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MMLLDC ADVERBIALS Units realizing adverbial functions. Adverbial functions are realized by: 1.

Adverbs (including adverb phrases, ie phrases with adverbs as their heads): Peter was playing as WELL as he could. They very OFTEN praised Tom. We'll stay THERE. Noun phrases (less common): Peter was playing LAST WEEK. They praised Tom MANY TIMES. We'll stay NEXT DOOR. Prepositional phrases: Peter was playing WITH GREAT SKILL. They praised Tom FOR HIS GENEROSITY. We'll stay AT A HOTEL. Finite verb clauses: Peter was playing ALTHOUGH HE WAS VERY TIRED. WHEN THEY SAW THE REPORT, they praised Tom. We'll stay WHERE IT IS CONVENIENT. Non-finite verb clauses, in which the verb is a) an infinitive: Peter was playing TO WIN. b) -ing participle: MAKING A LOT OF NOISE they praised Tom. c) -ed participle: IF URGED BY OUR FRIENDS, we'll stay. 6. Verbless clauses: Peter was playing, UNAWARE THAT HIS WIFE WAS IN THE AUDIENCE. GRATEFUL FOR HIS HELP, they praised Tom. WHILE IN LONDON, we'll stay at a hotel. Classes of adverbials. 1







Adverbials can be divided into two classes, distinguished by whether or not they are integrated to some extent into the structure of the clause. Those that are integrated to some extent are termed ADJUNCTS. Those that are peripheral to clause structure are subdivided into DISJUNCTS or CONJUNCTS, the distinction between these two being that conjuncts have primarily a connective function:

Criteria for adjuncts. An adverbial is integrated to some extent in clause structure if it is affected by clausal processes. Three criteria have been selected as diagnostic of adjuncts, that is as evidence that an adverbial is affected by clausal processes and is therefore an adjunct. If an adverbial satisfies one or more of the criteria it is an adjunct. 2



If an adverbial cannot appear initially in a negative declarative clause, it is an adjunct. For example, although quickly can appear initially in a positive clause, as in Quickly, they left for home. it cannot do so if the clause is negative (with the negative particle not or -n't): *Quickly, they didn't leave for home. Hence, quickly is an adjunct. On the other hand, perhaps is unaffected by whether the clause is positive or negative: Perhaps they left for home. Perhaps they didn't leave for home.


If an adverbial can be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative interrogation, it is an adjunct, alternative interrogation showing that the adverbial is the focus of clause interrogation. For example, the adverbial clause in He writes to his parents because he wants to. it is an adjunct because it can be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative interrogation: Does he write to his parents because he wants to or does he write to them because he needs money? On the other hand, we cannot contrast two since-clauses in this way when the since-clauses express reason and not time: *Does he write to his parents since he wants to or does he write to them since he needs money?


If an adverbial can be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative negation, it is an adjunct, alternative negation showing that the adverbial is the focus of the clause negation. For example on Monday is an adjunct in We went to Chicago on Monday. because it can be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative negation: We didn't go to Chicago on Monday, but we did go there on Tuesday. 3

ADVERBIALS On the other hand, we cannot contrast the two prepositional phrases in


*We didn't go to Chicago, to John's amazement, but we did go there, to Mary's amazement.

Criteria for disjuncts and conjuncts. Disjuncts and conjuncts satisfy none of the above three criteria. That is to say, the following three statements can be made for both disjuncts and conjuncts: 1. 2. 3. They can appear initially before a negative clause. They cannot be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative interrogation. They cannot be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative negation.

Distinction between disjuncts and conjuncts. Conjuncts are distinguished from disjuncts because they have primarily a connective function. As an index of their connective function, conjuncts cannot serve as a response to a question, whether a wh-question or a yes-no question, even when they are accompanied by yes or no. On the other hand, disjuncts can serve as response to a yes-no question, though usually they require to be accompanied by yes or no. For example, probably in He will probably be there tomorrow. is a disjunct, since it can be a response: A: Will he be there? B: Yes, probably. In contrast, therefore in I sent him a personal invitation. He will therefore be there tomorrow. is a conjunct. We cannot use therefore in a response: A: Will he be there tomorrow? B: *Yes, therefore.

ADVERBIALS Classification of adjuncts. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Adverbs of Manner. Adverbs of Time. Adverbs of Place. Adverbs of Frequency and Relative time (just, recently, soon, etc.). Focusing adverbs (even, only, also, as well)


Adverbs of degree (intensifiers included: at all, a bit, badly, completely): altogether, almost barely, little, hardly, etc. Modifiers of comparatives and superlatives: superior, inferior, a little, rather, etc.


Classification of disjuncts and conjuncts. DISJUNCTS expressing the speaker's or writer's attitude or approach to the state he is making, include: 1. Single-word adverbs: briefly, certainly, frankly, generally, honestly, perhaps, personally, really. Phrases: in a few words, all in fairness, in short, of course. Non-finite clauses: speaking frankly, to tell you the truth, to cut a long story short. Finite clauses: if I may say so, if you don't mind my pointing it out.

2. 3. 4.

CONJUNCTS introducing a new sentence in a series and linking it logically with what has been said before, include: 1. 2. 3. 4. Altogether, besides, consequently, however, moreover, nevertheless, therefore, yet. As a result, in any case, on the other hand. Considering all that, to conclude, all things considered. That is to say, what is more, what is more important. 5

ADVERBIALS OTHER ACTIVITIES Now the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner going out at daybreak to hire workers for his vineyard. He made an agreement with the workers for one denarius a day, and sent them to his vineyard. Going out at about the third hour he saw others standing idle in the market place and said to them, "You go to my vineyard too and I will give you a fair wage". So they went. At about the sixth hour and again at about the ninth hour, he went out and he did the same. Then at about the eleventh hour he went out and found more men standing round and he said to them, "Why have you been standing here idle all day?" "Because no one has hired us" they answered. He said to them, "You go into my vineyard too". In the evening, the owner of the vineyard said to his bailiff, "Call the workers and pay them their wages, starting


with the last arrivals and ending with the first". So those who were hired at about the eleventh hour came forward and received one denarius each. When the first came, they expected to get more, but they too received one denarius each. They took it but grumbled at the landowner. "The men who came last" they said "have done only one hour, and you have treated the same as us, though we have done a heavy day's work in all the heat." He answered one of them and said, "My friend, I am not being unjust to you; did we not agree on one denarius? Take your earnings and go. I choose to pay the last-comer as much as I pay you. Have I no right to do what I like with my own? Why be envious because I am generous?" Thus the last will be first, and the first, last.

Matthew's Gospel 20, 1-16

QUESTIONS 1. Is it the first time you read or listen to that Parable? 2. Do you accept the message included in the text? Why? 3. Do you think something similar to it could happen in your school? Why? 4. Has it ever happened to you? 5. Take out from the text three sentences in the direct speech. 6. Tell the story again in no more than 50 words. 7. Vocabulary. Give a synonym, antonym or explain the meaning of the following words: Landowner: grumble: earning:

ADVERBIALS They looked long into one another's eyes. Then she gave him a little bow and went to her room. Don Pedro sighed. He wondered whether she still loved Pepe Alvarez and whether it was on account of this that she had never loved him. But he would not allow himself to give way to the unworthy emotion of jealousy. He looked into his heart and was sure that it harboured no feeling of hatred for the young artilleryman. On the contrary, he

MMLLDC conversation suddenly failed, and, looking back, he seemed to remember that several of the group who were sitting there and chatting eyed him curiously. Was it possible that he had been the subject of their conversation? He shivered at the thought. The Fair was drawing to its end, and when it was over the Agurias had arranged to go to Cordova, where Don Pedro had an estate which it was necessary for him to visit from time to time. He looked forward to the peace of a country life after the turmoil of Seville. The day after this conversation Soledad, saying she was not well, stayed in the house, and she did the same the day following. Don Pedro visited her in her room morning and evening and they talked of indifferent things. But on the third day his cousin Conchita de Santaguador was giving a ball. It was the last of the season and everyone in her exclusive set would be there. Soledad, saying she was still indisposed, announced that she would stay at home.

liked him. This was not an affair of love and hate, but of honour. On a sudden, he remembered that a few days before when he went to his club he noticed that the

The point of honour. W. Somerset Maugham.

QUESTIONS 1. Did Don Pedro want to be jealous. Why? 2. Why were the Agurias going to Cordova? 3. Where and when did Pedro visit Soledad? 4. What did they talk about? 5. Write down 5 or 6 lines about love, hate and honour. 6. Take out from the text a noun-clause and say what kind it is. 7. Vocabulary: Estate: Turmoil: Ball: Season:



THE OPEN UNIVERSITY In 1963 the leader of the Labour Party made a speech explaining plans for a "University on the air" -an educational system which would make use of television, radio and correspondence courses. Many people laughed at the idea, but it became part of the Labour Party's Programme, to give educational opportunity to those people who, for one reason or another, had not had a chance to receive further education. The Open University has been a great success in one respect. About 6000 students of all ages get degrees every year. It is disappointing, however, that the great majority of students are from middleclass, educated backgrounds. There have, however, been a number of men and women, serving long sentences in prison, who have taken courses successfully, and obtained degrees. Students of the Open University receive their lessons and lectures in their homes, by means of special TV and radio programmes. More than 40.000 people applied, but only 25.000 people could be accepted, for the first courses in 1971. By 1980 there were about 60.000 undergraduates. Written work is corrected by part-time tutors who meet their students once a month to discuss their work with them and to set them on the right course. Science students are given mini-laboratories which can be set up in their own homes. QUESTIONS 1. Answer the following questions in your own words: a) What kind of students was the Open University designed for? b) Was the idea of an Open University accepted easily? c) How often do students see their tutors? d) Where are practical science experiments done? 2. Are the following statements True or False? Support your answers with evidence from the text. a) By 1963 the Open Universityhad already started. b) The Government wanted most of the students to be middleclass. c) Open University students regularly attend classes. d) In 1980, 60.000 students graduated from the Open University. 3. Fill in the gaps or complete the following sentences: a) The Open University__________ __________ a success since it started. b) Thsoe people __________ are serving long sentences in prison are also able __________ __________ use of the educational facilities. c) Mass media are __________ __________ importance in education. d) A speech __________ __________ by the Leader of the Labour Party. 4. Who or What do the following words refer to? a) it (line 3) b) their (line 14) 5. Match the words on the left with one of the words on the right. a) sentence 1) conference b) further 2) higher 8

ADVERBIALS c) chance d) speech


3) word 4) occasional 5) opportunity 6) shout 7) a talk 8) conviction 6. Write about 50/60 words on the following topic: Give arguments for and against both traditional universities and the Open University. No sex please ... we're only human. By Gill Swain. FORGET those juicy stories of non-stop bonking in the nineties. They're a load of porkies. For many couples week." randomly-selected LIE to researchers by The experts have Americans aged 18 to 59 claiming that they have stamped on those lurid took part in the survey. sex several times a week. charts of non-stop lust A third said they had sex They're afraid to admit that after a survey by Chicago only a few times a year or the passion has gone out of University not at all. their marriage, leaving This, like January's Another third have their love-life totally. limp. report Sexual Behaviour in a romp several times a Couples have been fibbing Britain, shatters the image month and a quarter make like this for years. And that people are flitting love two or three times a that's not all. from one partner to week. Claims of extra-marital another. Only 7 per cent flings and gay sex have Instead, it paints a said they had sex more also been wildly picture of stay-at-homes than four times a week. exaggerated, say experts. with sex lives about as So why have many Glenn Wilson, sex exciting as a nice cup of surveys in recent years psychologist at London cocoa. It reveals that 94 branded us as rabbits University, said yesterday: per cent of people had going at it non-stop? "A high proportion of been faithful to their The answer, says long-standing marriages researcher Julia Field, lies become virtually sexless in how are picked for the Couples lie about their because the partners surveys. lays become so familiar with Julia, who helped each other it would be like compile January's report, partners in the past year. committing incest. said that couples who And 75 per cent of volunteered to take part in Lurid married men and 85 per "But they don't want them are likely to have full cent of married women anyone to think their sex lives. declared they had never Such people marriage is breaking down, strayed. so they report the 'correct' cannot be taken as par for Nearly 3,500 figure of three times a the country. 9



twentieth of wives said The Dutch lead on Wives Julie and her they had been unfaithful. 2.5, followed by Austria fellow researchers got BRITISH couples and Switzerland on 2.4. round this by quizzing a make love less than most Italians score 2.3, broad cross-section of other Europeans, say the French 2.1 and Swedes people. researchers. We average and Spanish 2.0. Only a tenth of 1.9 times a week, the same married men and a as the Danes. QUESTIONS. 1. Where has this research been carried out? 2. What does the research reveal? 3. Give some reasons why couples lie about their sex life. 4. Give the name of the magazine where the truth about sex-life was said. 5. Vocabulary: sexless, couple, survey, cocoa, shatter. 6. Summarize the text in about 60 words.