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Cost-Benefit and Sensitivity Analysis of Cut Flower Roses and Comparison with other Floricultural Crops

SUJATA MAJUMDAR* AND DEBABRATA LAHIRI**

Introduction: In West Bengal, Howrah and Purba Medinipur districts flower cultivation have taken a leading role in the commercialization of agriculture. Other states like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Delhi and Haryana have also emerged as major flower growing centres in India. Due to flower cultivation, in past few years West Bengal has been taken a great commercial part in Indian economy. The present cut flower cultivation in West Bengal greatly satisfies the local demand which has been used for worshiping and occasions such as marriage etc. On the other hand flower produced from greenhouses satisfies the demand of corporate houses, hotels and restaurant etc. Most of the flowers have been cultivated in open filed and among them and according to area, rose has been the most important one, followed by hibiscus and jasmine. The paper intends to study the profitability, break-even cost of production and sensitivity of these flowers. So that proper planning could be done for growth and sustainability in this sector. In this view Katapukur, Heledwip-Vulgaria and Pakuria villages have been chosen purposively from Howrah and Purba Medinipur districts respectively for this study. Review of Literature : Several researchers and professionals have been worked on break-even and sensitivity of cut flowers among them Pawar et. al. (2011) worked on break even analysis (BEP) sensitivity analysis and assessment of sustainability in cut flower production for the states of Maharashtra. Kundu et. al. (1997) tried to show how export-import policy has been fruitful to export Indian cut flowers. They had shown a trend of floriculture export and import. Market pulse knowledge networks (P) Ltd. (2008) submitted a report of' export market or Mumbai, Surat, Baroda and Ahmedabad market. By this paper they had shown the demand and supply condition of the market of above purposive area. Kokate (2009) had shown about market channels of rose

and gave some suggestions for improvisation of cut flower industry of Maharashtra. They had shown Indian floriculture market has growing despite of no government regulations in the pricing and exports and suggest to government intervention in pricing policy has been the key the success of the Indian floriculture industry. Objectives : Objectives of the study have been as per following : (1) To determine the profitability of cut flower roses cultivated in open field and compare them with hibiscus, jasmine; (2) To study the breakeven quantity and sensitivity analysis of cut flower roses. Methodology : Sampling Technique : From house listing schedule it has been found that 71.00 per cent of the household have been in marginal farmer category representing 73.00 per cent of family member. The marginal farmers own 98.39 per cent, 1.68 per cent and 0.07 per cent of own land, leased-in land and leased-out land respectively among total operational holdings. Of the total operational holding 81.41 per cent land has been put to flower cultivation and of which 31.25 per cent is under rose cultivation. Only 36.16 per cent have rose cultivation among total number of household and among them 35.56, 0.40, 0.00 and 0.20 per cent are in marginal, small, medium and large farmer under rose cultivation respectively. Two Community Development Blocks namely Bagnan-II and Daspur from Howrah and Purba Medinipur districts has been selected respectively. From Bagnan-II Community Development Block Heledwip-Vulgaria, Katapukur (under Uluberia sub-division) villages in Howrah district have been purposively selected for the study. From Purba Medinipur distict Pakuria (Panskura subdivision) village have been selected.

* Junior Research Fellow, Rural Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. **Associate Professor and Corresponding Author, Rural Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.

February, 2012

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Katapukur and Pakuria respectively Uluberia (Howrah district) and Panskura sub-division (Purba Medinipur district) respectively.00) 43 (100. District/SubNo.00) Total (Figures in parentheses indicates percentage to total) Table 2 indicates that 37.00) 0 (0.51 and 1. Katapukur (Uluberia sub-division) and Pakuria (Panskura) sub-division respectively. 100.33) 24 (l00.64 per cent sample farms in comparison of farms.1 (Figures in parentheses indicates percentage to total) From Table 1 it has been clearly seen that 94. TABLE 2—SAMPLE OF THE HOUSEHOLDS CULTIVATING FLOWER Sl.TABLE 1—DETAILS OF HOUSE LISTING Sl.00 per cent are marginal farmer under among total farm of rose cultivation of three villages Heledwip-Vulgaria. flower cultivation in these two districts has been due by marginal farms in three villages Heledwip-Vulgaria.17) 8 (33.74) 79 (100.00) 79 (100. division 1.75) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.) (N) Small Medium Large Total 1. Howrah/Uluberia -DoPanskura Villages Marginal HeledwipVulgaria Katapukur Pakuria 9 7 8 No.2 2.2 2. 29. hibiscus and jasmine has been 24. of farm under rose cultivation Small Medium Large 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 9 (37. 17 and 33.00) Total No.50) 7 (29.75 per cent respectively of total number of rose cultivated household.33 per cent marginal farm has under rose cultivation of the three villages Heledwip-Vulgaria. Katapukur and Pakuria of two Community Development Block Bagnan-II and Daspur from Howrah and Purba Medinipur districts respectively. District/SubNo.00) 57 (100. of Household Marginal Category of farm under rose cultivation (No. According to operational holding the total number of household studied for rose.00) 0 (0. Side by side the sample farms also cultivated hibiscus and jasmine. Only Heledwip-Vulgaria village has small and large farm of 3. Uluberia (Subdivision of Howrah) Heledwip-Vulgaria Katapukur Daspur (Subdivision of Purba Medinipur) Pakuria 110 43 (100. Agricultural Situation in India .00) 0 (0.1 1. division/Name of the villages 1.1 1. 10 and 11 respectively.00) 1 (1. 610 Analytical Methods : Socio-economic status of households : For the socio-economic status of the sample households the indicators have taken such as age.50.00) 2 (3.00) 0 (0. 2.51) 0 (0.74. A multistage sampling technique has been followed to select the 13.00 and 100.00) 163 222 54 (94.

) and V = Average variable cost per flower (Rs.59 per cent) in the age group 60 years and above years have been in hibiscus cultivation.41 per cent. 1. Here breakeven quantity (BEP) of open field cultivation has been compared with greenhouse roses.). 74) 48 (69.19 per cent and 61. Sensitivity analysis : The sensitivity concept has been employed to examine the sensitivity of the average cut flower grower towards risk and uncertainty of increase in production cost. production cost (including fixed and variable cost). Below higher secondary education has been higher in hibiscus cultivation (20. yield and price has been derived as per following : (i) Estimated cost = Actual yield × Actual price (ii) Estimated yield = Actual cost/Actual price (iii) Estimated price = Actual cost/Actual yield Results and discussion : Socio-economic condition of the households : A comparison of the socio-economic condition of the sample household engaged in different types of flower cultivation reveals that maximum number of younger people group below 18 years engaged in rose cultivation (29.56) 8 (11.58 per cent).1 1.77 per cent respectively). The not students category has been higher in hibiscus production 7. hibiscus and jasmine in open field cultivation have been done to find the no loss no profit or normal profit condition of the farmer. The number of farm has been distributed due to percentages of area of flower cultivation in ascending order.87) 611 February.). TABLE 3—SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE HOUSEHOLD SI No. Most of the farmer has been involved in primary employment in jasmine cultivation 100 per cent and secondary employment has been higher in hibiscus cultivation 33.3 Particulars Age Group Below 18 yrs I 8—60 yrs 60 yrs and above Rose (n= 24) 42 (29.25 per cent.33 per cent. Sensitivity analysis has been done to find the difference between increase or decrease and actual cost. Profitability : The measure of profitability of cut roses has been a very important measure in agriculture business to make a comparison between the floricultural crops with roses.75) 17 (11.22) 39 (61. have been taken.79 per cent.00 per cent).88 and 0. Break-even analysis : Break-even analysis has been taken to find the quantity where a farm gets no loss no profit situation. P = Per flower average price (Rs. Literacy rate has been highest among jasmine cultivation as (98. The percentage of graduate and post graduate level education has been higher for roses (3.education. Fixed investment (Rs. This has been another important measurement to check the market situation. yield (number of cut flowers).V)---------------------------------( 1) Where : F = Per ha. usual activities. Level of education depicted by below primary level and secondary education have 'been higher among jasmine cultivators (24. To arrive at the profitability of cut flowers factors like area.2 1. The percentages of student have been higher in roses (25.59) Jasmine (n= 11) 14 (22. The percentages of housewives have been higher in hibiscus production (27. 1. cost and price structure. benefit (net income) and B/C ratio etc. BEP quantity measure done such as below : BEP (quantity) = F/ (P.58) 82 (57.04 per cent). under existing prices. 97) Hibiscus (n=10) 15 (21.56 per cent). The average man day for primary employment per year has been higher in rose cultivation 149 days and for secondary employment for roses 300 days. Whereas the highest percentage of people within age group of 18 to 60 years have been involved in hibiscus cultivation (69.41 per cent) and illiteracy has been higher in hibiscus cultivators (13.33 per cent.35 per cent). Old or retired person has been higher in rose cultivation 14. Details of the socioeconomic condition of sample households have been given in Table 3. returns (gross income). The production cost has been the sum of input and output cost. Unemployment rate has been higher in rose production 1. 2012 .29 per cent respectively). reduction in yield and reduction in price of flowers. In this methodology break-even quantity of production of rose. The estimated cost. Employment rate has been higher in the hibiscus production 8. type of employment and average employment man days (per year).90) 10 (15. Lowest percentages of people (11.54 per cent). yield (number of flowers) and price respectively for the rose and another floricultural cultivation.

2 3.60) 5 (3.33) 21 (100. 3.00) 16 (25.79) 24 (34.2.1 3.41) 15 (24.1 4.2.28) 2 (1.00) 19 (27.00) 34 (56.15) 129 (90. Sl. 612 Agricultural Situation in India .41) 34 (23. 2.33) 0 (0.5 3.14) 21 (33.29) 13 (9.77) 9 (13.29) 5 (7.4 2.33) 0 (0.19) 38 (61. No.98) 16 (66.2 2.59) 62 (98.2 2.00) 1 (1.29) 9 (14.3 2.81) 2 (3.1 2.4 3.40) 15 (23.1 5.35) 6 (4.2.59) 24 (18.00) 5 (8. 16) 73 (56.TABLE 3—SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE HOUSEHOLD—Contd.04) 60 (86.52) 0 (0.23) 21 (14.67) 12 (20. 4.94) 36 (25.2.17) 9 ( 14.02) 3 (6.1 2.5 3.85) 26 (20.00) 0 (0.00) 43 (30.25) 7 (10.00) 0 (0. 2.2 Particulars Education Illiterate Literate Below Primary Below Secondary Below Higher Secondary Below Graduate Graduate and above Usual activities Employed Unemployed Housewife Student Non Student Old/Retired Type of employment Primary employment Secondary employment Average employment (man days/year) Primary Secondary 113 300 149 195 98 0 40 (93.6 4.88) 1 (0.00) Rose (n= 24) Hibiscus (n=l0) Jasmine (n= 11) (Figures in parentheses indicates percentage to total number of households). 5.67) 8 (33.96) 9 (15.3 3.78) 0 (0.2.2 5.54) 14 (20.

46.08.290.42 1. B/C ratio Break even analysis : It has been found the break even quantity of roses 244644 numbers in terms of fixed investment of Rs.94 6.) 1.88 1809090 11.) 3140 (nos.27. 54.) 2489608.13 Break-even quantity (no.78).051. 52. Rose 139446.11 for 100 flowers at a price of Rs.) 0. 767018. Gross and net income for hibiscus has been higher than all other flowers because of low cost involved in procuring planting material.373. 32. 19.08.087.) 2.544.13.72.835. The break even quantity for hibiscus has been 3140 numbers in terms of fixed investment Rs. cost fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. By producing this quantity of flowers the farmer should face no profit no loss situation.27.588. 27. No. Particulars No.77 54935. Jasmine 62985.94 4340207 27. 116.63 followed by jasmine of (Rs.56.21 52.78 83.290. Production Cost (Rs.835.06 Kg.72 72.) 5.18./kg of flowers) 244644 (nos.73/ 100 flowers 96.544. 59062.05 27.66/ Kg. Type of cut flowers Annual flower production (no. 62985.72 and 7218588.29. Per hectare production of rose. 13. 2012 613 . the break even Rose (no.73. While gross income per hectare has been for hibiscus (Rs.) Price received per unit (Rs.63 54.75.24 Jasmine (Kgs.86.06 (Kgs) respectively.38.498.051. Net income (Rs. TABLE 4—PROFITABILITY OF CUT FLOWERS (Per hectare) Sl. of flowers and per unit of variable cost Rs.86 895. 2029678.13.83 kgs. 96. 18. 27.) 54935. 2489608.) 6.) 116. hibiscus and jasmine has been 4340207 (nos).087.46 3. Yield 3.66 per kg.) 0.94 for per 100 flowers at a price of Rs.678.57 of fixed investment and a price of Rs. 83.95 32.94 respectively. TABLE 5—BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS OF CUT FLOWERS Sl. 59062.72) followed by rose (Rs.588./kg of flowers) 4340207 (nos. Net income from hibiscus has been highest (Rs.11 767018. Details have been given in Table 4. Moreover. hibiscus flower production has been available throughout the year: Benefit-cost been highest for hibiscus followed by jasmine and rose.94 2. Returns (Gross income) (Rs.75. It has been clear from that break even quantity of roses has been lower than hibiscus and price of roses has been higher than hibiscus. for Rs.57 1447384.74) and rose (Rs.87 and per unit variable cost Rs.) 1.498.95). Price per unit of flower variable cost (Rs.06 20.58 quantity of jasmine has been 895. 8375087.87/ 100 flowers 19. February. Hibiscus 1809090 ( nos.21) and hibiscus (11.38.74 1. 1809090 (Kgs) and 54935.94) followed by jasmine (Rs.) Total fixed investment (Rs.14.73 and per unit of variable cost Rs.83 Kg. 1447384. Area (ha. Details have been given in Table 5.Profitability of cut Flowers : Among the flower cultivator’s area under rose has been higher than other flowers.56. Both gross and net income has been higher in hibiscus cultivation in comparison to rose and jasmine to the Rs. Per hectare cost of production cost has been highest for rose (Rs.14.00 Hibiscus (no.42).) 4. 1.05) and jasmine (Rs. 139446. Lastly.

yield (production) and price have been positive for all crops.34/Kg. Details have been given in Table 6. 8232564. Singh Jai.27/100 flowers respectively) and for jasmine the same difference has been as Rs. S. P.) Conclusions : In spite of the fact that rose has been the major floriculture crop in these two districts its cultivation has heen preferred mostly be members of the household below 18 years of age. 6. Market pulse knowledge networks (P) Ltd. Yield (No. Pandey R.00Kg. Kundu K.. Constraints and Export Strategies: An Analysis’ Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing. K.78 2060898. Singh V. TABLE 6—SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF INCREASED COST AND REDUCED YIELD AND PRICES OF CUT FLOWERS Sl.50 904399. Highest difference between actual and increase cost has been found for the jasmine Rs. (1997): ‘Indian’s Floriculture Exports— Growth. Kokate. and Mahajan V. Vol. 5. K. P. REFERENCES 1. 18 (2) PP 66—76. But most of the farmers have taken rose cultivation as a secondary occupation.06 Kg. Yield differences have been higher in hibiscus 17079799.Sensitivity Analysis : In this section analysis has been done to know how much cut flower growers have been satisfied in the above range of cost. 2507979. But the benefitcost ratio of hibiscus has heen higher than rose and jasmine. In all type of flowers it has clearly observed that the farmer get positive results for increasing cost.. 614 Agricultural Situation in India . 2. (2008): ‘Towards floriculture: Understanding sector and Market (final project report submitted to Sajjata Sangh)’.00/Kg. N. Jasmine 2029678. or unit) Actual Increased/ decreased Difference Actual Increased/ decreased Difference Rose 1562643. Vol. S. Vol. 3. 25 (1): PP 10—20. thus its profitability has been higher than rose and jasmine.79. Status. (1996 ): ‘Economic analysis of price behavior and marketing of egg’ Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing. Bharadwaj S. S. (2004): ‘Price spread. Verma A. Particulars Cost (Rs. Thus sensitivity analysis has been clearly shown. and Suhag K..13/100 flowers and 5. Vol. carnation and gerbera’.79 54935.78 3255465. 10 (2) PP 66—69. 8287500.94Kg. and Patidar R. yield and prices. l1 (1& 2): PP 14—21. K.87/100 flowers 200. and Phalke Shweta (2011).) Actual Increased Difference 2. 84.00/1 00 flowers 84. 4. No 1. 120. Pawar B. marketing efficiency and constraints in marketing of onion in Indore district of Madhya Pradesh’ Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing.72 4340207 18624000 14283793 116.34 per kg.66/Kg. K.. Rajput A.13/100 flowers Hibiscus 1156498. yield and price as because they got the positive amount of production than break even quantity of production.73/100 flowers 25. Pravin (2009): ‘Marketing channels of rose and improvisation of present status of cut flowers’ ‘Project report on marketing channels of rose. ‘Sustanability in cut flower production in Satara district of Maharashtra’ Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing. Break-even quantity and sensitivity analyses of cost. R. 23.00/ 100 flowers 5. Nirman K. 96. 3. Area of roses has been higher than other floricultural crops and its production and net income have higher than others. Price (Rs.72 1809090 18888889 17079799 19.50 1692821. The difference between actual and increase of price among roses and hibiscus higher in roses (Rs. M.21 4537658.27/100 flowers 23.00 2507979.

the government has recognized the importance of liberalizing agriculture marketing in early years of this century resulted to constitution of an expert committee under the chairmanship of Shri S Guru. Most markets lack the proper infrastructure to store perishables and as a result. in 2003 and advised states to implement the Act. Objectives of the Study The broad objective of the study is to assess the impact of emerging marketing channels in agricultural marketing and benefit to producer-sellers and marketing costs and margins of major agricultural commodities in the states. which are detrimental to the growth of agriculture and farmers. the Marketing Division of the Department of Agriculture & Co-operation.C. In view of this. M. The states where it amended. as they fear a loss of mandi revenue. It authorizes state governments to set up and regulate wholesale agricultural markets with the stated objective of ensuring the farmers get a fair price for their farm produce. farmers are forced to sell their perishables at the price quoted by traders (incentivizing traders). it would emerge that the government. It is due to the fact that there is a strong license raj in agricultural marketing. was formulated in the mid 1960s. But states have resisted APMC reforms. It we dig deeper into the issue of agricultural marketing. and of protecting them from exploitation by the traders. 2012 615 . in improving the efficiency of the agricultural marketing value chain. Accordingly. In fact the amended APMC Acts will allow varying degrees of flexibility and increasing role of private players *AERC. T M Bhagalpur University has conducted the study in Bihar and Jharkhand States. Bhagalpur University.-vis the traditional marketing channels? (ii) What is the degree of market efficiency and incidence of post harvest losses in emerging marketing channels vis-a-vis traditional. Government of India assigned its Agro-Economic Research Centres/units to undertake a study entitled “IMPACT OF EMERGING MARKETING CHANNELS IN AGRICULTURE MARKETING—BENEFIT TO PRODUCER-SELLERS AND MARKETING COSTSAND MARGINS OF MAJOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES IN THEIR RESPECTIVE STATES. the dice is loaded against the farmers and consumers. when international trade barriers are being overcome through free trade agreements. more commonly known as Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) Act. the agricultural marketing situations have tremendously changed and thus. produce within the APMC market premises. of the respective state governments. Ministry of Agriculture. When a large number of farmers sell their produce in a mandi to a limited number of traders. Many states have amended their APMC Act and some states are yet to notify the relevant rules. It is evident from various studies that there is considerable gap in facilities available in the market yards and creation of marketing monopolies. Agro-Economic Research Impact of Emerging Marketing Channels in Agriculture Marketing-Benefit to Producer-Sellers and Marketing Costs and Margins of Major Agricultural Commodities in Bihar and Jharkhand Background In the 21st Century. The APMR Act. Research Questions (i) What has been the farmer’s share in the consumer rupee in emerging models vis-a. Bhagalpur. The amended act aims at complete transformation of agricultural marketing in India to make it more market and growth oriented. Subsequently on the basis of committee's report and thereof recommendations of Inter-Ministerial Task Force. by virtue of provisions in the Agriculture Produce market Regulation (APMR) Act. The farmers are only allowed to sell their. T. Indian farmers from one notified area are not allowed to sell their agricultural produce in another notified area of the same state. The reference crops for the study are mango among the fruits and cauliflower among the February. Ministry of Agriculture. is responsible for hoarding by traders and the consequent spiraling prices. Bihar and Jharkhand. Government of India formulated a model APMC Act. Agro-Economic Research Centre for Bihar & Jharkhand. Most APMCs limit the number of licenses issued to traders to deal in purchase/sale of agricultural produce in their respective markets. marketing channels? (iii) What the market practices and services provided by different agencies in tlte emerging marketing channels vis-a-vis traditional marketing channels? (iv) What are the constraints faced by the farmers and different market functionaries in the emerging marketing Channel vis-a-vis traditional marketing channels? Methodology The study has been undertaken in Bihar and Jharkhand states.

But the state government repealed the same w. After the repeal of Bihar Agricultural Produce marketing Committee Act (BAPMC act). In fact they are less market intermediaries more mahajans in many cases.. 06-12-2008 BIHAR It was in the 1958 that the Government of Bihar took an important step in regard to market regulation of agricultural produce and a bill known as "Bihar Agricultural Produce Markets Act.30 thousand ha) is grown in 10. Fifty farm households each from TMC and EMC in each state have been selected covering proportionately from small. cauliflower (27. Besides farm households.e. Ranchi district has been selected and in the district for farm level enquiries Pithoria and its adjoining villages falling under Kanke block has been selected.' who are mostly local or of adjoining areas rather from their own society for marketing the produce in distant urban market directly. agricultural market in the state is functioning without any formal institutional structure. as the Reliance Fresh’s collection centre of vegetables is also operating extensively in these villages. among the vegetables (57 lakh ha). medium and large farm categories. Keeping in view of crop prominence in the district Nathnagar and Sultanganj blocks have been selected for farm level enquiries. Exploitation of other intermediaries and sometimes by pre-harvest contractors when became. Subsequently in 2006. traditional (TMC) and emerging (EMC).. the order of the day. Out of these. with five modern terminal markets at the top. after carving out Jharkhand State in November. In Jharkhand. who are mostly local or of adjoining areas/ districts pay visit to the mango orchards at the flowering stage of fruit with a view to assess/ estimate the volume of production and accordingly they undergo agreements with the growers/ orchard owners for 1 to 3 years or 1 to 2 years usually. 3000/ tree. Cauliflower is largely produced in Ranchi district. The sample has been drawn from both the marketing channels viz. which has specialty in production of Jardalu variety of mangoes. to amend BAMPC Act (1960) so as to allow private players etc. growers opted a chain i.vegetables in Bihar and Jharkhand respectively. In Bihar among the fruits (290. 95 fell in residual Bihar. The agricultural marketing reforms status in the light of model APMC Act (2003) in Bihar and Jharkhand may be looked as below : AGRICULTURAL MARKET REFORMS State(s) Bihar Jharkhand Reform Status BAPMC Act repealed w. the state had 122 agricultural produce market committees. in marketing of agricultural commodities. the state government has made an ambitious market development scheme assisted Asian Development Bank under market infrastructure development project and NHM. It constitutes buyers/ traders (05). juicy content and export potential. So for the purpose of study. was passed in 1960. 1000/ tree to Rs. 01-09-2006. Since these pre-harvest contractors are mostly local keep close touch with the orchard owners and provide credit facility all around the years in lieu of making the contract of the orchards at the time of flowering.. Traditionally in marketing of mangoes. 'traders. With the enforcement of Act and until November 2000. packaging and transporting to big city markets Agricultural Situation in India .00 per cent of total vegetable’s area. Contract Farming and markets in Co-operative/Private Sectors w. and 1500 rural haats with developed facilities at the grass not 616 Remarks Open/unregulated Agricultural Market Dialogues with the corporate bodies or individuals are taking place for contract farming etc.f..71 thousand ha) nearly one third of mangoes is produced in five prominent districts. Traders after collecting the mangoes arrange the sorting. taking together 30 and 20 on TMC and EMC group in each States. This way the size of the sample in each state is 100 households. Out of these 5 districts..00 per cent of total cauliflower's area in the state. and remaining 27 in Jharkhand State. These traders act as the representative of the producersellers. level.e. However. the role of pre-harvest contractors is important. 54 marketing yards belonging to Bihar State Agricultural Marketing Board (BSAMB) being converted to Agri-business Centres in the middle tier. has been selected for the study.f. 01-09-2006 Reforms to JAPMC Act have been done for Direct Marketing. which account for more than 10.000 on farm primary processing centres (OFPPC) at farm gates. other market players and consumers have also from included in the sample. Government of India suggested through its model Act (2003). The agreement is made on per mango tree basis ranging between @ Rs.f. Bhagalpur is one. known for decent flavor. 2000. These haats/ agri-business centres are proposed to be fed by 10.e.e. retailers (15) and consumers (15) on TMC category in each State and buyers (05) and consumers (15) on EMC category in each state.

9037/ha in case of EMC households. This act is coming in the way of a new private initiative in the modern retailing and upgrading of the supply chain especially in the field of fruits and vegetables.96%) respectively associated with EMC farms. Bharatbhog. and 21 large farms. Per hectare fixed cost is estimated at Rs. Zardalu. it is doing some other works. As regards the association of farmers with emerging marketing channel is concerned it is very interesting to note here that out of 58 small farmers. Provisions for direct marketing. It clearly indicates that large sized farms have greater association with the EMC. 21 (36. In fact. Biju etc. 3415/ha on TMC and EMC farms respectively. sometimes advances are given to the households mainly for purchase of the produce. Selling to one chain of intermediaries is beneficial in the sense that the responsibilities of all the marketing activities like sorting. The popular varieties are Dudhia Maldah. It indicates that returns are higher on EMC farms over TMC farms. In view of this. the most prominent marketing agencies for marketing of vegetables in general are kutcha arhatiya or small commission agent or the agent of wholesaler who buy vegetables from the farmers in the rural haat/periodical markets. 54336. APMC Act prohibits transaction outside the regulated mandies. Bombay Gulabkhas. The co-operative institution as an marketing agency does not play important role in marketing of vegetables even if it still exists (VEGFED) in Jharkhand. transportation etc.55/ha in case of EMC farms. 812/ha and Rs.80 ha on TMC households and 0. 12 (57. So far as the facilities to the farm households from the buyers is concerned. traders return to village(s) and pay the amount to the respective growers as per their sold volumes of the produce and the price realized in those markets on account of selling the produce. But this has not been emerging very prominently because of lack of proper trading rules and other marketing infrastructure. however. The results further indicate that the cost-benefit ratios are 1:2. Total marketing cost stands at Rs. weightment. The average age of mango orchard is reported to be 23 years 6 months in case of households enquired for the purpose of TMC and 30 years 4 months for EMC. 76682. Now Reliance Fresh (RF) in Ranchi district has emerged as a new channel for retailing vegetables.56 and 1:2. Subsequently JAPMC Act amended in accordance with the APMC Model Act (2003) in 2007 and came into effective from 06/12/2008. 25761. where they sell the produce in urban mandies. The total production cost has been estimated at Rs. But it is yet to be effected.98 on TMC and EMC farms. lie with him. During in course of survey. trader is the new intermediary who has taken the place of pre-harvest contractor of TMC so they may be called as post-harvest contractor. government of Jharkhand amended APMC Act and allowed corporate like Reliance Fresh in retailing of vegetables.like Kolkata (West Bengal). It is mainly because that they do not want to move outside the farm gate for marketing the produce as well as prefer to dispose larger volume of the produce to one buyer rather more than one buyers. 9503/ha in case of TMC households and Rs. Fazli.05/ha and Rs. 21 medium farms. contract farming' and markets in co-operative/private sector have been made.95/ha on TMC farms whereas those are Rs. Moreover APMC Act restricts the setting-up of markets other than by the state governments.50/ha. grading. After selling the produce. 23479. 2012 returns of Rs.21 %). Ranchi. 13164 in case of TMC households and Rs 13308 in case of EMC households. this new chain has emerged mainly after the development of road and connectivity and improvement in law and order in the state in post BAPMC Act repealed era. A few thousand farmers have been hooked on to the Reliance Retail Supply chain in the district through its collection centres. In case of EMC. it is not provided for cultivation of the mangoes as such. On overall the average area under the crop is 0. Amrapali. JHARKHAND The state agricultural produce market act is in existence in Jharkhand. the results indicate the overall cost of cultivation and gross return are Rs. The cultivation of mangoes in the district is traditional and practice adopted for its maintenance is annual. 59984/ha. Traditionally. it has been found that vegetables are not being bought or sold in the market yards in Ranchi district (the study area). After bifurcation from Bihar in November 2000 Jharkhand adopted APMC Act in toto as it was the then APMC Act in Bihar. In marketing 617 . 37316. It became non-functional in vegetables’ co-operative marketing. However.45/ha and Rs. resulting in net February. however. In fact.15%) and 17 (80. This Act does not allow direct marketing and direct procurement of agricultural produce from farmer's field. The economics of mango production in terms of costs and net returns. Malikka.82 ha on EMC households. Bokaro and Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and sometimes in Uttar Pradesh. resulting in net returns of Rs. which are linked with consortiums where grading and standardization takes place. Its supply chain is as below : Producers/Local Farmers——Collection Centres——RF Outlets——Consumers Comparison of the Benefits in TMC and EMC BIHAR Mango is grown for over hundreds of years and more than dozen of varieties in the district. dialogues are going on with corporate bodies for contract farming etc. At present RF have three retail outlets and two collection centres in Ranchi.

Prices at Retail end or Consumer’s Price In Bihar the analysis of the marketing pattern indicates the complex nature of marketing of mangoes particularly on account of its perishability. The cost of marketing of per quintal of cauliflower is Rs. Out of the total production costs. It revealed that per ha return on EMC farms is higher over TMC farms. The cost of marketing the produce is Rs. 810/ qtl and Rs. 36910/ha. The margins of pre-harvest contractors. So.97 per cent on fertilizers. which incur high cost of transportation of the produce. 2250/qtl on TMC farms and Rs. the results indicate that the average consumer’s price for mangoes is Rs. the spread has not been reduced in EMC. 5416 on TMC farms. 3415.60%).11 per cent on other paid out costs on EMC households. per hectare farmer's cost of marketing of cauliflower is estimated at Rs. greater the inefficiency in the marketing system and vice-versa. the spread has been reduced but it has not increased the farmer’s share in consumer's rupee. the proportion of the cost incurred on human labour (50. It is mainly due to selling the produce in distant urban big markets. 307. the price spread for mangoes. mid-season and late. The gross return out of the sale of marketed surplus has been calculated at Rs.42%) out of the consumer's rupee (Rs. 9.26%). In case of cauliflower in Jharkhand on an average the retail end prices are Rs. field preparation (5. After harvesting and until reaching to the consumers these are being sold by different types of intermediaries. These prices are nearly 110.40 on TMC and EMC farms respectively. Moreover. 1472/qtl (65. It could not be estimated on EMC farms because the produce is procured from the farmer's field by the collection agents of RF. 2 (61.82%) at TMC farms whereas that of 47.50 on TMC and EMC farms respectively. which are 52.). Sometimes the margins of these intermediaries are higher than the share of producer’s in consumer’s price. 7.44 per cent on TMC and EMC farms respectively higher than the respective selling prices of producer-sellers. The costs of marketing of per quintal of mangoes are Rs.39 per cent.62 per cent on seedlings.40%). fertilizer (7. 79887.36%).and 102.00 per cent than the selling prices of the producer-sellers.78%). So cauliflower is grown in the district in all the seasons.50/qtl (2.50/qtl (13. The district produces vegetables in all round the year. 8.34 ha on TMC farms and 3. The results indicate that the Cost-Benefit Ratio (CBR) is 1:1. in marketing of cauliflower on EMC. 812 and 618 Rs. It is to be very important to choose right variety to be sown at the right time.of mangoes. The overall cost of production at TMC farms is estimated at Rs.57 at TMC and 1:1. irrigation (5. As regards the association of farmers with emerging marketing channel is concerned it is to note here that out of 45 small farmers. 2250/ qt1. It clearly indicates that taking together the margins of various intermediaries more than 100. In Jharkhand. 36 medium farmers and 19 large farmers 18 (45. 52.79 per cent higher respectively than respective the selling price of the producer-sellers.50/ha at TMC farms and Rs.80%) is higher followed by mannuring (11. On overall the average area under the crop is 3. 140/qtl (6.33%). Farmers sell their mangoes as soon as it grows in proper size and the timing of the varieties of mangoes for harvesting. 2845/qtl on EMC farms. 12.30 on EMC farms.00%) and plant protection materials (4. Broadly.12%) and 10 (52.56 on TMC farms. Reliance Fresh Retail Supply chain for cauliflower or vegetables in general in the district is through its collection centre and retail outlets. taking together all the sample farms the producer's share in consumer's rupee in case of TMC farms is Rs. cauliflower varieties can be grouped as early. the produce reaches to the consumers. 82. the Agricultural Situation in India . Rs. 830/qtl on TMC and EMC farms respectively.21 per cent on mannuring. Price Spread and Modified Measure of marketing Efficiency One of the most widely accepted component for the study of agricultural marketing system is the measurement of 'price-spread. But the ultimate burden of margins goes to consumers. In case of EMC farms. In lieu of it he gets some margin like the margins of other intermediaries.00%). In Bihar.93 and Rs. 85280/ha at EMC farms. seeds (9. which indicates that large sized farms have greater association with EMC farms. Cauliflower producers best curds in a cool and moist climate. It is a delicate crop and needs more care to grow successfully than most other vegetables.64%) respectively are associated with EMC farms. who sells the produce on behalf of the producer-sellers in urban mandies. wholesalers and retailers are Rs. In other words the retail end prices are more than double the selling prices. Farmer’s Marketing Costs In Bihar. per hectare farmer’s marketing costs for marketing mangoes has been estimated at Rs.67%). We may simply say replacement of a intermediary by a new one. 7.22%) and Rs. 19. JHARKHAND Cauliflower is the most popular vegetable among the Cole crops. It revealed that the cost of marketing is higher on EMC farms. The climate of Ranchi district (study area) is very congenial for vegetables' production. The margin of intermediaries goes to RF retails in stead of facilitating the farmers in procuring the produce from the fields. In case of the present study.86 per cent and 53. 278/qt1 (12. the number of intermediaries has been certainly reduced as the EMC in Jharkhand is Reliance Fresh Retails. The cauliflower varieties are very responsible to temperature photoperiod.' The general hypothesis is that larger the price-spread.00 per cent on human labour.90 at EMC farms. 37050/ha whereas that of at EMC farms Rs.

359/qt1 which are distributed to Rs. (ii) Vegetables marketing system in Jharkhand is outmoded. 85. 810/qtl).22%). co-operatives and private trade be continuously evaluated and on the basis of the identification of areas for improvement the appropriate policies and programmes be devised. 376/ qtl (13. Government of Bihar). of Co-operative. rupee (Rs. storage etc. The margins between the producer-sellers and consumers including the cost of marketing is Rs.03%). Policy Implications Improving and increasing the efficiency of fruits and vegetables marketing system is going to be an important agenda for 21 century. (Attn: Dept. Government of Jharkhand). The margins of traders.53%) out of the consumer's.00%). 1850/qtl. (Attn: Dept..35%/ qt1. Bihar).892 and 1.15%). It indicates that the selling price of produce in case of mangoes is almost one and half times more than what the producer gets. (8.98 on TMC and EMC farms respectively. The margins between the producer-sellers and the consumers are Rs. In view of this it can be suggested of a multi-pronged strategy for developing well integrated system of production and marketing. The cost of marketing is Rs. (Attn: Jharkhand State Agricultural Marketing Board and Dept. (iv) The study suggests that the development of rural markets should be given due priority from the point of view of creation of market infrastructure such as grading. (v) A multi-pronged implementation strategy for developing well integrated system of production and marketing should be formulated. There is almost no difference in the prices. linkages between the marketing and credit should be made so that producer’s dependence on traders for credit. wholesalers and retailers are Rs. 105/qtl (12. of Agriculture. (49. of Agriculture. So it is necessary for all the three set of marketing institutions viz. Government of Bihar and Agricultural Universities in Bihar). Government of Bihar). Dept. public. However. (iii) To minimize the wastages at the different levels in marketing of the produce regular training programmes for post-harvest management for all the stakeholders should be organized.40%).70%) for the retailers. transportation.30%). The cost of marketing is Rs. the district of Ranchi and its adjoining districts have advantages for cultivation of vegetables. 385/qt1 (47. 212. Rs. As regards the MME is concerned. The results of MME find that there is little difference in the marketing efficiency. In case of EMC farms.50/qt1 (11. If 619 .858 on TMC and EMC farms respectively.producer’s share in consumer's rupee is Rs. of Agriculture and Dept. of Agriculture. In Jharkhand. which is 102. of Industries. it is a bit higher on EMC farms. (Attn: Dept. (65. (ii) There is need to create suitable number of fruits marketing zones in the state where fruits produced February. which corroborate the fact that RF is not doing justice either with the producers or consumers rather operating for the benefits of the corporate sectors. (iii) In Jharkhand. Government of Bihar).66%) for the kutcha arhatiya/itinerant trader. of Agriculture. This will enable the farmers to establish direct connection with the markets. In the light of the findings and observations of the study some points for actions are suggested in following manner for policy implications : Bihar (For Mangoes) (i) The proposed marketing development programme should implemented at the earliest.91 and 0.96%) for the wholesalers and Rs. 321. To tape its potentiality maximal concerted efforts for production and marketing system are required. 2012 in and around the districts could be marketed (Attn: Dept. It is due to the fact that in Bihar there is no significant change in marketing of mangoes rather it is almost traditional but unregulated. (Attn: Dept.15/qtl (7. Government of Jharkhand). Fruits and vegetables both have vast potential for its production. But it is surprisingly very little. (Attn: Dept of Agriculture. 420/ qtl. the producer's share in consumer's rupee is Rs.44 per cent higher the prices received by the producer sellers. of Industries. which puts them in a highly unequal trading relationship with the produce. taking together all the sample vegetable producers. the producer's share in consumer's rupee in case of TMC farmers is Rs. It indicates that the selling price of the cauliflower in Jharkhand is more than double the price received by the producer-sellers on both the channels. of Agriculture and Dept. 135/ qtl (16. the price spread for cauliflower. of Agriculture. it is 0. Rs. which the producers receive on either channel. which corroborates the fact that there is almost traditional pattern of marketing of mangoes in Bihar. could be steadily eliminated. (3. Government of lndia). (iv) To develop the resource base of fruit growers. 119/qtl (14. (Attn: Dept. 66/qtl. inadequate and devoid of infrastructural facilities. As regards the MME is concerned it is 1.45%) and Rs. 410/qtl. Jharkhand (For Vegetables) (i) Modernization of marketing linkage between the farmers and consumers is absolutely vital for which APMC Act need to be amended wherein vegetables and horticulture should be exempted from the APMC Act. Government of Bihar and State level Bankers’ Committee.

the scale of operations will be high and the locations highly centralized with moot chance of benefits percolating to the farmers especially small farmers participating in small markets. 620 Agricultural Situation in India . of Agriculture and Jharkhand State Agricultural Marketing Board. of Agriculture. (v) Being arriving at the conclusion that small and marginal farmers need credit thus. (Attn: Dept. of Industries. (Attn: Dept. (vi) Vegetables’ processing units should be established and allow them special package for operating in the sector. (vii) To minimize the wastages at the different levels in marketing the vegetables. these facilities are provided at the centralized wholesale markets. (Attn: Dept. Ranchi).. Government of Jharkhand). Government of Jharkhand and Birsa Agricultural University. Government of Jharkhand). it is suggested to develop linkages between marketing and credit. Government of Jharkhand) . of Agriculture and State Level Bankers’ Committee. (Attn: Dept. regular training programme for post-harvest management should be organized. The support to these farmers should receive priority in the future market reform policy.

793 Wheat Jowar Baira Maize Barley Ragi Cereals Pulses Foodgrains Behaviour of Wholesale Prices 1.4 175.48 29.44 4.92 20.61 4. and Cereals rose by 0.0 208.90 19.7 200.P.35 (1 ) Rice (2) 1. Wholesale Price Index (Base 2004-05=100) of Foodgrains.9 212. the Wholesale Prices of Foodgrains displayed a rising trend.52 A year (7) 1.9 177. M/O Commerce and Industry.4 174.096 0.1 182.7 207. Gujarat M.02 per cent but pulses fell by 0.08 Source : Office of the Economic Adviser.5 189.6 166.7 179.9 173.00 -0.1 259.1 210.5 183.78 2.019 3.115 0.98 6.7 247. Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan Jharkhand February. Karnataka Haryana Karnataka A.D. 2012.62 1.42 11.12 12. Gujarat Delhi Haryana Maharashtra Rajasthan Delhi A.4 175.P.017 0.6 (6) –0.37 4.8 WPI A year ago Percentage change during A month (5) 170. Commodity Reviews (i) Foodgrains During the month of January 2012.9 176.P.4 200.217 0.02 -0.4 1.84 5.P.66 per cent and 1.56 per cent over the previous month.116 0.1 187. Karnataka Maharashtra Gujarat Steady Assam Tamil Nadu West Bengal Punjab Rice Main Trend Mixed Rising Gujarat Jharkhand Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Falling Delhi Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Wheat Mixed Jowar Mixed Bajra Mixed Maize Mixed Jharkhand Delhi Tamil Nadu U.9 WPI for the Month of December 2011 (4) 173.56 0.09 169.7 182.1 177.2 174. The following Table indicates the State wise trend Commodity of Wholesale Prices of Cereals during the month of January. Mixed Kerala Haryana Karnataka Haryana Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan A.26 1. 2012 621 .373 0.2 200.3 172.66 –3.717 4.7 211. ALL INDIA INDEX NUMBER OF WHOLESALE PRICES (Base : 2004-2005=100) Commodity Weight (%) WPI for the Month of January 2012 (3) 172.

90 25.Percentage Procure. Procurement of Wheat The total procurement of wheat in the current marketing season i.06 1.Percentage Procure.39 38.12 13.00 7555 3357 1819 229 9275 1241 2901 375 5282 32034 23.Percentage Procure.17 16.68 0.76 0.75 45.26 (6) 6347 (7) 28.58 10.83 4. The details are given in the following table: PROCUREMENT OF RICE (in thousand tonnes) State Marketing Season Corresponding Marketing Year 2011-12 Period of last Year (October-September) (up to 31-01-12) (2010-11) 2010-11 2009 -10 Procure.93 4.00 9610 3743 1687 308 8635 1543 2554 422 5695 34197 28.Percentage ment to Total ment to Total ment to Total ment to Total (2) 6891 (3) 24.Percentage Procure.16 8.62 43.27 100.08 (1 ) Haryana Madhya Pradesh Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Others Total 4894 10957 1302 3460 640 28144 17.Percentage ment to Total ment to Total ment to Total ment to Total (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (1) Andhra Pradesh Chhatisgarh Haryana Maharashtra Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand Others Total 2945 3377 1970 95 7731 455 2085 204 2496 21358 13.13 9. 2011 is 28144 thousand tonnes against a total of 22462 thousand tonnes of wheat procured during last year.51 7.92 1.54 100.10 10.00 Source: Department of Food & Public Distribution.93 0.65 100. as against 18803 thousand tonnes of rice procured. 2011.Percentage Procure.95 3.84 8.e 2011-2012.00 2410 9941 935 3137 1029 22689 10.42 45.Percentage Procure.72 15.32 100.25 4.29 100. during the corresponding period of last year.26 2.The total procurement of Rice in the current marketing season i.00 3539 10209 476 1645 298 22514 15.49 100.32 1.e 2011-2012 upto Aug.79 15.11 7.00 3538 10166 476 1645 290 22462 15.48 (4) 6347 (5) 28.48 5.22 0.35 1.35 2.95 4.Procurement of Rice 5093 thousand tonnes of Rice (including paddy converted into rice) was procured during January 2012.96 11.81 4.72 45.44 36.12 7.81 9.19 (8) 5237 (9) 23.63 12.31 1.19 7. as against 4931thousand tonnes of Rice (including paddy converted into rice) procured during January.00 2015 2979 1652 79 8634 223 1382 219 1620 18803 10.87 9.20 2.79 0.62 100. upto 31-01-2012 stood at 21358 thousand tonnes. The details are given in the following table : PROCUREMENT OF WHEAT (in thousand tonnes) State Marketing Season Corresponding Marketing Year 2011-12 Period of last Year (April-March) (up to 1-08-2011) (2010-11) 2010-11 2009-10 Procure.47 1.69 100. 622 Agricultural Situation in India .23 16.71 28.00 Source : Department of Food and Public Distribution.29 2.

1 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year.9 per cent) and Sunflower Seed (0.4 in January.2 in January.1 per cent). The WPI of Groundnut Oil (4.8 per cent over the previous month.8 per cent).8 per cent and 38. The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Edible Oils as a group stood 139.6 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year respectively.5 per cent over the previous month. The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of all individual oilseeds showed an increasing trend except of Copra (3. 2012 623 .3 in January. 2012 showing a fall of 16.4 per cent) and Soyabean (8.7 per cent) decreased over the previous month. 2012 showing a decline of 10. 2012 showing a fall of 2.6 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year. The WPI Groundnut seed (7. 2012 showing a decline of 2.0 per cent). RAW COTTON The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Raw Cotton stood at 204. it decreased by 9. FRUITS AND VEGETABLES The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Fruits & Vegetables as a group stood at 161. Safflower seed (1.5 per cent) increased over the previous month.2 per cent). The Wholesale Price Index of Black Pepper. Niger seed (3.1 per cent). Rape and Mustard (4. However.3 per cent) and Gingelly Oil (1.8 per cent and 9. 2012 showing a rise of 4. Mustard Oil (2.(ii) Commercial Crops OIL SEEDS AND EDIBLE OILS The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of nine major oilseeds as a group stood at 163.6 per cent over the previous month and year respectively. 2012 showing a rise of 1. ONION The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Onion stood at 151. However. Chillies (Dry) and Turmeric decreased by 3. CONDIMENTS AND SPICES The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Condiments & Spices (Group) stood at 226.0 in January. Cottonseed Oil (1.1 per cent).8 in January.9 in January.8 per cent.0 per cent and 75. 2012 showing an increase of 5.5 in January.4 in January. RAW JUTE The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Raw Jute stood at 205.7 per cent and February.7 per cent and 13.6 per cent over the previous year. 5.1 per cent) increased compared to the previous month.6 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year.1 per cent). Gingelly seed (2.2 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year.1 per cent) decreased over the previous month.6 per cent). Sunflower Oil (0. the WPI of Copra oil (0.6 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year.0 per cent and 12.7 per cent and 3.9 per cent and 20. Cottonseed (0. POTATO The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Potato stood at 98.5 per cent). Soyabean Oil (3. 23. 2012 showing a fall of 4.

9 151.1 128.8 –10.4 166.3 –64.6 227.2 150.8 15.7 139.2 0.9 –3.2 110.2 161.1 0.2 14.8 139.2 148.7 –16.2 207.7 121.0 2.7 –3.0 109.8 145.8 12.5 98.6 151.3 1.2 5.2 20.6 120.1 120.7 5.1 131.9 160..6 34.4 205..9 2.5 134.9 –38.9 266.0 424.7 619.6 204.0 161.1 144.3 152.2 177.4 16.0 7.1 164.4 118.3 141.0 162.7 11.0 19.9 140.1 130.1 –11.4 135.5 1.6 137.6 261.4 148.6 149.5 –2.1 127.WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX OF COMMERCIAL CROPS FOR THE MONTH OF JANUARY.5 144.5 19.8 156.7 166.7 147.4 210.4 148.8 –5.2 105.1 237.1 1.3 226.0 194.4 157.2 236.0 5.1 1.2 –75.4 –0.3 136.5 134.5 –3.9 154.7 8.5 3.1 128. 2011 Year Jan.5 128.1 161.0 –4.6 4.4 230.5 –11.8 4.7 129.4 284.2 9.4 169.6 282.6 441.9 171. 2012 Oil Seeds Month Dec.7 247.1 –23.9 192.6 Groundnut Seed Rape & Mustard Seed Cotton Seed Copra (Coconut) Gingelly Seed (Sesamum) Niger Seed Safflower (Kardi Seed) Sunflower Soyabean Edible Oils Groundnut Oil Cotton Seed Oil Mustard & Rapeseed Oil Soyabean Oil Copra Oil Sunflower Oil Gingelly Oil Fruits and Vegetables Potato Onion Condiments and Spices Black Pepper Chillies(Dry) Turmeric Raw Cotton Raw Jute 624 Agricultural Situation in India .1 –2.6 –20.4 167.4 214.2 137.9 133.1 –3..6 4.8 3.9 150.6 14.6 140.5 108.8 12.9 453.1 220.6 –9.1 –0.6 274.8 180. 2012 (Base Year : 2004-05=100) Commodity Latest Jan.6 54.3 –13.1 8.6 –9. 2011 Percentage Variation over the Month Year 163.