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INSTALLATION OF PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATORS ON HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS

A MINI-PROJECT REPORT Submitted by

A.RAJAMOHAMED A.SANTHANA KARTHICK M.VIGNESHKUMAR P.YUVARAJ

(AC09UCE067) (AC09UCE077) (AC09UCE110) (AC09UCE116)

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
in

CIVIL ENGINEERING ADHIYAMAAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING (AUTONOMOUS)

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025
OCTOBER 2012

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certify that this project report “INSTALLATION OF PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATORS ON HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS” is the bonafide work of “A.RAJAMOHAMED, A.SANTHANAKARTHICK, M.VIGNESH KUMAR and P.YUVARAJ” who carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

Ms T.KARTHIKA INTERNAL SUPERVISOR Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur-635109.

Dr.S.SURESH BABU HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Department of Civil Engineering, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur-635109.

Submitted for the project work held on ________ at, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, 635109.

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, we praise the Almighty God for showering his blessings on us and who helped us all the way in our career. We highly express our earnest and sincere thanks to our beloved Principal Dr.G.RANGANATH, M.E., Ph.D., Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur. We express our gratitude to Dr.S.SURESH BABU, M.E., Ph.D., Head of the department, Department of Civil Engineering, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, for his valuable suggestions throughout this project. Our sincere thanks to our Internal Supervisor, Ms.T.KARTHIKA, M.E., Assistant Professor and other faculties of Department of Civil

Engineering, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, for her guidance and their support throughout this project.

ABSTRACT
Due to shortage of electricity, environmental hazards caused due to electricity generation and limited resources available for power generation inspired us to produce electricity by utilizing moving loads in highways by installing piezoelectric generators. This study aims to install piezoelectric generator on highway pavements to generate electricity by utilizing the moving loads on the highways. Piezoelectric generators are placed beneath the pavements, when the vehicles moves over it, the generators will convert the mechanical stress in to electrical energy. This method of producing electricity is cheaper, environmental friendly, renewable and long lasting.

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1 Description of table Thickness of various layers in model pavement Page no. 20 6.List of tables Table no.1 Output voltage table 22 ii . 5.

no.5 5.2 5.3 5.5 Name of the figure Piezoelectric effect Chennai-Bengaluru highway C/S of pavement with PEG Location of PEGs on pavement Placing PEG on concrete cubes Laying of sub grade Laying of base course Placing of PEGs in model Laying of surface course Page no.7 6.1 5.2 7.1 7.2 4.4 5.4 7. 1.1 7.3 7.6 5.List of figures Fig.2 5.1 1. 3 5 10 11 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 22 25 26 27 28 29 c/s of model pavement Dynamic signal analyzer Load vs voltage graph Availability chart Cost spent for generation of 1MW chart Duration of construction chart Lifetime chart Operational and maintenance cost chart iii .1 4.

1.2.4.1 GENERAL 4. MODEL DESIGN 10 10 12 12 13 14 14 15 . OBJECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW 3.3. 3.2. TITLE PAGE NO. DESIGN OF WHEEL LOAD 4.2. CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO METHOD 4.1.2.GENERAL 1. DESIGN OF PAVEMENT 4.3.4.POWER SCARCITY 1 1 3 5 6 7 8 8 8 9 2. PIEZOELECTRIC ROADS IN CALIFORNIA 4. INTRODUCTION 1. ISRAEL NATIONAL ROADS COMPANY 3.HIGHWAY 1.2.2.1.3. METHODOLOGY 4. INNOWATTECH IN ISRAEL 3.PIEZOELECTRICITY 1.2. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 4. TYRE PRESSURE 4.5.2. ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES i ii iii 1.TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO.2.

CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 8. SCOPE 30 31 9.1.5. APPENDIX 33 . EXPERIMENTAL WORK AND MODEL ANALYSIS 16 6. COMPARISON BETWEEN PEG AND OTHER RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 25 8. LOADING AND RESULT 22 7. REFERENCE 32 10.

where an electrical generator.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. There are seven fundamental methods of directly transforming other forms of energy into electrical energy:  Static electricity. the direct transformation of chemical energy into electricity.g. as in solar cells  Thermoelectric effect. This is the most used form for generating electricity and is based on Faraday's law. dynamo of motion) into or alternator transforms kinetic energy (energy electricity. from the physical separation and transport of charge (examples: triboelectric effect and lightning)  Electromagnetic induction. GENERAL Electricity generation is the process of generating electric energy from other forms of renewable and non renewable sources of energy.1. It can be experimented by simply rotating a magnet within closed loop of a conducting material (e. the direct conversion of temperature differences to electricity. as in thermocouples. and thermionic converters. 1 . copper wire)  Electrochemistry. thermopiles. the transformation of light into electrical energy. as in a battery. fuel cell or nerve impulse  Photoelectric effect.

 Piezoelectric effect.  Nuclear transformation. the creation and acceleration of charged particles (examples: betavoltaics or alpha particle emission) 2 . Researchers at the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed a piezoelectric generator sufficient to operate a liquid crystal display using thin films of M13 bacteriophage. from the mechanical strain of electrically anisotropic molecules or crystals.

an ancient source of electric charge. DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress. lead zirconate titanate crystals will generate measurable 3 .1 Piezoelectric effect The piezoelectric effect is understood as the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and the electrical state in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry. For example. Fig 1. Piezoelectricity was discovered in 1880 by French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie. and biological matter such as bone. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force) also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an applied electrical field). It is derived from the Greek piezo or piezein which means to squeeze or press.2. and electric or electron. certain ceramics. PIEZOELECTRICITY Piezoelectricity is the charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (notably crystals. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure. which stands for amber.1.

1% of the original dimension. and ultrafine focusing of optical assemblies. 4 . electronic frequency generation. generation of high voltages.piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by about 0. Conversely. It is also the basis of a number of scientific instrumental techniques with atomic resolution.1% of their static dimension when an external electric field is applied to the material. the scanning probe microscopies and everyday uses such as acting as the ignition source for cigarette lighters and push-start propane barbecues. Piezoelectricity is found in useful applications such as the production and detection of sound. microbalances. The inverse piezoelectric effect is used in production of ultrasonic sound waves. those same crystals will change about 0.

HIGHWAY A highway is any public road or other public way on land. This energy was not utilized and it goes in vain. in which many number of vehicles are travelling from one place to another carrying people and goods. Due to the vehicle movement vast amount of kinetic energy was generated.1. Fig. 1.3.2 Chennai-Bengaluru highway 5 .

POWER SCARCITY Power scarcity is a significant issue today and sources for power generation is inadequate.1. India currently facing a power deficit of 17000MW affects the industrial growth and overall national growth of our country. In order to bring relief to citizens of India we are focusing on producing electricity using piezoelectric effect which can be implemented on highways.4. 6 . Also the existing sources of power generation have greater impact on environment and uneconomical.

7 .  To harvest electricity by placing piezoelectric generators underneath the pavement. eco friendly and renewable source of energy.  To produce a cheaper.Chapter 2 OBJECTIVE  This project is to utilize enormous energy wasted on highways due to vehicle movements.

2. engineers are about to begin testing a road contains piezoelectric crystals that produce electricity. ISRAEL NATIONAL ROADS COMPANY (October 2010) In Israel. rendering this energy as "parasitic.I. This is the first practical test of the innovative green energy technology developed by Innowattech. in association with Technion I."The system developed by Innowattech includes IPEGs (Innowattech Piezoelectric Generators). Israel. 3. harvesting the energy. During the pilot. The pilot is being conducted in cooperation with the Israel National Roads Company. presenting a pioneering invention for "parasitic energy harvesting." The technology does not increase the vehicles' fuel intake or affect the road infrastructure. The first of its kind project demonstrated how Israeli technology can generate electricity from generators installed beneath a road's asphalt layer. The technology is based on piezoelectric materials that enable the conversion of mechanical energy exerted by the weight of passing vehicles into electrical energy.1. INNOWATTECH IN ISRAEL (2010) The technology developed by Innowattech Ltd. was recently tested in a complete-system pilot project along a ten-meter stretch of Road 4 north of Hadera.T (Israel Institute of Technology). which would have otherwise been wasted on road deformation. the 8 . The system is expected to produce up to 400 kilowatts from a 1 kilometre stretch of dual carriageway and the technology is also applicable to airport runways and rail roads. a harvesting module and a battery charging mechanism.Chapter 3 LITERATURE REVIEW 3.

000 watt-hours (Wh) of power per hour on average on that stretch. Senior Researcher and Production Controller. Eugeny Tsikhotsky. 9 . Michael Gavshin. This design is based on the concept of piezoelectricity that is produced in response to the mechanical stress applied..T. Eugeny Harash. Senior Technologist and Project Manager. capable of producing some 2.I. Dr. more accurately. Prof. Haim Abramovich. Lucy Edery-Azulay. 3. Chief Technology Officer. The development team also includes Dr.IPEG were placed at a depth of five centimeters beneath the road's upper asphalt layer on a stretch of ten meters. our tyres. "A major source of renewable energy is right beneath our feet or. California is the car capital of the world. The team of scientists involved in the development of the IPEG™ system included the co-founders of Innowattech. CEO and faculty member at the Technion I. PIEZOELECTRIC ROADS IN CALIFORNIA (2011) The piezoelectric energy generating road has been proposed in the car capital of the world California. Chief Scientist and Prof. Charles Milgrom of the Hadassah University Hospital. and Sergey Yusimov. It only makes sense to convert to electricity the energy lost as cars travel over our roads" said Assemblyman Gatto.  This pilot project aims how PEGs can be installed on Indian road and traffic conditions. Dr.3. Senior Research Scientist. Dr.

Chapter4 METHODOLOGY 4.1) are placed on concrete cubes.25m) (refer Appendix 1.1 GENERAL The piezoelectric generators have to be placed beneath the pavements at certain depths so that the loads from moving vehicle can trigger the generator and the electricity is produced.  Multilayer Piezoelectric generators (0.1 C/S of pavement with PEG 10 .25mx0. Fig 4. Concrete cubes are used in order to provide stability to generator and also to resist displacement of PEGs.  Sub grade and sub-base course are laid and casted concrete cubes mounted with piezoelectric generators are placed in between base course and surface course.

11 .  The produced electricity is taken out through wires and stabilized in power houses for every one kilometer and can be fetched into power grid. Fig 4. By average the axle track for all vehicles is taken as 2m. Finally the pavement is asphalted.3) of roadway. The PEGs are placed 2m centre to centre spacing laterally on roadways for single lane.  PEGs are positioned based on the axle track (refer Appendix 1.2 Location of PEGs on pavement  Power output from this series of generators is calculated by measuring the traffic density (refer Appendix 1.  When vehicles moves over it produces mechanical stress on generator which in turn produces electric energy.2) of the vehicles.

1. Triaxial text method iv.2. In the design process. Flexible pavement The flexible pavements are built with number of layers. Bur mister method We will take the California bearing ratio method (CBR) for the design of our model pavement. Various flexible pavement design methods i. it is to be ensured that under the application of load none of the layers is overstressed. 12 . This means that at any instance no section of the pavement structure is subjected to excessive deformation to form a localized depression or settlement. Group index method ii. California bearing ratio method iii. it has yet not been possible to have a rational design method where in design process and service behavior of the pavement can be expressed or predicated theoretically by mathematical laws.4.2. Design of pavement 4. In the design of flexible pavements.

2. California bearing ratio method (refer Appendix 2): In order to design a pavement by CBR Method. kg/cm² A=area of contact. Thus the total thickness of flexible pavement needed to cover the sub grade of the known CBR value is obtained. first the soaked CBR value of the soil sub grade is evaluated. cm P=wheel load. cm² 13 . Some of the important points recommended by the IRC for the CBR method of design (IRC: 37-1970) √ [ ]1/2 t=pavement thickness. In case there is a material superior than the soil sub grade.4. Then the appropriate design curve is chosen by taking the design wheel load.2. percent p =tyre pressure. kg CBR=California bearing ratio. such that it may be used as sub-base course then the thickness of construction over this material could be obtained from the design chart knowing the CBR value of the sub-base.

4.4. Design of Wheel load The wheel load configurations are important are important to know the way in which the loads of a given vehicle are applied on the pavement surface.2.0 for an average tyre pressure of 7kg/cm² 14 . Tyre pressure Tyre pressure and inflation pressure mean exactly the same.2. Contact pressure can be measured by the relationship Contact pressure = load on wheel/contact area The ratio of contact pressure to tyre pressure is defined as rigidity factor.4. The contact pressure is found to be more than tyre pressure when the tyre pressure is less than 7kg/cm² and it vice versa when the tyre pressure exceeds this value.3. Thus value of rigidity factor is 1. For highways the maximum legal axle load as specified by Indian road congress is 8750kg with a maximum equivalent single wheel load 4085kg.

CBR value=5% 3.4. Model design 1.5.2. Wheel load=8170kg 2. Tyre pressure=7kg/cm² Total thickness of a pavement: √ [ ]1/2 √ [ ]1/2 Thickness of pavement ( Model ratio we adopted is 2:1 15 .

Chapter 5 EXPERIMENTAL WORK AND MODEL  Based on model ratio 2:1. a wooden box of size 1mx0. 5. Fig.1 Placing PEGs on concrete cubes 16 .3mx0.  Piezoelectric generators are mounted on concrete cubes of 5cmx5cm.3m is made for model pavement in our pilot studies.

 The sub grade and base course are laid using well graded soil and 20mm aggregates respectively. Fig. 5.2 Laying of subgrade 17 .

5.Fig.3 Laying of base course 18 .

4 Placing of PEGs 19 .5mm). Fig. 5. Piezoelectric generators mounted in concrete cubes are placed beneath the surface course of various depths (2mm-3.

4cm 4. 5.5 Laying of surface course Thickness of the various layers adopted for our model is given below: Table 5.1 Layers Sub grade Base course Surface course Thickness 12.Fig.5cm 8.0cm 20 .

1kg…3.5kg. 5.7 Dynamic signal analyzer 359 70A 21 .1). Fig.Fig. loads are applied on the PEGs and the corresponding output voltage has been measured by using dynamic signal analyzer (refer Appendix 3.5kg). 5.6 C/S of model pavement  Using different weights (0.

5 3.5 5.9 1.Chapter 6 LOADING AND RESULT  The results are tabulated and a load vs voltage graph has been plotted.5 3.7 3.7 2.5 3.9 4.1: For model pavement Load applied (N) Depth of PEGs (mm) 5 10 15 20 25 30 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.7 3.6 Output voltage(v) 22 .5 3.4 11 Output voltage (v) Depth of PEGs (mm) 3.5 0.2 6.3 5.6 8. Table 6.5 3.

1 LOAD VS VOLTAGE GRAPH FOR MODEL PAVEMENT 23 .12 10 output voltage in v 8 6 Output voltage for 2 mm depth output voltage for 3.5mm depth 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 load applied in N Fig 6.

24 .  These PEGs can work for a minimum load of 0.2) and multi layer PEGs of 25cm diameter can be placed alternatively. both single layer PEGs (refer Appendix 3.For original pavement  In existing roadways.5KN to a maximum load of 100KN  Most of the vehicle loads falls within these limits hence PEGs can deliver high voltage and high current which can be coupled in power houses.

1 25 .Chapter 7 COMPARISON BETWEEN PEG AND OTHER RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 400 350 300 250 Days 200 150 100 50 0 Availability per year PEG wind solar Fig. 7.

160 140 120 Rupees in million 100 PEG wind solar 80 60 40 20 0 Cost spent for generation of 1MW Fig. 7.2 26 .

3 27 . 7.12 10 8 months 6 PEG wind solar 4 2 0 Duration of construction for producing 50MW Fig.

4 28 . 7.30 25 20 years 15 PEG wind solar 10 5 0 Life time Fig.

00% Percentage of initial investment required per annum 1.00% 0.5 29 .50% 2.00% Operational and maintainance cost Fig.50% PEG wind solar 1.50% 0. 7.2.

 PEGs does not have any impacts on road characteristics and effects of water and temperature on PEGs are also negligible.1km long highway can produce 41.  On average entire stretch of 52. renewable and low cost.  PEGs has high lifetime and requires very low operational and maintenance cost.  India has currently built 18000km length of 4/6 lane highway and if PEGs are installed in highways which can produce 10000MW of electricity.  It does not require new space to install. 30 . it can be done on existing roadway.7MW of electricity which is environmental friendly.  By placing multilayer PEGs (capable of producing high current per trigger) in 52.Chapter 8 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION  Hosur-krishnagiri section of NH7 has an average traffic density of 36 vehicles per km for an instant of time.1km long hosur-krishnagiri section of NH7 can produce 800kw of electrical energy per km which is enough to power 8001000 households.

 India currently facing a power deficit of 17000MW and if this method of power generation is implemented. it can provide a quick relief to citizens of India as it is  Quicker to construct. airport runways. irrigation structures and also in framed structure.  Low cost to invest.1.  Friendly to environment. SCOPE PEG method of power generation can also be implemented on railway tracks. 8. 31 .

Thompson.  www.).wikipedia. www. „Piezoelectricity‟ McGraw Hill. ”Highway Engineering”.C. www.Mitchell L.S.  International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology.Kadiyali.REFERENCE:  DR. “Design of Pavements”.G. W G.org. Inc.americanpiezo.G. Roorkee(U. Mcgraw Hill Book Co.Gupta & Amit Gupta “Highway Engineering” Stantard Publishers  Cady. “Thesis on piezoelectric power generation”. Charotor Publisher house  B.L.K.com 32 .sciencedirect.  DR. New York (1946) Reprint : Dover Press. Nem Chand & Bros.Rangwala ”Highway Engineering”.  DR.Khanna & DR.in.A.  S.E. New York (1964).Justo.

1.3 Traffic density The average number of vehicles that occupy one mile or one kilometer of road space. is the distance between the centerline of two road wheels on the same axle. expressed in vehicles per mile or per kilometer. each on the other side of the vehicle. The electrical energy produced by a multilayer piezo generator is of a much lower voltage than is generated by a single-layer piezo generator.APPENDIX 1: 1. 1.1 Multi layer PEGs Multilayer piezo generators consist of a stack of very thin (submillimeter-thick) piezoelectric ceramics alternated with electrodes.2 Axle track The axle track in automobiles and other wheeled vehicles which have two or more wheels on an axle. the current produced by a multilayer generator is significantly higher than the current generated by a single-layer piezoelectric generator. On the other hand. 33 .

APPENDIX 2 2.1 CBR method 34 .

APPENDIX 3 3.1 Dynamic signal analyzer 35 .

is very high voltage.Vibration analyzer that uses digital signal processing and the Fast Fourier Transform to display vibration frequency components.2 Single layer PEGs Electrical energy in a single-layer piezo generator is released very quickly. voltage. 36 . and can usually be interfaced to a computer. DSAs also display the time domain and phase spectrum. 3. and very low current. resistance.