AP Physics

Practice Test: Static Equilibrium, Gravitation, Periodic Motion

This test covers static equilibrium, universal gravitation, and simple harmonic motion, with some problems requiring a knowledge of basic calculus. Part I. Multiple Choice 1. 60°   A   B   10  kg  

A mass of 10 kg is suspended from a cable A and a rigid horizontal bar B that is free to rotate, as shown. What is the approximate tension, in Newtons, in cable A? 100 a. 3 b. 100 3

c.

200 2

d. 200 3

e.

200 3

2. In a science fiction story, a planet has half the radius of the Earth, but the same mass as the earth. What is € the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of this planet as a function of g? a. 4 g b. 2g
€ €

c. g d.
1 g 2 1 g 4


e.

©2011, Richard White  

www.crashwhite.com

A simple harmonic oscillator consisting of a mass M attached to a spring with spring constant k is set into motion at the surface of the earth. f b. rM = Rm e. The same spring is then attached to a mass of 2M. What is the approximate relationship between the centripetal acceleration of each planet? a. e. Gravitation. with two different masses connected to the pulleys as shown above. r2M = R2m 4. Richard White   www. 4f f 2 f 2 ©2011. aEarth = aJupiter b. d.crashwhite. Earth and Jupiter both travel in a roughly circular orbit around the sun. 2 f c. and observed to have a frequency f.AP Physics 3. aJupiter = 5 aEarth e.com . What is the frequency of oscillation now? a. Jupiter’s orbit is approximately 5 times the radius of the Earth’s orbit. aEarth = 25 aJupiter d. m = M b. rm = RM c. r2m = R2M d. aEarth = 5 aJupiter c. Under what condition will this pulley system be in static equilibrium? a. where R is the radius of the earth. Periodic Motion r     R     M     m     The pulley system consists of two solid disks of different radii fastened together coaxially. Practice Test: Static Equilibrium. aJupiter = 25 aEarth 5. and moved to a location R above the surface of the earth.

two possible equations describing the particle’s x. x = 2sin # & "2% e. x = 2 cos # t & "π % !2 $ y = 2sin # t & "π % c. A particle moves constantly in a circle centered at the origin with a period of 4. Richard White   www. If its position at time t = 0 seconds is (2.and y-components are: !π $ !π $ y = 2sin # t & a. Periodic Motion 6. x = 2 cos # t & "2 % "2 % !2 $ b.AP Physics Practice Test: Static Equilibrium. Gravitation. !π $ x = 2sin # t & "2 % !π $ y = 2 cos # t & "2 % !π $ d.0) meters.0 seconds.com . !π $ y = 2 cos # & "2% x = 2π cos ( 2t ) y = 2π sin ( 2t ) ©2011.crashwhite.

Draw a free-body diagram of the horizontal beam. the tension in the support line is indicated by a Force sensor of negligible mass. to a vertical support as shown above. ©2011. The beam is currently oriented in a horizontal position. located at L/4. Free Response 7. Practice Test: Static Equilibrium. 7 a.crashwhite. uniform beam with mass m and length L is attached by means of a pivot. Show that the moment of inertia for the rod about the pivot is ML2 . Give all answers in terms of variables given and fundamental constants. Periodic Motion spring  scale   1 L 4 cm   m   θ 3 L 4 A long. Gravitation. 48 b.com .AP Physics Part II. Richard White   www. The beam is connected to a support line oriented at an angle θ relative to the horizontal.

Periodic Motion cm   m   θ 2m   3m   A weight of mass 2m is now placed at the left end of the beam. d. Calculate the tension T in the support line. Richard White   www.com . ©2011.AP Physics Practice Test: Static Equilibrium. Gravitation.crashwhite. Calculate the x and y components of force acting on the pivot point. c. and a mass of 3m is located at the right end of the beam.

Gravitation. The support line for the beam is now cut. A satellite with mass m = 617kg is placed into a circular orbit 1.crashwhite. Periodic Motion e. a. Calculate the radial acceleration of the satellite. Calculate the angular acceleration of the beam at the moment the support line is cut.AP Physics Practice Test: Static Equilibrium.38 × 10 6 m .98 × 10 24 kg and a radius r = 6. Richard White   www. Calculate the linear speed of the satellite as it orbits the earth at this altitude. which has a mass M = 5. 8. b.00 × 10 7 m above the surface of the earth.com . ©2011.

relative to the center of the earth. Determine the escape velocity that was necessary for the satellite to be launched into this orbit from the surface of the earth. Gravitation. f. Calculate the location of the center-of-mass of the earth-satellite system.crashwhite. e. d. Calculate the satellite’s total mechanical energy at this altitude. Calculate the period of the satellite.com . Richard White   www.AP Physics Practice Test: Static Equilibrium. Periodic Motion c. ©2011.

©2011.AP Physics 9.com . Practice Test: Static Equilibrium. a.00 kg platform is attached and slowly allowed to descend to an equilibrium position? The platform is now pulled down an additional 10 centimeters from the equilibrium position and released. A flat 1. Determine the speed of the platform as it passes the equilibrium position during its oscillation.00 kg platform is then attached to the top of the spring. Gravitation. Periodic Motion m  =  1. c. What distance does the spring compress when the 1.00kg   k  =  500N/m   A spring of negligible mass and spring constant 500 N/m is oriented vertically as shown.crashwhite. Richard White   www. Calculate the period of the mass-spring system’s oscillation. b.

©2011.50kg   h  =  30.AP Physics Practice Test: Static Equilibrium. d. Gravitation. Richard White   www. e.com .00kg   k  =  500N/m   Now the platform is placed again at its equilibrium position.0 centimeters above the platform so that it falls and contacts the platform in a perfectly inelastic collision. Periodic Motion m  =  0.0cm   m  =  1. Calculate the amplitude of this new mass-spring system. Calculate the period of this new mass-spring system. A 500 gram blob of clay is released from a height of 30.crashwhite.

Gravitation. less. Compared with the experiment on earth. where the acceleration due to gravity is less than it is on earth. g. the amplitude of the mass-spring system on Mars is more.crashwhite.AP Physics Practice Test: Static Equilibrium. and it falls and collides perfectly inelastically with the platform as before.0 centimeters above the platform. ©2011. f. or the same? Explain. The 500-gram blob of clay is again released from a height of 30. Richard White   www. the period of the mass-spring system on Mars is more. Periodic Motion The same experiment is now conducted by astronauts at a base station on Mars. less. or the same? Explain.com . Compared with the experiment on earth.

Fy . Richard White   www. Therefore: ∑F y = ma Fy − Fg = 0 € Fy = FTension sin60 = (10 kg)(~ 10 m / s2 ) FTension = 100 N = 200 32 3 2.AP Physics Practice Test Solutions: Static Equilibrium. Gravitation. The pulley system will be in equilibrium when the sum of the torques acting on the pulleys is 0. determine agravity for the new planet: Gm planet Gmearth 4Gmearth ag = = = 2 2 2 1r r rearth ( 2 earth ) planet €   ag = 4 g 3. approximately 100N. The correct answer is e . ∑τ = 0 τM −τm = 0 τ =r×F (r × Mg) − ( R × mg) = 0 rMg = Rmg rM = Rm ©2011. must be entirely supported by the vertical component of the tension in the cable. The correct answer is d . The correct answer is a . The acceleration due to gravity can be determined using Newton’s Law of € Universal Gravitation: mm Fg = G 1 2 2 r mm m1g = G 1 2 2   r Gmearth g= r2   Now.com . Periodic Motion 1.crashwhite. The weight of the mass.

according to the equation 1 L f pendulum = € 2π g f $= 6. A clockwise motion would have the same equation describing the x component. The centripetal acceleration of each planet is driven by the force of gravity.crashwhite. but the y component would be given by y = − A sin(ωt + φ ) . mag = G 5. The location of the mass-spring system doesn’t have any effect on its frequency of oscillation. Its period of 4. Periodic Motion 4. Based on the circular path being centered at the origin and particle’s original € position at (2. #2 & € ©2011.0) meters. we can deduce that the amplitude A of the particle’s motion is 2 meters. This relationship is consistent with answer c. The correct answer is e. the possible equations are: #ω & #ω & x = 2cos% t (.com . the acceleration of the Earth. but the mass 2M attached to the spring does: 1 k f mass− spring = 2π m 1 k f = 2π 2 m 2 Note that changing the location of a pendulum does affect the frequency of its oscillation. the y € equation is one possible solution (for a ccw motion). or 1/25. substituting in the values from above. and with φ = 0. Jupiter. and the acceleration of a planet can be calculated as follows: Mm Fg = G 2 r Fg = mag € Mm r2 M ag = G 2 r We can see that acceleration due to gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the radius. has 1/52. y = A sin% t ( $2 ' $2 ' € Note that we don’t know whether the particle is moving in a counterclockwise or clockwise direction. or € "π % y = −2sin $ t ' . The correct answer is a .AP Physics Practice Test Solutions: Static Equilibrium. with its radius 5 times that of the Earth. The correct answer is c . y = A sin(ωt + φ ) Here.0 seconds allows us to determine its angular velocity: 2π T= ω 2π 2π π ω= = = T 4 2 Equations that describe the components of circular motion are: x = A cos(ωt + φ ). Gravitation. Richard White   www.

Horizontally: ∑ Fx = 0 T   Ry   Rx   Rx − Tx = 0 8mg Rx = Tx = T cosθ = 3tan θ Vertically: ∑ Fy = 0 Ry + Ty − F2 mg − Fg − F3mg = 0 Ry = 2 mg + mg + 3mg − T sin θ # 8mg & 10 Ry = 6 mg − % ( sin θ = mg $ 3sin θ ' 3 ©2011.crashwhite. or use the parallel-axis theorem. we’ll use Newton’s Second Law in horizontal and vertical directions. shown here. ∑τ = 0 τ 2 m − τ m − τ 3m + τ Tension = 0 r × Fg 2 m − r × Fg − r × Fg 3m + r × T = 0 $L' $L' $3 ' $3 ' & ) 2 mg − & ) mg − & L ) 3mg + & L ) T sin θ = 0 %4( %4( %4 ( %4 ( 8mg T= 3sin θ d.com . Gravitation. Practice Test Solutions: Static Equilibrium. There are two ways to arrive at the moment of inertia for the rod: perform the full I = ∫ r 2 dm integration with limits (-1/4)L to (+3/4)L. This is a static equilibrium problem where the sum of the torques acting on the beam is zero. To determine the Rx and Ry components. Periodic Motion a. Ry   Rx   T   Fg   c. Richard White   Fg   www. I = I cm + MD 2 !L$ 1 7 I = ML2 + M # & = ML2 " 4 % 48 12 2 b.AP Physics 7.

and needs additional energy (kinetic) to achieve the total energy calculated in part (d). Etotal = U = −G . The radial acceleration can be calculated in one of two ways: v2 M ac = = G 2 r r ac = 1. Periodic Motion e. acting as a centripetal force.9 e3)2 + −(6. Gravitation.com . Richard White   www. I = I beam + I 2 m + I 3m = τ = Iα 2 2 +r × F2 mg − r × Fg − r × F3mg = Iα I = I beam + M 2 R2 + M 3 R3 !L$ ! 3L $ 7 I = ML2 + 2 M # & + 3M # & "4% " 4 % 48 94 I = ML2 48 8. 2 2 # 94 & L L 3L 2 mg − mg − 3mg = % ML2 (α $ 48 ' 4 4 4 −96 g −48 g α= = 94 L 47 L a.98e24)(617) Etotal = 617(4.9 e3 d.672 e − 11) 2 (6. To determine angular acceleration. The satellite’s orbit is maintained by the force of earth’s gravity.38e6 + 1e7) Etotal = −7.9 e3m / s b.1e 4 s = 5. Fgravity = Fcentripetal GMm v2 = m r2 r GM GM v= = r (rearth + altitude) v = 4.00 e 7) T= = 2. ©2011. The period of the satellite—the time it takes to complete one orbit—can be calculated as follows: 2π 2π r T= = ω v 2π (6. use the angular form of Newton’s Second Law of Motion. Note that the moment of inertia of the system has increased with the two masses.crashwhite.8hrs 4.49 m / s 2 c. 2 r e.38e6 + 1.AP Physics Practice Test Solutions: Static Equilibrium. The satellite has potential energy at the surface of the earth.6 e9 J 1 Mm The shortcut for solving this problem is remembering that. for bound orbits. Total mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic and potential energies: Etotal = K + U 1 Mm Etotal = mv 2 + −G 2 r 1 (5.

Calculating period: m T = 2π k T = 2π 1.69 e − 15m 5.12 e 4 m / s f.6 e9 J + 6.com .98e24)(617) % $ −7. 9. The center-of-mass can be calculated using x m +x m xcm = earth earth satellite satellite mearth + msatellite Considering center of earth as origin: 0(5. a.6 e9 J = mvesc + −G 2 r 2" Mm % vesc = $ −7.38e6 vesc = 1.00kg   Fgravity   + Fspring + − Fgravity = 0 kx − mg = 0 x= mg (1.crashwhite. Periodic Motion 1 2 Mm −7. Gravitation.020 m k 500 N / m k  =  500N/m   b. At that point. Fnet = ma = 0 Fspring   m  =  1. Richard White   www.6 e9 J + G ' m# r & vesc = 2 " (5.638e 7)(617) xcm = = 1.28s 500 N / m ©2011.00kg platform is placed on top of the spring. When the 1.8m / s 2 ) = = 0.672 e − 11 ' & 617 # 6.0 kg)(9.98e24) + 1.00 kg = 0.98e24 + 617 This is obviously extremely close to the center of the earth.AP Physics Etotal = K + U Practice Test Solutions: Static Equilibrium. the spring is compressed until the force of gravity pulling the platform down is balanced by the force of the spring pushing upward.

AP Physics Practice Test Solutions: Static Equilibrium.8)(0.8) = = 0.00kg   Ui + K i = U f + K f 1 mgh = mv 2 2 v = 2 gh = 2 • 9. The energy of the platform is based on the stored potential energy when the spring has been compressed 0.10m. The new equilibrium position (relative to the unstretched spring. is Fspring = Fgravity T = 2π kx = mg x= mg (1. which allows us to calculate velocity. using Conservation of Momentum: m  =  0. so I’ll do that using energy: h  =  30.30 m = 2.0cm   h  =  0.10) + (1)v 2 2 2 v = 1.10)2 = (1)(9. The amplitude of the new system is measured as the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position.030 m k 500 We also need to determine the maximum displacement of the spring.34 s 500 N / m e. Periodic Motion c. Gravitation.com .0298m = 0. At the equilibrium position. Richard White   www. that elastic potential energy has been converted to both gravitational and kinetic energy. I’ll begin by calculating the velocity of the platform-blob just after the collision.50kg   pblob + p platform = pblob+ platform mblob vblob + 0 = (mblob + m platform )v! Looks like I need to get the velocity of the blog just before it hits.030   x0   k  =  500N/m   A   m  =  1.5)(9. ∑ Ebottom = ∑ Eequilibrium Uelastic = U gravitational + K 1 2 1 kx = mgh + mv 2 2 2 1 1 (500)(0.8 • 0. where the kinetic energy just after the collision and the changing gravitational potential energy are converted to elastic potential energy. which can be calculated based on an energy analysis.7m / s d.crashwhite.50 kg = 0.4 m / s Now: ©2011. Using the same process as before m T = 2π k 1.

115m} Because I’ve solved this problem with a negative in my height.4)2 + (500)(0.8m / s For simplicity’s sake.03)2 = (1. and those two values are the same on Mars as they were on Earth.5)(9.174 m. Gravitation. f. and thus a smaller amplitude when Uspring is at a maximum. Plug this value into the equation to confirm that it correctly satisfies our analysis.0)v! v! = 0. The weaker gravity field will results in a smaller velocity for the class blog just before it hits the platform.8)(0. According to the formula for period of a mass-spring system. and the change in potential energy ∆ U = mg ∆ h will be less. −0. there will be less elastic potential energy stored in the spring.174 meters displacement. g.crashwhite. as long as you keep track of changes in potential energy): ∑ Einitial = ∑ E final U g + K + U spring = U g + K + U spring 1 1 1 1 2 mghi + mvi2 + kxi2 = mgh f + mv 2 kx f f + 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 (1.com . the only two factors that determine the period are the mass m and the spring constant k. the correct Amplitude solution is the 0.4 m / s ) = (0.03) + (1. The amplitude for the oscillating system will be less than it was on Earth.5)(2.8)(− A)) + 0 + (500) A 2 2 2 2 Solve quadratic equation to get A = {0. take the height of impact to be h=0. also due to a smaller g value.5kg)(2. Periodic Motion pblob + p platform = pblob+ platform mblob vblob + 0 = (mblob + m platform )v! (0.AP Physics Practice Test Solutions: Static Equilibrium.5 + 1. ©2011. The period for the oscillating system will be the same as it was on Earth.5)(9. Richard White   www. With less initial energy in the system.030m for my Energy analysis (although you can use any position you want.

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