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DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF PIPING SYSTEMS UNDER TRANSIENT FLOW CONDITIONS

S. M. Abdel-Rahman, Ph.D. Researcher

M. A. Younes, Ph.D. Researcher

M. A. Helal, Professor Director

Mechanical & Electrical Research Institute , National Water Research Center,

Delta Barrage, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Transient vibration develops in piping system when steady state fluid velocity is suddenly changed due to power failure, and starting or stopping of the pump suddenly. The accompanying surge forces cause pipe to jump off supports, damage anchors and restraints and excessive pressure surging during transient operation can lead to pipeline system failure. Surge control devices are often required to prevent the development of such conditions where surge tanks are connected to the piping system to absorb these pressure waves and damp their effect. This paper studies dynamic behavior of the piping system at steady state and transient operation conditions. Experimental tests were done on one of the largest axial flow vertical pump where surge tanks are used on the delivery pipe to control transient vibration. Vibration levels were compared with those obtained for another large axial flow vertical pump using air release valve for controlling transient. Vibration spectra were recorded on pump, delivery pipe and surge tank during different transient operation conditions. Modal Tests are done on the surge tank, and the delivery pipeline for evaluating their dynamic properties (natural frequencies and damping) to modify system dynamic behavior and avoid any sudden failure of the piping system. The paper indicates that vibration associated with these operating conditions is correlated well with predicted transient pressures. Proper selection and dynamic evaluation of surge control system is important to ensure safety and reliability of such control system. Prediction of surge due to pump operational changes is necessary to develop suitable means for controlling transients.

NOMENCLATURE

a: elastic sonic (wave) velocity, K: bulk modulus of elasticity of liquid,

E: Modulus of elasticity of pipe material, D: inside pipe diameter e: pipe wall thickness ρ: fluid density C: correction factor for type of pipe restraint. M: mass of the fluid V 0 : initial velocity of the fluid

L:

length of the pipe

A: area of the pipe

V: volume difference V: initial volume

t c :

critical time

h: change in pressure head v : Change in water velocity

g: acceleration of gravity P: pressure rise

1. OVERVIEW

When fluid in motion is abruptly stopped, a hydraulic surge is created in the system. Hydraulic surge is often referred to water hammer. The kinetic energy, released as pressure, can spike up to many times the system's operating pressure. The results of water hammer and pressure pulsation can be catastrophic. Pipeline failure, pump and valve damage, loss of system control and the associated capital equipment and maintenance costs are common problems [1].

Without a suppression device, the shock wave travels the length of the pipe back to the pump, then

reverses again, oscillating back and forth until friction dissipates the pressure spike or a system component fails. There are several sources that cause water hammer problem including quick closing valves, back surge, pump start up and pump shut down. Quick closing valves can be defined as valves that close within one and one-half seconds. Quick closing valves have the potential of stopping large volumes of energized fluid, producing violent water hammer. Pump start-up also stops fluid in motion. During start-up, fluid in a pipe is static and must be accelerated. The pumped fluid is abruptly stopped when it contacts the static fluid in the pipe creating a shock wave. A surge suppressor will absorb the resistance to acceleration and/or the water hammer surge created in each situation. As the surge enters the suppressor, the gas inside is compressed, the fluid is accumulated and the shock wave is absorbed. When steady system flow rate is achieved, the suppressor slowly releases pressure and fluid back into the system [2].

During pump shutdown and in back surge situations fluid is reversed. When a pump is shut-off, fluid will reverse direction due to the differential pressure created by the momentum of the fluid in motion. In fact, if the pressure differential is below the vapor pressure of the fluid, a vapor pocket will form creating even higher transient pressures. The reversed flow creates water hammer as it slams into the pumpís check valve. This effect is compounded in a back flow situation where fluid is pumped over an elevation or vertically, creating an increase in power due to the fluid's accelerated velocity [2].

Effect of hydraulic transient on water pipes was done [3] by measuring pipe pressure and strain simultaneously concluding that the variability in pressure could either reduce the ultimate life of the pipe material through fatigue or induce damaging vibration to the pipe system if the frequency of pressure oscillation is close to the fundamental natural frequency of the system. During transient flow, the strain followed the pressure without any lag in approximately linear-elastic manner.

Causes of water hammer in irrigation systems was discussed [4] where the shock waves in pipeline system can result from sudden changes in the fluid flow velocity due to different operating conditions. Care must be paid to avoid effect of water hammer by adopting a strategic operation condition or by providing a suitable control device.

Longer pipes in plants cause longer duration loads caused by pressure disturbance resulting in pipe motion, support overstress, and pipe impact on adjacent structures [5].

Pumps start up and shut down cause a rapid change in the fluid velocity resulting in undesirable water hammer problem. Severity of water hammer

depends on pump specific speed [6]. Surges can be controlled by programming pump control valve, increasing inertia of the pump unit, using air chambers, using variable speed motor, and controlling sequence of starts and shutdown.

2. TRANSIENT THEORY

A change in the steady state operation condition of a

fluid system by means

of valve closure or power

failure

produces

pressure

waves

traveling

at

approximately sonic (wave) velocity and propagating from the point in the system at which

the change in the steady flow condition was imposed. The system attains a new stage of equilibrium, often sometimes, if the change has not reached a destructive condition.

When the flowing of the fluid is changed suddenly, It generates a great pressure peak to the pipe. For example, the pressure rises when the control valve is closed rapidly. The fluid near the valve is stopped at short. The flow in the upstream of the pipe continues to flow and it generates the shock wave in the end of pipe. The shock wave begins to travel back from the valve, to beginning of the pipe and it dissolved to pressure unit. The shock wave is bounces back and occurs between the valve and the pressure unit. The friction of the fluid and the imperfect elasticity of the fluid and the pipe wall damp out the vibration and the eventually causes the fluid to come permanently to rest at a stable pressure level [7].

Pressure head change due to a change in flow rate requires calculation of elastic wave speed in the pipe. Wave speed depends on both fluid properties and pipe characteristics according to the following equation:

a = (k / ρ) /(1 + C(K / E)(D / e))

reverses again, oscillating back and forth until friction dissipates the pressure spike or a system component

Where:

(1)

a: elastic sonic (wave) velocity, K: bulk modulus of elasticity of liquid, E: Modulus of elasticity of pipe material, D: inside pipe diameter, e: pipe wall thickness, ρ: fluid density, and C: correction factor for type of pipe restraint.

The simplest

way to account

the pressure

rise

is

calculate the potential and the kinetic energy and

assume that those are equal. At the instant closure

of valve the kinetic calculated as:

energy

of

moving fluid is

KE=0.5.m.v = 0.5. ρ . L . Av .

0

0

2

2

(2)

Where m is mass of the fluid, V 0 is the initial velocity of the fluid, L is the length of the pipe and A is the

area of the pipe. The potential energy stored in the compressed fluid is calculated as:

PE = 0.5.p.V = 0.5.p.V.p / k = 0.5L.A.p

2

/k

(3)

Where P is the pressure rise due to the instant closure of the valve, V is the volume difference and V is the initial volume. Denoting that the potential and the kinetic energy are equal and define the pressure rise with the equation:

p =

ρ . a . v

  • 0 (4)

Pressure rise is reduced if the valve is closed in a longer time interval, hence,

t

c

=

2 L

/ a

(5)

Where t c is the critical time, L is the length of pipe, and a is the elastic wave speed.

the

A momentum analysis of the flow conditions for the valve closure shows the pressure head change,h, is a function of the change in flow v as :

h = − a v / g

(6)

Where h: is the change in pressure head, a: is

elastic wave speed, v:

is

the

change in

water

velocity caused by the event and g: is the acceleration due to gravity. Use the negative sign for waves traveling upstream. Use the positive sign for waves traveling downstream, and note the v =v 2 -v 1 where v 1 is the velocity prior to the change in flow rate and v 2 is the velocity following the change. If the flow is suddenly stopped, v = v 1 and h = av 1 /g.

Note, too, that h is positive if v is negative. If the valve on the downstream end of a pipe is closed incrementally, Eq. (6) becomes:

∑ ∆ = −

h

a / g

∑ ∆

v

(

for t < t

  • c )

(7)

Transient pressure heads due to valve closure can be reduced by slowly closing the valve over a time interval greater than t c .

To limit the pressure rise, the maximum deceleration of the water during the critical time period, t c, must be limited. The maximum allowable deceleration can be calculated by using the ratio

P

a

h

a

v

a

 

=

=

P

h

 

v

(8)

Where P is the pressure rise, h is the head rise,

v

is the change in velocity, and the subscript,

a,

means allowable.

3. TRANSIENT CONTROL METHODS

Rapidly closing or opening a valve causes pressure

transients in pipelines, known as water hammer. Valve closure can result in pressures well over the steady state values, while valve opening cause seriously low pressures, possibly so low that the flowing liquid vaporizes inside the pipe. The identification and calculation of pressures, velocities and other abnormal behavior resulting from hydraulic transients make possible the effecting use of various control strategies such as: selection of pipes and fittings to withstand the anticipated pressures,

selection and location of the proper control devices to alleviate the adverse effects of transients; and identification of proper start-up, Operation and shutdown procedures for the system. There are many methods for controlling water

hammer. These methods depending on the site location, the cost, and the control limits. It can be divided into two techniques: the first one is a simple method, where minimum facilities are installed to limit the effect of the water hammer in the system. The second technique is more effective for controlling water hammer as It contains many instruments and facilities. There are more than 200 main pumping stations provided with pipelines in irrigation and drainage sector. The pressure waves may cause damage for the pipeline system due to sudden change in the fluid flow velocity. Different water hammer control systems are installed at each site to protect the pipeline system, reduce water hammer waves, and confine its action to the section of piping system in which it occurs. There are many devices that can be used for controlling water hammer. The device selection depends upon the device function and predicted pressure graph due to different operation conditions. Power failure is an important action, which can affect the pipeline system. The maximum and minimum pressure and transient time are considered the basic parameters for water-hammer control system design [8] .

3.1 CONTROL VALVES

Control valves can play a great action in water ñ hammer control system. The main effective factors for these valves are the valve function, opening and closing time. In the case of using a single speed discharge valve closure subsequent to a power failure, it will usually limit the rise in the discharge line to an acceptable value. With the optimum single ñspeed closure some reverse rotation below the maximum runaway speed of the unit in reverse will occur. A two ñ speed valve closure can be used

form other considerations to prevent or to limit the

reverse speed of the unit In this case the valve should close so that during the major portion of its stroke very rapidly up to the moment that the flow reverses at the pump then complete the remainder of its stroke at a slower rate in order to limit the pressure rise.

3.2

AIR VALVES

certain time from the time of stoppage due to any reason.

A quick ñ opening, slow- closing air valve is a mechanical device that protects a pipeline from collapsing under vacuum or from bursting due to high pressure surges. It is very common in Egypt as a basic item in pipeline design sector. In many cases the designer uses the distributed air valves along the pipeline with pressure regulating valves as a simple system for controlling the effect of the water hammer

  • 3.3 SURGE TANKS

One of the important items in water-hammer control system is the surge tank or surge vessel. The surge vessels operate with a constant air cushion above the water level in the tank. The cushion is maintained by air compressors and associated instrumentation. Electric motor driven, with the capacity at the working pressure to suit the function of compensations of pressure inside the air vessel, when it decrease than its normal value. The vessels deliver additional amount of water to the header due to pressure drop in the case of power failure. The volume of the flow from or to the pipeline must be evaluated at the design period

  • 3.4 AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM

An automatic control system is installed in the pumping station, which is responsible for organizing the operation pumps and motorized valves in accordance with the water demand and operating conditions. It can be done according to the logic stored in the system and in accordance with the received signals that correspond to measurements of the parameters which influence the performance of pressure in out flow line, rate of out flow and position of valves. The automatic control system is receiving the signals from the different sensing devices and converts them to digital pulses after shaping and canceling any noise out of them. The Signal amplitude generates commands in the processor controller. The system compare these pulses with the stored logic which governs the operation of the system and generates the commands accordingly and forward them to output interface, which generates the necessary power signals to operate the contactors and actuators sets.

  • 3.5 CONTROL THE STARTING UP

If the pump starts, and build up pressure, the main valve get a command to open gradually and at the same time the output pressure is continuously monitored so as not to open it more the required and overload the pump. The second pump is ordered to start after pre adjusted time delay and so on for the next pumps. This is the sequence of restarting the pumping station after complete stoppage. The control systems delay the start up command for a

  • 3.6 CONTROL THE SHUTDOWN

In the case of the water level in the upstream reservoir decreases to a certain pre adjusted level or if the rate of the flow downstream increases to a high value, automatic stopping is recommended. The stop routine include stopping of the first pump after closure of its valve, then stopping the second

after a time delay and so on. At the same time the valve shall close gradually to keep pressure and flow within the design limits.

  • 3.7 CONTROL THE POWER FAILURE

In the case of power failure, the water-hammer control system must be installed with the devices that reduce the effect of the rapid change in flow velocity. These methods must be evaluated to minimize and limit the impact of water hammer in the pipeline system. Surge tanks, air valves, pressure regulating valves and automatic control system are the most important devices and tools for controlling the power failure.

4. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

Transient analysis is the study of how various signals change during a machine's process or load change. This analysis is particularly important during a machine's startup or shutdown when critical speeds or natural resonance are encountered. Observing the overall amplitudes or individual spectra will not be sufficient to document how the entire machine behaves during transient conditions. Data collection modes fall into two general categories: observing transducer output signals with respect to machine speed and observing transducer output signals with respect to time. Sometimes, a combination of the two modes may be required

  • 4.1 OVERALL VIBRATION LEVEL

Overall vibration levels in terms of rms. velocity and peak acceleration were measured on four locations during steady state, power failure, and soft starting of the pimping station. The four monitoring vibration locations are shown in Fig. 1, where Location 1 is at

pumping bearing, location 2 is at delivery pipe, location 3 is at pipe inlet to the surge tank , and location 4 is at the surge tank itself. The results of vibration measurements are shown in Figs. 2.a to 2.c for steady state, power failure, and soft starting simultaneously.

During steady state operation, vibration level was high at the pump casing (point 1) then decreased at the pipeline (point 2) and damped quickly at the surge tank ( point 4). Overall rms. Velocity vibration level is 4239 um/sec. and acceleration peak level is

1425 mg at the pump casing, then decreased to 1125 um/sec and 60 mg at the pipeline, and reached to 45 um/sec. and 1.0 mg at the surge tank as shown in Fig. 2.a. Vibration is damped greatly from the pump casing to the delivery pipeline, then it is damped slowly. According to ISO (2372) standard, vibration level measured during steady state operation is allowable at the pump and good at the pipeline and there is no serious dynamic problem of the station.

During power failure, and as the pumping system includes surge tanks for damping transient pressures, vibration level is of small values compared to those of steady state operation. After power failure occurs, soft stop mechanism is operated and takes about 10 minutes to complete shut down the pump. Vibration level recorded during this period is shown in Fig. 2.b. Vibration level ranges around 60 um/sec. at the pump bearing except one transient peak of value 120 um/sec. In the same time, vibration levels on the other locations are in the range of 33-70 um/sec. The decay of vibration level from the pump casing to the pipeline and the surge tank is approximately linear.

During soft starting, vibration levels measured on the pipeline, the surge pipe, and the surge tanks are of very small values as shown in Fig. 2.c. However, vibration level on the pump casing is of high value and is slightly greater than the steady state value measured on the pump casing. Then this value is decreased to the steady state value after completely starting up.

From these results, it is obvious that vibration levels during power failure is of small values on the pump and the pipeline. Also, vibration level, during start up, is of small (good) values on the pipeline, but of high (allowable) value at the pump casing. Vibration levels recorded on the pump casing during steady state and starting operations are nearly equal. The surge control method applied at the station damps vibration levels quickly and absorbs transient pressure during abnormal operations and the station is dynamically safe.

On the other hand, vibration level measured on one of similar pumping station using air release valve for transient control. Overall vibration level measured on the pipeline is 1.8 mm/sec during steady state operation and increased up to 4.5 mm/sec during sudden shut down. This means that vibration level increased 2.5 times during transient condition for stations using air release valves for water hummer control. But as discussed earlier, using surge tanks for control, vibration level was damped completely and no transient problem for that case.

  • 4.2 FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

Spectra were measured on the delivery pipeline during steady state, power failure, and soft starting as shown in Figs. 3.a, 3.b, and 3.c respectively. During soft starting, the measured spectrum is similar to that during steady state. The measured spectra correlated well with overall vibration measured. The dominant frequencies during startup and steady state represent the normal operation frequencies of rotation speed and its harmonics of maximum magnitude level of 600 um/sec. However, during power failure, spectrum measured is completely different, where the dominant frequencies are high non-harmonic frequencies of low magnitudes compared to steady state and soft starting vibration magnitudes.

  • 4.3 MODAL TESTING

Modal testing was done on the pipe line and the surge tank for the pumping station using surge tank for transient control to determine whether the introduced control system affects dynamic characteristics of the pumping station or not. It is very important to define dynamic characteristics of the pipe line with the surge tank so that the natural frequencies of the new system is away from the exciting frequencies of the pumping station to avoid resonance phenomena which can destroy the pumping station severely than does the transient phenomena. Results of the Modal testing of the delivery pipe is shown in Fig. 4, where MEí Scope software was used to determine natural frequencies and damping for the pipeline and the surge tank separately. Results of Modal testing are shown in Table (1) and Table (2) for the pipeline and the surge tank respectively. Bending modes of both components are different from critical speed of the pump system and no coincidence of modes and critical speeds; however, damping ratios are very small. Some modes are relatively equal for the pipeline and the surge tank and the resulting system modes are mixture of each system separately. Modal testing assures the dynamic safety of the pumping station and is important for dynamic behavior modifications in case of structural weakness due to change of dynamic characteristics of the system for any further structural or mechanical development for the station in the future.

  • 4.4 TIME-HISTORY TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

Vibration waves time history, as shown in Figs. 5.a, 5.b, 5.c, and 5.d, was recorded during steady state operation of four pumping units, shut down of one pump, shut down of the other three pumps, and soft starting of one pump respectively. During steady state operation, vibration wave is uniform with no transient peaks, where average level of the wave is of magnitude about 10 mg, as shown in Fig 5.a.

Transient

time

in

this

case

takes

more than

15

minutes.

It

is called

long transient; the recorded

samples indicate the time history for every case. Shut down of one unit during the other three units are operating introduces transient peak of magnitude 104 mg during one second interval followed by a smaller transient peak of level 83 mg then reached state operation as shown in Fig 5.b.

Time history recorded during shut down of three units simultaneously is shown in Fig. 5.c. It takes longer time for the vibration wave to reach to the steady state case. Vibration level reached to 800 mg at this situation compared to 10 mg value for the steady state operation. Transient takes longer period having high levels of vibration can cause failure of the station; however, the transient control method (surge tank) damps the waves quickly and soften the vibration level to avoid any damage problem for the station.

During soft stop,

a transient peak is introduced

during short period (< 0.5 sec.) of level 75 mg as shown in Fig. 5.d. Then the wave goes down to very smooth level of steady state operation of normal level. It can be concluded that the transient control method applied using surge tanks are effective and feasible. The station is dynamically safe. Any transient peaks that occur at very short periods are damped quickly to normal levels. No serious

damage

effects

are

anticipated during transient

conditions of stations having surge tanks for transient control.

5. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

1.

Piping

vibration

can

be

an

annoying

problem, which can consume unnecessary maintenance activity and can affect pumping system performance and endurance. A transient control system is required to control the energy and thus minimizes transient pressure from the shock waves.

2.

Pumping

stations

using

surge

tanks

for

transient control is dynamically safe than those using air valves for control.

  • 3. soft starting is dynamically similar to steady state operation and both produce same exciting frequencies at operational speeds and their harmonics.

4.

Power

failure

of

pumping

stations

using

surge tanks produces high non-harmonic frequencies of very low magnitudes.

  • 5. Power failure of pumping stations using air valve for control produces high levels of vibration, 2.5 times that during steady state operation.

  • 6. Shut down of all the units simultaneously produces high level of vibration waves that take longer time than that for each separate unit does.

  • 7. Complete protection of the pipeline system may require more than one device (surge tank, air valves, air release valve, control valves, pressure regulating valves, soft starting and soft stopping) to completely damp transient pressures.

  • 8. It is very important, during design phase, to determine where potential hydraulic transient problems may exist and what means might be taken to control them from reviewing the plan and profile of the pipeline system as well as the operating scheme. It is necessary to void knees, high spots, and steep gradients near the pump.

RTEFERENCES

[1]

http

//

www

pulsco.com

/

hydropneumaticsurge.html, control system, ì (5.20.2002).

ìHydropneumatic surge

[2] http: //www.iglou.com / Pitt /dampener 3.html, ìSurge suppression,î (5.20.2002).

[3] Larson M., and Jonsson. L., ìElastic properties of pipe Materials During Hydraulic Transients, ì Journal

of

Hydraulic Engineering, Vol .117, 1991.

[4] Clark

G.

et. al., ìWater Hammer in Irrigation

System, ì Circular 828, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of food and Agricultural

Science, University of Florida, 1994.

[5] Kim, H.T., ì A feed water system water hammer Analysis,î Journal of ASME, Pressure Vessels

and Piping

Division

publication

PVP

VOL. 156,

pp.11-15, 1989.

 

[6]

Snaks,

R.,

L.,

ì Pumping Station,

ì Second

Edition, Butter Worth Heinemann, 1998.

 

[7] Haikio, S., et.

al., ì Modeling of Water Hammer

Phenomenon ñBased

Pressure Intensifier, ì http: //

www.

 

Callisto.si.usherb.ca/fluo

2000/search/session.html.

[8] Younes,

M.

A.,

Environmental Impact

Assessment of Water Hammer in Pipeline system

and

its

control,î

Ph.D

Thesis,

Institute

of

Environmental

studies

and

research,

Ain

shams

University, 1999.

 
Motor Surge tank Location 4 Pump Casing Location 2 Location 3 Location 1
Motor
Surge tank
Location 4
Pump
Casing
Location 2
Location 3
Location 1

Velocity vibration level um/sec

100 120 140 0 80 60 40 20
100
120
140
0
80
60
40
20

01234

Locations

Fig. 2.b Vibration levels measured on pipe during power failure

0 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 vibration level (um/sec)
0
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
vibration level (um/sec)

01234

Locations

Fig. 2.c Vibration levels measured on pipe during soft starting

Fig. 1 layout of the pumping system showing the four measurements of vibration locations. 4500 1600
Fig. 1 layout of the pumping system showing the four
measurements of vibration locations.
4500
1600
4000
1400
Velocity
3500
Acceleration
1200
3000
1000
2500
800
2000
600
1500
400
1000
500
200
0
0
1234
Locations
Fig. 2.a Vibration levels measured on pipe during steady state
Velocity (um/sec)
Acceleration (mg)

Fig. 3.a A spectrum measured on pipe during steady state

Fig. 3.b A spectrum measured on pipe during power failure Fig. 3.c A spectrum measured on

Fig. 3.b A spectrum measured on pipe during power failure

Fig. 3.b A spectrum measured on pipe during power failure Fig. 3.c A spectrum measured on

Fig. 3.c A spectrum measured on pipe during soft starting

Fig. 3.b A spectrum measured on pipe during power failure Fig. 3.c A spectrum measured on

Fig. 4 Results of Modal testing for the pipe line

Table (1) Modal parameters of the pipe line

Mode

Frequency (Hz)

Damping (%)

 

1

47.7

9.1

2

73.7

7.4

3

110.5

6.2

4

130.4

4.7

5

158.0

2.2

6

202.4

2.0

7

221.4

1.8

8

248.5

1.7

9

263.5

1.1

10

279.1

1.2

11

293.0

2.3

12

318.4

1.4

13

347.8

1.5

14

373.5

1.8

15

402.8

1.3

16

433.2

1.5

17

454.3

1.4

18

484.3

1.2

19

490.3

1.6

20

519.1

1.7

21

540.1

1.0

22

558.5

1.3

23

582.9

1.1

24

613.1

1.1

25

649.5

1.2

26

677.2

1.2

27

700.4

1.3

Table (2) Modal parameters of the surge tank

Mode

Frequency (Hz)

Damping (%)

 

1

37.3

2.1

2

45.7

1.8

3

74.5

2.3

4

88.0

2.5

5

113.9

3.3

6

130.3

1.7

7

136.4

4.7

8

171.8

3.8

9

201.0

4.2

10

219.6

1.8

11

242.2

1.5

12

258.9

1.1

13

284.7

10.6

14

297.5

2.7

15

320.6

1.3

16

334.6

2.7

17

345.7

3.8

18

435.5

3.4

19

448.5

5.7

20

483.9

1.0

21

493.6

2.9

22

517.0

3.1

23

557.2

9.1

24

584.0

6.2

25

608.3

6.5

26

653.0

2.8

27

680.0

2.6

Fig. 5.a Time history on pipe during steady state. Fig. 5.c Time history on pipe during
Fig. 5.a Time history on pipe during steady state. Fig. 5.c Time history on pipe during

Fig. 5.a

Time history on pipe during steady state.

Fig. 5.c Time history on pipe during shut down of 3 units.

Fig. 5.b Time history on pipe during shut down of one unit. Fig. 5.d A time
Fig. 5.b
Time history on pipe during shut down of one unit.
Fig. 5.d
A time history on pipe during soft stop.