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Skeleton

Bones of the human hand

The skeleton of the human hand consists of 27 bones:[4] the eight short bones of the wrist or carpus organized into a proximal row (scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform), which articulates with the skeleton of the forearm, and a distal row (trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate), which articulates with the bases of the metacarpal bones (i.e. the bones of the palm or "hand proper"). Together with the fourteen phalanx bones of the fingers these metacarpal bones form five rays or poly-articulated chains. Because supination and pronation (rotation about the axis of the forearm) are added to the two axes of movements of the wrist, the ulna and radius are sometimes considered part of the skeleton of the hand. There are numerous sesamoid bones in the hand, small ossified nodes embedded in tendons; the exact number varies between different people:[2] whereas a pair of sesamoid bones are found at virtually all thumb metacarpophalangeal joints, sesamoid bones are also common at the interphalangeal joint of the thumb (72.9%) and at the metacarpophalangeal joints of the little finger (82.5%) and the index finger (48%). In rare cases, sesamoid bones have been found in all the metacarpophalangeal joints and all distal interphalangeal joints except that of the long finger. The articulations are:
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interphalangeal articulations of hand (the hinge joints between the finger bones) metacarpophalangeal joints (where the fingers meet the palm) intercarpal articulations (where the palm meets the wrist) wrist (may also be viewed as belonging to the forearm).

Arches

While the ray formed by the little finger and its associated metacarpal bone still offers some mobility. transverse arches (formed by the carpal bones and distal ends of the metacarpal bones). the remaining rays are firmly rigid. and oblique arches (between the thumb and four fingers): Of the longitudinal arches or rays of the hand. The phalangeal joints of the index finger.[5] . due to the arrangement of its flexor and extension tendons. offer some independence to its finger.Arches of the hand Red: one of the oblique arches Brown: one of the longitudinal arches of the digits Dark green: transverse carpal arch Light green: transverse metacarpal arch The fixed and mobile parts of the hand adapt to various everyday tasks by forming bony arches: longitudinal arches (the rays formed by the finger bones and their associated metacarpal bones). that of the thumb is the most mobile (and the least longitudinal). however.

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