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# USE OF SERIES AND SHUNT CAPACITORS IN TRANSMISSION LINES

To investigate the effect of shunt capacitors on a transmission line with its terminal voltage fixed.15 H. 3A) (0. Apparatus 3 Inductors 1 Wattmeter 1 Capacitor Bank 2 Ammeters 2 Voltmeters 1 Variac Rheostats (0-3 A) (0-150-300 V) (500Ω. To investigate the effect of series capacitors on the limits of power transfer over a transmission line with its terminal voltages fixed. 2A) (200 Ω. 2. 3A) .Objective 1.

7526 2.10 Per Unit Compensation of the Line 11.51 265.83 132.Calculations for Series capacitance Series Capacitive Reactance Per Unit Compensation of the Line = Inductive Reactance Per Unit Compensation of the Line = L = 0.2579 5.15 mH f = 50 Hz Series Capacitive Reactance Inductive Reactance = 1 (i  2f  C ) i  2f  L 1 i  2  50  C  10 6 = i  2  50  0.2515 Power Received (W) 50 6 16 22 35 38 .14i 1 (2  50  C  10 )(2  50  0.8144 2.25 176.15  47.6289 3.62 106.15) 6 Per Unit Compensation of the Line = C (µF) 0 6 12 18 24 30 Series Capacitive Reactance 530.

51 265.10 6 16 22 35 38 .Plot Power received Vs Series Capacitive Reactance Series Capacitive Reactance Power Received (W) 530.62 106.83 132.25 176.

power received 40 35 30 25 Power Received (W) 20 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Series Capacitive Reactance power received .

6289 3.8144 2.Plot Power Received Vs Per Unit Compensation of the Line.2579 5. Per Unit Compensation of the Line Power Received (W) 11.2515 6 16 22 35 38 .7526 2.

power received (W) 40 35 30 25 Power Received (W) 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Per Unit Compensation of the Line power received (W) .

Calculations for Shunt Capacitance Plot Power received Vs Shunt Capacitance C (µF) 6 12 18 24 30 Power Received (W) 60 80 95 100 105 .

Power Received 120 100 80 C (µF) 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Power Received (W) Power Received .

acts at a 90-degree angle to active power. Since both inductor and shut capacitor are present in the circuit it results in continuous alternating . Increased voltage level in the electrical system and cooler.  Lower utility bill     Reduced total bill since the power drawn from the system is low when the reactive power is low. induction motors. So adding one of the consumers of reactive power for a inductive load would increase the power factor. AC power is transmitted with the least losses if the current is undistorted and exactly synchronized with the voltage. it is important that the power factor is nearly kept unity. Keeping the power factor high effects in benefits such as. which makes the power factor less than unity. But most other loads such as transformers. When power losses increase. efficient appliances. synchronous generators and synchronous motors increase the power factor. So it is not economical since the reactive power doesn’t do any effective work. o Uncorrected power factor causes power system losses in the distribution system. more power is needed in order to compensate the reactive power. Inductive loads (sources of reactive power) such as transformers. (2) Discuss the usefulness of shunt capacitors in improving power factor of load. induction motors.Discussion (1) Discuss the effects of power factor on the power system. Increased system capacity and reduced power losses in the electrical system. Inductance and capacitance react 180 degrees to each other. there would be voltage drops. Therefore. thus it increases the power factor of the system. Since the total power is equal to the vector summation of active power and reactive power. induction generators and high intensity lighting decrease the power factor. induction generators and high intensity discharge lighting tend to draw current with a time lag or distort it. Light bulbs and resistance heaters draw current exactly synchronized and proportional to the voltage. Reactive power caused by inductive loads. Excessive voltage drops can cause overheating and premature failure of motor and other inductive equipment. In similar way consumers of reactive power such as capacitors. Installing shut capacitors decrease the magnitude of reactive power. Capacitors store reactive power (KVARS) and release energy opposing the reactive energy by the inductor. Power factor is the ration between active power and apparent power. Could eliminate the power factor penalty charged by the company. then the power factor will be unity.

(4) Discuss any other available methods which are used in place of the above two methods. Other than installing series or shunt capacitors. o Improve the load sharing between parallel lines. installation of Synchronous motors and filters would also improve the power factor. The purpose of this motor is to adjust electrical conditions on the local power distribution grid. This phenomenon improves the power factor. synchronous motor can be used to supply some of the reactive power required by induction motors. o The Main disadvantage. Over-excited synchronous motor has a leading power factor. This would burn out the capacitor bank and also destroy the appliances too. So when the circuit is balanced. o Reduces the transfer reactance between supply point and the load and thereby reduces the voltage drop. It improves the plant power factor and reduces supply current. why the series connection is not much installed is that if resonance occurs in the transmission line there will be very low impedance and a high current could flow through the transmission line.  Series connection of capacitors o Capacitors are connected in series to the load. o Voltage drop across the shunt capacitor bank is almost same as the system voltage.transfer of energy between the two. (3) Compare the effect of series and shut capacitance.  Synchronous Motor Synchronous motor which is also known as the synchronous compensator is a special motor whose shaft is not attached to any load and spins freely.  Shunt connection of capacitors o Capacitors are connected in parallel to the load. o Improve voltage regulation. In an industrial plant. This makes it useful for power factor correction of industrial loads. o Improve the power transfer capability. all the energy released by the inductor is absorbed by the shunt capacitor. .