and internal resistance of a cell. Figure (b) shows the experiment is repeated by using the same cell.

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above?

Which of the following is not true? A B C D E.m.f of the battery is 1.5 V The external resistance is 1.5 The internal resistance of the battery i As the current decreases the internal resistance of the battery decreases.

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An experiment is carried out to determine e.m.f and internal resistance of a cell as shown in Figure(a). The result of the experiment is shown in Figure(b). 15

The figure shows a circuit containing voltmeter, ammeter, two switches S1 and S2 , two bulbs M1 and M2 and a battery with internal resistance of 1.

Which of the following represent the e.m.f and the internal resistance of the cell? e.m.f. A B C D y p q p q x Internal resistance p q y x p q (a) When the switches S1 and S2 is opened , the reading of the voltmeter is 12 V. What is the e.m.f. of the cell? (b) When the switch S1 is closed and the switch S2 is opened , the reading of the ammeter is 3.0 A. Calculate (i) the reading of the voltmeter?

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The figure shows a graph potential difference,V against current, I of a battery.

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(iii) name the physical quantity that represents the value in (a)(ii). (ii) the resistance of bulb M1 ? (b) The internal resistance, r, of the dry cell is given by r = -m where m is the gradient of the graph. Calculate the value r.

(c) When the switches S1 and S2 is closed , the reading of the ammeter is 6.0 A . Calculate (i) the reading of the voltmeter?

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(ii) the resistance of bulb M2 ? The graph V against I below shows the results of the experiment to determine the electromotive force ,E, and the internal resistance, r , of a dry cell.

(c)

(i)

From the graph , state the value of V, when I = 0.80 A. Show on the graph how you determine the value V. .. (ii) The resistance R is given by R=V I Calculate R when I = 0.80 A

(d) State one precaution that should be taken during this experiment. (a) Based on the graph in the figure above, (i) what happen when I increases? (ii) determine the value of the potential difference , V, when the current , I = 0.0 A. Show on the graph , how you determine V. 17 The figure shows a circuit to determine the e.m.f and internal resistance of a cell.

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The results of the experiment is shown in the table below.


I/ A R/ 1/ A-1 I 0.8 3 1 0.37 3 0.25 5 0.17 8 0.14 10

(a) Complete the table above. (b) Plot the graph R against 1 I

(c)

Based on the graph determine (i) the internal resistance of the cell.

(ii)

the e.m.f of the cell.

(d) What is the charges flow in 2 minutes when R = 6

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