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• Objectives:-

1. To learn how to build a simple resistive network.


2. To learn how to measure the voltage across the resistor and the
current that passes through it.
3. To verify ohm's law, and analysis a circuit using kirchoff's voltage
and current law.
4. Calculate power dissipated in DC circuit and show that the power
dissipated in a load equal to the power supplied by the source.
5. Calculate the voltage drop across a resistor using voltage divider
method.
6. Calculate the current through a resistor by current divider method.
7. plot the I-V characteristic of some linear & nonlinear devices.
8. show the differences between linear and nonlinear devices.
9. Verify the lab experiment with Pspise.

• Equipment:-
1. Digital multimeter(DMM)
2. Breadboard.
3. DC power supply.
4. Resistors.
5. LED (Light Emitted Diode).
6. Computer software (Pspise).

• contents:-
1. Ohm's law and DC series circuits.
2. Voltage and current divider.
3. I-V characteristics of tow terminal devices.

• Theory:-
 In the voltage division rule the voltage is divided between tow series
resistors in direct to their resistance, while in the current division rule
the current is divided between tow parallel resisters in reverse to
their resistance.
 In the series compination we can use the voltage divider circuit to
find the voltage in each resistor
VR1=(R1/(R1+R2))*V

 In the parallel compination we can use the current divider circuit to


find the current in each resistor
I1=(R2/(R1+R2))*I

 The LED is not emitted until reaching it's barrier potential value.

Calculation &data analyses:


1. Ohm's law & DC series circuits:

We connect the circuit shown in figure 2.1 &take fill data in table

Quantity Nominated Measured Pspice Percentage


value value value error
VR1 5.952 V 5.97 5.952 1.8%
VR2 4.047 V 4.08 4.047 3.4%
Idc 5.952 mA 5.99 5.952 3.8%
PR1 35.42 mW 35.76 35.42 1%
PR2 24.08 mW 24.43 24.08 1.1%

VR1 = (R1/ (R1+R2))*VS = (1000/1680)*10 = 5.952 V.


VR2 = (R2/ (R1+R2))*VS = (680/1680)*10 = 4.047 V.
Idc = VS/(R1+R2) = 10/1680 = 5.952 mA.
PR1 = I*VR1 = 5.952*5.952 = 35.42 mW.
PR2 = I*VR2 = 5.952*4.047 = 24.08 mW.

PEV1 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((5.952-5.95)/5.952)*100% = 1.8


PEV2 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((4.047-4.08)/4.047)*100% = 3.4%
PEI = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((5.952-5.99)/5.952)*100% = 3.8%
PEP1 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((35.42-35.76)/35.42)*100% = 1%
PEP2 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((24.08-24.43)/24.08)*100% = 1.1%

Voltage &current divider:

We connect the circuit shown in figure 2.2 & measure the currents & voltages
and fill the table .
Quantity Nominated Measured Pspice value Percentage
value value error
IR1 4.857 mA 4.72 mA 4.857 mA 2.8%
IR2 7.143 mA 4.8 mA 7.143 mA 2.7%
VR1 4.857 V 4.75 V 4.857 V 2.2%
VR2 4.857 V 4.75 V 4.857 V 2.2%
PR1 23.59 mW 22.42 mW 23.59 mW 4.96%
PR2 34.69 mW 33.01 mW 34.69 mW 4.84%

IR1 = ((R2/(R1+R2))*IT = (680/1680)*0.012 = 4.857 mA


IR2= ((R1(R1+R2))*IT = (1000/1680)*0.012 = 7.143 mA
VR1 = I1*R1 = 4.857* 1000 = 4.857 V
VR1 = VR2
PR1 = I1*V1 = 4.857*4.857 = 23.59 mW.
PR2 = I2*V2 = 7.143*4.857 = 34.69 mW.

PEI1 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((4.857-4.72)/4.857)*100% = 2.8%


PEI2 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((7.143-6.95)/7.143)*100% = 2.7%
PEV1 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((4.857-4.75)/4.857)*100% = 2.2%
PEV2 = PEV1 = 2.2%
PEP1 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((23.59-22.42)/23.59)*100% = 4.96%
PEP2 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((34.69-33.01)/34.69)*100% = 4.84%

I-V characteristics of two terminal devices:

We plot the diagram of I-V for the LED shown in figure 2.3 .

Range V LED
-2 -2.09
-1.5 -1.56
-1 -1.05
-0.5 -0.54
0 0.01
0.5 0.55
1.5 1.55
2 1.64
2.5 1.67
ILED = (Vs-VLED)/R1

ILED1.5 = (1.5-1.35)/33 = 4.45 mA


ILED2 = (2-1.42)/33 = 17.5 mA
ILED2.5= (2.5-1.5)/33 = 30.3 mA

I-V characteristic

1.6
1.4
1.2
1
Vv

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
I mA

Conclusions:-
1. In the voltage divider we have the same current in the series resistors and
different voltage cross them by putting a voltage source with resistors in
series with it.

2. We design the current source by putting a power source with resistor in


parallel with it, having the same voltage across them and different currents.

3. LED's experiment we see that the relation is nonlinear and there is no


current while using negative voltage values.
Circuit connections:

R2

680
Vs R1
1k
10v

Figure 2.1

R3 1k

R1 R2
mA 12
1k 680

Firure 2.2

R1

33
LED
Vs

Figure 2.3