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# Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering

Dept. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. H. W. Leheta

CHAPTER 2 ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE STRUCTURES
2.1 Idealized structure. Idealization of ship structures Estimates of the loadings, points of application and material strength of a structure must be made to analyze a real structure. Therefore, an exact analysis can never be carried out. A structural engineer, or naval architect (in case of ship structures) must be able to model or idealize the structure in order to make a force analysis of the structural members. Structural idealization or mathematical modeling (i.e. replacing the actual structure with a simple system that is possible to analyze mathematically) involves the following techniques: support connections, idealizing the structure and load modeling. 2.1.1 Support Connections Structural members are joined together in various ways. Fig. 1.9 shows the most common supports. When selecting a particular support or joint, the engineer must be aware of how the assumptions will affect the performance and whether they are reasonable. 2.1.2 Structure Idealization A structure must be represented in a simple manner to allow analysis. Structural components have width and thickness. Lines that are located along the centroids of the structural components are used to represent them. The sketch of a structure idealized in this manner is usually called a line diagram. For the beam shown in Fig. 2.1(a), the connection at point A allows some freedom for rotation and may be idealized as a typical pin support, while the support at B provides a point of smooth contact and may be idealized as a roller support. Fig. 2.1(b) shows the line diagram of the beam.

Fig. 2.1

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2. 2.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept.2 Equations of equilibrium From statics. 11 . sinusoidal. Concentrated forces rarely act at a point. we know that a structure or a structural member is in equilibrium when a balance of forces and moments is maintained. Also. H. 2. trapezoidal. W. Fig.1. must equal zero. The analysis of the loadings should give results that closely approximate the actual loadings.3 Load Modeling Forces must also be modeled. For plane (2-D) structures. They are distributed over small areas. triangular. the following requirements for equilibrium must be satisfied: ∑F ∑F ∑M x =0 y z =0 =0 (2.1) That is: the algebraic sums of all forces acting in the x and y directions.2 2. respectively. Distributed forces act over a large area. the algebraic sum of the moments of these force components about an axis perpendicular to the x-y plane (the z axis) must equal zero. Leheta A line diagram for a transverse structure of a ship is shown in Fig. Before applying the equations of equilibrium it is necessary to draw a free-body diagram of the structure or its members.2. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. etc. They may be: uniform.

2a) r > 3n. Each segment is isolated and equations of equilibrium are applied. Leheta 2. a cut or section perpendicular to the axis of the member at the point in question is made. statically indeterminate (2. H. a free-body diagram of the entire beam shows the reaction forces. if there are n segments and r reactions: r = 3n. Free-body diagrams open the way to the analysis of structures.3(a) shows a beam with two supports acted upon by two concentrated loads. Forces common to two members act with equal magnitudes but different directions on the respective free-body diagrams of the members. The right-hand part pushes the lefthand part down and the left-hand part pushes the right-hand part up. Internal loadings consist of a normal force N. 2.3 2.3 Free-body diagrams For a member.2b) 12 . In order to determine if a structure is statically determinate or indeterminate. 2. All forces and moments that act on the member must be shown. 2.3(b).4 Determinacy and stability Determinacy When all the forces in a structure can be determined solely using the equilibrium equations. we obtain two segments of the beam. a freebody diagram must be drawn for its members or segments and the total number of unknown reaction forces and moments is compared with the number of equilibrium equations (3 equilibrium equations for each segment). including support reactions. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. Notice that the internal forces on the two segments are the same but in opposite direction.3(c) shows the free-body diagrams with the internal forces now seen. W. If internal forces and moments at a point in a member are to be determined.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. the structure is statically determinate. In Fig. Fig 2. statically determinate (2. Fig. Fig. So. shear force V. it must be isolated from its supports and adjacent members. Structures with more unknown forces than equilibrium equations are called statically indeterminate. and bending moment M. If we cut the beam at A.

The free-body diagrams are shown.4a to 2.1 Beams Example 1 Fig.4c and 2. H.4. 2. 2.5 along with the resulting classifications. 13 . Leheta The following examples show how to classify the determinacy of a structure.4 Example 2 This example shows pin-connected structures which are similar to beams. The freebody diagrams are shown in Fig. Fig.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. Fig. 2. 2. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof.4d show compound beams composed of pin connected members. 2.4d show beams that are to be classified as determinate or indeterminate. W.

2. Leheta Fig.2 Frames Frames are structures composed of beams and columns that are either pinned or fixed connected.4.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept.6a. Example 3 Sometimes the members of a frame form internal loops.5 2. To obtain free-body diagrams we cut one section through the loop. The loading on a frame causes bending of its members and usually have rigid joint connections. W. as seen in Fig. The frame in Fig. 2. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. 2. 14 . H.6b has no loops.

7 15 .Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. such as shown in Fig. 2. Here horizontal equilibrium is not satisfied and the structure is unstable. 2. Two situations may occur: Partial constraints – Sometimes there are less reactions than equilibrium equations and the structure is partially constrained. W. Fig. H. the members must be properly constrained by their supports. 2.7.6 Stability To ensure equilibrium of a structure. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. Leheta Fig.

2. H. 2. Fig.8. Leheta Improper constraints .Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. as shown in Fig. W. 16 . of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. Example 4 r = 3. n = 1.3a) (2.If support reactions are concurrent at a point or are all parallel.3b) The following example shows how structures are classified as stable or unstable. The structure is stable and statically determinate. instability or movement of the structure develops.8 For a 2-D structure having n members or segments with r unknown reactions. we have: r < 3n unstable r ≥ 3n unstable if reactions are concurrent or parallel (2.

The structure is unstable since the three reactions are concurrent at B. 2. H. Leheta r = 8. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. n = 3.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. For the principle of superposition to apply.The geometry of the structure does not undergo significant change (displacements are small) 17 . the following must be satisfied: 1. r = 7. AB can move horizontally. The structure is unstable. The structure is unstable since the three reactions are parallel.5 Principle of superposition The total internal loadings at a point in a structure subjected to several external loadings can be determined by adding together the internal loadings caused by each of the external loads acting separately. W.ε 2. n = 2. and Hooke's law applies: σ = E. The structure is stable and indeterminate to the second degree.The material is linear-elastic.

of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. Applying equilibrium to the third member.10 represents how this principle is applied to a simply supported beam.10 2. H. 2. the three reactions Ax. 2. the other six unknowns may be determined. By analyzing any two of the remaining members. Leheta Fig. Ay and Cx can be determined.11.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. so the frame is statically determinate. From the free-body diagram of the entire frame. W. It is subjected to loads P1 and P2.11 18 . 2. the answers can be checked. Fig. There are nine unknowns and nine equations of equilibrium.6 Application of the equations of equilibrium Consider the three-member pin-connected frame shown in Fig. 2. Fig.

2. H. there are six unknowns.12 If the solution of equilibrium equations yields a negative value for an unknown force or moment. 2.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof. The freebody diagram of the entire frame can be used to find the reactions. Example 5 Determine the reactions on the beam in Fig. The structure is statically determinate. Fig. Equilibrium is then applied to either one of the members to find the other two unknowns. 2. 2. W. three for each member. then the direction is opposite to that assumed in the free-body diagram.13 19 . From the free-body diagrams of the members.12. Fig. we have six equilibrium equations.13. Leheta For the two-member pin-connected frame shown in Fig.

a horizontal wind force and the weight of the boat which is equal to 23 tonnes. where A is a roller and B is a pin. Fig.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. W. 2. Determine the reactions at the supports. The boat and girder are considered as a single system. Leheta Example 6 The shown girder supports a boat and is idealized as shown in Fig.14a.14 20 . H. Fig. 2. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof.14b shows the loads acting on the girder: a uniformly distributed deck load. 2.

B and C of the pin-connected frame shown in Fig. 21 .15.Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Dept. 2. Leheta Example 7 Determine the horizontal and vertical components of reaction at the pins A. W. H. of Marine Engineering & Naval Architecture Instructor: Prof.