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SC125U Installation Guide

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125kW Photovoltaic, Grid-Tied
String Inverter
Sunny Central SC125U
Installation Guide
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SC125U Installation Guide
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SC125U Installation Guide
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Copyright © 2003 SMA America, Inc. All rights reserved.
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photographic, magnetic, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of SMA
America, Inc.
SMA America makes no representations, express or implied, with respect to this
documentation or any of the equipment and/or software it may describe, including (with
no limitation) any implied warranties of utility, merchantability, or fitness for any particular
purpose. All such warranties are expressly disclaimed. Neither SMA America nor its
distributors or dealers shall be liable for any indirect, incidental, or consequential damages
under any circumstances.
(The exclusion of implied warranties may not apply in all cases under some statutes, and
thus the above exclusion may not apply.)
Specifications are subject to change without notice. Every attempt has been made to
make this document complete, accurate, and up-to-date. Readers are cautioned,
however, that SMA America reserves the right to make changes without notice and shall
not be responsible for any damages, including indirect, incidental or consequential
damages, caused by reliance on the material presented, including, but not limited to,
omissions, typographical errors, arithmetical errors, or listing errors in the content
material.
SMA America, Incorporated
12438-C Loma Rica Drive
Grass Valley, California 95945
Tel 530.273.4895
Fax 530.274.7271
www.sma-america.com
Revision History
Rev. No. Date By Reason
0.1 Nov 25, 2003 Jeffrey Philpott Alpha draft
0.2 Jan 23, 2004 Jeffrey Philpott Beta draft
1.0 Apr 08, 2004 Jeffrey Philpott Preliminary Release
1.1 Nov 1, 2004 Jeffrey Philpott Updates
1.2 Dec 15, 2004 Jeffrey Philpott Updates
SC125U Installation Guide
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IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS
This manual contains important instructions for the Sunny Central SC125U that must be
followed during installation and maintenance of the inverter.
This document applies to SMA Sunny Central inverter models: SC125U-480, SC125U-240
and SC125U-208
The Sunny Central is designed and tested according to international safety requirements, but
as with all electrical and electronic equipment, certain precautions must be observed when
installing and/or operating the Sunny Central. To reduce the risk of personal injury and to
ensure the safe installation and operation of the Sunny Central, you must carefully read and
follow all instructions, cautions, and warnings in this Installation Guide.
Safety and Hazard Symbols
This symbol is used to call attention to important information that you must have
when installing and/or operating the Sunny Central. Failure to read and follow
instructions marked with this symbol could result in injury or death and/or
damage to the equipment.
This symbol appears beside instructions and warnings that deal with dangerous
voltages that can injure or kill people who come in contact with them.
This symbol appears beside instructions and cautions that deal with equipment
components that can be damaged by static electricity.
Cautions and Warnings
WARNING: A Warning describes a hazard to personnel. It calls attention to a
procedure or practice, which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could
result in personal injury.
CAUTION: A Caution describes a hazard to equipment. It calls attention to an
operating procedure or practice, which, if not correctly performed or adhered to,
could result in damage to or destruction of part or all of the SMA equipment and/
or other equipment connected to the SMA equipment.
Warnings and Cautions may also be accompanied by one or more of the safety and hazard
symbols described above to indicate the type of hazard described therein.
Other Symbols
This symbol accompanies notes that call attention to supplementary information
that you should know and use to ensure optimal operation of the system.
SC125U Installation Guide
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Warranty
All Sunny Central inverters sold in the USA have a five-year warranty, as indicated on the
warranty card included in the Sunny Central shipping container. For warranty coverage, or if
you have questions about the Sunny Central warranty, contact SMA America at the address,
telephone number, or Web site listed on page iii (to send E-mail, see the Contact section of the
SMA America Web site: www.sma-america.com).
All electrical installation must be done in accordance with the local and
National Electrical Code ANSI/NFPA 70.
The Sunny Central contains no user-serviceable parts. Always contact an SMA
authorized Service Center for repairs and maintenance.
Before installing or using the Sunny Central, read all of the instructions,
cautions, and warnings on the Sunny Central, the PV array, and in this
Installation Guide.
Before connecting the Sunny Central to the electrical utility grid, contact the
local utility company. This connection must be made only by qualified
personnel.
PV arrays produce electrical energy when exposed to light and thus can create
an electrical shock hazard. Wiring of the PV-arrays should only be performed
by qualified personnel.
SC125U Installation Guide
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SC125U Installation Guide
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1 Introduction
System Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Interconnection Code Compliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
2 Safety
Safety Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
3 Installation
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Installation Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
4 User Interface
The Sunny Central Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31
5 Inverter Operation
System Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-37
6 Troubleshooting
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-41
SC125U Installation
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SC125U Installation Guide Introduction
1
Section 1:
Introduction
System Overview
General
The SC125U is the collaborative effort between SMA America and SMA Regelsysteme. Our
goal was to develop the highest quality, most durable and advanced grid-tied inverter in the
photovoltaic (PV) industry. The same PV expertise found in over 250,000 fielded Sunny Boy
inverters is integrated in the SC125U, only on a larger scale. Here is a brief list of benefits you
will find in the SC125U:
• Isolation transformer is integrated within the inverter enclosure resulting in significantly
higher daily power production.
• Sunny Central Control Plus advanced data-acquisition and control system included. (Also
compatible with all other SMA communication products)
• FCC-A noise-emission compliance and certification, a Federal requirement for all US
installations
• Rugged outdoor stainless-steel and aluminum enclosure
• Hermetically sealed electronics compartment, temperature regulated with a robust air-to-
air heat exchanger
• Temperature-regulated, energy-efficient cooling system
• Advanced Maximum Peak Power Tracker (MPPT) algorithm
• Alternate models available for interconnection to 480, 240 or 208 VAC utility voltages
Inverter Description
The SC125U is a DC-AC, unity power factor current-source power converter for photovoltaic
power sources. DC PV power is converted to AC utility grade power through a single-stage,
high-frequency, pulse-width-modulated (PWM) IGBT bridge. The DC and AC power is heavily
filtered to provide safe, high-fidelity, low EMI/EMC emission power to the AC utility system.
Anti-islanding Protection
Islanding is a condition that can occur if the utility grid is disconnected while the SC125U is
operating and the remaining load is resonant at 60 Hz and matches the output of the SC125U
perfectly. This condition is highly unlikely and has never been witnessed outside a controlled
laboratory. Nevertheless, the SC125U incorporates an advanced active islanding protection
algorithm to insure that the system will not export power into a balanced 60Hz resonant load
while the utility is disconnected. The SC125U periodically injects both leading and lagging
VAR current into the utility grid. This method has been proven by Underwriters Laboratories to
effectively destabilize a balanced island condition.
System Overview SC125U Installation
2
AC Voltage Configuration
The SC125U comes from SMA pre-configured for either 480, 240 or 208 VAC utility interface.
All utility protection tests required by UL1741 have been performed by SMA prior to shipping.
AC Interface (Optional)
If the SC125U was ordered without an internal AC disconnect switch, utility wiring will be
landed on stud-type terminal blocks within the user interface enclosure. Otherwise, wiring from
the utility point of interconnection is landed directly onto the AC disconnect switch within the
user interface enclosure. Internal to the AC disconnect switch is a thermal-magnetic molded-
case circuit breaker. This is included to protect the inverter from faults originating on the utility
distribution system. The AC switch is used to disable and isolate the SC125U from utility power
during maintenance or repair.
DC Interface
PV array wiring is connected to DC buss bars located within the user interface enclosure. The
buss bars feed directly to a load-break rated DC disconnect switch. The DC disconnect switch
is used to isolate the PV array output from the inverter power electronics during service
operations and in emergency situations.
GFDI Description
In the event of a ground fault from the PV array, the fault current will trip a breaker located in
the user interface enclosure. Connected to the breaker are two contact switches. The first
contact signals the controller that a ground fault has occurred, which executes a safe and
orderly shut-down of the SC125U. The second contact interrupts coil holding current for the
main AC contactor to insure the system is isolated from the AC utility system. The fault is then
displayed on the user interface. Once the PV ground fault has been corrected and the GFDI
breaker reset, the SC125U resumes normal operation.
Sunny Central Control Description
Incorporated into the SC125U control system is the Sunny Central Controller advanced data
acquisition system (DAS). The SCC is the primary user interface for the SC125U. The menu
driven user interface is navigated via a push-button keypad. The operator may view inverter
status, operating parameters, and historical operating data on the LCD screen. Adjustable
operational parameters are protected with a user password.
Remote Access Options
A variety of communication options are available to connect multiple SC125U's together, or
combine other SMA products on the same communication buss. For customers desiring remote
access to the SC125U, various modems, Ethernet and wireless options are also available for
the Sunny Central Control (SCC). Local access to the SCC is a simple wire connection between
SC125U Installation Guide Introduction
3
a PC and the SCC. The Sunny Data Control software and a MS Windows PC are necessary to
communicate with the SCC from local or remote locations. Sunny Data Control software is
available free-of-charge on the SMA-America web site.
Figure 1-1 Sunny Central System Block Diagram
EMC
Filter
+
-
Ìnverter
Bridge
Line
Filter
Transformer
125 kVA
60Hz
WYE:WYE
98% Eff.
EMC
Filter
Line
Contactor
AC Disconnect
Switch and
Circuit Breaker
Control Power
Transformer
Reverse
Protection
Diode
Ground Fault
Detector
Sunny CentraI ControI
Data Acquisition and
ControI Unit
Ìrradiance
Temperature
PC, Modem, Ìnternet,
External Display
Control Unit
To Grid:
480/240
/208
WYE
60Hz
=
3~

R
S
4
8
5
SMA
L3
L2
L1
DC
Disconnect
Switch
PV Array
RS 232 or RS 422
Other Sensors
°F
External Options
Optional
Combiner Box
N
System Overview SC125U Installation
4
Sunny Central Control Display and Keypad
The Sunny Central Control (SCC) is the primary user interface for the Sunny Central. Through
it, different operating states can be selected, system parameters can be set and operational
data can be displayed.
For customers desiring remote access to the SC125U, various modems, Ethernet and wireless
options are also available for the SCC. Local access to the SCC is a simple wire connection
between a PC and the SCC. The Sunny Data Control program and a MS Windows PC are
necessary to communicate with the SCC from local or remote locations. Sunny Data Control is
available free-of-charge on the SMA-America web site.
Start/Stop Switch
The Start/Stop switch is the primary control switch for turning the Sunny Central on and off.
When starting the inverter with this switch, the inverter conducts a series of self-tests and begins
automatic operation. Using this switch to turn off the inverter during operation will cause the
inverter to execute a safe and orderly shut down. The SC125U will remain inoperable until the
switch is returned to the on position.
Circuit Breakers: AC, DC, Control Power, GFDI
Circuit breakers are provided in the Control cabinet to protect the inverter from external system
faults.
DC Disconnect
The DC disconnect is a lockable rotary handled switch that is used to isolate the inverter from
the PV array.
[ SUNNY CENTRAL]
[ CONTROL ]
Time : 17:11.36
Date :11/25/1998
SC125U Installation Guide Introduction
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AC Disconnect
The AC disconnect is a lockable rotary handled switch that is used to isolate the inverter from
the utility grid. Integrated into the AC disconnect is a thermal magnetic circuit breaker.
Operating the AC disconnect also operates this circuit breaker. The AC disconnect is also used
to reset the circuit breaker in the event of an AC over-current fault.
Interconnection Code Compliance
The Sunny Central SC125U has been tested and listed by Underwriters Laboratories to meet
the requirements of UL1741 Static Inverters and Charge Controllers for use in Photovoltaic
Power Systems and UL1998 Software in Programmable Components, as well as IEEE-929-
2000 Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic Systems and IEEE 519
Standard Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems. The
SC125U is also listed under UL1741 for Canadian UL.
UL1741 is the standard applied by Underwriters Laboratories to the SC125U to
certify that it meets the requirements of the NEC and IEEE-929-2000. IEEE 929-
2000 provides recommendations regarding the proper equipment and
functionality necessary to ensure compatible operation when power generation
is connected to the utility grid.
Note: Contact the local utility and/or the authority having jurisdiction
prior to connecting the Sunny Central to the utility grid.
Interconnection Code Compliance SC125U Installation
6
Figure 1-2 Control Cabinet Main Components
Sunny Central
Control
Com-Port
(DB-9)
Start/Stop
Switch
PV/DC
Disconnect
AC/Utility
Disconnect
Circuit
Breakers
Upper Panel
Lower Panel
SC125U Installation Guide Introduction
7
Specifications
Inverter Technology True sine wave, current source, high frequency PWM
Nominal AC Power Output 125 kW (at 45°C)
Acceptable Utility Voltage Range 422 - 528 VAC (480 VAC nominal) SC125U-480
212 - 264 VAC (240 VAC nominal) SC125U-240
183 - 228 VAC (208 VAC nominal) SC125U-208
Acceptable Utility Frequency
Range
59.3 - 60.5 Hz (60 Hz nominal)
Current THD < 3%
Power Factor Unity
AC Output Current Limit 150 AAC (480 VAC)
300 AAC (240 VAC)
350 AAC (208 VAC)
Max. AC Output Switch and
Circuit Breaker Current
(Optional)
200 AAC (480 VAC)
400 AAC (240 VAC)
600 AAC (208 VAC)
DC Input Voltage 275 - 600V DC
Peak Power Tracking Voltage 275 - 550V DC
PV Start Voltage 450V DC (adjustable)
Maximum DC Current 460A @ 275V DC
DC Input Switch Rating 800A AC
DC Voltage Ripple (P to P) < 3%
Peak Inverter Efficiency 95.7% (fans off)
Power Consumption 110 W Standby
Ambient Temperature -25°C to +50°C
Cooling Temperature controlled forced fan cooling with
optional sealed heat exchanger
Enclosure Bridge NEMA 4
Main enclosure NEMA 3R, powder coated, stainless
steel and aluminum
Table 1: Sunny Central SC125U Specifications
Specifications SC125U Installation
8
Dimensions 93 W x 75 H x 24 D inches
235 W x 150 H x 60 D cm
Weight 3307 lbs.
(1500 kg)
Certifications FCC Part 15
UL 1741
IEEE 519/929
Table 1: Sunny Central SC125U Specifications
SC125U Installation Guide Safety
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Section 2:
Safety
Safety Features
WARNING:The SC125U enclosure houses exposed high voltage con-
ductors. The Inverter and Magnetics cabinet doors should therefore
remain locked at all times. Only qualified service personnel should
enter the SC125U cabinets. These instructions are meant for use by
qualified personnel only. To minimize the risk of electric shock, do not
perform any servicing other than that specified in the operating in-
structions unless you are qualified to do so. Do not open the cabinet
doors if there is extreme moisture present (rain or heavy dew).
WARNING: The user interface enclosure is not equipped with a lock for
safety reasons, therefore the Sunny Central must be installed in a secure
area to prevent unauthorized personnel from accessing the controls to
the inverter.
Start/Stop Switch
The Start/Stop switch is the main control switch for the Sunny Central. Turning this switch to
the “ON” position activates the SC125U. Turning the switch to the “OFF” position deactivates
the SC125U. When the Start/Stop switch is used for deactivation, the SC125U performs a
controlled shut down of the system. This nonlockable switch is located in the Control cabinet of
the SC125U. The door to the Control cabinet remains unlocked during normal operation. This
provides the user access to the main controls if it becomes necessary to deactivate the system.
AC/DC Disconnects
Both the AC (optional) and DC loadbreak disconnect switches are equipped with lockout hasps
to help ensure personnel safety. The disconnects can be locked in either the On or Off position.
Each switch handle also provides an interlock so that the main panel cannot be removed unless
both switches are in the Off position. These switches must remain in the On position during
normal operation and should not be used for turning the system Off. The AC and DC
disconnects should only be used to isolate the main cabinets of the inverter for required
maintenance or other service related tasks. Shutting down the SC125U should be done with
the Start/Stop switch prior to opening the AC and DC disconnect switches.
Cabinet Door Locks and Safety Switches
The inverter and magnetics cabinets of the SC125U are key locked individually. Each door is
equipped with and exterior locking handle that has a hasp for a padlock. This ensures that
although the user may have a key to the handle itself, there is the provision for service
Safety Features SC125U Installation
10
personnel to add their own lock to prevent unauthorized personnel from accessing the internal
components of the SC125U. Additionally, each door is equipped with a door interlock safety
switch so that if the either door is opened while the SC125U is operating, the system will shut
down immediately.
CAUTION: The SC125U will restart automatically once the doors are
secured if the system was caused to shut down because of the door
interlock safety switches.
PV Ground Fault Detection and Interruption
The Sunny Central is equipped with a ground fault detection device. This device is a 3-pole,
10A circuit breaker located in the Control cabinet. Also ganged to this breaker is a 2-pole
switch used to switch the power electronics into standby and signal the Sunny Central Control
that a ground fault has been detected. If a ground fault current greater than 10A is detected,
the SC125U will shut down and display the fault condition on the display of the Sunny Central
Control. Once the ground fault is located and corrected, the GFDI will need to be manually
reset. Once the GFDI is reset, the SC125U will automatically clear the fault condition and return
to normal operation.
Fault/Error Reporting
All fault conditions or system errors are reported to the user on the Sunny Central Control. The
Sunny Central Control also stores all faults, warnings and events in a historical log which is
viewable by the user. Detailed descriptions of the fault and error codes are provided in a later
section of this manual.
Voltage and Frequency Monitoring
The SC125U monitors both the voltage and frequency of the utility system. If either the voltage
or frequency of the system exceeds the limits dictated by UL1741, the SC125U will shut down
and report the appropriate fault on the Sunny Central Control. The default safety parameters
were chosen based upon the requirements of both IEEE-929 and UL 1741. The safety
parameters are shown in Table 1.
SC125U Installation Guide Safety
11
Anti-Islanding Protection
Islanding is a condition that can occur if the utility grid is disconnected while the SC125U is
operating and the remaining load is resonant at 60 Hz and matches the output of the SC125U
perfectly. This condition is highly unlikely and has never been witnessed outside of a controlled
laboratory. Nevertheless, the SC125U incorporates an advanced active islanding protection
algorithm to insure that the system will not export power in to a balanced 60Hz resonant load
while the utility is disconnected. The SC125U periodically injects both leading and lagging
VAR current into the utility grid. This method has been proven by Underwriters Laboratories to
effectively destabilize and disconnect from a balanced island condition.
Isolation Procedure
The following procedure should be used to deactivate and isolate the SC125U from both AC
and DC power:
1. Turn the Start/Stop switch to the Off or “0” position
2. Turn the DC disconnect switch to the Off position
3. Turn the AC disconnect switch to the Off position
4. Install lockout devices on the DC and AC disconnect switches
Utility Protection
Fault Condition
(% of Nominal)
Reaction
Time
VAC < 50% 6 Cycles
50% > VAC > 88% 120 Cycles
88% > VAC > 106% Normal
106% > VAC > 137% 120 Cycles
VAC > 137% 2 Cycles
f < rated -0.7 6 Cycles
f > rated +0.5 6 Cycles
Table 1: Safety Parameters Required by UL1741-1999
Safety Features SC125U Installation
12
WARNING:After disconnecting the SC125U from AC and DC power,
the DC input terminals of the PV array will remain energized if the
array is still energized, as will the AC output terminals. Therefore,
care should be taken when working in the control cabinet. Wait 5
minutes after switching off the AC and DC disconnect switches before
proceeding to allow time for any stored potential in the SC125U to
completely discharge. Any work performed in the control cabinet
should be completed only by qualified personnel.
Integrated Isolation Transformer
Because NEC 690.41 requires the PV array be electrically grounded, galvanic isolation
between PV DC and utility AC power systems is necessary. The Sunny Central accomplishes
this with a high-efficiency WYE-WYE isolation transformer for interconnection with common,
3-phase 4-wire utility services. The transformer is mounted within the main enclosure to allow
the inverter to control and disconnect it when there is no PV array power. (Other large PV
inverters require that an isolation transformer be specified and purchased, but the Sunny
Central has one included in the control system.)
The advanced magnetics used in the internal isolation transformer are carefully matched to the
characteristics of the inverter. The AC contactor disconnects the internal transformer when the
PV system is not providing energy and this eliminates the energy losses associated with a
transformer that is always connected to the utility grid. With an internal transformer, there are
no code questions raised by inspectors as to whether the circuits between the inverter and the
external transformer need to be grounded. By enclosing the transformer in the inverter cabinet,
extra weight and costs are saved by not requiring a separate housing and mounting system as
would be required with an external transformer.
480, 240 and 208 utility voltage configurations are available.
SC125U Installation Guide Safety
13
Figure 2-1 Cabinet Door Interlocks and Main Components
Front
Cabinet
Interlock
Switches
Transformer
Filter
Inverter
Safety Features SC125U Installation
14
SC125U Installation Guide Installation
15
Section 3:
Installation
Installation
CAUTION: All installation methods must be performed in accordance with
the National Electrical Code (NEC) ANSI/NFPA 70. All wiring connected
to the Sunny Central SC125U must be of size and type accepted by the
NEC ANSI/NFPA 70 and all local codes. The minimum bending radius for
large cabling must be observed as stated in the NEC.
WARNING:To prevent electrical shock or injury, all wiring and com-
missioning procedures must be performed by qualified personnel.
Ventilation and Clearances
A minimum of 48” of clearance shall be maintained in front of the Inverter and Magnetics
cabinet doors and in front of the Control cabinet door and 30” of clearance behind the
enclosure. It is recommended that some space be maintained to the right of the enclosure.
Figure 3-1 Clearances for the SC125U Enclosure
48"
30"
48"
Top
Pear
wall
Pront
#"
Installation SC125U Installation
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Foundation Considerations
The SC125U weighs approximately 3300 lbs. (1500 kg). The mounting surface must be level
and strong enough to support the weight of the inverter. The inverter must be secured to the
foundation per local building codes. Four mounting holes are located along the interior
perimeter of the SC125U enclosure and accept up to 7/16” hardware. If the main wiring is
entering the inverter through the bottom area, conduit will need to be added to the foundation.
Figure 3-2 Anchoring Footprint
Lifting and Moving
Due to the size and weight of the SC125U, it is recommended that it remain on the pallet it
was shipped on until ready for installation.
CAUTION: Extra care must be used when moving the SC125U because the
weight of the inverter is not evenly distributed within the enclosure. The
majority of the inverter’s weight is on the Magnetics cabinet end of the
enclosure. Refer to Figure 3-4 and to the center of gravity (CG) marking
locations on the box.
Slots for moving the SC125U with a fork lift or palette jacks are shown in Figure 3-3. The center
set of slots are to be used for moving the SC125U with a fork lift or a large palette jack. The
outside sets of slots are to be used when moving the SC125U with a set of smaller palette jacks.
Remember that the inverter weighs 3300 lbs. Make sure that your equipment is rated for
this weight before attempting to move the inverter.
82.68"
l8.5"
Secure with 7/l6" 8olts
SC125U Installation Guide Installation
17
Figure 3-3 Lifting Points for the SC125U
Base Plates Removed
Small Palette Jack Small Palette Jack
Large Palette Jack
or Fork Lift
Installation SC125U Installation
18
Figure 3-4 Center of Gravity
Front Side
54.50" 33.90"
16.18" 7.44"
40.75" 40.75"
30.43" 30.43"
C
G
C
G
SC125U Installation Guide Installation
19
Dimensions
Figure 3-5 Front and Top Views
Top view
25.75" 37.25"
Pront view
92"
74"
|nverter
Cabinet
Control
Cabinet
Magnetics
Cabinet
Comm.
wire
Access
Alternate Power
wire Access
l0"
2"
l2"
4"
3"
6"
4" 4"
Installation SC125U Installation
20
Figure 3-6 Back and Bottom Views
8ottom view
l8"
l5.75"
9.5" 2.5"
4"
4"
ll.5"
52.5" l8.75"
Power wiring
Access
8ack view
25"
Alternate Power
wiring Access
Comm.
wire
Access
l2"
7.5"
2"
6"
l0"
2"
4" 4"
SC125U Installation Guide Installation
21
Cabinet Door Locks
The Sunny Central is equipped with locking door handles. For safety reasons, the Control
cabinet door does not lock in order to allow access to the AC and DC disconnect switches. The
Inverter and Magnetic cabinets are both lockable and are equipped with a hasp for an
additional padlock. Follow the instructions in Figure 3-7 to unlock the cabinet handles.
Figure 3-7 Cabinet Door Lock Operation
Wiring and Torque Specifications
The following tables show the required torque settings and acceptable wire sizes to be used
when making connections to the SC125U.
Terminal Block or Bolt Torque Setting
AC Disconnect 180 in. lbs./15 ft. lbs
DC Compression Lugs 250 in. lbs./21 ft. lbs.
Ground 250 in. lbs./21 ft. lbs.
Table 1: Torque Requirements
Slide cover up
and insert key
Turn the key and
when the handle pops up,
turn it to the side to open.
Installation Procedure SC125U Installation
22
Installation Procedure
Mounting the Inverter
• Drill or punch appropriate conduit knockouts. Be sure to avoid getting metal particles in-
side the wiring area of the inverter
• Remove inverter base plates to expose fork lift slots
• Move the SC125U into place
• Mark mounting hole locations
• Move SC125U away for drilling holes
• Install appropriate anchors in concrete pad
• Move SC125U into place
• Secure the SC125U to the foundation using 7/16” hardware
• Torque anchor bolts to specification
• Install conduit hardware
• Pull wires through conduit (if not already done) and into the bottom of the Control cabinet
Main Power Wire Connections
• Refer to Figure 3-8 for terminal locations
• Verify that all AC and DC disconnect switches are in the OFF position
• Connect the grounding-electrode conductor from the grounding system to the terminal
marked “Grounding Electrode”
• Connect the equipment-grounding conductor(s) from the DC PV circuits to the appropriate
terminals on the ground bus in the inverter
Termination Wire Range in AWG
AC Disconnect 1 x 300 MCM, 2 x 1/0 per pole
PV+ / PV- 2 x 4/0 per pole
Ground 1 X 300 MCM
Table 2: Wire Gauge Requirements
SC125U Installation Guide Installation
23
• Connect the equipment-grounding conductor(s) from the AC output circuits to the appropri-
ate terminals on the ground bus in the inverter
• Connect the PV+ and PV- wires. Be sure that the PV array is not energized when making
these connections
Note: Depending on your installation, The NEC may require that rather
large AC and DC current carrying conductors be used. Multiple, smaller
parallel conductors may be used to reduce bending radius requirements
and ease installation. Refer to NEC for conductor sizing.
• Connect the AC Neutral phase conductor to the neutral output terminal.
Note: This terminal is isolated from ground in the inverter. Grounding of
the AC output neutral conductor must be accomplished outside the inverter,
usually at the service entrance equipment.
• Connect the three AC phase wires to terminals A, B and C. Be sure that the breaker is
turned OFF at the sub-panel and to observe proper phasing when connecting these wires.
• Torque all wire terminations as required by the manufacturer’s recommendations
• Replace fork slot skirts
Note: The SC125U has auto phase detection capability. However, it is still
important to maintain proper phasing when making the AC connections.
See Commissioning section for instructions on phase checking.
CAUTION: It is the responsibility of the installer to see to it that the input
and output circuits are isolated from the enclosure, if required by sections
690.41 and 690.42 of the National Electrical Code ANSI/NFPA 70, and
to assure that the system is properly grounded.
CAUTION: Sections 690.41 and 690.42 of the National Electrical Code
require that the PV array be earth grounded. The DC negative conductor
input into the inverter is grounded internally in the inverter by the GFDI
circuit. Do not ground the negative PV conductor at any other place on the
DC circuits. The chassis of the SC125U is also bonded to the PV ground
bus bar.
CAUTION: The AC output circuit for the SC125U should be sized for the
maximum continuous output current rating and in compliance with the
NEC.
Installation Procedure SC125U Installation
24
WARNING:The PV array will produce high voltages when exposed
to sunlight.
WARNING:To prevent electrical shock or other injury, verify that the
AC and DC wires are not energized during installation.
SC125U Installation Guide Installation
25
Figure 3-8 AC and DC Interconnections
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Installation Procedure SC125U Installation
26
Figure 3-9 Main Wiring Terminations
Pan
AC
Neutral
Pv GND
8uss
Optional AC Output
Disconnect "Ql"
or Stud Terminal 8lock
Pv+ Pv+
Pv- Pv-
A 8 C
Pv/DC Disconnect "Q2"
Power wiring Access
Alternate Power
wiring Access
Alternate Power
wiring Access
Lower Control Cabinet with Cover Pemoved
N
SC125U Installation Guide Installation
27
Commissioning
Note:The following procedures must be performed by a qualified techni-
cian. These procedures are intended to assure proper installation and op-
eration of the SC125U. Do not continue if the results of any of the steps are
incorrect or unclear.
Visual Inspection of the SC125U
• Insure that all AC and DC disconnect switches are in the OFF position
• Wait 15 minutes for all internal power supplies to discharge
• Inspect all large power cable and bus connections throughout the inverter to verify that they
are tight
• Verify that all PV wires are connected with the proper polarity
• Verify that all PV wires are tightened to the proper torque specification
• Verify that the PV ground wire is connected to ground and is isolated from PV+, PV-
• Verify that the AC neutral wire is connected to the AC Neutral buss
• Verify that the AC phase wires are connected correctly
• Verify that all AC phase wires are tightened to the proper torque specification
• Inspect the interior of the wiring cabinet and insure that it is free of any tools, foreign objects
or debris
• Leave lower panel of the Control cabinet open for measurement purposes
CAUTION: The lower cabinet will contain exposed energized conductors
and buss bars. Use extreme caution when taking measurements during the
commissioning process.
• Inspect the interior of the Inverter and Magnetics cabinets to insure that they a free of any
tools, foreign objects or debris
• Verify that the doors to the Inverter and Magnetics cabinets are closed securely and latched
• Insure that the area around the SC125U is clear of any tools, foreign objects or debris
Commissioning SC125U Installation
28
Figure 3-10 Control Panel Main Components with Lower Cover Removed
Initial AC Voltage and Phasing Verification
• Turn the input breaker in the AC Sub-panel on
• Using an adjustable wrench on the square shaft of the AC disconnect switch, carefully turn
the AC/Utility disconnect switch to the ON position
• Open the upper panel of the Control cabinet by removing the screws and pulling the panel
down. (See Figure 3-10)
• Press the small, white, square switch on the relay located in the lower left corner (see Figure
3.10)
• When the fan in the blower housing comes on, verify the direction of air flow through the
rear upper vent of the blower housing. Check the direction of air flow by holding a piece of
paper up to the vent. The air should suck the paper up against the air intake grill with a
Sunny Central
Control
Com-Port
(D8-9)
Start/Stop
Switch
Pv/DC
Disconnect
AC/Utility
Disconnect
Circuit
8reakers
AC
Neutral
Pv GND
8uss
Pv+ Pv+
Pv- Pv-
A 8 C
Power wiring Access
Alternate Power
wiring Access
Alternate Power
wiring Access
N
SC125U Installation Guide Installation
29
good amount of force. (If the air blows the paper away or if the paper falls away from the
grill, shut off all AC disconnects and reverse any two AC wires at the AC disconnect)
• After the wires have been reversed, repeat the above step to insure proper phasing
• After verification process is complete, using an adjustable wrench on the square shaft, turn
the AC disconnect switch to the OFF position
Figure 3-11 Location of Fan Relay and Air Intake Grill
Initial DC Voltage and Polarity Verification
Note:The measuring of the DC input voltage must be performed when the
PV array is energized. Verify that the array is exposed to direct sunlight.
• With the DC disconnect switch still in the OFF position, carefully measure VDC from the PV+
at the disconnect and PV-
Air Intake
Grill
AC/Utility
Disconnect
Hold Sheet of
Paper Here
Blower on
Back of
SC125U
Fan Relay
Panel Screws (2)
Commissioning SC125U Installation
30
• Verify that the PV voltage is positive and within the range specified on the unit rating label
• Using a adjustable wrench on the shaft of the DC disconnect switch, rotate the switch to the
ON position. Carefully measure VDC across PV+ and PV- and verify that the voltage is pos-
itive and within the range specified on the unit rating label
• After the testing process is complete, verify that the AC and DC disconnect switches are in
the OFF position, then replace all safety shields and the lower panel of the Control cabinet
Note:To replace the lower panel of the Control cabinet, both the shafts and
switches of the AC and DC disconnects must be in the OFF position.
Initial Startup
• Turn AC/Utility Disconnect switch to the ON position
• Turn the PV/DC Disconnect switch to the ON position
• Turn the Start/Stop switch to the ON position
• Verify that the display indicates that the inverter is performing self tests
• After self tests are complete, the inverter will begin operation and the status of the inverter
will be indicated on the Sunny Central Control.
SC125U Installation Guide User Interface
31
Section 4:
User Interface
The Sunny Central Control
Overview
The Sunny Central Control user interface is made up of a four-line display with 16 characters
per line and four function keys. The LCD display shows system status, historical data,
parameter values and fault messages. The four keys are used for navigation, changing
parameter values and changing operating states. The key functionality is described in the
figure and table below.
Figure 4-1 User Interface
Key Function
ESC Cancel, Answer NO, Enter Main Menu, Return to Auto Mode
UP Arrow Scroll Upward, Increase Value
DOWN Arrow Scroll Downward, Decrease Value
ENTER Select Function, Select Value, Confirm Changes, Answer YES
UP+DWN Arrows Return to Auto Mode
Table 1: Key Functionality
Central
The Sunny Central Control SC125U Installation
32
Operation
How Information is Displayed
Figure 4-2 Display Window
The multiple display lines of the Sunny Central Control menu are viewable 4 lines at a time.
Using the arrow keys the display window is moved up or down to allow the user to navigate
through the menu.
1. Display Line
2. Display Line
3. Display Line
4. Display Line
5. Display Line
6. Display Line
7. Display Line
8. Display Line
9. Display Line
10. Display Line
11. Display Line
12. Display Line
13. Display Line
14. Display Line
Additional lines
above the display
window are accessible
using the [ ] key.
4 Lines of information
are viewable at a time.
Additional lines
below the display
window are accessible
using the [ ] key.
Display Window
SC125U Installation Guide User Interface
33
Additional Characters
Figure 4-3 Additional Display Characters
Arrows along the left edge of the display will indicate which display line is currently active.
These arrows can be moved up and down the display using the UP and DOWN arrow keys.
If the arrow is blinking, it is indicating that the active line is waiting for a response from the
user. (ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel)
Arrows in the lower right corner of the display indicate that there is information either above
or below the display, or both, which is out of the current view. The additional display lines can
be accessed using the UP and DOWN arrow keys.
Display Contrast
It is possible to adjust the contrast of the LCD display by holding the ESC key and then pressing
the UP arrow to increase the contrast, or the DOWN arrow to decrease the contrast.
1. Display Line
2. Display Line
3. Display Line
4. Display Line
5. Display Line
6. Display Line
7. Display Line
8. Display Line
9. Display Line
10. Display Line
11. Display Line
12. Display Line
13. Display Line
14. Display Line
Steady Arrow:
Indicates which
display line is
currently active
Blinking Arrow:
Indicates an entry
waiting for
confirmation
UP+DOWN arrows
indicate additional
lines above and below
the display
UP arrow indicates
additional lines are
above the display
DOWN arrow indicates
additional lines are
below the display
The Sunny Central Control SC125U Installation
34
Auto Mode
When the SC125U is powered up it will automatically perform self tests as well as PV and grid
tests. If all start up parameters are met, it will start. During this process the display message
will be “SMA” repeated on each display line.
Once the system has started, the display will enter Auto Mode. Auto Mode is a series of 4
screens that the Sunny Central Control automatically scrolls through that show the current
operating status of the inverter. Each screen is displayed for 2 to 3 seconds.
For an example of the start up and Auto Mode screens refer to Figure 5-4. Figure 5-4 also
includes a sample error message. If while initializing the SC25U detects a fault of some sort it
will report in on the display as shown.
When in Auto Mode, each of the 4 screens can be accessed manually by using the UP or
DOWN arrow keys.
To exit Auto Mode and enter the main menu of the Sunny Central Control, press the ESC key.
Once in the main menu, you can navigate to the different parameters using the UP and DOWN
arrow keys. If the control is left idle for 60 seconds it will return to Auto Mode automatically.
Editing Mode
To make any changes to system parameters, you must enter the Editing Mode on the Sunny
Central Control. Editing Mode can only be entered when the active line on the display is
editable. To enter the Editing Mode, navigate to the display line you wish to edit and press the
ENTER key.
After pressing the ENTER key the current value for the parameter selected will begin to blink.
Once blinking, the value can be changed using the UP or DOWN arrow keys.
When making a change with an arrow key, it is important to note that the longer the key is
held, the more rapidly the value will change. For example, if you wish to make a minor change
of +3 units, you would press the UP arrow key three times. If, on the other hand, you wanted
to make a change of +300 units, you would press and hold the UP arrow key causing the value
to increase rapidly. Once near the desired value, release the UP arrow key and wait for the
parameter to begin blinking again. Once blinking, select the final value slowly by pressing the
UP arrow key (or the DOWN arrow key) repeatedly until the desired value is reached.
Once the desired value is reached, press the ENTER key to confirm the entry or the ESC key to
cancel. If neither key is pressed within 60 seconds the parameter will automatically revert to its
previous value.
SC125U Installation Guide User Interface
35
Figure 4-4 Sunny Central Control Display Screens
Navigation Example
The following diagram provides a sample of how navigating to a particular menu item can be
accomplished using the Sunny Central Control.
Auto Mode Screens
[ SUNNY CENTRAL ]
[ CONTROL ]
Time: 14:23.35
Date: 26.12.03
Status Stop
Pac 0.00kW
E_Today 0.0kWh
E_Total 0.0kWh
Screen 1
Screen 2
Status Stop
Vac1 ---- V
Vac2 ---- V
Vac3 ---- V
Status Stop
fac 0.00 Hz
Vpv 0.00 V
Iac-WRB 0.00 A
Screen 3
Screen 4
SMA SMA SMA SMA
SMA SMA SMA SMA
SMA SMA SMA SMA
SMA SMA SMA SMA
Startup screen shown during self test
[ Failure ]
GFDI
Sample Error Message
The Sunny Central Control SC125U Installation
36
Figure 4-5 Sample of Sunny Central Control Navigation
[ SUNNY CENTRAL ]
[ CONTROL ]
Time: 14:23.35
Date: 26.12.03
[ Main Menu ]
Operating Data
Spot Values
Long-Term Data
[ Spot Meas. Val. ]
PVgen/Inv.Brid.
Grid
Other
[ Grid ]
Pac
.......--.--kW
fac
[ Main Menu ]
Operating Data
Spot Values
Long-Term Data
[ Spot Meas. Val. ]
PVgen/Inv.Brid.
Grid
Other
Press: ESC
Press:
Press: Enter
Press:
Press: Enter
[ Spot Meas. Val. ]
PVgen/Inv.Brid.
Grid
Other
Press: Esc
While the controller is in Auto Mode,
press the ESC key to enter the Main Menu
Once in the Main Menu, scroll down
one line to Spot Values by pressing
the down arrow key
You can then choose Spot Values by
pressing the Enter key
Once in the Spot Values Menu, scroll
down one line by pressing the down
arrow key
Once the Grid line is active, choose
it by pressing the Enter key
The Grid menu display
Once you've observed the values,
press the ESC key to go back to the
previous menu where you can make
another selection or proceed back up
the menus until reaching the Main menu
once again
SC125U Installation Guide Inverter Operation
37
Section 5:
Inverter Operation
System Operation
Overview
The Sunny Central SC125U is designed to operate automatically. All self test, fault detection,
operational and start/stop functionality are performed by the SC125U without user
interaction. The primary user interface for the SC125U is the Sunny Central Control (SCC). The
SCC allows users to view and set system parameters as well as view data stored in the system’s
memory.
The Sunny Central Control (SCC)
The SCC is the primary user interface for the SC125U. It consists of a 4-line LCD display and
4 control keys.
Figure 5-1 Front of Sunny Central Control
The Sunny Central Control’s primary groups of functions are as follows:
• User operation of the inverter
• Maximum power point tracking
• Display of current system values
• Changing inverter parameters
• Recording and long-term storage of system data
• Connection of optional external sensors
• Connection of optional remote metering devices
[ SUNNY CENTRAL]
[ CONTROL ]
Time : 17:11.36
Date :11/25/1998
System Operation SC125U Installation
38
Operating States
Figure 5-2 Operating States of the Sunny Central
The “Stop” State
The Sunny Central will remain in this state while the Start/Stop switch is in the Stop position.
The “Waiting” State
The Sunny Central will remain in the Waiting state as long as the PV array voltage is less than
the value set for “VpvStart”. “Waiting” will be shown on the display.
The “Shut Down” State
The Shut Down state is entered anytime the SC125U engages in an orderly and safe shut down
of the system. This state can be entered automatically if the voltage of the PV array drops below
“VpvStart” (i.e. at night). The Shut Down state may also be entered manually by switching the
main power switch on the SC125U to the Off position.
Waiting
Startup
Stop
Start and
no Fault
Fault Confirmed
or Fault Cleared
Stop
Switch
Stop
Switch
Pist < Pstop
or Stop Switch
Vpv >Vstart
Startup
Complete
Shutdown
From any State
MPPT
*Fault
*The system's exact behavior on
fault will depend on the fault type.
SC125U Installation Guide Inverter Operation
39
The “Fault” State
Anytime the SC125U detects a fault in the system it will execute an orderly shut down of the
system and then enter the Fault state. In the Fault state, the invert remains inactive and displays
the type of fault encountered on the SCC display. The inverter will remain in this state until the
fault is cleared. In some cases the inverter will need to be manually reset before it will resume
operation.
Start Up
While in the Waiting state, if the PV array voltage rises above the parameter set for “VpvStart”,
the inverter will wait for the amount of time set in the “TStart” parameter. Once the inverter has
completed the wait-time set for “TStart” and provided that the PV array voltage has not
dropped below the value set for “VpvStart” during that period, the inverter will automatically
start and the message “Starting” will be shown on the display. If the PV voltage drops below
“VpvStart” the “TStart” timer will reset and the inverter will return to the waiting state.
Maximum Power Point (MPP) / MPP Tracking (MPPT)
When operating in MPP mode, the SC125U tracks the array at the optimum power point to
achieve maximum efficiency from the PV array. The inverter actively adjusts the voltage and
current of the PV array while monitoring for changes in power.
The inverter begins by measuring the idle voltage of the PV array. Then the initial value for
MPP Tracking is selected based upon the idle voltage multiplied by the value set for the
“MppFactor” parameter. This assures that the inverter will begin tracking in the current MPP
range of the PV array. (The initial MPP range that is selected may be predetermined by the
value set for the “dVreference” parameter.)
After the idle voltage has been measured, the message on the display changes from “MPP
Tracking” to “MPP”. If the MPP shifts at any time due to cell temperature or insolation, the MPP
setpoint is automatically adjusted. The value of adjustment is determined by the “dVTrack”
parameter in the time pattern “TcheckMpp”. Because this routine is repeated, the operating
point is continuously optimized.
If the initial MPP setpoint selected is out of the range specified by the “dVreference” parameter,
the inverter will apply a tracking algorithm. In this way the inverter is able to keep the system
running at its optimum setpoint even during unfavorable operating conditions.
Constant Voltage Mode
In this mode the inverter will regulate the DC voltage to the setting of the “Vconst” parameter.
During this operating state, “V_const” is shown on the display.
System Operation SC125U Installation
40
SC125U Installation Guide Troubleshooting
41
Section 6:
Troubleshooting
Error Messages
Whenever the SC125U encounters a fault condition, it will take appropriate action and display
the type of fault encountered on the Sunny Central Control. Use the following table as a guide
to the error messages as well as the corrective action to take.
Error Message Cause(s) Corrective Action(s)
[ Failure 1 ]
overtemperature
cabinet inverter
or transformer
>The temperature in the
inverter and/or the mag-
netics cabinet is too high.
> The heat exchanger is
defective
>Filters on magnetics cab-
inet clogged
>Heatsink
>Check that the thermocontacts
in the sinusoidal filter are not
tripped.
>Clean filters
>Call SMA
(This error will reset automati-
cally in the SCC when fault is
cleared)
[ Failure 2 ]
ser. com with
inverter bridge disturbed
>The (RS485) communi-
cation between the
inverter and the SCC has
been interrupted
>Check communication cable
>Check connections to SCC
>Check communications module
>Call SMA
[ Failure 4 ]
internal failure of
inverter bridge
>This is a general error
code for anything pertain-
ing to the inverter bridge
>Check inverter bridge connec-
tions
>Call SMA
[ Failure 14 ]
Release Signal
faulty
>The SCC is unable to
release the inverter bridge
>Check the SCC release relay for
proper operation
>Inverter Bridge defective
>Call SMA
(This error will reset automati-
cally in the SCC when fault is
cleared)
[ Failure 15 ]
heat sink fan fault
>Fan screen obstructed
>Fan motor failure
>Verify that fan screen is clear
>Reset fan motor protection
switch manually
>If failure persists, replace fan
Table 1: Error Messages and Troubleshooting
Error Messages SC125U Installation
42
Inverter Bridge Troubleshooting
The Sunny Central Control (SCC) has the ability to detect an array of error types. Each of these
errors is stored in the “Faults” database within the SCC. In the case of the inverter bridge, all
errors are displayed on the SCC as [ Failure 4 ]. A detailed description of the precise error can
be displayed by navigating to “Operating Data”, then to “Faults”. In the Faults section you will
see a log of the faults encountered by the SC125U beginning with the most recent. The
following table contains descriptions of each of the error codes that the SCC will display for an
inverter bridge type of error.
[ Failure 16 ]
GFDI Tripped
>Current to ground
greater than10A
>Ground fault in array
>Locate and remove ground fault
>Reset GFDI breaker after fault is
cleared
(This error will reset automati-
cally in the SCC when fault is
cleared)
[ Failure 17 ]
DC CB tripped or
door switch open
>DC circuit breaker open
>Door not secured
>Reset DC circuit breaker
>Secure all doors
>Check interlock switch
(This error will reset automati-
cally in the SCC when fault is
cleared)
[ Failure 18 ]
Rest Signal faulty
>The SCC is unable to
reset the inverter bridge
(in case of a failure, etc.)
>Check SCC reset relay
>Inverter Bridge defective
>Contact SMA
(This error will reset automati-
cally in the SCC when fault is
cleared)
Error Message Cause(s) Corrective Action(s)
Table 1: Error Messages and Troubleshooting