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DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

8)  Advantages of Radial Distribution System     Ease of installation Less installation capital as it needs less conductors Easy and economical maintenance and fault finding Effective in giving supply to less dense populated areas  Disadvantages of radial Distribution System    Heavy voltage fluctuations at the end of the distributor High loads at the beginning of the distributor near to the feeding point Repairs in a distribution line would lead into power cuts to all the customers who are fed by that particular distribution line  Advantages of the Ring Distribution System    No considerable voltage fluctuations throughout the system Repairs in the system at one point would not lead into power cuts A lot of customers can be connected to a single ring distribution system  Disadvantages of the Ring Distribution System   Maintenance and fault finding is not easy due to complexity Installation of the system is costly 9)        Use conductors which has a good conductance (very less resistance) Implementation of shunt capacitors on the primary feeder of the system Installation of substations on the system where there are high voltage fluctuations Distribute a balanced voltage load Application of voltage regulation in the system Implementation of capacitors Include only a less number of customers to each system and cover the area by using many systems .

 Since the conductors are closely packed in the underground systems it has a lower current carrying capacity while the overhead systems can carry a higher current carrying capacity as spacing factor is high.10)       Overhead systems are easy and economical to install while underground systems consume more time and money to install. . The overhead system is less safe while the underground system is safe.   Overhead systems could cause electromagnetic interferences with telephone lines but the underground systems won’t as they are packed separately through the ground . Maintenance cost of the overhead systems are higher than the underground systems as they easily get subjected to various activities which make failures of the system as it is more expose to the environment. Overhead systems are easily subjected to vulnerable weather but underground systems won’t. so there will be more repairs often in overhead systems. Fault finding of the overhead systems is easy while it’s hard in the underground systems. Overhead systems are easy to repair but underground systems are hard and costly to repair. Expansion of the system is much easier and economical in the overhead systems while in underground systems it takes much time and money.

00 57.86 400.14 114.71 342.00 0.00 Theoretical 221.00 220.00 225.00 215.00 Practical Length .00 Theoretical Measured Voltage Length Theoretical and measured voltage distribution for case 2 (225V at both ends) 226.43 228.00 218.86 400.00 195.57 285.00 225.00 220.29 171.00 57.57 285.00 210.00 0.29 171.14 114.43 228.71 342.00 223.00 Voltage 222.Theoretical and measured voltage distribution for case1 (open circuit at one end) 230.00 200.00 205.00 224.00 219.