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2. To learn how to measure the voltage across the resistor and the

current that passes through it.

3. To verify ohm's law, and analysis a circuit using kirchoff's voltage

and current law.

4. Calculate power dissipated in DC circuit and show that the power

dissipated in a load equal to the power supplied by the source.

5. Calculate the voltage drop across a resistor using voltage divider

method.

6. Calculate the current through a resistor by current divider method.

7. plot the I-V characteristic of some linear & nonlinear devices.

8. show the differences between linear and nonlinear devices.

9. Verify the lab experiment with Pspise.

• Equipment:-

1. Digital multimeter(DMM)

2. Breadboard.

3. DC power supply.

4. Resistors.

5. LED (Light Emitted Diode).

6. Computer software (Pspise).

• contents:-

1. Ohm's law and DC series circuits.

2. Voltage and current divider.

3. I-V characteristics of tow terminal devices.

• Theory:-

In the voltage division rule the voltage is divided between tow series

resistors in direct to their resistance, while in the current division rule

the current is divided between tow parallel resisters in reverse to

their resistance.

In the series compination we can use the voltage divider circuit to

find the voltage in each resistor

VR1=(R1/(R1+R2))*V

find the current in each resistor

I1=(R2/(R1+R2))*I

The LED is not emitted until reaching it's barrier potential value.

1. Ohm's law & DC series circuits:

We connect the circuit shown in figure 2.1 &take fill data in table

value value value error

VR1 5.952 V 5.97 5.952 1.8%

VR2 4.047 V 4.08 4.047 3.4%

Idc 5.952 mA 5.99 5.952 3.8%

PR1 35.42 mW 35.76 35.42 1%

PR2 24.08 mW 24.43 24.08 1.1%

VR2 = (R2/ (R1+R2))*VS = (680/1680)*10 = 4.047 V.

Idc = VS/(R1+R2) = 10/1680 = 5.952 mA.

PR1 = I*VR1 = 5.952*5.952 = 35.42 mW.

PR2 = I*VR2 = 5.952*4.047 = 24.08 mW.

PEV2 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((4.047-4.08)/4.047)*100% = 3.4%

PEI = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((5.952-5.99)/5.952)*100% = 3.8%

PEP1 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((35.42-35.76)/35.42)*100% = 1%

PEP2 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((24.08-24.43)/24.08)*100% = 1.1%

We connect the circuit shown in figure 2.2 & measure the currents & voltages

and fill the table .

Quantity Nominated Measured Pspice value Percentage

value value error

IR1 4.857 mA 4.72 mA 4.857 mA 2.8%

IR2 7.143 mA 4.8 mA 7.143 mA 2.7%

VR1 4.857 V 4.75 V 4.857 V 2.2%

VR2 4.857 V 4.75 V 4.857 V 2.2%

PR1 23.59 mW 22.42 mW 23.59 mW 4.96%

PR2 34.69 mW 33.01 mW 34.69 mW 4.84%

IR2= ((R1(R1+R2))*IT = (1000/1680)*0.012 = 7.143 mA

VR1 = I1*R1 = 4.857* 1000 = 4.857 V

VR1 = VR2

PR1 = I1*V1 = 4.857*4.857 = 23.59 mW.

PR2 = I2*V2 = 7.143*4.857 = 34.69 mW.

PEI2 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((7.143-6.95)/7.143)*100% = 2.7%

PEV1 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((4.857-4.75)/4.857)*100% = 2.2%

PEV2 = PEV1 = 2.2%

PEP1 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((23.59-22.42)/23.59)*100% = 4.96%

PEP2 = ((NV-MV)/NV)*100% = ((34.69-33.01)/34.69)*100% = 4.84%

We plot the diagram of I-V for the LED shown in figure 2.3 .

Range V LED

-2 -2.09

-1.5 -1.56

-1 -1.05

-0.5 -0.54

0 0.01

0.5 0.55

1.5 1.55

2 1.64

2.5 1.67

ILED = (Vs-VLED)/R1

ILED2 = (2-1.42)/33 = 17.5 mA

ILED2.5= (2.5-1.5)/33 = 30.3 mA

I-V characteristic

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

Vv

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

I mA

Conclusions:-

1. In the voltage divider we have the same current in the series resistors and

different voltage cross them by putting a voltage source with resistors in

series with it.

parallel with it, having the same voltage across them and different currents.

current while using negative voltage values.

Circuit connections:

R2

680

Vs R1

1k

10v

Figure 2.1

R3 1k

R1 R2

mA 12

1k 680

Firure 2.2

R1

33

LED

Vs

Figure 2.3

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