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A Signal-to-Interference Ratio based Downlink Scheduling


Scheme for WCDMA Mobile Communication System
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a QoS-aware power-strength
classified packet scheduling (PCPS) scheme that can classify
the transmission power-strength of a VBR connection into
several classes and determine the admitted service rate of each
class at connection setup time. During the transmission time of
each connection, PCPS scheme can dynamically adjust the
downlink service rate of each connection in accordance with
the admitted service rate of the current transmission
power-strength class while retaining all connections Frame
Error Rate requirements. With this power-strength classified
scheduling, PCPS scheme can decrease the average packet
delay and increase the bandwidth utilization. Furthermore, a
two-stage scheduling architecture is also employed to reduce
the scheduling complexity resulted from simultaneous
adjustment of both service rate and transmission
power-strength in WCDMA. Performance results show that the
delay bound and the packet loss ratio of a VBR connection can
be guaranteed.
Keywordsscheduling; SIR; VBR service; QoS; WCDMA
1. Introduction

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), one
of the 3
rd
generation wireless communication systems, is
expected to offer high-speed and quality of service (QoS), such
as minimal, mean, or peak rates, delay bound, etc., and
guaranteed multi-media applications, in addition to the
conventional voice services. Many multimedia applications,
such as audio and voice services, in their nature are Variable Bit
Rate (VBR) services that can be served in different transmission
rates but with a strict delay bound. These applications in general
cause more downlink traffic, from the base station (BS) to the
mobile station (MS), than uplink traffic. In WCDMA, packets
from a BS destined to different MSs can be transmitted in
parallel by assigning different orthogonal spreading-codes to the
MSs. Under this parallel transmission principle, the BS should
appropriately adjust the transmission power strength for each
radio connection in order to decrease the inter-connection
interference, so that the Signal-to-Interference ratio (SIR) of
each connection can fulfill the minimum SIR (henceforth
referred to as min-SIR) requirement for the connection to retain a

This work was supported in part by the Principal Investigators
Advanced Research Project in 2004 Grant from the Industrial
Technology Research Institute/Computer and Communication
Research Laboratories of Taiwan.
tolerable FER. The SIR of a radio connection can be estimated
from the energy used to transmit a single bit and the total
power-strength of the interferences as shown in equation (1).
cells, other from ce interferen :
noise, Gaussian white additive background of density spectral power : /2
, connection selective of loss path :
factor ity orthogonal code spreading average :
, connection of power :
(bps), connection selective the of rate :
rate), (chip bandwidth system :
gain, processing or (SF) Factor Spreading bandwidth :
where (dB),
noise of density spectral Power ce Interferen
bit per Energy
(1)
0
0
0
o
s
i
s
s
s
o
s i
i
s
s
s
s
s
b
s
I
L
i P
R
W
R
W
G
W I P
L
L
P
G
I
E
SIR
q
o
q
o
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
_
e
From this equation, we can observe that increasing the
transmission power P
s
, or decreasing the service rate R
s
of a
radio connection can increase the SIR of the connection to fulfill
the requirement of minSIR. These two methods can be chosen
according to the characteristics of the media streams, and
sometimes might be considered simultaneously. However, as
also shown in equation (1), the transmission powers of the
connections, either within the same cell or neighborhood cells,
would cause mutual interference to each other, referred to P
i
s
and I
o
in equation (1). If we increase the transmission power of a
connection, when the connection encounters a high interference,
to retain its transmission rate, R
s
, and min-SIR requirement, we
may also need to increase the transmission powers of many
other connections. Because the total power capacity of a cell is
limited, we may need to reduce the service rates of some
connections for them to fulfill their min-SIR requirement.
Therefore, the total capacity of a cell may vary from time to
time.
Xu et al. have proposed a bandwidth scheduling scheme,
called Code-Division Generalized Processor Sharing (CDGPS),
which can dynamically adjust the service rate according to the
service demand of a VBR connection [10]. CDGPS scheme does
not consider the channel impairments such as fading, imperfect
power control, and the fluctuation of inter-cell co-channel
interference. Hence, it assumes that the bandwidth capacity of a
WCDMA cell is fixed and allocates bandwidth from the fixed
capacity to VBR connections according to the bandwidth
requirement of those connections. However, as mentioned earlier,
Chien-Chao Tseng
Department of Computer Science and
Information Engineering,
National Chiao Tung University,
Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Email: cctseng@csie.nctu.edu.tw
Ray-Guang Cheng
Department of Electronic Engineering,
National Taiwan University of Science
and Technology
Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Email: crg@ieee.org
Jen-Shun Yang
Computer and Communications
Research Laboratories,
Industrial Technology Research Institute,
Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Email: jsyang@itri.org.tw
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA05)
1550-445X/05 $20.00 2005 IEEE
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the total bandwidth of a cell depends on the interference
conditions and may vary from time to time. This fixed
bandwidth assumption makes CDGPS scheme impractical.
Furthermore, brute-forth bandwidth allocation, without
considering interference condition, will result in bandwidth
wastage. The bandwidth wastage is due to the fact that we may
need to increase the transmission power of a connection under a
high interference condition and the increase in the transmission
power of the connection may cause further interference to many
other connections. As a consequence, the spectrum efficiency
would be decreased. Therefore, we should take the effects of this
mutual interference into account when designing a packet
scheduler and thus should reduce the service rates of the high
power connections to maximize spectrum efficiency.
In this paper, we propose an interference-sensitive and
QoS-aware Power-strength Classified Packet Scheduling (PCPS)
scheme in the MAC layer of WCDMA for downlink
transmission. In order to use the scarce spectrum effectively,
PCPS scheme classifies the power-strengths that are possibly
needed to transmit packets of a connection into several classes
and assigns the connection an admitted service rate for each
power-strength class (PS-class), that is to said, the lower the
PS-class a connection with, the higher service rate the
connection granted. An IP packet of a VBR connection can be
segmented into several RLC PDUs and transported on a RLC
connection [5]. Each RLC PDU (henceforth referred as
Protocol Data Unit, PDU) can be encapsulated to a fixed-sized
Transport Block (henceforth referred as Block) [6], and then
transmitted in a DPDCH [4].
At transmission time, PCPS scheme periodically
determines the PS-class each connection belongs to and adjusts
the bandwidth each RLC connection can use for each
bandwidth-adjusting interval. At the end of each bandwidth
adjusting interval, PCPS first checks the power-strength used by
each RLC connection and determines the PS-class of the
connection. It then adjusts the downlink service rate of the
connection accordingly for the immediately next
bandwidth-adjusting interval; the higher the PS-class a
connection with, the lower the service rate that the connection
can have.
A bandwidth adjusting interval may consist of multiple
radio-frames. Before a radio-frame starts, PCPS first picks up
those packets required to transmit in the radio-frame and
calculates the transmission power required for each RLC
connection to fulfill its min-SIR (or FER) requirements. If the
total transmission power-strength, required for each RLC
connection to retain its min-SIR, does not exceed the power
capacity of the cell, all RLC connections could be transmitted in
the same radio-frame. Otherwise, PCPS will transmit the packets
of the connections with a PS-class as similar as possible in each
radio-frame. With this PS-class based scheduling, PCPS can use
the scarce bandwidth more effectively and thus can reduce the
mean delay and packets loss ratio of RLC connections.
Besides, PCPS can also provide fair service to connections
and is carefully designed to guarantee a bounded delay.
Moreover, in order to reduce delay jitter, PCPS also applies an
aging technique to expedite the transmission of the packets that
were previously postponed, due to burst arrivals and/or
interference. Performance results show that PCPS scheme can
effectively reduce delay bounds, block-dropping ratios and
delay-jitters of VBR connections.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2
presents the preliminary technologies used to design the MAC
layer scheduler of WCDMA. Section 3 describes PCPS
architecture. The simulation model and simulation results are
given in Sections 4 and 5, respectively. The final section
presents conclusions and future work.
2. Preliminary Technologies
In this section, we describe the downlink power control
mechanisms of WCDMA that are related to our PCPS scheme.
The goal of the downlink power control of a BS is to adjust
transmission power so that the BS can serve as many MSs (or
connections) as possible and still can have the SIR measured by
each MS higher than the minSIR required for the MS. The
following inequality proposed by Sampath et al. [7] can be used
to estimate the upper bound of the total transmission power
required for all connections.
(2) , .. 1 ,
1
~
min
1
0
1
N i
g
h p
W
g
i
i i i
N
j
j
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

s
_
=
q
,
where N is the number of physical channels (connections),
i
p
~
is the upper bound of the power of physical channel i, h
i
is the
channel gain of physical channel i, and g
j
is the power index of
physical channel j. Power index g
i
is equal to ) (
i i i
G + ,
where
i
and G
i
are the SIR required and SF for physical
channel i, respectively . From inequality (2), the maximum
transmission power for physical channel i can be obtained as
follows [7].
( )
(3)
1
1
0
_
=

=
N
j
j i
i
i
g h
W g
P
q
WCDMA deploys two power-control mechanisms, namely
open-loop power control and fast closed-loop power control [1].
Open-loop power control can be used to obtain an initial power
setting of a connection before a BS starts a downlink
transmission. Fast close-loop power control can be used to
resolve the signal-strength fluctuation problem caused by the
fast fading, i.e., Rayleigh fading resulted from the multi-path
delay spread and Doppler spread [2], of a connection.
3. PCPS Descriptions
3.1. PCPS Concepts and Architecture
PCPS is an interference-sensitive and QoS-aware packet
scheduling scheme that schedules downlink transmission of
connections concurrently according to the PS-class each
connection belongs to. The goal of PCPS scheme is to use scarce
wireless bandwidth effectively and to allocate bandwidth fairly
among connections in accordance with the admitted QoS
services of the connections. Figure 1 shows the PCPS
architecture. The inputs to the scheduling unit are several Radio
Link Control (RLC) (layer) connections of video streams, initial
minSIRs or target SIRs received periodically from reversed links,
and power thresholds for power-strength classification. The
scheduling unit calculates the outputs (i.e. the service rate and
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA05)
1550-445X/05 $20.00 2005 IEEE
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the transmission power for each RLC connection) once for each
radio frame. The scheduling unit consists of two elements, a
bandwidth adjuster and a scheduler. The bandwidth adjuster can
adjust the bandwidth allocations for each PS-class i in
accordance with its service weight e
i
,
_

=
=
classes PS all
j
j i i
B B
1
e ,
where B
i
is the bandwidth required by the PS-class i. The
scheduler is composed of a time-based scheduler and a
power-based scheduler. By executing the interleaving strategy,
the time-based scheduler can decide the numbers of PDUs that
can be outputted to the queue of power-based scheduler. Then
the power-based scheduler may draw some PDUs back to the
RLC queues in the time-based scheduler while the minSIR
requirements cannot be achieved. The detailed algorithms of
bandwidth adjuster, time-based scheduler and power-based
scheduler will be presented in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4,
respectively.
Scheduler
PS-class
Classifier and
Bandwidth
Adjuster
Transmit
power for
each session
Scheduled result
VBR
sessions
from RLC
layer
Power-Based
Scheduler
Time-Based
Scheduler
Draw
back
Target SIR feedbacked
periodically from
reversed links
Scheduling Unit
# of sessions
controlled by
Connection
Admission
Controler
(CAC)
scheduling
information for
each session
Figure 1 PCPS Architecture
The power thresholds for power-strength classification
define the power-strength ranges of the PS-classes. The
calculations could be determined in accordance with the number
of PS-classes required and the size and/or the overall
interference condition of the cell. For example, a large cell may
have more PS-classes than a small cell. However, the
calculations of the QoS dependence power thresholds are
beyond the scope of this paper. Without loss of generality, we
merely assume that the PS-classes are classified into three
classes, PS-class 1 to PS-class 3, for every connection in the rest
of this paper. Hence, we assign three levels of service rates to
each RLC connection. An RLC connection of an MS of PS-class
1 has the peak service rate, PS-class 2 has the middle service
rate and PS-class 3 has the foot service rate. The values of these
service rates are determined at connection setup time to fulfill
the QoS requirements, such as PDU delay bound and PDU loss
ratio, specified by an MS.
To briefly summarize the PCPS concepts, we describe the
execution timing of the components in PCPS architecture as
follows. At first, the bandwidth adjuster determines the
scheduling information used in the time-based scheduler in
accordance with the transmission power-strength and the QoS
specifications of each connection at every execution, where the
scheduling information will be described in Section 3.3. Second,
the time-based scheduler uses the scheduling information of
each connection to output proper amount of PDUs to the
power-based scheduler. Finally, the power-based scheduler
detects the maximum power capacity in a cell, and then
determines the number of PDUs that can be transmitted in
parallel actually. The execution interval of both time-based and
power-based schedulers together is a radio-frame, and the
execution interval of the bandwidth adjuster, henceforth referred
to as the adjuster interval, could be a fixed time interval or a
variable time interval that is determined according to the average
speed of MSs. Without loss of generality, we assume that the
adjust interval is fixed for one second in the rest of the paper.
3.2. Bandwidth Adjuster
For every adjust interval, the bandwidth adjuster must
determine/calculate two categories of scheduling information,
which will be used for the time-based scheduler within the
coming adjuster interval. In the first category, the bandwidth
adjuster determines the updated PS-class and the corresponding
admitted service rate for every RLC connection, and also
calculates the waiting bound of each RLC connection. Here the
updated PS-class is determined by comparing the current
transmission power to the power thresholds of PS-classes in the
connection, and the waiting bound is the maximum allowable
waiting time in the scheduling queue for a PDU of the
connection. In the second category, the bandwidth adjuster
calculates the service interval of PS-class 2 and PS-class 3, for
which the scheduling priority of PS-classes in every radio-frame
of the coming adjuster interval can be determined accordingly.
The scheduling priorities of PS-classes may be different from
radio-frame to radio-frame. The default priority order of
PS-class in a radio-frame is PS-class 1 > PS-class 2 > PS-class 3.
However, the PS-class priority assignments for each radio-frame
are based on not only the default PS-class priority, but also the
urgency of the RLC connections in each PS-class. For example,
PS-class 3 may need to be assigned the highest priority
periodically every some constant number of radio-frames or the
delay bounds of the RLC connections in PS-class 3 are violated.
In the radio frame where PS-class 3 has the highest priority, the
scheduling order will be PS-class 3 > PS-class 1 > PS-class 2. In
other words, the radio-frame may be used to transmit the PDUs
of the PS-class 1 and PS-class 2 if there is sufficient
transmission power remaining in the cell. Otherwise, the PDUs
of lower priorities should be delayed.
Ad[3]
Ad[2]
1 sec.=100 radio frames
PS-class 3
PS-class 2
PS-class 1
Radio-frame
Priority: 213
Highest priority
Priority: 312
Ad[c]: service interval of PS-class c
Figure 2 Assignment of the Highest Priority
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In PCPS architecture, the bandwidth adjuster can
dynamically adjust the number of radio-frames that are allocated
the highest priority to each PS-class. The bandwidth requirement
for each PS-class may differ for different adjust interval, because
a PS-class may have different MS members due to the changes
in the interference condition of the MSs. Therefore, the
bandwidth adjuster can calculate the ratio of total bandwidth
required by each PS-class from its service weight e
i
and
determine the number of radio-frames that a PS-class could have
highest priority in every adjust interval.
We assumed that the bandwidth requirement for PS-class 2
is always higher than PS-class 3 such that the occurrence of
radio-frames that PS-class 2 has the highest priority is higher
than that of PS-class 3. However, if a conflict occurs in the
radio-frame assignment of the highest priority to PS-class 2 and
PS-class 3, then the highest priority assignment of PS-class 2 is
postponed to the next radio-frame as shown in Figure 2.
Therefore, PS-class 3 is assigned the highest priority every
service interval of PS-class 3, Ad[3] radio-frames.
3.3. Time-Based Scheduling Algorithm
We design a new time-based scheduling scheme, which
can schedule the PDUs in batch, for the time-based scheduler in
WCDMA. The underlying idea of this scheduling scheme is to
schedule the PS-classes sequentially according to the priority
order of PS-class in a radio-frame. For the input RLC
connections belonging to the same PS-class, a Weighted Fair
Queuing (WFQ) [3]based scheduling algorithm is used to pick
the PDUs in accordance with the time emergency of the PDUs
among the connections. The major difference compared to the
traditional WFQ is that more than one PDU may be picked from
an input RLC connection for each schedule.
In our time-based scheduler, the input RLC connection of a
video stream corresponds to a session consisting of a leaky
bucket regulator, a first-come-first-serve (FCFS) queue and the
scheduling information. The scheduling information of a session
k consists of its current PS-class c, and admitted service rate
Inc
k
[c] in a radio-frame and Waiting_bound
k
[c] of PDUs when
the session k is in that PS-class. The admitted service rate Inc
k
[c]
is the maximum number of PDUs that are allowed to transmit in
a radio-frame for the session k in a PS-class of c, whereas
Waiting_bound
k
[c] is the maximum allowable waiting time, in
terms of radio-frames, for a PDU belonging to the session k. As
we can observe from the analysis described in [8],
Waiting_bound
k
[c] also represents the maximum expected
waiting time for the PCPS scheduling to serve up all positive
weighted PDUs of a session k. Each PDU is tagged with a
service weight and the PDUs with positive weights are the
candidate PDUs to be served in the immediately next
radio-frame. When a PDU arrives, is tagged with Inc
k
[c] if the
queue is empty. Otherwise, it is tagged with a service weight that
is one less than the PDU in the tail of the queue. Here, Inc
k
[c] is
set to | | | | ( )
( k k k
L c B c r + because we use a leaky bucket to
regulate the input stream, where r
k
[c] and B
k
[c] are the leaky rate
(mean arrival rate) and the maximum burst length of the session
k in PS-class c, respectively, and L
k
is the PDU length of the
session k.
In each radio frame, the time-based scheduler will pick
those PDUs with positive-tags, class by class, according to the
priority assignment of PS-classes. The PDUs belonging to the
same PS-class are sorted in a decreasing order according to their
scheduling weights and stored in the candidate queue as shown
in Figure 3. The weights of the PDUs of a session k in PS-class c
will be increased by the amount of Inc
k
[c] if the PDUs cannot be
served in the next radio-frame.
INC
k
[i],
Waiting_bound
k
[i]
WFQ
WFQ
WFQ
dynamic
priority
PDU
WFQ Weighted Fair Queueing Scheduler
Dynamic
Assignments of the
PS -class priority for
each radio -frame
Scheduling Information Database
r
1
,B
2
r
2
,B
2
r
n
,B
n
r
a
,B
a
r
b
,B
b
r
m
,B
m
r
A
,B
A
r
B
,B
B
r
X
,B
X
r
x
: Leaky rate (mean arrival rate) B
X
: Bucket Size (Burst length)
Traffic regulator
Candidate
Queue
FCFS Queues
Setting Leaky -buckets
to Power -based
Scheduler
PS -class 1
scheduler
PS -class 2
scheduler
PS -class 3
scheduler
Figure 3 Time-based Scheduler Architecture
The steps executed by the time-base scheduler are as
described below:
Step 1: When a PDU i of session k arrives, it will be tagged
with an accumulated service weight
k i
a
,
and an aging time
Aging_times
i,k
. Aging_times
i,k
is used to adjust the
scheduling weight of the PDU to fulfill the delay bound
requirement. The initial value of Aging_times
i,k
is zero
whereas
k i
a
,
is assigned as follows.
| | c Inc a
k k i
=
,
, if the queue of session k is empty,
1
, 1 ,
=
k i k i
a a , otherwise.
Step 2: Follow the priority order of the PS-classes determined
by the bandwidth adjuster and decide the PS-class, denoted
by p, to be scheduled for the coming radio frame.
Step 3: Pick the positive weighted PDUs from the queues of all
sessions belonging to PS-class p and store these PDUs in
the temporal scheduled queue, T-queue. (By picking
positive-tagged PDUs only, we can confine the service rate
of each session to its admitted service rate.)
Step 4: Arrange PDUs in T-queue in a decreasing order of
scheduling weights. The scheduling weight of a PDU i from
session k, denoted as
k i,
, is defined as follows.
| |
k i k
k i
k i
times Aging p bound Waiting
a
,
,
,
_ _

=
(4)
As we can observe from the above equality, scheduling
weight
k i,
increases as Aging_times
i,k
or
k i
a
,
increases.
The higher the scheduling weight is, the higher the service
precedence is in each radio-frame. PDUs that have the same
scheduling weight are scheduled in a round robin manner
among sessions.
Step 5: Append the sorted PDUs of T-queue to the tail of the
candidate queue, and go to Step 2 if all PS-classes have not
been served.
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Step 6: Increase the accumulated weights and aging times of
all PDUs left in the FCFS queues of all sessions. For a PDU
i of session k, its accumulated weights
k i
a
,
will be
incremented by Inc
k
[c], and its Aging_times
i,k
aged by 1 if
Aging_times
i,k
< Waiting_bound
k
[c] 1. For those PDUs
that reach the waiting bound, it can either be discarded or
transmitted, depending on the network operators decision.
Step 7: Call power-based scheduling algorithm with the
candidate queue as the input.
In step 3, the time-based scheduler puts only the
positive-tagged PDUs in the T-queue to confine the service rate
for each session. This confinement is necessary for flow control.
In step 6, the increment of accumulated weights and aging times
of the PDUs left in the queues will increase their scheduling
weights and thus increase their service precedence in the
radio-frame following the coming radio-frame.
3.4. Power-Based Scheduling Algorithm
Based on inequality (2) described in Section 2, the
power-based scheduler ensures that the transmission power for
each section is high enough to fulfill the FER requirement and
that the total transmission power, required for transmitting all
PDUs in the candidate queue, does not exceed the maximum
power capacity of the cell. The drawback algorithm will be
executed if the total power exceeds the power limitation. The
maximum transmission power equation, described in equation
(3), is used to calculate the proper transmission power for each
session scheduled at the coming radio-frame. Details of the
power-based scheduling algorithm and the drawback algorithm
are described below:
Power-Based Scheduling Algorithm (input parameter:
candidate queue)
Step 1: Calculates the transmission rate of a physical channel
for each session in accordance with the number of PDUs of
the session in the candidate queue.
Step 2: Computes the power indices, mentioned in Section 2,
of all physical channels including the dedicated physical
channels and the common physical channels [4] in a cell by
using the power index equation, ( )
j j j j
G g + = . Here, the
dedicated physical channels are used for transporting PDUs
of RLC connections, whereas the common physical
channels are used for transporting control signals or short
packets. If g
j
is computed for a dedicated physical channel,
then
j
is the Target-SIR of the dedicated channel.
Otherwise
j
is the minSIR of a common physical channel.
Step 3: Execute the Drawback Algorithm until the sum of the
power indices is smaller or equal to one (i.e. the total
transmission power exceeds the maximum tolerant power of
the cell).
Step 4: Calculates the transmission power of each dedicated
physical channel using equation (3), and dispatches all
PDUs in the candidate queue to the lower layer.
Drawback Algorithm (input parameter: candidate queue)
Step 1: Draws the PDU in the tail of candidate queue back to
the time-based scheduler.
Step 2: Increases the service weight and the aging times of the
PDU draw-backed by the power-based scheduler, and put
the PDU at the head of the FIFO queue where the PDU was
picked from.
4. Simulation Models
In our simulation, we compare the CDGPS and the PCPS
scheduling schemes. As mentioned before, CDGPS scheme does
not consider the channel fading, and it assumes that the
bandwidth capacity of a WCDMA cell is fixed.
The simulation time unit is one radio-frame, which is 10ms.
The bandwidth adjuster in our PCPS architecture will be
executed for every second. A single cell is considered in the
simulation. Mobiles are uniformly distributed within the cell.
The antenna height is assumed to be 15 meters. Hata model [2]
and Jakes model [9] are used to model the slow fading and fast
fading environments, respectively. In addition, we assume that
30% of the power capacity in a cell is used by the signaling
channels, and the remaining power capacity is used by the
physical dedicated channels. Each RLC connection (henceforth
referred to as sessions) is carried by an MS, and the arrival of
session request is modeled by a Poisson process. The holding
time of a session is exponentially distributed with the mean
value that is equal to 60 sec. A two-state (on and off) Markov
model with parameters P
on-off
and P
off-on
is used to generate the
input traffic for the active session. The input traffic is assumed
to be regulated by a leaky bucket policer with parameters (B, r),
where B is the leaky bucket size in bits and r is the token arrival
rate in bits per radio-frame (bits/radio-frame). Therefore, the
maximum burst length of the session can be constrained by B + r
in a radio-frame. The traffic of a session outputted from a leaky
bucket will be encapsulated to fixed size packets and stored into
the corresponding session. Without loss of generality, the packet
size is 300 bytes and each packet is further segmented into fixed
size transport blocks with size 500 bits. Moreover, because the
input sessions in our simulation are loosely delay and
information loss sensitive sessions (e.g., compressed video with
the pre-buffer in the receiver), the backward error correction
(BEC) mechanism is applied in our simulation, for which the
receiver of a session requests a selective automatic repeat
request (ARQ) to ask the sender to re-transmit an erroneous
block. The re-transmission block will be buffered in its original
scheduling queue and rescheduled with the new arrival blocks. A
block is discarded if it cannot be re-transmitted successfully
within the delay bound. In our simulation, a session needs to
wait 40ms for an ARQ signal to determine whether a block
should be re-transmitted or not.
The mobility model is a random walk model in which each
MS randomly choose one of the eight directions every 1 sec. The
choice of direction has no memory of the historical directions.
Other simulation parameters are obtained from [1] and are listed
in Table 1.
Table 1 Simulation Parameters
Simulation Parameter Value Unit
Orthogonally factor 10 %
Chip rate 3.84 Mcps
Spreading factor (dedicated channel) Dynamic
Common Channel power budget 30 %
Dedicated Channel power budget 70 %
Path loss Hata Model dB
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA05)
1550-445X/05 $20.00 2005 IEEE
-6-
Rayleigh Fading paths 8
PDU Scheduling interval 10 ms
Outer close-loop PC interval 10 ms
Bandwidth adjustment interval (PCPS only) 1 sec.
Initial E
b
/N
0
11.2 dB
Required FER 10
-3
concurrently active sessions 6
5. Simulation Results
The simulation results that the mean delay and
block-dropping ratio for the PCPS and CDGPS scheduling
schemes are shown in Figure 4 and 5, respectively. The X-axis
in each figure is the mean arrival rate of the input traffic per
session. The mobile speed of 3, 50, and 300Km are considered
in the simulation. The higher the mobile speed is, the higher the
FER are experienced by the MS due to the effect of Rayleigh
fading. In Figure 4, the PCPS scheduling scheme has the lower
mean delay than CDGPS scheduling schemes. Its because the
PCPS scheme may adapt its service rate according to the
different channel-conditions as well as the total bandwidth
capacity in a cell and, therefore, it reduces the FER and provides
a higher throughput. By contrast, CDGPS scheduling scheme
suffers higher FER, because the channel fading and the inter-cell
co-channel interference cause the bandwidth capacity of a cell to
be less than the expectation. In addition, the higher FER also
reflects the higher retransmission probability when serving loss
sensitive sessions. Consequently, the retransmission delays
lengthen the mean delay in CDGPS scheduling scheme, which
also increase the block-dropping ratio since a block needs to be
dropped if the waiting time in the queue exceeds the delay
bound. As shown in Figure 5, we can find that CDGPS
scheduling scheme exhibits higher block-dropping ratio.
Therefore, we may conclude that our PCPS scheduling scheme
is robust in terms of mean delay and block-dropping ratio.
6. Conclusions
In this paper, we propose a QoS-aware PCPS scheduling
scheme that aims to support the downlink packet scheduling for
VBR services in WCDMA multimedia packet networks. PCPS
scheme can classify the transmission power-strength of a VBR
connection into several PS-classes and determine the admitted
service rate of each PS-class at connection setup time. This
scheme employs a two-stage scheduling architecture, viz. the
first stage is a time-based scheduling and the second stage is a
power-based scheduling to reduce the scheduling complexity
resulting from simultaneous adjustment of both service rate and
transmission power-strength in WCDMA. From the simulation
results, we find that the PCPS scheme not only can guarantee the
delay bound and packet-dropping ratio at different mobile
speeds, but also can obtain the fair bandwidth allocations among
connections.
References
[1] Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, WCDMA For UMTS: Radio
Access For Third Generation Mobile Communications,
JOHN WILLWY and SONS, INC., 2000.
[2] Saunders, S. R., Antennas and Propagation for Wireless
Communication Systems, JOHN WILLWY and SONS, INC.,
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[3] A. K. Parekh and R.G. Gallager, A Generalized Processor
Sharing Approach to Flow Control in Integrated Services
Network The Single Node Case, ACM/IEEE Trans.
Networking, vol. 1, no. 3, pp.334-357, June 1993.
[4] ETSI TS 125.211, Universal Mobile Telecommunication
System (UMTS); Physical channels and mapping of
transport channels onto physical channels (FDD) (3GPP TS
25.221 version 5.2.0 Release 5), Oct. 2002.
[5] 3G TS 25.331, 3
rd
Generation Partnership Project (3GPP);
Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; RRC
Protocol Specification, Jan. 2000.
[6] ETSI TS 125.302, Universal Mobile Telecommunication
System (UMTS); Services provided by the Physical Layer
(3GPP TS 25.302 version 5.2.0 Release 5), Oct. 2002.
[7] Ashwin Sampath, Narayan B. Mandayam and Jack M.
Holtzman, Erlang Capacity of a Power Controlled
Integrated Voice and Data CDMA System, Vehicular
Technology Conference, 1997, IEEE 47th, vol. 3, pp. 1557
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[8] J. S. Yang, C. C. Tseng and R. G. Cheng, Performance
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WCDMA, Tech. Report,
ftp://pdptlg6.csie.nctu.edu.tw:6350/pub/PCPS-analysis.doc
[9] Jakes, W. C., Jun. (Ed.), Microwave mobile
communications, JOHN WILLWY and SONS, INC., New
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[10] Liang Xu, Xuemin Shen, and Jon W. Mark, Dynamic
Bandwidth Allocation with Fair Scheduling for WCDMA
Systems, IEEE Wireless Communications, April 2002.
0
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Mean Arrival Rate per session (PDUs/s)
M
e
a
n

D
e
l
a
y

(
m
s
)
CDGPS(300Km)
CDGPS(50Km)
CDGPS(3Km)
PCPS(300Km)
PCPS(50Km)
PCPS(3Km)
PCPS
CDGPS
Figure 4 Mean delays for different scheduling schemes
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
1
1
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.2
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Mean Arrival Rate per session (PDUs/s)
D
r
o
p
p
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n
g

r
a
t
i
o
CDGPS(300Km)
CDGPS(50Km)
CDGPS(3Km)
PCPS(300Km)
PCPS(50Km)
PCPS(3Km)
PCPS
CDGPS
Figure 5 Block-dropping ratios for different scheduling
schemes
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA05)
1550-445X/05 $20.00 2005 IEEE