# AP Physics

Practice Test: Vectors; 2-D Motion

This test covers vectors using both polar coordinates and i-j notation, radial and tangential acceleration, and two-dimensional motion including projectiles. Part I. Multiple Choice 1. v

h   x     In a lab experiment, a ball is rolled down a ramp so that it leaves the edge of the table with a horizontal velocity v. If the table has a height h above the ground, how far away from the edge of the table, a distance x, does the ball land? You may neglect air friction in this problem. 2v 2 a. g 2h b. v g 2vh € c. g 2h € d. g e. none of these €

2.

B   t  B   A   t  A

An object travels along a path shown above, with changing velocity as indicated by vectors A and B. Which vector best represents the net acceleration of the object from time tA to tB? a. b. c.

d.

e.

©2011, Richard White

www.crashwhite.com

60m d.8 m/s2 d. 196m 5.AP Physics Practice Test: Vectors. where a has units of m/s2. y 2 2y € 2 e. € € 4.crashwhite. Upwards at 9. 2-D Motion 3. 144m e. Upwards at 4. Just after the ball is released. A circus cannon fires an acrobat into the air at an angle of 45° above the horizontal. The cannon is now aimed so that it fires straight up into the air at an angle of 90° to the horizontal. Consider a ball thrown up from the surface of the earth into the air at an angle of 30° above the horizontal.com . and the acrobat reaches a maximum height y above her original launch height. 12m b. Downwards at 9. What is the maximum height reached by the same acrobat now? a.8 m/s2 b. 72m c. its acceleration is: a. what is its position at t = 4. 2 c. A particle moves along the x-axis with an acceleration of a = 18t. Air friction is negligible. 0 m/s2 e. If the particle € at time t = 0 is at the origin with a velocity of -12 m/s. 2 y € d. y y b.0s? a.9 m/s2 c. Richard White www. None of these ©2011.

2-D Motion atangential  =  4.53 m/s. Calculate the radial acceleration of the mass at this position.crashwhite. a.53  m/s   A mass is attached to the end of a 75. Free Response 6.90 m/s2 and a tangential velocity of 1. Richard White www.0-centimeter long light string which is then attached to the ceiling.90  m/s2   v  =  1. as shown.AP Physics Part II. L  =  75cm   30°   Practice Test: Vectors. Calculate the net acceleration of the mass at this position. ©2011. it has a tangential acceleration of 4.0° with the vertical.com . and allowed to swing back and forth as a simple pendulum. When the pendulum makes an angle of 30. b.

how far away horizontally does the ball land from where it began to fall? ©2011. If the ball is 1.75 meters above the floor when the string breaks.08  m/s   At the bottom of its swing.com . Richard White www.08 m/s when the string suddenly breaks. What is the radial acceleration of the ball just before the string snaps? d.crashwhite. the ball is traveling 2.AP Physics Practice Test: Vectors. What is the acceleration of the ball just after the string breaks? e. c. 2-D Motion L  =  75cm   v  =  2.

b. Determine how much time it takes for the ball to reach the wall. Richard White www.0 meter high castle wall. Determine the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the cannonball as it passes over the castle wall.00 meters above the highest point of the wall. The cannonball travels a horizontal distance of 60. A cannonball with an initial height of 1. 2-D Motion 7.0 meters to a 10. Determine the initial speed of the cannonball as it is fired. c. (Assume air friction is negligible.AP Physics Practice Test: Vectors.com . ©2011. and passes over 2.00 meter above the ground is fired from a cannon at an angle of 50° above the horizontal.) a.crashwhite.

2-D Motion d. Richard White www. runs past a small dog that is initially at rest. How much time passes before the dog catches up to the cat? b.crashwhite. running at a constant velocity of 5. a.5 m/s2 in the positive-x direction.com .AP Physics Practice Test: Vectors.0 m/s in the positive-x direction. How far has the dog traveled at this point? ©2011. Just as the cat passes the dog. determine whether or not the ball will still clear the castle wall. the dog begins accelerating at 0. A large cat.5° above the horizontal. 8. If the same cannonball is fired with the same initial speed at an angle of 55.

crashwhite. What is the cat’s velocity relative to the dog at time t = 5. traveling in the positive-x direction at 5.0 seconds after the dog begins running? f. the cat passes the dog as before.5 m/s2 in the positive-y direction. 2-D Motion In a different situation. the dog begins accelerating at 0. Now. d. as the cat passes.0 seconds after the dog begins running? ©2011.AP Physics c. What is the cat’s acceleration relative to the dog? e. Richard White www. What is the cat’s position relative to the dog at time t = 5.0 m/s.com . How fast is the dog traveling at this point? Practice Test: Vectors.

crashwhite.0s: x = 3t 3 − 12 t = 3(4) 3 − 12 t = 144 m € ©2011. the vertical velocity v is greater than v y from before. a) to the left. where we've given C the value -12. € 3.AP Physics Practice Test Solutions: Vectors. we can € of the change in velocity. 2-D Motion 1. Now. as determined here: 2 Δy = v 0 t + 1 2 at   t= 2Δy 2h = −g g € Horizontally. C = 0 because the location of the particle at time t = 0 was the origin. during that time the ball travels at constant velocity: Δx = vt   x =v 2h g 2. Or. The particle's displacement as a function of time can be determined by analyzing the antiderivative of the acceleration and velocity: v = ∫ a dt . € velocity of the € Continuing: x = ∫ 9 t 2 + −12 dt = 3t 3 − 12 t + C = 3t 3 − 12 t € In this case. which represents the particle at time t = 0. Because ∆v = vf – vi. The correct answer is d. v y : 2 v2 f = vi − 2 ay 0 − vi2 vi2 (v 2 / 2)2 v 2 y= € = = = −2 g 2 g 2g 4g v   vy   For the second situation. Richard White www. according to a = t determine ∆v graphically by adding vf to the negative of vi . using the full velocity v: y! = (vi )2 = 2y 2g € € v   4. The correct answer is d. The correct answer is c . by a factor of 2 . or B+(-A). Placing the B ∆V=B-­‐A   vector “tip-to-tail” with the –A vector gives a direction for ∆v (and therefore. The acrobat reaches her height in the first instance based on the initial vertical component of velocity. The ball takes a time t to fall from the table.com € . and x = ∫ v dt To get the velocity as a function of time: v = ∫ 18 t dt = 9 t 2 + C = 9 t 2 + −12 . The direction of acceleration is the same as the direction -­‐A   B   v f − vi . solve with t = 4. The correct answer is b .

AP Physics Practice Test Solutions: Vectors. even as it moves upwards and sideways through the air.75 d. Radial acceleration is calculated as follows: v 2 (1.77 m / s2 r 0.80 m/s2 downward. € and the radial component is negative because it is directed toward the center of the circular path. € v 2 2.12r ˆ ) m / s2 anet = ( −4.90 2 = 5. 6. The net acceleration of the ball is determined by combining the radial and tangential accelerations. It is now in “free-fall.90 ' θ = tan −1& ) = 57. The ball.12 2 + 4.598 s Horizontally : Δx = vt Δx = (2. Richard White www. experiences a force of gravity acting on it.53m / s) 2 ac = = = 3. 2-D Motion 5. The radial acceleration of the ball is calculated just as in (a) above: ac = = = 5.12 m / s2 r (0.598) = 1.5° % 3. a.5° + 90 + 30 = 177.90  m/s2   The direction of that net acceleration at this particular position (relative to 0° east) is: \$ atangential ' € θ ( relative to radial) = tan −1& ) % aradial ( \$ 4.08 m/s and initial vertical velocity of 0.24 m € ©2011.com .12  m/s2   a = ar 2 + at 2 = 3. The correct answer is c . there is nothing to keep the ball moving in a circle. which causes it to accelerate downwards at g.” with an acceleration of 9.75 m) b. Apply a projectile analysis to determine how far away horizontally the ball lands: 2 Vertically : Δy = v i t + 1 2 at −1.75 = 0 t − 4. € e. The magnitude of this acceleration is: 30°   aradial=  3. with an initial horizontal velocity of 2.81m / s2 atangential  =  4. Just after the string snaps.08)(0.9 t 2 t = 0. which € are at right angles to each other.crashwhite. The ball is behaving as a projectile.90θ where the tangential component is negative because the acceleration is in the clockwise direction.12 ( One might also give the net acceleration as the sum of tangential and radial unit vectors: ˆ − 3.08 2 c.

t = ? € x vx = t 60 60 v cos50 = . 39. v x = v cos50. substitute back in one of the initial equations in (a) above to determine the initial speed 60 60 v= = = 26.3° (ie.1m / s € t 3. which is enough to clear it. Practice Test Solutions: Vectors.crashwhite. we get: " 60 % 11 = \$ ' t sin50 − 4.AP Physics 7.6cos55.97) − 4. the ∆y for the cannon ball is 9.51s b. v y = 26.0 vx = = = 17.5 = 21.12 + (14.9 t 2 We have a single equation with two unknowns—vi and t—so we turn to the horizontal motion to get a second equation with the same two unknowns: x = 60 m.6sin 50 − 9.9(3.0 % θ = tan −1 \$ ' = −39.51(cos50) c. Because the ball began its motion from a height of 1.7m.6 m / s € cos50 t 3.0 m.51 vy− final = vy−initial + at = 26.71m.3° below the horizontal) # 17. t = ?.51) = −14.8(3.00 = (21. so v = t cos50 t Substituting the second equation into the first. its velocity will be the combination of horizontal and vertical velocities: x 60.1 & d. 2-D Motion a.9)(3.00m. y f = 12.6sin55.9 t 2 # t cos50 & € 11 − 60tan50 = −4.0 m / s 2 2 v = vx + vy = 17. Richard White www.com .0 m.9 t 2 t = 12. Performing an analysis similar to the one above.1m / s " −14. As the cannonball passes over the castle wall. a = −9.9 m / s t= x 60 = = 3.1 2 y f − y i = v y − initial t + 1 2 at y f − 1.5 = 15.8 m / s2 . v i = v sin50 2 Δy = v i t + 1 2 at 11 = v sin50 t − 4. The time it takes for the ball to reach the specified height above the wall can be determined by analyzing the ball’s vertical motion: y i = 1.97 s v x 15. Now that we known how much time elapsed.0)2 = 22. v x = 26. its height when it reaches the wall is 10.3 = 3.7 m € ©2011.1m / s.97) 2 y f = 10.

com .5)(20) = 10 m / s d. e. The 20 seconds is our chosen solution—it takes 20 seconds for the dog to catch up to the cat.€ One way to solve this is using i-j notation: v cat − dog = v cat − dog − initial + acat − dog t v cat − dog = (5i + 0 j) + (0i − 0. 2-D Motion a. The 0 seconds refers to the initial time when the dog and€ cat are next to each other.5 m/s in the x-direction) and do a vector analysis similar to (d) above. but not accelerating in the +x direction relative to the dog.25 t 2 € This is a quadratic equation that has two roots: 0 and 20.0 seconds (2.0 m / s) t .5 m/s in the ydirection) and the cat’s velocity relative to the ground (0.25 j) m ©2011.crashwhite.5 j)(5) v cat − dog = (5i − 2. € acat − ground = 0i adog − ground = 0.5 j)(5)2 2 Δr = (25i − 6. The cat’s position as a function of time is given by Δx cat = vt = (5. Use the answer from (a) to determine ∆x: Δx cat = vt = (5. and using the cat’s and dog’s acceleration relative to the ground as a reference point. The dog will have caught up with the cat when the displacement of both of them (∆x) is equal. The cat’s acceleration relative to the dog can be determined with vector analysis. € b.5 m / s ) t .0 m / s)(20 s) = 100 m c.AP Physics 8. Practice Test Solutions: Vectors. The position of the cat relative to the dog can again be determined using i-j notation: 1 Δr = vi t + at 2 2 1 Δr = (5i + 0 j)(5) + (0 i − 0.5 j acat − dog = 0i − 0. € f.5 j) m / s2 The interpretation of this is that the cat is accelerating downward (-y direction) relative to the dog. The dog’s position as a 2 2 2 1 function of time is given by Δx dog = v i t + 1 2 at = 0 + 2 (0.5 j) m / s You could also get the dog’s velocity relative to the ground at 5. Therefore: 5 t = 0. Richard White www.5 j = ( −0. Use kinematics to determine the dog’s velocity at this point: v f = v i + at € v f = 0 + (0.25 j) = (25i − 6.

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