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1. Sociology: Class 12 NCERT both books 2. World History: Class 9 and 10 NCERT history books 3.

Post Independence: selected chapters from India Since Independence by Bipan Chandra 4. World Geography: 6,7,8 ICSE geography books 5. Public admin part: from ARC reports summary : tml 6. Ethics: William Frankena [I am not sure whether it is required or not, I have found it generally useful.]
HISTORY 1.Facets of Indian History-Kalpana Rajaram 2.India after Independence-Bipin Chandra 3.India after Gandhi-Ramachandra Guha (Orient Black Swan) 4.Contemporary History of the World (NCERT XII)-Arjun Dev SOCIETY 1.XIth NCERT of Sociology 2.Indian Social Problems-Ram Ahuja GEOGRAPHY 1.Principles of General Geography- NCERT XI 2.Economic of Geography of World- NCERT XI 3.Physical Geography of India- NCERT XII 4.Enviroinment and Economic Geography- NCERT IX 5.Human and Economic Geography- Goh Cheng Leong 6. Geography and You-Monthly Magazine INDIAN POLITY 1.Democracy of work in India-A.S.Narang (NCERT XII) 2.Indian Polity-M.Lakshmikanth PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 1.From Government to Goverance-Kuldeep Mathur 2.Social Theory,Development Administration & Development Ethics-Mohit Battacharya 3.Goverance-M.Lakshmikanth 4.ARC Reports on a.) Ethics in Goverance b.) On Corruption c.) On Security d.) Disaster Management INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1.India’s Foreign Policy-Rajiv Sikri 2.Newspaper-The Hindu,Indian Express 3.World Focus Magazine 4.Websites of a.) Institute for Defence and Strategic Analysis b.) c.) d.) ECONOMICS 1. NCERT XI 2. NCERT XII 3. Economic Survey of India SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1.Hindu 2.Science Reporter 3.Websites a.) Ministry of Enviroinment &Forest b.) MOS & T C.) DOS SECURITY ISSUES 1.Newspaper 2.Frontline 3.Yojana 3.MOHA (Website) PAPER IV 1.ARC Reports 3.Ethics in Public Life

PM sets in motion eastern industrial corridor It is set on the model of Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor
Author: K. Balchand

NEW DELHI: In less than 10 days of his return from Japan, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on Friday set in motion the development of the mega Amritsar-Delhi-Kolkata Industrial Corridor (ADKIC) project. Set on the model of the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC), the ADKIC will boost industrial development along the Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) that connects Ludhiana in Punjab with Dankuni near Kolkata. The DMIC has received Japanese financial support promising large investments for industrial growth in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana and Maharashtra. The project envisages development of new cities, industrial zones, and world-class infrastructure. The ADKIC not only has a wider spread but also touches the more densely populated and less developed States like Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar and Jharkhand. It will start from Punjab and Haryana. The region accounts for about 40 per cent of the country‘s population and has been crying for development. Dr. Singh expects the corridor to be a catalyst for growth along this stretch, that will structured around the Eastern DFC and the National Highways along this route. The eastern industrial corridor will also enhance the importance of the inland waterway system by navigating the Ganga from Allahabad to Haldia.

Kanpur. Aligarh. Roorkee. the protection of individuals is a fundamental obligation of the state. is expected to submit its report to Dr. Only an inclusive approach that respects human rights can eliminate extremism Author: Gopal Subramanium Perhaps no other chain of events in the recent past has had a more direct and substantial impact on the life of human beings across the world than acts of terror. Jalandhar. Singh within a month. The Prime Minister has set up a six-member high-level inter-ministerial group to study the feasibility of the project and outline structural and financial arrangements needed to operationalise the project at the earliest. Ambala. Other committee members comprise the Secretaries of the Department of Economic Affairs. Repression is no solution Violence against the state is tragic but it contains the seeds of rejection. Varanasi. Shipping. The means and methods adopted by the state have posed serious challenges to human rights and the rule of law. and often this is on account of the zeal of the law-enforcement agencies to give a commensurate response to the terrorist. headed by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion Secretary. Dhanbad. the measures adopted by states to counter terrorism have themselves sometimes been found wanting in terms of compliance with human rights norms. Terrorism has not only affected our lives directly. but has also allowed the state to intrude in our lives like never before. Fundamental obligation Since the security of the individual is a basic human right (and a fundamental condition of the social contract underpinning society).The project will benefit cities like Amritsar. Inland Waterways Authority of India Chairman and Railway Board Chairman. Patna. Durgapur and Kolkata. Hazaribagh. Saharanpur. Allahabad. who is also a secretary level officer. Lucknow. . In recent years. Urban Development. however. Moradabad. Asansol. Delhi. Road Transport and Highways. The committee. Bareilly. Ludhiana.

is today normalised and we are all fine with being frisked everywhere. Although 9/11 has become a significant force in justifying these laws. Since there is little that the state seems to have done.The state cannot legitimately respond by resorting to mechanisms that overstep the limits of the law. Existential realities Little or no attention is paid to the true causes of resort to violent methods. one can safely say that it does not seem to be aware of the abysmal conditions in which the tribals of Chhattisgarh live. which results in irreversible psychological damage. in fact. repressive measures are also used to stifle the voice of human rights activists.‖ While militarisation and the strengthening of police forces are important in their own right. and the unfortunate aspect is that their unheard voices fail to make a din in the power corridors. a reason why it is important for the state to ensure that none of its measures transgresses the limits of the law is any transgression may have the effect of eroding both its legitimacy and the rule of law. In the name of combating extremism. There are grim realities of existence as tribals in this country. It is evident that the state has misplaced priorities. thereby fomenting further unrest and erosion of faith in the Constitution. it is equally necessary to understand the genuineness of the ‗security reasons‘ presented by the state as a ground for abridgment of human rights. There is another dimension: by being able to build up a perception of threat. The state turns a blind eye to the violence committed by state actors. the truth is that there is an element of opportunism [by some law-enforcement and state agencies] behind these claims of necessity for new powers and offences. and private actors in connivance with state actors. the state may be able to get away with channelling the funds normally allocated to social programmes towards strengthening the police force and the army. extremism. As Professor Simon Bronitt of Australian National University has summed up ―…there is almost a new genus of law: post 9/11 law. violence and terrorism become a means to attract the attention of the state. journalists and civil society. minorities. many of which are fundamental. . advocates. Thus. indigenous groups. From their perspective. Governments have been non-responsive to peaceful protests and have. for example. The talkedup threat perception of terrorism (and a few ‗encounters‘) may wel l be used to justify the acquisition of more weapons. Frisking. It is as if the deafening sound of explosions and landmines is used to attract the attention of the state to existential realities. come down heavily on peaceful protesters as they did at India Gate when they relentlessly beat up women protesting in the aftermath of last December‘s gang rape in Delhi. which used to be considered a grave intrusion upon one‘s privacy at one point of time.

This feeling of being ‗parentless‘ makes people vulnerable to anti-state ideologies. (d) listening to the people and (e) becoming more responsive to society. Studies establish that absolute deprivation by the state has a psychological impact on its people. Having said this. which must include (a) strengthening the rule of law. And yet. Therefore. national and religious discrimination. I am not legitimising violence against innocents by invocation of oppression. The recent events of violence are tragic without a doubt but they contain the seeds of rejection of political structures. development is a dreadful and hateful word that is aimed at denying them even the source of their sustenance. . 20 years after dispossessing them. political exclusion. any attempt to combat violence by the state must have within its fold the measures to eliminate the conditions conducive to the spread of extremism. the Supreme Court took strong exception to the manner in which the Central government and the Mahanadi Coal Fields Limited had acquired the lands of tribals in the Sundargarh district of Odisha and not compensated them even 23 years later.The state does not seem to be aware that tribals in Madhya Pradesh eat the poisonous kesari dal which is reported to have a paralytic impact. the government noted that the land was actually not required! The Supreme Court observed: ―the whole issue of development appears to be so simple. The state also does not seem to be aware that tribal women and other villagers in Maharashtra have to walk miles before they can get drinking water. logical and commonsensical. In the Mahanadi Coal Fields Case (2010). In fact. I am only suggesting that oppression is one of the reasons of unrest which manifests in the resort to violence against the state and insignias of the state. It is cynically said that on the path of ‗maldevelopment‘ almost every step that we take seems to give rise to insurgency and political extremism [which along with terrorism are supposed to be the three gravest threats to India's integrity and sovereignty] … The resistance with which the state‘s well meaning efforts at development and economic growth are met makes one think about the reasons for such opposition to the state‘s endeavours for development. Why is the state‘s perception and vision of development at such great odds with the people it purports to develop? And why are their rights so dispensable?‖ Listen to people The Supreme Court‘s identification of the issue is not off the mark. and I believe it is quite perceptive of the reality. (b) fostering respect for human rights and provision for reparation for violations. (c) reversing ethnic. Political structures need to build confidence by dialogue. and socioeconomic marginalisation. to millions of Indians.

000 cable operators.5 crore television households. Large MSOs can secure content at lower prices and charge broadcasters a higher carriage and placement fee. and equity.working on the ground for the uplift of the poor. (The author is a senior advocate. and a former Chairman. Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. either in operation or in market share. Punjab. At present. and must work with an attitude of inclusiveness. One wishes ardently that new mechanisms of review — with deep and meaningful engagement with the local communities suggested in the Verma Committee on crimes against women — be quickly operationalised and deployed. Kerala. In some cities.‖ Last December. MSOs have become the key link in the distribution of free-to-air as well as pay channels. . an MSO controls as much as 80 per cent of the digital television market. They can then offer local cable operators a better revenue share to lure them from the smaller MSOs.4 crore of a total of 15. based not on power or hierarchical administration but equality. a former Solicitor General of India.‘ Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has initiated a process to tackle ―unhealthy market dominance in distribution platforms of the broadcasting space. cable TV subscribers account for 9. TRAI found that MSOs have ―misused their market power‖ to stymie the emergence of newer players. MSOs have also sought to expand their influence and size. According to data at the end of 2012. There are approximately 6. TRAI issued a consultation paper. buying out smaller MSOs and cable operators.‖ restrictions ought to be imposed on Multi-System Operators (MSOs) and Local Cable Operators (LCOs). With digitisation. while the rest are Direct-to-Home. Orissa. This week. distribution platforms under TRAI radar Author: Prashant Jha NEW DELHI: Even as it contemplates restrictions on cross-media ownership to ensure ‗plurality of viewpoints. which points to the dominance of a single MSO in certain markets like Tamil Nadu. Bar Council of India) Now. there are no restrictions on MSOs and LCOs. the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting asked TRAI whether ―in order to ensure fair competition. we must devise innovative systems of engagement.000 MSOs and 60. While mourning the loss of human life. improved quality of service.

and two pilot projects being run in Jharkhand‘s west Singhbhum and Chhattisgarh‘s Sukma districts. Ramesh said Roshni would show a ―new path‖ to the youths being targeted by the Maoists. Rural Development Minister Jairam Ramesh said at least 50 per cent of the candidates covered under the scheme would be women and extra efforts would be made to proactively cover Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) on a priority basis. whether restrictions to reduce concentration ought to be based on geography or market share. including two senior Congress leaders. Additionally. ―Blocking content selectively can also become an obstacle to promoting plurality of viewpoints. the Competition Commission of India imposed a penalty on an MSO in Punjab for abusing its dominance to deny a broadcaster market access. The launch of Roshni comes soon after the brutal Maoist attack on a Congress Convey in Chhattisgarh‘s Bastar district in which nearly 16 people. While some feel this is a way of exercising greater ‗state control‘ and will stifle sectoral growth.‖ In 2011. Launching ―Roshni‖. others have reckoned that this is necessary and timely to check monopolistic practices and ‗vested political and corporate interests‘ driving the industry. whether it should be applied retrospectively and the time frame for existing distributors to abide by the restrictions. were killed. Mr. they can make it difficult for broadcasters to have access to distribution networks. Roshni will light the way for rural youth: Jairam Author: Girija Shivakumar New Delhi: In a bid to further reach out to rural youth in the country‘s 24 most critical Left-Wing-Extremism-affected districts. The programme entails providing beneficiaries aged between 18-35 years with requisite training for the trade or job chosen as per the Participatory Identification of Poor. .000 persons. The industry analysts see TRAI‘s latest effort in conjunction with its efforts to restrict cross-media ownership. mostly tribals.The paper says that once an MSO has such dominance. Ramesh said the employment programme would be on the lines of ‗Himayat‘. and the monitoring and disclosure arrangement. TRAI has invited suggestions on possible methods to measure market dominance. Mr. the Centre on Friday introduced a placementoriented skill-development scheme targeting 50. being run in Jammu and Kashmir.

five from Chhattisgarh. Six districts each from Jharkhand and Odisha. Placements will be provided anywhere in India. two from Bihar and one each from Andhra Pradesh. in spite of stringent efforts by the Health Ministry to control its spread. depending on their entry-level qualifications. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra have been chosen for the scheme. . The projects will be funded jointly by the Central and State governments in the ratio of 75:25. Placement-linked. Four training modules of durations ranging from three months to one year shall be taken up to meet the diverse needs of the youth. construction. ―The training providers will ensure 75-per-cent placement defined as continuous employment for three months at higher than minimum wages. market-driven. fully-residential skills training will be provided in fields such as tailoring. Placements will be provided anywhere in India. mobile repairing. which will be implemented at a cost of Rs. ranging from school dropouts to those with college education. nursing and retail. Placement assurance ―The training providers will ensure 75 per cent placement defined as continuous employment for three months at higher than minimum wages. Uttar Pradesh. Several training strategies will be used for diverse groups of youths.‖ he said.‖ said Mr. 100 crore over the next three years WHO investigating Maharashtra’s polio case Author: Staff Reporter Pune: A team from the World Health Organisation is investigating how an 11-month-old infant has been infected with polio virus in Maharashtra‘s Beed district. Ramesh. West Bengal.The training will be imparted through public-private and public partnerships. It is for the first time since March 2012 that the State has registered a polio case. Health Minister Suresh Shetty told The Hindu that he had ordered an investigation and would get the WHO report on Saturday morning.

The infant. immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived poliovirus (iVDPV) and ambiguous vaccinederived poliovirus. In spite of this reminder of the continuing long-term costs of sweetheart deals to attract foreign investment in the power sector. India‘s last case of wild polio infection was reported on January 13. Singare. Detecting VDPV is part of the surveillance system but only infections caused by wild polio virus strains like P1 and P3 are counted while declaring a country polio-free. Officials in charge of the case said the child having been ill for prolonged periods indicated the possibility of iVDPV. 2011 from West Bengal. 4 per unit of electricity is unrealistic unless the government subsidises the cost of the first two Areva reactors by Rs. 22. a team from the Indian atomic energy establishment left for France last week to repeat the same mistakes. amounted to Rs. hailing from Kanhapur village in Dharur tehsil. Problem with design . health experts say this does not threaten India‘s polio-free status.K. by some estimates. Ambejogai. Though the case has rung alarm bells. In 2006. The child was then transferred to the Latur government medical college on May 16 and it tested positive for VDPV on June 1.‖ said A. The infant was initially admitted to the government medical college in Ambejogai. It is still unclear which form of the virus has infected the child. a rare strain which is genetically mutated from the strain contained in the oral polio vaccine. ―The child had high fever and suffered paralysis in all four limbs. has been found to have the Vaccine Derived Polio Virus (VDPV) type 2. The tariff of Rs. residential medical office of Swami Ramanand Teerth Hospital. on May 3.000 crore More than a decade after Enron‘s collapse. Beed. the Dabhol power project was restructured into the Ratnagiri power project with public subsidies that. which could be further linked to lack of sanitation and health facilities. 10.000 crore because of a problem with its fuel supply. and not a P2 strain which is caused by the oral polio vaccine and hence causes VDPV infection. VDPVs are further classified into circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus.000 crore. The project has led a troubled existence and in March this year it announced that it may have to stop servicing its outstanding debt of Rs. 9. its legacy continues to haunt Maharashtra.

4 per unit comes from a combination of unrealistic assumptions and a revenue model that provides massive public subsidies to the project. After eight years. The single most important factor in determining the tariff is the capital cost of the reactor. under best case conditions. has been promised a contract for six European Pressurized Reactors (EPRs) by executive fiat. 4 figure. Ramana and I applied this framework to the Jaitapur reactors. The study also reveals how the government plans to set out an exceedingly generous revenue model for the project. However. This was later updated and published by NPCIL. 60. we concluded that the true cost of electricity is likely to be almost four times as high as what the government claims. told this newspaper that the tariff would be ―below the Rs. it is possible to independently estimate the cost of electricity using a study on the economics of imported reactors that the government produced in preparation for the India-U. the then CEO of Areva. and research labs throughout the country.‖ More recently. The reactors will be set up in Jaitapur. Areva has various excuses. the price of the two reactors that the government hopes to commence in the Twelfth Plan period will equal the total plan outlay on science and technology including the departments of Space. No one knows the exact extent of this give-way.The French company Areva. The government claims that the Indian EPRs will be cheaper because construction forms ―about 40 per cent of the total cost. it assumes that the project will have access to long-term debt . 4 figure. The figure of Rs. There is little public data about the EPRs being built in China. When M.S. Areva suggested that this ―tariff holds true. just like Enron. So. because no EPR has been commissioned anywhere in the world. For example. bypassing a competitive bidding process. with a promise to complete the reactor by 2009. nuclear deal. Both Areva and the Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) have doggedly refused to explain the origins of this number.V. but similar delays and cost increases in the second EPR under construction in its own country point to a more fundamental problem with the EPR design. in a paper for the Economic and Political Weekly. the capital cost assumed in the government‘s study is not 25 per cent lower. In the same 2010 interview. Anne Lauvergeon.5 billion —almost thrice the original figure. Science and Technology. which is also in Ratnagiri. but literally 25 per cent of the figure for European reactors! It is this assumption of an unrealistic capital cost that underpins the Rs.‖ Estimates suggest that construction costs in India are about 60 per cent lower than Europe. Lauvergeon said that ―I am not going to give you the details … it is not for me to give the price if the customer does not want to give it.000 crore. but these prices are consistent with those proposed for EPRs in Britain and indicate that each Indian reactor may cost as much as Rs. Areva started construction on its first EPR in Finland in 2005. at a price of just over €3 billion. However. the reactor is still incomplete but cost estimates have ballooned to €8. Biotechnology.‖ The government has also refused to divulge information in meetings with local activists or even in response to parliamentary questions. the government could hope for about a 25 per cent reduction in the total cost. So. where it has fallen back on the story that the final price is still under negotiation. What does this imply for consumers? In 2010.‖ except for small escalations because of the delay in operationalising the project.

former chairperson of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission. Another subsidy is built into the government‘s plan to inject equity during the first few years of construction. For example. even without including transmission and distribution costs. Assuming. There are other serious questions about the project.6 million years. This ―Areva-subsidy‖ is a quarter of India‘s entire food subsidy bill. the government will have to arm-twist public sector banks or itself provide a long-term loan to the project at this throwaway rate. will reduce this further. But the economics of this project are so appalling that it is possible to separate these issues and even the broader question of the role of nuclear energy in India. This is inconsistent with the serious concerns about the project‘s viability. France supported India‘s efforts because it wanted to sell reactors to India. explained that India had to ―nurture‖ French ―business interests‖ because France helped India when it wanted access to international nuclear markets. The justification for the project cannot be Maharashtra‘s electricity shortage either since at this price it is possible to find several alternative solutions to that problem. and so the state will have to subsidise the electricity. 4 will require a subsidy of Rs. However. even the full backing of the government will not bring the rate down to this level in the open market. When these parameters are corrected. the government‘s own methodology leads to a first year tariff of Rs. and combined with a realistic estimate of the cost of fuel. If the next dispensation does not have the same ideological commitment to imported nuclear reactors. the ―venture is significant not just from an energy generation but also from a strategic point of view. this money will sit idle for more than a decade until the reactor becomes operational.‖ Anil Kakodkar. Moreover. Why should the country return this self-centred help by paying through its nose? There is a simple but significant political aspect to this entire issue. Back-room deal This is an admission of an unsavoury back-room deal. Obviously. that the ―NPCIL [has] paid a ‗high‘ price‖. Even the nuclear establishment accepts. a moment‘s reflection also brings out the circularity of this argument. The reason that negotiations with Areva have taken on an urgent note is because the government‘s prospects in the next elections are uncertain. Jairam Ramesh admitted that for the government. this cannot be passed on to consumers. Areva‘s reluctance to accept even a small amount of liability is in sharp contrast to its unscientific claims that it has precisely computed the probability of a serious accident in an EPR. as WikiLeaks revealed. Further delays.000 crore each year for the first two reactors. that the EPRs are constructed as fast as the Kudankulam reactors. In the government‘s revenue model.7 per cent. these deals may flounder. So. To bring the tariff down to an interest rate of only 6 per cent. since the yield on 10-year Indian Government bonds has been consistently higher than 7 per cent. this delay will bring the government‘s return on equity down from the advertised rate of 14 per cent to an effective rate of only 7. and found it to be once in 1.15 per unit. It is clear that this deal and the concomitant negotiations to purchase reactors from American companies are being driven by pressure from the Prime Minister‘s Office. which are likely. 22. . optimistically.

There has been no public debate on the level of watch citizens can be put through. even when technology presents an option. for ensuring higher privacy for citizens in view of CMS. Special Rapporteur on Promotion and Protection of Right to Freedom. may have meant that the privacy of millions of Indian Internet users could have been compromised. successive governments in India have fared no better. India today has nearly 900 million mobile subscribers. States must ―regulate the commercialization of surveillance technology‖. faster and real-time interception. etc. if true. just because the government has the power does not mean that it has the right to rush into a deal that could bleed the country for years to come. has concluded that apart from increasing public awareness of threats to privacy. surveillance and monitoring mechanism through the Central Monitoring System (CMS). The discussions have been coloured by the startling revelation relating to the PRISM project which. aimed at improving the capability of security agencies to protect national security and fight crime. on the one hand. very little real information is available about the CMS working procedure. 160 million Internet users and close to 85 million citizens on social media. Meanwhile. there is no information about whether there are additional safeguards against interception by political authorities. Should there be? How far should the spy agencies take lethal technological capability against their own citizens? Can all technological prowesses be used against any category of citizen. especially since these are approved by bureaucrats who. in varying degrees. and on what the red lines should be while using intrusive mechanisms The tussle between government agencies‘ need for a better. While governments worldwide remain reluctant to share information about their surveillance and monitoring systems. technical capabilities and privacy safeguards in the public domain. There has been no debate in Parliament or outside about the level of surveillance citizens should be put through or whether there should be red lines when using intrusive surveillance mechanisms. the CMS project. has also raised serious privacy issues. Internet and social media users are expected to double by 2015. corporate CEOs. in his report of April 17. regardless of the level of security clearance they are entitled to? Who decides the correctness and propriety of such authorisations. closer home.Our system concentrates enormous financial powers in the hands of the executive. Shrouded in secrecy First. Legal infirmities .N. and demands by privacy. civil rights and free speech activists. which are capable of ―instant. including terrorism. Key unanswered issues include the uncontrolled use of technical capability and intrusive technologies. advocates. of potential ―targets‖ carrying out sensitive assignments such as judges. vigilance officials. report to political authorities? The U. editors. 2013. Further. is gaining ground. regulators. However. opposition leaders. in turn. on the other. real time and deep search‖ surveillance.

will they have the judicial expertise to make legally valid decisions? Worse still — if the surveillance is extra-judicial. there is no consensus on the opposing views between DoPT. Meanwhile. state security. the latest draft of the privacy legislation itself remains a mystery. ensured horizontal applicability and conformity with privacy principles in a co-regulatory enforcement regime‖. and seven months after the Justice A. Ironically.‖ While the Supreme Court has upheld the constitutional validity of interceptions.N. Is this period too long. In effect. transfer and retention of CDRs is weakly defined under the existing laws. as well as Section 69 of the Information Technology Act 2000. Further that ―surveillance techniques and practices that are applied outside the rule of law must be brought under legislative control‖. The surveillance is not subject to any ongoing bipartisan Parliamentary oversight either. after issue. inter-operable with international standards.‖ on the other hand. DoPT. 1996. Provisions for authorisation of interception are contained in Section 5(2) of the Indian Telegraph Act 1885. With CMS. while the existing law primarily relates to interception of calls. These border on what is now recognised as a human rights issue. it subsequently laid down guidelines narrowing the scope of interception down to five instances — ―national sovereignty and integrity. read with Information Technology (Directions for Interception or Monitoring or Decryption of Information) Rules 2009. is it sufficiently independent and robust? Here again. ―the most exceptional circumstances and exclusively under the supervision of an independent judicial authority‖. how will it be uncovered? Further. however weak.P. recommended that surveillance must occur under. protected multi-dimensional privacy. CMS expands surveillance across Meta-Data which includes CDRs and SDRs. questions about the mismatch between the privacy legislation and the lethal forensic surveillance capabilities arise. Rule 419(A) of the Indian Telegraph Rules 1951. unless revoked earlier. the U. two-and-a-half years after a ‗privacy‘ group was set up under Secretary. for seven days.‘ suggesting a privacy legislation which was ―technologically neutral. should this procedure be reviewed under CMS? Should a lower level officer‘s approval be sufficient to begin surveillance? The law also says ―the directions for interception shall remain in force. friendly relations with foreign states. Rapporteur in the recent report on surveillance. getting permission to monitor any citizen without adequate burden of proof? Since the authorities giving approval are not judges. under these two heads? Can prevention of crime leave the door open to any agency.Secondly. is protected under Article 21—– Right to Life — and Article 19(1)(a) — Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression — under the Constitution of India. the Home Ministry and civil rights activists. without a periodic review? If there is a review. Shah Committee submitted its Report on ‗Privacy. bureaucrats authorise interception without any need to pass judicial muster by securing a prior valid court order. interception under CMS can be done instantly and. Are ―public order‖ or ―preventing incitement to the commission of an offence‖ sufficiently vague or broad for the security agencies to practically put through any authorisation request for interception. . monitoring can continue for half the year. since existing laws allow government agencies to intercept any phone conversation without the Home Secretary‘s mandatory permission. ―The Right to Privacy. and monitoring under Section 5(2) of the Act through its order dated December 18. Access. public order or for preventing incitement to the commission of an offence‖. ―unless it is permitted under procedure established by law. Lastly. for a period not exceeding 60 days. and may be renewed. but same shall not remain in force beyond a total period of 180 days‖.

the CMS will enhance the government‘s surveillance and interception capabilities far beyond ‗meta-data. Call Content (CC) and CDRs? How long can intercept information be kept with the government and what is the procedure for its safe keeping — especially given a track record of leaked tapes — without a single official being found guilty in such instances? Are there any circumstances under which ―targets‖. allowing instant access. Who all within the government can have access to the Intercept Related Information (IRI). However. leading to the arrest of three persons including a Delhi police constable — will no longer exist.Before CMS. Is there a new safeguard? Potential misuse Under CMS.‘ data mining. The government has justified CMS in Parliament. and is therefore more secure. What is the guarantee that such permission will be subject to the rigorous due diligence that it deserves? Will every government officer follow the laid down procedure. even under the RTI. by arguing that CMS. one government official will authorise interception. to avoid the recordings from being leaked. the mobile operator who gave access to the target‘s phone calls for interception was required to ensure that the interception order received had been duly authorised by the persons identified under the Act. This will be reviewed and executed by other fellow officers in different agencies — but all within the government. Once implemented. threaten to be as intrusive as the U. These capabilities are being built even as a debate rages on the extent to which the privacy of Indian Internet and social media users was compromised by the PRISM project. especially when found innocent. which. This is no longer the case. as it falls under specific exemptions granted in Section 8 of the RTI Act. The interception flow diagram. this means that the checks-and-balance system provided by the nodal officers in mobile networks — which discovered the illegal request for BJP leader Arun Jaitley‘s CDRs. How will mistakes be corrected and misuse prevented? There are other questions that remain unanswered in law. be acted upon since everything remains secret within the government? The identity of targets or duration of monitoring cannot be revealed publicly. government‘s controversial PRISM project. the government can present the Privacy Bill early for Parliament to debate it. Equally it may be time for the Supreme Court to review its guidelines which were written at a time when there were less than a million mobile subscribers and no Internet users. Project documents relating to the new Centralized Monitoring System (CMS) reveal the government‘s lethal and all-encompassing surveillance capabilities. when discovered. will be informed that they were under surveillance? The privacy issues are sufficiently serious — both outside India and within. 400-crore estimate that senior officials mentioned in a recent briefing to the media. Hopefully. without the assurance of a matching legal and procedural framework to protect privacy. reveals that the CMS being set up by C-DoT — an obscure government enterprise located on the outskirts of New Delhi — will have the . hitherto under wraps. and the original expectation of ―instant‖ and secure interception of phone conversations. The documents in the possession of The Hindu indicate that the CMS project now has a budgeted commitment nearly double that of the Rs. A PIL petition on the subject has already been admitted by the Supreme Court. circumvents manual intervention by mobile operators. especially if he knows that all authorisations are covered under absolute secrecy with no chance of public disclosure or scrutiny? What happens if the procedure is violated? Will violations.S.

file transfer. 200-odd Lawful Intercept and Monitoring (LIM) Systems. On November 26. all authorisations remain secret within government departments. it would actually combine the strength of two — expanding the CMS‘s forensic capabilities multiple times. relating to call duration. The aim is to cover approximately one dozen States by the end of 2013-14. web-site visit. ISP. plus the multiple ISP and international gateways — alongside the national rollout of CMS. social media usage.‖ In January 2012. on a ‗real time‘ basis through secure ethernet leased lines. The CMS will have unfettered access to the existing Lawful Interception Systems (LIS). only Delhi and Haryana have tested ―proof of concept‖ (POC) successfully. Contrary to reports about it being active nationwide. at a rate of 7. fax. video games and voice & fax over IP is concerned — the CMS will have unmatched capabilities of deep search surveillance and monitoring. Privacy vs. These servers will reveal user information to the accuracy of milliseconds. Mobile and long distance operators. and the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) — plus seven others.000 per month. SMS. currently installed in the network of every fixed and mobile operator. streaming multi-media. CBDT (tax authority). set up by 7 to 8 mobile operators in each of the 22 circles. and International Long Distance service provider. The CMS is designed to have access to call content (CC) on multiple E1 leased lines through operators ‗billing/ mediation servers‘. of ―targeted numbers. 2009. security Currently two government spy agencies — the Intelligence Bureau (IB). Kerala.‖ will no longer be in the picture. Even where data mining and ‗meta-data‘ access through call data records (CDRs) and session initiation protocol data records (SDRs) — used for Internet protocol-related communications including video conferencing. Additionally. including partially written emails in draft folders. including the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). presence information. DRI. contrary to the impression that the CMS was replacing the existing surveillance equipment deployed by mobile operators and ISPs. identification and call history of those under surveillance. the government told Parliament that CMS‘s implementation would overcome ―the existing system‘s secrecy which can be easily compromised due to manual interventions at many stages. who were required to ensure interception only after they were in receipt of the ―authorisation. it will disclose mobile numbers and email IDs. the Narcotics Control Bureau. including pinpointing the target‘s physical location by revealing cellphone tower information. Nationwide surveillance The Hindu‘s investigation has also unveiled the mystery relating to the CMS‘s national rollout. Internet search and email. Till 2015.500–9. National Intelligence Agency. This means that government agencies can access in real time any mobile and fixed line phone conversation. instant messaging.‖ This is because. With CMS. two surveillance and interception systems will run in parallel — the existing State-wise. Karnataka and Kolkata are the next three destinations for CMS‘s implementation. the government had admitted to intercepting over 1 lakh phones and communication devices over a year.capability to monitor and deliver Intercept Relating Information (IRI) across 900 million mobile (GSM and CDMA) and fixed (PSTN) lines as well as 160 million Internet users. Military Intelligence of Assam and JK and Home Ministry — are authorised to intercept and monitor .

another Afghan refugee who fled to New Delhi in 2006 to avoid blasphemy charges after he converted to Christianity. Hanifa‘s life in India is starkly different from that back at home where she worked in the Afghan Ministry of Women‘s Affairs and was a prominent women's rights activist. In 2010 she received death threats from the Taliban because it considered her to be a supporter of the western forces and thus an infidel. The Indian Telegraph Act 1985. an Afghan refugee. While India works towards strengthening its strategic partnership with Afghanistan. the Iranian government. Similarly.‖ says Mahmoud Sayeed. it has now set June 2013 as the deadline for the repatriation of around 1. coupled with the change in procedure which mandates the interception authorization to be kept secret between two government departments with no scope of a transparent public disclosure of who is being monitored.66 million Afghan refugees. meanwhile. We are definitely headed for a civil war after the withdrawal. is also pushing for their return. ―We hear of attacks happening everyday even in cities like Kabul. for what purpose and for how long. She was forced to flee to India in 2011 and was recognised by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) as a refugee. The government. hit by a faltering economy. The threat of the Taliban has only grown stronger.S pullout from Afghanistan draws closer. While Pakistan has been hosting Afghan refugees since the Soviet invasion. apart from Pakistan and Iran. For many Afghans like Sayeed. much like their past. She is the sole breadwinner for a family of six. AFGAN As the 2014 U. UNHCR led . In anticipation of the worsening security conditions in their country. is proceeding undeterred. walks around offering her services as an interpreter to her countrymen who are waiting for treatment. New Delhi needs a plan to deal with a fresh wave of refugees In the courtyard of a New Delhi hospital. many Afghans are scrambling to find asylum in a country they can call home. Hanifa. Given the major technological advancements in monitoring and enhanced forensic capabilities in surveillance. under the guidelines laid down by the Supreme Court. Being an interpreter is her only source of income. privacy and free speech activists are protesting and raising many questions. India continues to be one such destination. In the South Asian region. the future too appears to be riddled with conflict and fear. there has been no clear policy as yet on dealing with increasing numbers of asylum-seekers from the wartorn nation.citizens‘ calls and emails. Taliban threat Though survival in India is challenging due to the lack of access to employment and uneven integration in society. the prospect of her returning home is unthinkable given the looming uncertainty of Afghanistan‘s fate after the withdrawal of international troops in 2014. Rule 419(A) and other related legislation.

―Many Afghans are coming to India thinking that they can seek asylum here if conditions in Afghanistan deteriorate after 2014. hop skipping over boulders. characterised by a lack of social security. the process of getting an Indian visa has become relatively simple and usually takes two to three days. we viewed the . journalists. they realise that life is very tough as a refugee. our research team witnessed telltale signs of a catastrophe ready to strike. you never know how quickly they grow up. single women.000 Afghans are believed to be living in India — a mix of traders. I walked into the middle of the Dibang river. Living as refugees in cities like New Delhi. in what appears to be an attempt at maintaining and developing its traditionally friendly relations with Afghanistan.An estimated 25. low wages and exploitation. the Indian government agreed to issue long-term visas to refugees recognised by the UNHCR. etc. including activists and those facing forced marriage threats. unchecked construction of dwellings and large-scale building of big dams A week is a long time in the Himalaya. though how these policies will be implemented needs to be seen. these developments hold promise for Afghan asylumseekers. But qualified Afghan refugees — and these are many. I visited Arunachal Pradesh as a young researcher.‖ Thus. the number of Afghans seeking asylum is believed to have increased. especially given that you cannot work here. human rights activists. In the late 1980s. find it frustrating. including doctors.‖ I was humbled by his knowledge and haven‘t forgotten the lesson. UTTRAKHAND The catastrophe in the Himalaya is the result of deforestation. He smiled and said. However. most Afghans view India as the only hope to seek a better life. With Indian consular presence in five districts in Afghanistan. journalists. betting on the remote possibility of a stable Afghanistan post-2014. While some accept the situation. refugees).‖ says Sayeed. During a just-concluded 10-day visit to the Bhagirathi valley. In light of the imminent possibility of an increased influx of asylum-seekers from Afghanistan after 2014. with a keen interest in photography. once they come to India. ―Sir. a clear refugee policy and implementation strategy would be in India‘s best interest. Back to the present. Asylum-seekers in India typically include people who face threats from the Taliban. Long-term visas In June 2012. which is a right under international refugee law. this overtly recognises refugees and enables them to work in the formal/private sector.000 Afghans as refugees. until my local tribal guide ordered me to return immediately.e. the Ministry of External Affairs indicated in the Lok Sabha in February this year that ―longer duration stay‖ applications of Afghan nationals entering India with valid travel documents will be considered. Significant in the Indian context. is however. students and those fleeing threats to life and persecution (i. In the last four months. medical tourists. Most refugees work in the informal sector. interpreters working for the international presence. According to UNHCR estimates. etc — who aren‘t able to find work that fits their qualifications. former government officials. Further. it has recognised close to 10. daunting. Together. India has traditionally allowed and tacitly recognised refugees by allowing the UNHCR to conduct refugee status determination and recognising its ―Refugee Card. At Uttarkashi. others return despite the continued threat to their lives. these mountain rivers are like daughters.

news of the devastation in Uttarkashi had started pouring in. the Garrison Reserve Engineer Force (GREF). In such a scenario. by evapotranspiration. human settlements and urbanisation. thereby significantly reducing runoff. The next day we left for Gangotri. would decline from 75. an arm of the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) and the police worked overtime and made sure there was little chaos on the road as it opened. . Deforestation as a commercial activity began during the British Raj and has continued unabated after independence. we reported that Himalayan ecosystems have experienced faster rates of warming in the last 100 years and more than the European Alps or other mountain ranges of the world. there is ample scientific evidence that the Himalayan watersheds have witnessed unprecedented deforestation over a long period. In a recent study. We returned to Uttarkashi the same evening and to the safer Dun valley the next day. it is all the more necessary to take land use change more seriously. we expect faster melting of glaciers causing higher water discharges in the Himalayan rivers. release it slowly and prevent water flowing as run-off. photographed only the previous day. The fact is that forests have been diverted for a host of land use activities such as agriculture. It was painful to see the buildings. on which many forest taxa (groups of species) critically depend. deforestation brings about slope destabilisation.9 per cent (of the value in 1970) in 2000 to no more than 52. there was a long line of stranded buses. So. Dense forest areas. cars and trucks.6 per cent of taxa restricted to the dense Himalayan forests. but couldn‘t go beyond Maneri village because a massive landslide had washed away the road about six to eight kilometres upstream. which is estimated to result in the extinction of 23. Dense vegetation. there is mounting evidence that global warming is fast catching up with the Himalaya. being washed away like toys by the Bhagirathi.8 per cent in 2100. Global warming Vegetative cover slows the speed of falling rain and prevents soil erosion and gully formation — the precursors to landslides and floods. There is little doubt that the present Himalayan disaster has been triggered by natural events. Let us address the various man-induced drivers. the total forest cover in the Indian Himalaya will be reduced from 84.4 per cent of the total forest area in 2000 to just 34 per cent in 2100. Deforestation On the television. We noticed the river‘s waters flow strongly against a number of houses and cheap hotel buildings. forests and soil soak water from the rain.destruction caused by the Assi Nadi (a tributary of the Bhagirathi) a couple of years ago. Two. Massive infrastructure development such as hydropower construction and road building has taken place. it makes the area vulnerable to erosion and instability. While official estimates say forest cover has increased in the Himalaya. landslides and floods. Besides holding the soil together. a number of credible independent studies have found significant discrepancies in this claim. Scientific studies indicate that at the current rates of deforestation. As a result. also stops nearly 30-40 per cent of rainwater from falling to the ground. but the catastrophe is man-made. Harsil was biting cold and the rain incessant. One. Therefore. Fortunately. precariously perched on its weak banks. Given that the Himalayan range is geologically young and still rising.

causing floods. Governments must impose penalties on building structures within 200 metres of river banks. whether it is Amarnath in Jammu & Kashmir. Most downstream damage in otherwise flood-free areas is caused by dams and barrages. As lethal as PRISM India’s surveillance project may be as lethal as PRISM NEW DELHI: . Hydropower policy must consider building fewer dams and prioritise those that have the least environmental and social costs. Massive intervention in the Himalayan ecosystems through manipulation of rivers and their hydrology. is linked to what we are witnessing today. are responsible for significant human movement into the Himalaya beyond the region‘s carrying capacity. The heavy pilgrim population has also resulted in the mushrooming of shanty towns. cheap accommodation and numerous ramshackle buildings along river banks. on the banks of the Assi and Bhagirathi rivers have been allowed. Himalayan State governments need to consider imposing high environmental tax on visitors. which release large volumes of water to safeguard engineering structures. neo-religious movements. There is little buffer between the river and the human settlements. Independent and serious monitoring of the catchment area treatment plans proposed by Forest Departments with funds from hydropower companies needs to be carried out and reported to the Green Tribunal. Huge building construction. Badrinath. expanding human settlements and urbanisation which. particularly during summer and monsoon months. there cannot be a lack of enforcement of land use control laws on the part of local governments and officials. Heavily sizing down pilgrim numbers in fragile areas must begin. which only needs to be put together and looked at in a cohesive manner. Gangotri and Hemkund in Uttarakhand. cheap hotels and individual dwellings at Uttarkashi. Enough information is available in the public domain.Expanding settlements Three. large-scale dam building in recent years has caused massive land use changes with ensuing problems in the Himalayan watersheds. While it is important to appreciate the aspirations of the local people and their economic activities. Hydropower and allied construction activities are potential sources of slope weakening and destabilisation. All vulnerable buildings need to be either secured or relocated away from rivers. besides bringing about land use changes offer themselves as easy targets to the fury of natural forces. Kedarnath. What is the road ahead? There needs to be an integrated policy on the Himalayan environment and development. Pilgrims Five. Dam operators often release more water during rains than the carrying capacity of downstream areas. linked to changing socio-political developments in India. Four.

Once implemented. S. controversial PRISM project.‖ will no longer be in the picture. The CMS will have unfettered access to the existing Lawful Interception Systems ( LIS). operators.encompassing surveillance capabilities. which.ow diagram. set up by C. without the assurance of a matching legal and procedural framework to government‘s protect privacy. reveals that the CMS being an obscure government enterprise located on the outskirts and . and the original expectation of ― instant‖ and secure interception of phone conversations. The interception . These capabilities are being built even as a debate rages on the extent to which the privacy of Indian Internet and social media users was compromised by the PRISM project.DoT — of New Delhi — hitherto under wraps. 400crore estimate that senior officials mentioned in a recent brie.Project documents relating to the new Centralized Monitoring System ( CMS) reveal the government‘s lethal and all . currently installed in the network of every . receipt of the ― authorisation. the CMS will enhance the government‘s surveillance and interception capabilities far beyond ‗ to the media. A PIL petition on the subject has already been admitted by the Supreme Court. The documents in the possession of The Hinduindicate that the CMS project now has a budgeted commitment nearly double that of the Rs. . and International Long Distance service provider. authorisations remain secret within government departments. Mobile and long distance all who were required to ensure interception only after they were in ISP. threaten to be as intrusive as the U.xed ( PSTN) basis through will have the capability to monitor and deliver Intercept Relating on a ‗ real time‘ Information ( IRI) across 900 million mobile ( GSM and CDMA) lines as well as 160 million Internet users. With CMS.‘ data mining. secure ethernet leased lines.xed and mobile operator.

it will disclose mobile numbers and email IDs. it would actually combine the strength of two —expanding the CMS‘s forensic capabilities multiple times. fax. web. video games and voice & fax over IP is concerned — the CMS will have unmatched capabilities of deep search surveillance and monitoring. These servers will reveal user information to the accuracy of milliseconds. set up by 7 to 8 mobile operators in each of the 22 circles. 200-odd Lawful Intercept and Monitoring (LIM) Systems. The aim is to cover approximately one dozen States by the end of 201314. instant messaging. two surveillance and interception systems will run in parallel — the existing State-wise. On November visit.xed line phone conversation. streaming multi-media. Kerala. Till 2015. plus the multiple ISP and international gateways — alongside the national rollout of CMS. the government had admitted to intercepting over 1 lakh phones and communication devices over a year.000 per month. presence information. Privacy vs. relating to call duration. Internet search and email. of ― including partially written emails in draft folders. This is because. Karnataka and Kolkata are the next three destinations for CMS‘s implementation. 2009. identification and call history of those under surveillance. The CMS is designed to have access to call content (CC) on multiple E1 leased lines through operators ‗billing/ mediation servers‘. targeted numbers. including pinpointing the target‘s physical location by revealing cellphone tower information.‖ In January 2012. only Delhi and Haryana have tested ―proof of concept‖ (POC) successfully. social media usage. Even where data mining and ‗ meta. Contrary to reports about it being active‘ CDRs) access through call data records ( — used for Internet and session initiation protocol data records ( SDRs) protocol. contrary to the impression that the CMS was replacing the existing surveillance equipment deployed by mobile operators and ISPs.‖ SMS.related communications including video conferencing. at a rate of 7.500–9. Additionally. security . the government told Parliament that CMS‘s implementation would overcome ―the existing system‘s secrecy which can be easily compromised due to manual interventions at many stages. Nationwide surveillance The Hindu‘s investigation has also unveiled the mystery relating to the CMS‘s national rollout. file transfer.This means that government agencies can access in real time any mobile and .

to finalize the new criteria to determine backwardness of states for granting special category status. coupled with the change in procedure which mandates the interception authorization to be kept secret between two government departments with no scope of a transparent public disclosure of who is being monitored. and Tuhin Pandey. privacy and free speech activists are protesting and raising many questions. The Terms of Reference of the Committee will be:      To suggest methods for identifying backward States on the basis of measures such as the distance of the State from the national average on a variety of criteria such as per capita income and other indicators of human development To suggest any other method or criteria to determine the backwardness of States To suggest the weightage to be given to each criterion To recommend how the suggested criteria may be reflected in future planning and devolution of funds from the Central Government to the States To suggest ways in which the absorptive capacity of States for funds and their ability to use the funds to improve well-being can be assessed . chief economic adviser in the finance ministry. New Criteria For Granting Special Category Status The government has constituted a six-member expert committee under Raghuram Rajan.Currently two government spy agencies — the Intelligence Bureau (IB). Planning Commission. professor. under the guidelines laid down by the Supreme Court. and the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) — plus seven others. The other members of the expert committee constituted by the finance ministry are Shaibal Gupta. Given the major technological advancements in monitoring and enhanced forensic capabilities in surveillance. Niraja G. The government. meanwhile. adviser. is proceeding undeterred. Indian Statistical Institute. including the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). The Indian Telegraph Act 1985. for what purpose and for how long. Jayal. Bharat Ramaswami. National Intelligence Agency. DRI. a member of the Asian Development Research Institute in Patna. a professor at the Centre for the Study of Law and Governance. Rule 419(A) and other related legislation. the Narcotics Control Bureau. Najeeb Jung. Jawaharlal Nehru University. vicechancellor of Jamia Millia Islamia University. Military Intelligence of Assam and JK and Home Ministry — are authorised to intercept and monitor citizens‘ calls and emails. CBDT (tax authority).

Union Ministers. Himachal Pradesh. NCA is split into 90% grants and 10% loans for special category states. Meghalaya. Mizoram. Brief History    The concept of a special category state was first introduced in 1969 Initially three states Assam.and used to influence devolution to incentivise performance. the main assistance for state plans. Nagaland and Jammu & Kashmir were granted special status Later on. concept of a special category state Existing Criteria For For Special Category Status      Hilly and difficult terrain Low population density or sizeable share of tribal population Strategic location along borders with neighbouring countries Economic and infrastructural backwardness Non-viable nature of state finances Who Grants Special Category Status: National Development Council comprising the Prime Minster. while the ratio between grants and loans is 30:70 for other states The 12th Finance Commission recommended the Centre give only grants. and leave it to the states to raise loans. eight more States have been included (Arunachal Pradesh. has the power to grant special category status to States. Additional Central Assistance (ACA) and Special Central Assistance NCA. is split to favour special category states: the 11 states get 30% of the total assistance while the other states share the remaining 70% The nature of the assistance also varies for special category states. Central assistance can be broadly split into three components: Normal Central Assistance (NCA). Tripura and Uttarakhand) Special-category states get significant excise duty concessions that attracts industries to relocate/locate manufacturing units within their territory The Planning Commission allocates funds to states through central assistance for state plans. Chief Ministers and members of the Planning Commission. Sikkim. this formula is restricted to Centrally-sponsored schemes and external aid Financial Assistance      . Since then. Manipur.

the Finance Commission does not distinguish between special and non special category states in its allocation . Unlike the Planning Commission.