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Title: The Use of Volumetric Flask, Burette and Pipette in Determining the Concentration of NaOH Solution.

Objectives: To carry out acid-base titration. To determine the end point with the use of indicators such as phenolphthalein To determine the concentration of the base used. Introduction: To make an experiment a success, an accurate and consistent data is required. Data are usually obtained through measurements. So to obtain an accurate and consistent data, the basic skills of handling lab apparatus are needed. For example in this titration experiment, the fundamental knowledge and handling skills for volumetric flask, burette and pipette are required. The main objective in this particular experiment is to find out the unknown concentration of a reactant (Base) involved. To determine this concentration titration technique is used. The technique is carried out by using a solution (Acid) which concentration and volume are known to react with the reagent of unknown concentration (Base). By determining the volume of solution used to reach the end point, its concentration can be determined. Apparatus and Materials: NaOH solution Beaker (500 cm3) HCl solution (1.000 x 10-2M) Burette (50 cm3) Phenolphthalein solution

Pipette (20 cm3 or 25 cm3)

Volumetric flask (250 cm3) Erlenmeyer flask (250 cm3) Funnel Watch Glass Procedure: 1. The volumetric flask was cleaned and rinsed with distilled water. 2. NaOH solution was transferred into the volumetric flask. 3. NaOH solution was top up to 250cm3 with distilled water, the cap was close and the flask was rotated a few times to get a homogenous solution. 4. The solution was poured into a clean and dry beaker. 5. The burette was cleaned with distilled water and rinsed with 5cm3 NaOH solution a few times. The burette was filled with NaOH solution using a funnel.

10 Titration 2 0.10ml + 24.95ml + 25. The initial burette reading was recorded and the acid solution was titrated with NaOH solution in the burette until end-point is reached.6.15 Average volumes used = (Titration 1 + Titration 2 + Titration 3) / 3 = (25.15ml) / 3 = 25.067ml .95 25.15 Titration 1 0.00 25. Results: Results & Calculations: Burette readings (mL) Initial reading Final reading Volume of NaOH solution used (mL) 25.10 (Final reading – Initial reading) 24. 7. Two drops of phenolphthalein was added to the acid solution. 8. The end reading to obtain the volume of NaOH used was recorded.00 25.95 Titration 3 0. 25cm3 of acid solution was pipetted into three clean Erlenmeyer flasks.00 24.

The end point is also known as the equivalence point. The indicator changes colour when the end point is reached.067 X 1000 = 4. .067)/25. During an acid-base titration and indicator was used to know whether the end point is reached. It basically titration but involves acids and bases to reach with each other until one of the reactants is consumed completely. 2006) The titration in this experiment can be illustrated with a graph called a titration curve. In this experiment we are applying the acid-base titration technique. At the equivalence point.31 < 3 Titration1 25. It is a graph of pH versus volume of the solution titrated. (Clark.15 – 25.95 – 25. Through this method a solution of base of known concentration can therefore be used to titrate an acid solution of unknown concentration and vice versa. The figure below represents the pH versus volume data of the titration curve for the HCl-NaOH titration.067)/25.31 > 3 Titration 3 25.067)/25. acid and base are said to be mixed in exactly proportions to neutralize each other causing colour changes. An indicator is a weak organic acid or base that has distinctly different colors in its nonionized and ionized forms.10 – 25.067 X 1000 = 1.15 Discussion: Titration is the quantitative measurement of an unknown solution by reacting it with a standardized reagent.10 (24.067 X 1000 = 3.95 (25.Volume of NaOH used (mL) (25.67 > 3 Titration 2 24.

the NaOH solution could have been diluted as the burette used to fill the NaOH solution is rinse with distilled water and not with NaOH before use. This might also happened to the flasks . This causes the concentration of NaOH to be lower. as the titration proceeds. 2002) In this experiment. The pH doesn't change very much until you get close to the equivalence point. phenolphthalein is used as the acid-base indicator. This is because when approaching the equivalence point. this indicate the presence of an acid.turning the indicator pink. (Clark. Indicators do not change their colour exactly at a certain pH. As the titration initiated.0 is suitable to be used. From the graph. Adding extra hydrogen ions shifts the position of equilibrium to the left. Adding hydroxide ions removes the hydrogen ions from the equilibrium which tips to the right to replace them . which is the HCl in the flasks.0 to 10. at the beginning the pH value is low. but by adding a few drops of base will result the pH value to surge upwards very steeply. (Clark. The other 2 titrations are out of range. they change over a small range of pH instead.Based on the graph. which is within the range. any acid-base indicator whose color changes in the pH range from about 4.0. the pH value started to change.3 to 10. and turns the indicator colourless. within the three titration carried out only titration 1 is less than 3. 2006) Based on the results obtained. phenolphthalein has a pH range of 8. thus a slight addition of base will disrupt the equilibrium and result in a steep increase of pH. Phenolphthalein is a weak acid. First of all. the pH value increases slowly until it reaches just before the equivalence point. the number of moles of H+ ions and H3O+ ions are started to become equal too. From the graph. There are several causes that results in this error.

NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) Volume of NaOH used NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) = 25.025 dm3 Concentration of HCl = 0. Questions and Answers: 1. addition of NaOH might be used because the initial colour change might be too minor to be realized. Furthermore.00025 mole NaOH. of moles (n) / Volume (dm3) = 0. Hence.067ml / 10000 = 0.that contain HCl causing the concentration of HCl to be lower than expected. placing a piece of white paper under the flasks can solve this error. Molarity = no. 0. of moles HCl.00997 M (concentration of diluted NaOH) Dilution.00025 moles / 0. Besides that.01M No. 1 mole of HCl reacts with 1 mole of NaOH.97 x 10-3 M = 0. there might be error when reading the burette because during the recording of readings the meniscus shown on the burette is not clearly viewed.00997) (250) = 0. Calculate the concentration of NaOH solution.025 = 0.00025 moles Based on equation.025067dm3 = 9. n = Molarity x Volume = 0.4985 M (Initial concentration of NaOH) .025067dm3 Volume of HCl used = 25ml / 1000 = 0.01 x 0. M1V1 = M2V2 M1 (5) M1 = (0.00025 mole of HCl reacts with 0.

2006. 2002. [Online] Available at: http://www.chemguide. The stronger the acid. (Clark. STRONG AND WEAK BASES. A weak base is a base that does not contain hydroxide ions but react with water to produce them. Clark. J. 2002. [Online] Available at: http://www. [Online] Available at: http://www. STRONG AND WEAK ACIDS.chemguide. . Clark. insoluble base does not react at all.html [Accessed 22 June 2013].chemguide. Distinguish between a weak base and an insoluble base.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/acids. 2002) 3. 2002. Acid concentration refers to the proportion of an acid in a particular mixture. J.co. The reactions are reversible.html [Accessed 21 June 2013]. A more concentrated acid has a higher proportion of acid in the mixture.html [Accessed 22 June 2013].co. Acid strength is the tendency of an acid to react with water to produce ions or losing protons. the easier it loses an H+ proton. In contrast. References: Clark. [Online] Available at: http://www.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/phcurves. They do react. 2002) Conclusion: The initial concentration of NaOH is 0.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/indicators. but partially. J.. J.co. pH (TITRATION) CURVES. Clark..2.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/bases. Distinguish between acid strength and acid concentration.. (Clark.4985 M.chemguide.co. ACID-BASE INDICATORS.html [Accessed 22 June 2013]..