Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering

Dept. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. H. W. Leheta

CHAPTER 2 ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE STRUCTURES
2.1 Idealized structure. Idealization of ship structures Estimates of the loadings, points of application and material strength of a structure must be made to analyze a real structure. Therefore, an exact analysis can never be carried out. A structural engineer, or naval architect (in case of ship structures) must be able to model or idealize the structure in order to make a force analysis of the structural members. Structural idealization or mathematical modeling (i.e. replacing the actual structure with a simple system that is possible to analyze mathematically) involves the following techniques: support connections, idealizing the structure and load modeling. 2.1.1 Support Connections Structural members are joined together in various ways. Fig. 1.9 shows the most common supports. When selecting a particular support or joint, the engineer must be aware of how the assumptions will affect the performance and whether they are reasonable. 2.1.2 Structure Idealization A structure must be represented in a simple manner to allow analysis. Structural components have width and thickness. Lines that are located along the centroids of the structural components are used to represent them. The sketch of a structure idealized in this manner is usually called a line diagram. For the beam shown in Fig. 2.1(a), the connection at point A allows some freedom for rotation and may be idealized as a typical pin support, while the support at B provides a point of smooth contact and may be idealized as a roller support. Fig. 2.1(b) shows the line diagram of the beam.

Fig. 2.1

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we know that a structure or a structural member is in equilibrium when a balance of forces and moments is maintained. 11 . 2. Before applying the equations of equilibrium it is necessary to draw a free-body diagram of the structure or its members. 2. must equal zero. For plane (2-D) structures. the algebraic sum of the moments of these force components about an axis perpendicular to the x-y plane (the z axis) must equal zero. The analysis of the loadings should give results that closely approximate the actual loadings. 2. etc. sinusoidal. Leheta A line diagram for a transverse structure of a ship is shown in Fig.1) That is: the algebraic sums of all forces acting in the x and y directions. They may be: uniform. W. trapezoidal.2. respectively. Distributed forces act over a large area.2 Equations of equilibrium From statics. Concentrated forces rarely act at a point. the following requirements for equilibrium must be satisfied: ∑F ∑F ∑M x =0 y z =0 =0 (2. H.1. Fig. triangular.3 Load Modeling Forces must also be modeled.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. Also. They are distributed over small areas.2 2.

If we cut the beam at A. Each segment is isolated and equations of equilibrium are applied. In order to determine if a structure is statically determinate or indeterminate. W.3 Free-body diagrams For a member. a free-body diagram of the entire beam shows the reaction forces.3(b). statically determinate (2. the structure is statically determinate. Leheta 2. Internal loadings consist of a normal force N. Fig. it must be isolated from its supports and adjacent members. if there are n segments and r reactions: r = 3n.3(c) shows the free-body diagrams with the internal forces now seen. Free-body diagrams open the way to the analysis of structures.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. All forces and moments that act on the member must be shown. If internal forces and moments at a point in a member are to be determined.2b) 12 . shear force V. Forces common to two members act with equal magnitudes but different directions on the respective free-body diagrams of the members. 2. Notice that the internal forces on the two segments are the same but in opposite direction. Structures with more unknown forces than equilibrium equations are called statically indeterminate. 2.3(a) shows a beam with two supports acted upon by two concentrated loads. The right-hand part pushes the lefthand part down and the left-hand part pushes the right-hand part up. including support reactions. H.4 Determinacy and stability Determinacy When all the forces in a structure can be determined solely using the equilibrium equations. statically indeterminate (2. a freebody diagram must be drawn for its members or segments and the total number of unknown reaction forces and moments is compared with the number of equilibrium equations (3 equilibrium equations for each segment). Fig 2. So. In Fig. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. and bending moment M.2a) r > 3n. we obtain two segments of the beam. a cut or section perpendicular to the axis of the member at the point in question is made. 2. Fig.3 2.

4d show beams that are to be classified as determinate or indeterminate. The freebody diagrams are shown in Fig. The free-body diagrams are shown. 2. 2. Leheta The following examples show how to classify the determinacy of a structure.1 Beams Example 1 Fig. W. 2. 13 .4. Fig.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. 2.5 along with the resulting classifications.4a to 2. H.4 Example 2 This example shows pin-connected structures which are similar to beams. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. Fig.4c and 2. 2.4d show compound beams composed of pin connected members.

W.4.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. H. Leheta Fig. 2. 2. Example 3 Sometimes the members of a frame form internal loops.2 Frames Frames are structures composed of beams and columns that are either pinned or fixed connected. 14 . as seen in Fig.6a. 2. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. To obtain free-body diagrams we cut one section through the loop.5 2. The frame in Fig.6b has no loops. The loading on a frame causes bending of its members and usually have rigid joint connections.

7. such as shown in Fig. Leheta Fig. H. the members must be properly constrained by their supports.7 15 . W. Two situations may occur: Partial constraints – Sometimes there are less reactions than equilibrium equations and the structure is partially constrained. Fig. Here horizontal equilibrium is not satisfied and the structure is unstable. 2. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof.6 Stability To ensure equilibrium of a structure. 2.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. 2.

we have: r < 3n unstable r ≥ 3n unstable if reactions are concurrent or parallel (2. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. Fig.3b) The following example shows how structures are classified as stable or unstable. 2. n = 1. W.3a) (2.8.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept.If support reactions are concurrent at a point or are all parallel. The structure is stable and statically determinate. instability or movement of the structure develops. Example 4 r = 3.8 For a 2-D structure having n members or segments with r unknown reactions. H. 2. Leheta Improper constraints . 16 . as shown in Fig.

The structure is unstable since the three reactions are parallel.The material is linear-elastic.ε 2.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. W. n = 3. AB can move horizontally. n = 2. and Hooke's law applies: σ = E. the following must be satisfied: 1. The structure is stable and indeterminate to the second degree. r = 7. The structure is unstable. Leheta r = 8. H.5 Principle of superposition The total internal loadings at a point in a structure subjected to several external loadings can be determined by adding together the internal loadings caused by each of the external loads acting separately. 2. The structure is unstable since the three reactions are concurrent at B. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof.The geometry of the structure does not undergo significant change (displacements are small) 17 . For the principle of superposition to apply.

10 2.6 Application of the equations of equilibrium Consider the three-member pin-connected frame shown in Fig.11 18 . Fig. Fig. H. 2. Ay and Cx can be determined. the answers can be checked. Leheta Fig. It is subjected to loads P1 and P2. the three reactions Ax. 2. 2. By analyzing any two of the remaining members. W. From the free-body diagram of the entire frame.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. There are nine unknowns and nine equations of equilibrium. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof.10 represents how this principle is applied to a simply supported beam. 2.11. so the frame is statically determinate. the other six unknowns may be determined. Applying equilibrium to the third member.

12 If the solution of equilibrium equations yields a negative value for an unknown force or moment. 2.13. then the direction is opposite to that assumed in the free-body diagram. The freebody diagram of the entire frame can be used to find the reactions. three for each member. From the free-body diagrams of the members. Example 5 Determine the reactions on the beam in Fig.13 19 . 2. 2.12. Equilibrium is then applied to either one of the members to find the other two unknowns. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. we have six equilibrium equations. 2. The structure is statically determinate.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. Leheta For the two-member pin-connected frame shown in Fig. H. W. there are six unknowns. Fig. Fig.

of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof.14 20 . H. 2. Fig. W. Leheta Example 6 The shown girder supports a boat and is idealized as shown in Fig.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. Determine the reactions at the supports. a horizontal wind force and the weight of the boat which is equal to 23 tonnes. 2. The boat and girder are considered as a single system. 2. Fig.14b shows the loads acting on the girder: a uniformly distributed deck load.14a. where A is a roller and B is a pin.

21 . W. 2.15. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. B and C of the pin-connected frame shown in Fig. Leheta Example 7 Determine the horizontal and vertical components of reaction at the pins A.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. H.

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