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Unit 1(((No extra info provided…everything according to syl.

Copy!! Congratulationsss))) ROLE OF AN ARCHITECT
When we think of an architect, we think of the person who is the ultimate designer of a building, and in a way this is true. But most often, a very collaborative process leads to a finished structure. It’s the architect who develops the overall concept and design of a building, and who monitors the execution in order to make sure it complies with the original vision. But it’s the engineer who analyzes the design and determines its functional feasibility. In addition to designing the building's appearance, an architect must be conscious of how different structural materials are used, and how they will affect the overall building, as well as having an understanding of and involvement with heating and cooling systems, ventilation, electrical, and plumbing systems although the construction details for these are worked out by structural, civil, environmental, and mechanical engineers. Architects often oversee interior design and furnishings, as well as landscaping. Moreover, they are ultimately responsible for ensuring that the building complies with all zoning laws, building codes, fire regulations, and other ordinances. A simplistic view of the role is that architects create architectures, and their responsibilities encompass all that is involved in doing so. This would include articulating the architectural vision, conceptualizing and experimenting with alternative architectural approaches, creating models and component andinterface specification documents, and validating the architecture against

requirements and assumptions. However, any experienced architect knows that the role involves not just these technical activities, but others that are more political and strategic in nature on the one hand, and more like those of a consultant, on the other. These activities drive the competencies that the architect needs to be successful. We present a competency framework that helps architects assess areas for their own personal development, and managers in identifying who is a good fit for the architect role. As an architect, you need a thorough knowledge of your organization’s products, relevant technologies and development processes. But even in the technical area, your key activities are different than those of developers. Activities include articulating the architecture vision, conceptualizing and experimenting with alternative architectural approaches, creating models and component and interface specification documents, validating the architecture against requirements and assumptions, preparing documents and explaining the architecture to sponsors and stakeholders. Individually, young architects must improve their understanding of the profession in order to work well inside of it and to help the public understand it. They must learn from their own experience and from that of older architects.

If the public better understood what architects are required and wish to do. The public would be able to support architects better in that role and allow themselves to be educated by architects on what can be done to improve the built environment. ARCHITECTURE PROFESSION AS COMPARED TO OTHER PROFESSIONS . then the architect’s role in improving society can be improved.

to simulate and test how a machine. integrate the components to produce the final design. such as chemicals. helicopters. and safety. and to generate specifications for parts. Architecture is about the making of places where people spend their lives. computers. Engineers consider many factors when developing a new product. gas turbines. Engineers apply the principles of science and mathematics to develop economical solutions to technical problems. engineers precisely specify the functional requirements. For example. and evaluate the design’s overall effectiveness. in developing an industrial robot. Architects are not just concerned with the exterior and interior design of a building. Starting salaries are significantly higher than those of college graduates in other fields. This process applies to the development of many different products. Architecture is mostly about human beings living in a “better” way than before. cost. A bachelor’s degree is required for most entry-level jobs.Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and other physical structures. Continuing education is critical for engineers wishing to enhance their value to employers as technology evolves. structure. Engineers use computers extensively to produce and analyze designs. design and test the robot’s components. but the environment as a whole. Many engineers also use computers to monitor product quality and . Their work is the link between perceived social needs and commercial applications. but will vary by specialty. or system operates. reliability. Social sciences and psychology is as important as nanotechnology in sustainable materials… Overall job opportunities in engineering are expected to be good. and toys.

which involves the creation of high-performance materials and components by integrating atoms and molecules. It does not necessitate specialized study of knowledge. Minimum qualification → No qualification is required to start a business. Profession: It involves rendering of specialized services for a reward called a fee. Though risk is there in profession. It involves huge amount of capital. → A minimum technical or academic qualification is needed to   .control process efficiency. it is negligible. Following are the main difference between business and profession. Profession necessitates knowledge. specialized study. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROFESSION AND BUSINESS Business: It involves an activity relating to purchase and sale of goods with an objective of earning profit. It involves less amount of capital. also is introducing entirely new principles to the design process. 1. The field of nanotechnology. The primary objective of the business is maximization of profit. The entire process of business involves risks. training and         It involves element of service in exchange of an economic reward.

5. 6. Risk → There is an element of risk in the business. 3. Objective → The main objective of the business is to earn profits. Code of Conduct → There is no specific code of conduct for the business. 7. → Real capital is the competency and specialized knowledge of the profession. → In profession. 4. 2. → Service first. Capital → An adequate amount of capital is required to run the business efficiently. Secrecy → The secrecy in the business transactions is not necessary. profit second is the main objective of the profession. → A professional must maintain the secrecy of dealings with his clients. . Specialization → A businessman need not to have a specialized knowledge for starting a business → A professional must have a specialized knowledge in the profession which he wants to join.join a profession. there is minimum risk. → There is a code of conduct for every profession for regulating their dealings.

Criteria of Efficiency → Profits in business is the only criteria of efficiency. → Profession involves the specialized knowledge which can not be transferred to any other person.8. 10. Transferability → One can easily transfer his interest in business to other. Generally. You should have a qualification in . the goods are advertised in business to increase sales. must be registered with the Architects' Board in that jurisdiction. 9. → Quality of service rendered is the basis of measuring the efficiency. the following three steps outline the requirements for registration as an architect in a State or Territory : Step 1 of the process You should have a qualification in architecture from school of architecture and would like to find out about the accreditation status of your qualification. ARCHITECT'S REGISTRATION In each State and Territory is a legal requirement that any person using the title 'architect' or offering services to the public as an architect. Advertisement → Generally.. Each State and Territory has its own Architects' Board. → Advertisement is prohibited in all the professions according to their code of conduct. For example father can transfer his business to his son.

pay the fees determined by the Board and provide all information as required by the Board. you must apply for registration to the Architects' Board in the State or Territory in which you wish to practice. followed by the Architectural Practice Examination (APE). the Institute has its due place in the sphere of Architecture.-):P:-D (((BEST THE ALL!!!))) THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS History The history of The Indian Institute of Architects is one of absorbing interest. of the rebirth and youth of a profession which the Country had almost forgotten. of the struggles and influence of architectural education from one solitary centre throughout India.architecture from an overseas school of architecture and would like to find out about assessment of your qualification. of a struggle for existence and the need to have the meaning and value of Architecture and architectural service understood and attempts and experiments towards a new stage in the architecture of the country. Read about IIA how much ever u can orels u can even skip . In the Renaissance or reawakening of India. . it speaks in its manifold aspects. Step 2 of the process After you have satisfied the academic requirements set out in step one. Unfolding the scenes throughout the years. you will be required to undertake a period of practical experience. Step 3 of the Process Having completed the requirements of steps one and two.

was unanimously elected as the first "President" of the Association. according to a tablet on the building. 1917. was also born. At the first meeting held. Foster King's bungalow. that members began to seriously consider an improvement in status of the Association.12th. the welfare of architecture and the profession and who with such a goal. for some of the beautiful surroundings of trees and greenery are fortunately still preserved in the very heart of a great industrial and commercial city. Batley was elected President in 1921. and it was about this time. set in the sylvan surroundings of the School of Art compound. In such a setting of beauty and peace. the then Consulting Architect to the Government of Bombay. THE BOMBAY ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION (1922-29) The activities of the Association showed. THE ARCHITECTURAL STUDENT'S ASSOCIATION (1917-22) On May . helped to lay and build up the foundations of an architectural future fraught with the finest possibilities conceivable. One may well imagine what the scene must have been then.J. men who had at heart. the child that was to grow up into the Indian Institute of Architects. Mr. that the famous Rudyard Kipling was born on the 30th December 1865. George Wittet. the members present decided to form themselves into an association of the past students of Architecture of Sir J. School of Art and it was decided to christen the infant "The Architectural Students Association". The word "Students" seemed inapt for a body . the first historic meeting was held in Mr. It was here. steady progress and after Professor Cable's term of office. Late Mr.Its history is also one of men with vision and ideals.

On a requisition made by 15 members. . as stated in the Memorandum of Association were. were unanimously approved and in the 3rd ordinary meeting of the members on 3rd August 1922. Its chief objects. The alliance was formally confirmed at a Special General Meeting held in the School of Architecture on the 14th May 1925. the changes in the Constitution and Bye-Laws.A.B. This step allied the Association with the most powerful body of Architects. It was on 2nd September 1929 that the new body was re-organised in Bombay and officially registered as "THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS". announced the formal inauguration of the rechristened Association. in the Bombay Presidency and throughout India were now coming into the fold of the Association. Claude Bately moved the resolution of getting the final examination of RIBA to be held in India.B.that had now practising Architects within its fold and at a special General Meeting held on the 15th June 1922.A. The first examination could be held only in 1930. a special General Meeting was called on 20th November 1924 in which Prof. THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS (1929) Affiliation with R. Mr. AFFILIATION TO THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS (1925) As for back as the beginning in 1922. there had been tentative visions of affiliation with that powerful and EmpireWide architectural body.I. The five year Diploma Course inaugurated in 1923.I. was recognised for exemption from the intermediate examination. One of the first was that members of the R. among others. Batley. The Royal Institute of British Architects. President. in 1925 led to consideration of further changes in the existing Constitution and Bye-Laws.

standards of education. Elphinston Circle. to elevate the standard of Architectural Practice and by mutual support. to promote the interests of Architects throughout India". Bharoocha Architectural Library. 1972. Hornby Road. Mumbai . recognized qualifications and . The Institute began its activities in the room of the Sohrab F. now Dr. which came into force on 1st September. The Act provides for registration of Architects. In 1929. Bombay and this therefore was the first permanent headquarters for the various activities of the Institute. enacted by the Parliament of India. Today it has crossed the 12000 mark. Legal Status of the Institute The Indian Institute of Architects is registered under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860 as a voluntary organisation of Architects. as things improved. COUNCIL OF ARCHITECTURE (COA) The Council of Architecture (COA) has been constituted by the Government of India under the provisions of the Architects Act. the membership was 158. The only other organisation at the national level is the Council of Architecture established under the Architects Act 1972 with the statutory duty of Registration. 7-10."To continue the work of the Bombay Architectural Association founded as the Architectural Student's Association in 1917" and "To encourage the study of Architecture.400 001. the Institute and Library moved into the new and more convenient quarters which it at present occupies at Prospect Chambers Annexe. 1972. Dadabhai Naoroji Road. Later.

The Council of Architecture is charged with the responsibility to regulate the education and practice of profession throughout India besides maintaining the register of architects. The registration with Council of Architecture entitles a person to practice the profession of architecture. societies and other juridical persons are not entitled to use the title and style of architect nor are they entitled to practice the profession of architecture. For this purpose. The title and style of architect can also be used by a firm of architects. of which all partners are registered with COA. Any person desirous of carrying on the profession of 'Architect' must have registered himself with Council of Architecture. after having undergone the education in accordance with the Council of Architecture (Minimum Standards of Architectural Education) Regulations. with the approval of Government of India. Limited Companies. the Government of India has framed Rules and Council of Architecture has framed Regulations as provided for in the Architects Act. The registration also entitles a person to use the title and style of Architect. . 1972. which is punishable under section 36 or 37 (2) of the Architects Act. such acts tantamount to committing of a criminal offence. Private/Public Companies. provided he holds a Certificate of Registration with up-to-date renewals.standards of practice to be complied with by the practicing architects. For the purpose of registration. If any person falsely claims to be registered or misuses title and style of architect. 1983. one must possess the requisite qualification as appended to the Architects Act.

. course duration.The practice of profession of an architect is governed by the Architects (Professional Conduct) Regulations. 1983. standards of staff & accommodation. which set forth the requirement of eligibility for admission. The standards of education being imparted in these institutions (constituent colleges/departments of universities. The COA oversees the maintenance of the standards periodically by way of conducting inspections through Committees of Experts. NITs and autonomous institutions) is governed by Council of Architecture (Minimum Standards of Architectural Education) Regulations. An architect is required to observe professional conduct as stipulated in the Regulations of 1989 and any violation thereof shall constitute a professional misconduct. There are 280 institutions. The COA is required to keep the Central Government informed of the standards being maintained by the institutions and is empowered to make recommendations to the Government of India with regard to recognition and de-recognition of a qualification. which will attract disciplinary action as stipulated under section 30 of the Architects Act. These standards as provided in the said Regulations are required to be maintained by the institutions. course content. conditions of engagement and scale of charges. which deals with professional ethics and etiquette. Pursuant to these Regulations. architectural competition guidelines etc. 1989 (as amended in 2003). examination etc. 1972. IITs. which impart architectural education in India leading to recognized qualifications. affiliated colleges/schools. the Council of Architecture has framed guidelines governing the various aspects of practice. deemed universities.

utilities. exterior insulation and finishing systems. ● Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board serves the nation as the only independent federal agency whose primary mission is accessibility for people with disabilities. social and humanitarian crises. recognition. ● American Memory Library of Congress: Built in America: Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record Queryarchives black and white photographs. construction. ● Association of Wall and Ceiling Industries International AWCI represents acoustics systems. fireproofing. engineering. drywall systems. ● Architecture for Humanityis a registered nonprofit organization founded in 1999 to seek and promote architectural and design solutions to global. flooring . ● American Institute of Building Design AIBD is a nonprofit professional organization dedicated to the development. ● American National Standards Institute ANSI serves as administrator and coordinator of the United States private sector voluntary standardization system. drawings and other data pertaining to historic structures. ● American Institute of ArchitectsAIA has represented the architectural profession with resources and tools for over 135 years. government and education. and enhancement of the profession of building design. ● American Design Drafting Association ADDA is exclusively for the professional designer drafter in all disciplines including manufacturing.OTHER ORGANISATIONS ● American Architectural Manufacturers Association AAMA is the source of performance standards. product certification and educational programs for the fenestration industry. ceiling systems.

● National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST was established by Congress as an agency of the U.S. contract documentation. ● Texas Board of Architectural ExaminersTBAE protects the . ● National Institute of Building Sciences National CAD Standard NIBS is the building community's connection to the authoritative national source of knowledge and advice on matters of building regulation. includes the participation of all science and technology. non-profit association dedicated to the improvement of communication. and standards. strong chapters and strong members for the purpose of minimizing the effect of racism in the profession. founded in 1956. ● National Organization of Minority ArchitectsNOMA has as its mission the building of a strong national organization. regardless of their roles in the architectural community. ● Society of American Registered Architects SARA. and stucco contractors. ● Construction Specifications Canada CSC is a multidisciplinary. with a primary mission to promote U. insulation. ● International Organization for Standardization IOS promotes the development of standardization and related activities. measurements. ● National Council of Architectural Registration Boards NCARB is a non-profit federation of 55 state and territory architectural registration boards in the United States. faculty and graduates of Canadian Schools of Architecture. RAIC is a voluntary national association representing architects.S. economic growth by working with industry to develop and apply technology. ● Royal Architectural Institute of Canada RAIC established in 1907. and technical information in the construction industry. Department of Commerce's Technology Administration. suppliers and manufacturers and those in allied trades.

TSA is made up of 17 regional chapters. ● The Charles Moore Foundation is dedicated to the advancement of architecture. guided by the values and thinking central to Charles W. particularly successful ones. landscape architecture. welfare. . AN ARCHITECTS APPROACH TO WORKS: The sketch is a window into the architects mind. ● Whole Building Design GuideWBDG The goal is to create a successful high-performance building by applying the integrated design approach to a project during the planning and programming phases. Moore's teaching. Historically designers have sought inspiration for their own work through an insight into the minds and workings of people they often regard as geniuses. think and draw and approach their work.public's life. safety. particularly successful ones. Here for the first time. As creative designers. ● Texas Society of Architects TSA is a member association representing the members of the American Institute of Architects in Texas. Historically designers have sought inspiration for their own work through an insight into the minds and workings of people they often regard as geniuses. and property by preventing the unauthorized practice of architecture. Founded in 1939. and interior design. writing and practice. This collection of sketches aims to provide this insight. the Society is headquartered in Austin. architects are interested in how other architects. architects are interested in how other architects. think through the use of drawings to approach their work. a wide range of world famous architects' sketches from the Renaissance to the present day can be seen in a single volume. As creative designers themselves. health.

electrical distribution and traffic flow. they develop solutions. explaining. architects prepare written documentation of their projects. and. they select. present programmatic analysis. They speak: Architects make presentations to clients. Sometimes they are rough study models for massing and building organisation. teaching and persuading. They draw: From simple diagrams to show relationships between spaces or activities to complete detailed working drawings showing every last detail and from which contractors and subcontractors will estimate the cost of the work and subsequently construct it. they relate. They write: In addition to business correspondence and administrative paperwork. . write material for reports and presentations. they visualise. architects do a variety of things: of course they design. Architects will also draw in order to explain the design to clients and to supervisory authorities and will frequently prepare threedimensional models. appear before public bodies as experts and are frequently referring. sometimes very realistic models for client or public presentation. write up specifications which. of course. define the building. discuss design programs and problems and alternative solutions.In the course of their work. they synthesise. they must be able to understand structural analysis. heat loads. which means they plan. in company with the working drawings. they discard. The ability to communicate clearly and effectively is essential. They calculate: They must be able to prepare construction and office budgets. produce articles for professional magazines and publications.

In other words. During the construction phase.By publicity to certain extent.Getting work by participating in the design competitions. . and the form in which it expresses itself as interior content and an exterior container.They manage: Architects must manage their design projects from ideas to the complete development/ design/ construction process. review of the work in progress. .The types of projects in hand. becomes an organic extension of one another. which includes general.By the client approaching the Architect knowing his reputation.By technical capabilities and financial bids. TYPES OF WORKS TAKEN UP BY AN ARCHITECT: STRUCTURAL DESIGN The primary objective of Structural Design is to evolve a strong. they interpret drawings and specifications. durable and an efficient skeleton so that the space which architecture encloses. architects carry out contract administration. . resolve job difficulties and monitor the progress of the work WAYS OF GETTING WORK: . . .By recommendations . the architect's contribution to structural design can effectively bring about .People approaching an Architect for the reputation he has in the market.Depending on the past performance. .

the primary objective is to generate a purposeful ambience such as would stimulate the user's creative potential through multifarious activities. planning.qualitative change in the built-environment to stimulate the advancement of society towards a higher order of civilization. Accessibility at city-level and the movement at all levels must be designed to operate smoothly. management. URBAN DESIGN Urban Design is architecture of the cities. It must . Volumetric relationships. urban design and civil engineering for meaningful and practical solutions. transition from buildings to open spaces. It is a science capable of objective analysis and synthesis leading to an ecologicallysensitive design. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE Landscape Architecture deals with the analysis. It involves dealing with such sites as office plazas/ public squares. preservation and rehabilitation of land and also determines the environmental impact. which is self-sustainable. city parks/ national parks. open spaces and other structures by means of a pleasant and memorable visual imagery throughout the length and breadth of an urban setting. highways. housing developments. zoological and botanical parks. INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE In case of Interior Architecture. the elements of architecture. institutional campuses. highly complex and gargantuan in scale. streetscape and the services infrastructure must together invest a townscape with an exclusive imageability. design. harmonious spatial sequences. The primary aim of urban design is to imbibe and maintain a sense of identity and harmony among buildings. It integrates from the very conception.

that meld the interiors and exteriors into symbiotic relationships through varied experiences of scale. Apart from these Architects can and do perform a variety of design and construction related services. the perceived compatibility of the personalities of the owner and contractor. The architect can also help you interview contractors and participate or advise you in the process of obtaining bids or negotiating a price for the project. . and the contractor’s interest in and availability to work on the project. design of entrance areas. how to maximize the use of shared outside space. or solutions to the use of outside space (for example. not all architects or architectural firms provide the same services. light and shade. or the design of offstreet parking and outside storage areas). Contractor Selection Most architects have worked with or are aware of a variety of different kinds of contractors. identification and eventual appropriation of architectural spaces. Some of these services are as follows: Design Work The architect can draw plans and specifications. interior space design (for both utility and visual impact). volume. They can identify candidate contractors according to such preferences as: the project budget. However. The architect may also offer landscaping design services. You will want to spend some time thinking about the services that you would want to use if you seek help from an architect. the type and size of the project. plumbing. electrical.facilitate the individual's sense of orientation. mechanical. including structural. and special design considerations (such as for the handicapped). The development of design is a very conscious act and it infuses life into interiors subconsciously.

and answer questions. monitor project progress (including keeping the project on budget). specifications and other details before the project starts. demolition drawings are also made by an Architect CONDITIONS OF ENGAGEMENT BETWEEN ARCHITECT AND CLIENT: The Council of Architecture has prescribed the Conditions of Engagement based on general practice of the profession in India. to make sure the contractor and architect are in agreement about the design. TENDER DRAWINGS-New. they would be forwarded to the owner for payment. At this time the contractor would provide the owner with the necessary property/liability insurance for the job. the architect would begin receiving monthly materials and labor invoices from the contractor. Throughout the project.RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ARCHITECT . the architect would develop a ‘punch’ list of additional work or corrections that need to be performed. Urban Design. Landscape Architecture. The architect would make regular visits to verify the materials and work being billed. After the architect verifies each months invoices. restoration. the architect would obtain applicable materials warranties and lien releases for materials and labor. Once the job starts. Interior Architecture and Architectural Conservation. At the end of the project. These documents are applicable to all registered architects and such architects who have specialized in areas such as Structural Design. repair and maintenance. City Planning. and administer to other details necessary to close out the project.Permits The architect can assist you in any required permits. Construction Administration -Initially. 1. this would involve working with the contractor to discuss questions about the project.

changes in the client's instructions.04 the Architect shall endeavor to guard the client against defects and deficiencies in the work of the contractor. the client shall appoint and pay consulting engineers.CONSULTANTS -On the recommendation of the architect. 5. delays in building operations.INSPECTION -During his on-site inspection made in accordance with Clause 1. 3. liquidation or determination of the contractor or any other cause beyond the .-The work of an architect is to study his clients' needs. 4. 2. phased contracts. but shall not be required to make exhaustive or continuous inspections to check the quality or quantity of the work. the architect's charges do not include charges for consulting engineers and/or other consultants. to advise.COPYRIGHT -The provisions of this Section shall apply without prejudice to the architect's lien on drawings and Specifications against unpaid fees. or surveyors who shall be subject to the direction and control of the architect. DELAY AND CHANGES IN INSTRUCTIONS -Extra work and expense caused in any Stage of the architect's services resulting from unreasonable delay in receiving instructions. other consultants. bankruptcy.01. direct and coordinate design and to generally inspect the works and administer the building contract. The architect must have the authority of his client before initiating any service or Work Stage. to prepare.

Soil investigation by the Geological survey( minimum prerequisite things before approvals) . 8. 6. .Footing and column layout with reference points. advising him. COMMENCEMENT OF WORK: . and for general inspection of their work in accordance with Stage E of the Basic Services.02. SPECIALIST SUB-CONTRACTORS AND SUPPLIERS -The architect may recommend that specialist sub-contractors and suppliers should design and execute any part of the work.control of the architect. directing and coordinating design and inspecting work executed under the building contract as described 7. REMUNERATION -The services normally provided by an architect in studying his client's needs.08.Marking with reference points. . preparing. but not for the detailed design or performance of the work entrusted to them. INTERREPTATION AND ARBITRATION -Any question arising out of these Conditions may be referred in writing by the architect or client to the TTIA for advice provided always that any difference or dispute between them is determined in accordance with Clause 1. shall be additionally charged on a time basis. He will be responsible for the direction and integration of their design.

Specifications. Variation bills for different quantities should be made.. THE ENNDdddddd !!!!!! . . Quality.Bill of Quantity and Quality should be done. Every work on the site should be certified and approved by the architect. Measurement book is maintained at the site for billing. Alterations or deviations should be taken care of.Inspection of the site.

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