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# [MAR818

]

UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE

_______________________ Examination - December 2004 _______________________

Optimization in Engineering Design
Time allowed 2 hours

Maximise the function f(x) = -x2 + 1. (13 marks) . and the Fibonacci method. (12 marks) (c) Verify your answer by the classical approach (using calculus). (5 marks) Question 2 (a) The cost of deviating from the solution of minimum cost is given by the expression: f (x1.Students are required to answer three questions. 0) and showing that the global optimum lies on this line. Question 1 (a) One dimensional numerical optimization methods can be divided into elimination methods and interpolation methods. Describe an example of each approach. x2) = 4x12 + 3x22 .1) using one of these methods. (8 marks) (b) Examples of the elimination method include: the Equal Interval method. Find the dimensions of the optimal solution using calculus only and provide arguments as to why the solution is a minimum cost one.5x1x2 . (12 marks) (b) Demonstrate the helpful characteristics of a quadratic function when using Powell’s Direct Search Method by finding the first global search direction of the above problem by starting out at the origin (0. All questions are weighted equally. the Dichotomous Search method.5x in the interval (0.8 x1 for a two variable problem. the Golden Section method.

Discuss how the formulation of the problem can be so adjusted that an internal penalty function approach may be used to obtain a feasible start point for the original problem. You may assume that the initial linearization is performed at X 0 = (1. The yard in question uses a number of standard plate thicknesses and standard stiffeners. These are plate thickness. number of stiffeners and section modulus of the stiffeners respectively. (8 marks) (c) Discuss the role of interpolation in the Sequential Unconstrained Minimisation Technique (SUMT). (10 marks) (b) In the above design problem there are four constraints and one of these is rather difficult to satisfy. Discuss a formulation that will allow the explicit consideration of the above variables. (7 marks) .Question 3 (a) An underwater monitoring system is to be located with aspect to a node.1) and that this linearization is a valid approximation of the entire solution space. (16 marks) (b) How would second order terms affect the solution of the problem? (9 marks) Question 4 (a) A bulkhead design problem is to be formulated as an optimization problem in three variables. If functional restrictions require: (i) x2 > x12 + 3 and (ii) x2 > (x1 -3)2 + 1 find the optimal location of the monitoring system using a first order Sequential Linear Programming method. The cost of doing so is given by: x12 + 2x1x2 + x22 + 10 where x1 and x2 are the distances with respect to co-ordinate axes passing through the node.

Question 5 (a) You are required to produce a specification for a general non-linear multiple objective synthesis problem. and how would you organise the work? (8 marks) If you use a genetic algorithm based approach for finding the solutions on the Pareto Surface. What features would you aim to include. describe how you would organise the work. (9 marks) (b) (c) END OF PAPER . (8 marks) Discuss how a combination of synthesis and selection over a limited number of solutions can be used to determine a preferred design in a multiple criteria context.