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Marine Technology Education Consortium (MTEC) MSc.

Programme Module C1- The Regulatory Framework for the Marine Industry University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Exhaust Gas Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines
Post- School Assignment

Ajith Pandithasekara June-2011(Dubai)

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Index
Content 1. Introduction 2. Current Legislation 3. Survey and Certification Requirements 4. Discussion 5. Conclusion 6. References Page 3-5 6-9 10-12 13-19 20-21 22

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NOx are deemed between the most harmful gases to the environment. the combustion of marine fuels results in emissions of many pollutants. in particular. When acid precipitation becomes 3 . They can be divided into nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Contributing to acidification. It generates damage to vegetation. They can be transported over long distances and generate problems to areas not confined to areas where NOx are emitted. Introduction During the last decades. They can deteriorate vegetation. It affects. transport demand is strongly increased. and maritime trade is become the most important way for merchandise transfer. crops. children and people with respiratory diseases. Today. volatile organic compounds (VOCs). nutrient enrichment and to smog formation. formation of ozone. bronchitis and irritation of the eyes. Some of the most important health and environmental impacts generated by NOx are: Ground-level Ozone (Smog): Photochemical smog is formed when NOx and volatile organic compound (VOC) react in the sunlight and unburned hydrocarbons. since particle smog is formed by PM (ultra-fine particles of soot) it can contribute to damage hearth and lungs. For the increasing volume of international movement. It can compromise the immune system. the impact on air quality on sea and land is becoming an important topic for transport sustainability. Since maritime transportation is widely recognized as a highly significant source of the total air pollution. such as sulphur dioxide (SOx). affecting freshwaters and terrestrial ecosystems. Acid Rain: Acid rain is caused by NOx and Sox combining with water in the atmosphere and returning to the ground as mild nitric and sulfuric acid. Maritime transport account about 10% of total transport fuel consumption and international shipping account for 80% of maritime energy use. carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and other. particulate matter (PM). crop and affect human health. As known. buildings and water of lakes. energy consumptions and air pollution also increase. almost 90% of the world goods are carried by sea. Moreover. Ozone can be transported by wind currents and cause health impacts far from original sources. generate emphysema. nitrogen oxides (NOx). and diesel exhaust contains many different compounds.1. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) is the generic term for a group of highly reactive gases that contain varying amounts of nitrogen and oxygen.

health effects and climate change are some of the most important effects.chronic in a watershed. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) CO2 is one of the basic products of combustion. generates acidification of lakes and streams. 4 . Acid Rain: Since Sox is corrosive. can be generated by reaction between NOx. It is proportional to the content of carbon in fossil fuel. Global Warming: The nitrous oxide causes the formation of the ozone that is a greenhouse gas. ecosystems changes and risk to human health. They are formed during the combustion process through the reaction: S+O2= SO2 and are a function of the sulphur content in the fuel. Toxic Chemical: A variety of toxic products. respiratory illness. however it is the main responsible of the “greenhouse effect” and global warming. which may cause health effects and biological mutation. Health effects: They are caused by the exposure to high levels of SO2 and include breathing problems. it can exceed the buffering capacity of the soil. ozone and common organic chemicals. it contributes to damages trees and crops. It is not toxic. People with asthma or chronic lung or heart disease are the most sensitive to SO2. Excess nutrient nitrogen causes species composition changes and biodiversity loss. changes in the lung’s defenses and worsening respiratory and cardiovascular disease. biodiversity loss. Acid rain. reducing growth of forests and leading to loss of flora and fauna. Water Quality Deterioration: The nitrous oxide can lead to eutrophication of costal estuaries that can lead to oxygen depletion and reduce fish and shellfish population. Global Warming: Sox forms aerosol which reflects sunlight and has a direct effect on cooling. can cause a gradual rise in the earth’s temperature global warming leads to a rise in the sea level. which accumulates in the atmosphere. accelerate corrosion of buildings and reduce visibility. Sulphur Oxides (SOx) Sulphur oxides are caused by the oxidation of the sulphur in the fuel into SO2 and SO3.

Development of Legislations to Control Ship Emissions The last 30years has seen the growth in international concern about air pollution and its control.5 million tons/year – this being about 4% of total global sulphur emissions. In 1990. Under this Protocol nations agreed to cut consumption and production of ozone depleting substances including chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) and halons in order to protect the ozone layer. 5 . However it was decided not to include regulations concerning air pollution at that time. the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed. the South China Sea and the Strait of Malacca) the emissions could create environmental problems. in particular noxious gases from ship’s exhausts. This has resulted in many international conferences and agreements of various types being concluded. but on certain routes (such as the English Channel. Norway submitted several papers to MEPC. which presented an overview at that time on air pollution from ships. The papers highlighted:  Sulphur emissions from ships’ exhausts were estimated at 4.5 to 6. concern over global warming and the depleting of the ozone layer grew and in 1987. In the 1980’s the matter was raised once again within IMO MEPC. Indications were that over open seas emissions are spread out and effects are moderate. under the auspices of the United Nations. During the 1980’s. The issue of controlling air pollution from ships. was discussed in the lead up to the adoption of the 1973 MARPOL Convention. initially consideration being given to improved fuel oil quality standards with the aim of reducing marine and atmospheric pollution.  Nitrogen oxide emissions from ships were estimated to be around 5 million tons/year – about 7% of total global emissions. Nitrogen oxide emissions were considered to cause or add to regional problems including acid rain and health problems in local areas such as harbours.

flying the flag of a signatory Party to Annex VI and intending to engaged on international voyages will. put into force in May 2005. reduce and control air pollution from Sox and its attendant adverse impacts on land and sea areas. Two sets of emission requirements are defined by Annex VI: global requirements. Upon entry into force. Existing ships built before 19th May 2005 need to be certificated no later than the first scheduled dry-docking after 19th May 2005 but in all cases by 19th May 2008. all ships of 400 gross tonnage and above and floating drilling platforms built on or after 19th May2005. Annex VI entered into force on the 19th May 2005. and more stringent requirements applicable to ships in Emission Control Areas (ECA). the Annex VI Act of the MARPOL 73/78 established by the International Maritime Organization(IMO) and the EU directive (2005/33/EC) are the most important legislations for ship operation. The MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI. is a regulation for the prevention of air pollution from ships. on delivery. need to obtain an International Air pollution Prevention Certificate. On the 18th May 2004 Samoa ratified MARPOL Annex VI and in doing so the entry into force provisions were fulfilled (15 States with 50% of the World’s commercial gross tonnage). CFC emissions from ships was estimated at 3000-6000 tons/year – approximately 1 to 3% of global emissions  Halon emissions from ships were estimated at 300 to 400 tons/year –about 10% of the total global emissions. It is a part of the “International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships” elaborated in 1973 and modified by the Protocol of 1978. Discussions within the MEPC led to the adoption in 1991 of an IMO Assembly Resolution A. ozone-depleting substances and volatile organic compounds (VOC). sulphur oxides (SOx). 6 . Current Legislation Currently. As a consequence. The new draft was developed over the next 6 years. It regulates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). 2.719 (17) on “Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships” which called on the MEPC to prepare a new draft Annex to MARPOL 73/78 on prevention of air pollution. It also introduces sulphur emission control areas (SECA) where more stringent control on sulphur emissions has to be applied in order to prevent.

Volatile Organic Compounds Regulation 16. except in respect of those emissions to the atmosphere resulting directly from operations solely related to their drilling or processing functions. Regulation 14. Additionally. which has jurisdiction over the waters in which they operate. Chapter ii-Regulations 5-11 Survey.Regulations 1-4 General Requirements. which undergo major conversion after 1stJanuary 2000. Depending on these facts engines are classified to Tier (steps) I.Fixed and floating platforms. Chapter i. II or III. are considered as ships for the purpose of Annex VI. NOX Controls (Regulation 13) As per regulation 13 the NOx emission rates depend on:   The size of the engine and thus.Sulphur Oxides (SOx) and particulate matter Regulation15. 7 .Reception facilities Regulation-18. the emissions control area .Fuel oil Availability and Quality MARPOL Annex VI regulations consider all new vessels constructed after 1st January 2000 and the engines over 130kW.Shipboard Incinerations Regulation 17. the power output while operating (engine speed) and The date of the ships‘keel-laying resp. they are differentiated whether the operation of the ship with diesel engine is in the free maritime environment (global) or in a special operating area.Ozone Depleting Substances Regulation 13. certification and means of control Chapter iii-Regulations 12-18 Requirements for Control of Emissions from Ships Areas covered by Regulations 12-18 are as follows. including drilling rigs and similar structures.Marpol Annex VI consists of three chapters and 18 Regulations as follows.ECA.Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). the installation date of the engine. Regulation 12. These controls are in addition to any imposed by the government.

2) g/kWh when the maximum engine speed (n) is more than 130 but less than 2000 rpm.  2. where ne= rated speed ( crankshaft revolutions per minute):   14. Tier II The operation of a marine diesel engine that is installed on a ship constructed on or after 1st January 2011 is prohibited . where ne= rated speed ( crankshaft revolutions per minute):   17. 44. except when the emission of Nitrogen Oxides ( calculated as the total weighted emissions of NO2) from the engine is within the following limits. except when the emission of Nitrogen Oxides ( calculated as the total weighted emissions of NO2) from the engine is within the following limits. 45.0*n(-0.  7.0 g/kWh when the maximum engine speed is greater than 2000 rpm.4 g/kWh when the maximum engine speed is less than 130 rpm.7 g/kWh when the maximum engine speed is greater than 2000 rpm. where ne= rated speed ( crankshaft revolutions per minute):   3.4 g/kWh when the maximum engine speed is less than 130 rpm.  9.8 g/kWh when the maximum engine speed is greater than 2000 rpm.Tier I The operation of a marine diesel engine that is installed on a ship constructed on or after 1st January 2000 and prior to 1st January 2011 is prohibited . 9.2) g/kWh when the maximum engine speed (n) is more than 130 but less than 2000 rpm. except when the emission of Nitrogen Oxides ( calculated as the total weighted emissions of NO2) from the engine is within the following limits. Tier III The operation of a marine diesel engine that is installed on a ship constructed on or after 1st January 2016 is prohibited .0*n(-0.0 g/kWh when the maximum engine speed is less than 130 rpm.0*n(-0.2) g/kWh when the maximum engine speed (n) is more than 130 but less than 2000 rpm. 8 .

0% m/m prior on and after 1st January 2010 0.5% m/m prior on and after 1st January 2012 0.5% m/m on and after 1stJanuary 2020 Requirements within emission control areas While ships are operating within Sox emission control areas the sulphur content of fuel oil used on board ships shall not exceed the following limits:    1.5% m/m prior to 1st July 2010 1.Figure -01 NOx Emission Requirements Sulphur Oxides (SOX) and Particulate Matter Controls (Regulation14) General Requirements As per Regulation 14.5% m/m prior to 1st January 2012 3.10% m/m on and after 1stJanuary 2015 9 . the Sulphur content of ant fuel used on board ships shall not exceed the following limits:    4.

Resolution MEPC 130(53) contains Guidelines specifying the 10 . In some cases. irrespective of the date of build of the ship onto which those engines are installed. to ensure compliance with MARPOL Regulation VI/14. substantially modified or have their maximum continuous rating increased by 10% or more. fire protection provisions.  Incinerators Installed on board ships after 1 January 2000 must be type approved based on the guidelines contained in IMO Resolution MEPC 76(40). Additionally there are the potential fuel oil segregation requirements for ships burning residual blend fuel oils that will operate both internationally and within the SECAs introduced by Annex VI. engines installed in lifeboats and any device or equipment intended to be used solely in case of emergency) with a power output of 130kW or more. from 22nd November 2007. In these cases it is necessary that sufficient segregated fuel oil storage and settling and service tank capacity are provided. These are the Baltic. emission limits and operational controls. diesel engines used solely in connection with the exploration. From 19th May 2005 controls are applicable on the types of material that can be incinerated together with operator training requirements. installed on ships built on or after 1 January 2000 must be certified to the requirements contained in the mandatory NOX Technical Code. from 19th May 2006. For ships where such arrangements are not possible. Survey & Certification Prerequisites for certification include two significant retroactive aspects with respect to equipment certification:  Diesel engines (except emergency diesel engines. together with the necessary change-over arrangements. conversion work will be necessary before operation in the SECAs. duplicate engine lubricant storage may be necessary to cope with the differing requirements of the two fuel grades. exploitation or processing functions are exempt from these NOx controls. In the case of platforms and drilling rigs. are also subject to NOx Code certification requirements. and the North Sea. The Guidelines address electrical and mechanical safe guards. to handle fuel oils used outside of SECAs and the l. Engines that are replaced.3.5% m/m sulphur maximum fuel oils required to be used at all times when within the SECAs. In the case of ships fitted with exhaust gas cleaning-SOX systems.

as with the other MARPOL Annexes. Continuously Monitored Systems. The IMO Resolution MEPC 132(53). In addition. 11 . Compliance is therefore to be demonstrated to the Administration of the ship’s Flag state which ultimately is the entity. adopted by the MEPC in July 2005. from the entry into force date all fuel oil suppliers are required to be registered by the appropriate authorities in the country in which they operate. National administrations/Recognized Organizations need to issue harmonized certificates at the next survey held on or after 22nd November 2006. testing. statutory. which will undertake the necessary approvals and issue the certification. These amendments include the adoption of the Harmonized System of Survey and Certification to MARPOL Annex VI and the NOX Technical Code. are to be of a specified content. These bunker delivery notes must be maintained onboard ships to which the MARPOL Annex VI certification requirements apply for a minimum period of 3 years from the date of bunker delivery. the ship’s classification society may undertake all or part of these statutory functions. Type Approved System Scheme B. a SECA Compliance Plan (SCP) for ships using such a system.requirements for the design. drawn by the supplier at the ships receiving manifold in accordance with the Resolution MEPC 96(47). Fuel oils are to be obtained from duly registered suppliers and bunker delivery notes. is to be kept under the ship’s control until the subject fuel oil has been substantially consumed. survey and certification of exhaust gas cleaning SOX systems. A retained sample of all supplied fuel oils. for at least 12 months from the date of delivery. approved by the ship’s Flag State is required to document how compliance is achieved and how compliance is demonstrated. but in any case. Therefore it is a totally separate matter to the ship’s classification. contains a number of amendments to MARPOL VI Regulation for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships. The basis of these MARPOL Annex VI controls is. Regardless of the Scheme used. However. As a consequence. The Guidelines offer two alternatives for certification:   Scheme A. but as a Recognized Organization on behalf of the Flag state. in part or in total. where so authorized.

7% m/m.6 / 2.In Manufacturer’s Works Pre-certification Survey EIAPP Certificate + Supplement + Technical File On Shipyard Initial Survey IAPP Certificate Maintaining of Compliance by Intermediate Survey Periodical Survey Renewal of IAPP Certificate Figure . irrespective of fuel grade or the type of combustion machinery in which they are to be used.5% m/m limit does not represent any significant restriction on current fuel supplies. the overall average of sulphur being 2. while this 4.5 % m/m has been less than 1% each year. Discussion In order to limit SOX emissions Annex VI introduced a maximum limit of 4. a yet lower limit will apply within designated SOX Emission Control Areas (SECA). Data available in early 2007 from the MEPC sulphur monitoring programme. Consequently.02 Survey and certification Requirements 4. which inevitably will have a much wider effect. covering some 300000 fuel deliveries. 12 . the number of deliveries of residual fuel oils to ships with sulphur contents in excess of 4. which has operated since 1999.5% m/m sulphur for all marine fuel oils.

At MEPC 44 in March 2000.0g SOX/kWh or less. bunker tank and transfer systems and the price differentials between the various groups. In practice.e.to lowsulphur fuel is completed before entry into the SECA. the ship‟s position. Within a SECA. the fuel oil tanks used and their contents should be recorded in a suitable log book. in total or in part. Whether in practice this will be achieved by the use of low sulphur residual fuel oils or gas oils (which inherently have sulphur contents below the limit value) will depend on such factors as ships projected operating profile. or any other technological method. areas to the West of the British Isles. it is expected that the majority of ships will seek to comply with the SECA requirements by means of the primary control option of limiting fuel oil sulphur content.The Baltic Sea (as defined in MARPOL Annex I) was the first SECA. MARPOL Regulation VI/14 permits the use of an exhaust gas cleaning system. particularly with low load/idling operation and in the case of combustion machinery (such as boilers) which does not have a brake power output. Such systems and technologies must be approved to the IMO standard in MEPC 130(53). if ships do not have a system in place to reduce emissions as previously indicated.5% sulphur. 13 . West of Continental Europe. which results in an overall emission value of 6.0 g/kWh limit imposes a number of problems.5%. At the point of entry into a SECA.0 g/kWh limit.0 g/kWh maximum SOX content of the exhaust gas stream. Furthermore. Coastal waters or the Mediterranean.5% m/m sulphur content to the fuel oil as used or 6. The application of the 6. they must already be using fuel with a content of less than 1. As an alternative to using fuel oil with a sulphur content not exceeding 1. U. there may be other areas (i. Tokyo Bay etc. the requirement will either be a maximum limit of 1. Details of the start and end time of the change-over. Hog Kong. which may be expected to be imposed as SECAs. To achieve this.). procedures should be in place so that the change-over from high. may be used. it was further agreed that the North Sea (as defined in MARPOL Annex V) had met the necessary criteria to be declared a SECA after the entry in to force of Annex VI.S. In order to overcome these problems MEPC has accepted that a SO2 (ppm)/CO2 (%) ratio of 65 would be equivalent to the 6.

As reported above. since many pollutants are emitted by combustion. suggested a number of short and long terms measures to reduce CO2 emissions but no mandatory restrictions have been imposed. However. a more extensive regulation able to consider other emissions. which is part of IMO. particulate and CO2 should be established. IMO legislation regulates Sox and NOx emissions. The EU Directive applies to all ships. The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC). like smoke.     NOX emission limits for new engines Reduction of SOX emissions Reduction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Emission of Particulate Matter (PM) 14 .EU Directive 2005/33/EC introduced the same SOX Control Areas along with some additional measures on the use of low-sulphur fuel. regardless of flag and came into force on 11th August 2007. Implications for future ship design and operation The IMO MEPC has continued its work on evaluating air pollution issues. The principal items being considered are.

under the tacit acceptance amendment procedure. the current MARPOL Annex VI.50%). subject to a proposal from a Party or Parties to the Annex. The revised Annex VI will allow for an Emission Control Area to be designated for SOX and particulate matter.00%. those installed on ships constructed on or after 1 January 2016. subject to a feasibility review to be completed no later than 2018. The main changes to MARPOL Annex VI will see a progressive reduction in sulphur oxide (SOX) emissions from ships. Progressive reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions from marine engines were also agreed. which would be considered for adoption by the IMO. or NOX. i. operating in Emission Control Areas. effective from 1 January 2012.50% (from the current 4. being further reduced to 0.50%). reduce or control one or all three of those emissions from ships. MEPC 58 also adopted amendments to the associated NOX Technical Code to give a revised NOX Technical Code 2008. effective from 1 January 2020. and existing ships. beginning on 1 July 2010 (from the current 1. The amended Code includes a new chapter based on an agreed approach for NOX regulation of existing (pre-2000) engines established in MARPOL Annex VI.e. The limits applicable in Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) will be reduced to 1. then progressively to 0. These amendments principally concern requirements for sulphur control option for the fuel and revised nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions limits for marine diesel engines on new ships.NOX and PM limits for existing engines Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI were adopted at IMO MEPC 58 in October 2008. with the global sulphur cap reduced initially to 3. and further stringent control for ships built after 1 January 2016 (Tier III limits). The revised Annex VI will enter force on 1 July 2010. effective from 1 January 2015.e. Regulation 13 limits for ships built between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 (Tier I limits).50%. a certification procedure for 15 . with the most stringent controls on so called “Tier III” engines i. if supported by a demonstrated need to prevent. further reduction of NOX using the currently available technology for ships built between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2015 (Tier II limits). and provisions for direct measurement and monitoring methods.10%. or all three types of emissions from ships.

Analysis has been carried out on impact of changeover to low-sulphur fuel on the freight rates. the estimated percentage rise in 16 . Problems associated with future legislations To fulfill the new IMO requirements regarding sulphur a cleaner fuel will have to be used after the 1 January 2015. The increase in fuel costs can be even higher for vessels that mostly transport goods between ports within SECA and it may reach 70 %. Selective Catalytic Reduction can be used to obtain low levels of NOx emission from engine with conventional fuel. additional solution will have to be adopted. Switching to such fuel only requires minor modification to a ship’s fuel system. It is possible to use marine diesel oil (MDO) or marine gas oil(MGO) as the main fuel in the ship. That’s why the more expensive fuel will have a great impact on transport cost. Bunker fuel costs account for 40 % -50% of the total operational costs of a ship. In the Table 01 below the estimated percentage increase in costs compared with the present price for certain types of freight is shown. These measures are expected to have a significant impact on the atmospheric environment and on human health particularly that of people living in port cities and coastal communities. That’s why the new IMO requirements have raised great concern that the reduction of the sulphur content in marine fuels to 0. The price of low sulphur fuel (MGO.1%. For example. due to new IMO requirements fuel costs are estimated to rise of about 50-55% in 2015. Furthermore.existing engines. MDO) is much higher than the price of fuel with a higher content of sulphur. Revised “Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems and Guidelines for the Development of a VOC Management Plan” were also adopted.1% by 2015 might lead to significant increase in vessels’ operational cost. in order to meet IMO requirements regarding NOx emission limits. it is very likely that the rising demand for low sulphur marine fuel will increase its price. However. According to the Swedish Maritime Administration’s calculations. in the Table 02.51 %. and test cycled to be applied to Tier II and III engines. Switching to low sulphur fuel may result in increasing freight rates by 28 % . And. MDO and MGO can by supplied with sulphur content below 0. which will contribute to lower competitiveness of sea transport in comparison with other modes of transport.

4 % 3.5% (Global-2020) 8-18% 6-14% 6-14% 6-14% 5-11% 7-15% 6-14% 6-14% Freight Type Container Paper reel Lorry Private car Oil Freight ton on bulk carriers Timber Steel products 0.6 % 3. Centre for Maritime Studies. Swedish Maritime Administration. Ulla Tapaninen.1% (ECA-2015) 44-51% 44-51% 35-41% 35-41% 28-32% 39-44% 35-40% 35-40% Source: Consequences of the IMO’s new marine fuel sulphur regulations-Report.1 % Medium 4. 2010 17 . The increase of freight rates due to NOx emission reduction equipment will not be very significant and it may reach about 3% .4 % Source: NOx emissions from ships . Table 01.0 % 3. Ship Type Container vessel General dry cargo vessel Dry bulk vessel Oil tanker Ro-ro and ropax vessel Size Category Small 2. 2009 Table 02.3 % 3.8 % 2.4%.consequences for shipping and Baltic ports -presentation.6 % 3.7 % 3. Estimated percentage rise in freight rates of new vessels due to the use of Tier III NOx emission reduction equipment.freight rates of new vessels due to the use of Tier III NOx emission reduction equipment is shown.1 % 3.3 % Large 4.4 % 2.2 % 3. Sulphur Content 0. University of Turku.2 % 3.4 % 3.Estimated percentage rise in freight rates of new vessels due to new sulphur limits in fuel.

However.K. It is very likely that it will lead. Due to new IMO regulations ports in SECA and shipping lines will be in a disadvantageous position. ranging from coast guard boats and supply vessels to ferries. The Swedish Maritime Administration has shown that due to modal backshift. modal backshift to roads will have a negative impact on the environment. Natural gas is the cleanest form of fossil fuels. short sea shipping will no longer be cost-effective. Norway has been the forerunner for LNG – powered ships. After introducing the new IMO regulations competiveness of ports in SECA will be reduced in comparison with ports in other regions of Europe.CA -2015) Significant cost increases for transportation by sea as a consequence of using the more expensive fuel will reduce competiveness of sea transport drastically and cause that. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as an alternative fuel is currently the most popular option. It is very likely that logistics flows in Europe will change in favour of European ports not included in the SECA (for example. which corresponds to more than 300. When ships are fuelled with LNG. In a report by the Swedish Maritime Administration it is clearly shown that new IMO regulations will lead to a modal backshift to roads since the transportation of goods will be more cost-efficient with land. to some extent. It consists of methane with minor concentrations of heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane. no additional abatement measures are required in order to meet the ECA requirements. LNG as an alternative ship’s fuel New regulations on emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) have recently increased the interest in and demand for alternative fuels. LNG ships that are in use in Norway today.000 tonnes of CO2. road transport can increase by 6% within Sweden. Using LNG instead of oil considerably lowers the emissions of Sox and NOx. in many cases. It will contribute to increased CO2 emissions. LNG has been used as marine fuel since 2001. to a modal backshift from sea to road and change the direction of logistics flows in Europe in order to avoid the SECA.). Le Havre or Marseille in France or the west coast ports in the U. The burning process of natural gas is 18 .

MAGALOG.25 Approx. For example. Wärtsilä.15-0. hence Sox emissions from natural gas engines are reduced by close to 100%.g.25-0. PM. Gas engines which are currently available on the market can be divided into two main categories: dual fuel engines (e.clean. Man).5 % sulphur Gasoil.4 0 8-11 2 0.0 580-630 430-480 Source: Maritime Gas Fuel Logistics. * FUEL TYPE Sox(g/kWh) (g/kWh) NOx(g/kWh) (/kWh) PM (g/kWh) ( CO2(g/kWh) h) CO2(g/kWh) Residual oil 3. Whereas. NOx. Many manufactures are offering LNG-fuelled engines already. sulphur Natural gas (LNG) /kWh) 13 9-12 1. Developing LNG as a clean fuel for ships in the Baltic and North Seas. the lean burn mono fuel engine gives a simpler installation 19 . replacing a conventional passenger ferry in Norway to a LNG-powered vessel would be equivalent to taking 160.Estimated emissions to air from LNG and liquid petroleum fuel for ships. Table 03 below compares SOx. Rolls-Royce. lean-burn gas engine (e. The particle emission is also reduced by close to100%. These engines have varying characteristics and levels of efficiency. LNG contains virtually no sulphur. Mitsubishi). There is currently much research being made on ships propelled by LNG. 2008. December.000 cars out of traffic as far as NOx emissions are concerned. The dual fuel engine runs on both LNG and conventional fuel. andCO2 emissions from LNG and liquid petroleum fuels.5 % sulphur Marine diesel oil. burning LNG produces 85%-90% less NOx than conventional fuel and greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 15-20%. It is a flexible solution when the availability of LNG fuel is uncertain (e.the lack of LNG bunkering stations). Table 03. 0.1 % 0.g.5 580-630 2 9-12 0.5 580-630 0.g. Moreover.

put into force in May 2005. 5. Rapid increase in the number of ships and the growing demand for maritime transport will probably increase the trend for future emissions.onboard and is a more suitable solution for ships operating in regions with a developed grid of LNG bunkering stations. That’s why there is very little probability that existing ships will be using LNG instead of conventional fuel. There are major challenges to the widespread implementation of LNG as ship fuel. For new-buildings it is quite simple to find space for the larger fuel tanks. is the main regulation for the prevention of air pollution from ships. It is a part of the “International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships” elaborated in 1973 and modified by the Protocol of 1978. to find it on ships which are already in operation. along with the gradual growth of marine transport. If we add tank insulation. the needed volume is about 2. LNG is a fuel alternative basically for vessels which can be re-fuelled quite often. Hence. Therefore. it has to be noticed that in order not to lose much cargo space.3 times higher. It is more likely that LNG as marine fuel will be used by new-buildings. this fuel alternative is not suitable for large vessels engaged in deep-sea shipping. Two sets of 20 . For example. shipping emissions have substantially increased over the same time span. the operational range due to bunker capacity of the vessel must be reduced. LNG requires about 1. The MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI. LNG as ship fuel is most convenient for short sea shipping and such ships as RO-ROs and ferries. One of the main challenges is that a lot of room is required onboard for LNG tanks and this contributes to a loss of cargo space. while this may be much more difficult or even impossible.8 times more volume than MDO (marine diesel oil) with equal energy content. Contrary to land based sources. Moreover. CONCLUTION Air pollution from ocean going vessel represent a significant contribution to the global anthropogenic emissions and is an important source of damage to environment and human health. which have achieved an enormous reduction in air pollution over the last decades.

It also introduces sulphur emission control areas (SECA) where more stringent control on sulphur emissions has to be applied in order to prevent.51 %. It is likely that it will lead. According to the Swedish Maritime Administration’s calculations. On the contrary. In addition. and it may reach 70 % which has a major impact on world maritime trade. route optimization and operational changes to the existing fleets can contribute to increase the energy saving potential. and more stringent requirements applicable to ships in Emission Control Areas (ECA).emission requirements are defined by Annex VI: global requirements. ozone-depleting substances and volatile organic compounds (VOC). Switching to low sulphur fuel may result in increasing freight rates by 28 % . sulphur oxides (SOx). to a modal backshift from sea to road. emission reduction through technological improvements. The competiveness of sea transport will be reduced drastically and. a change in direction of logistics flows in Europe may be expected. reduce and control air pollution from Sox and its attendant adverse impacts on land and sea areas. due to new IMO requirements fuel costs are estimated to rise of about 50-55% in 2015. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as an alternative fuel is currently the most popular option. The Internal Engine Modification and the Sea Water Scrubbing result to be the most cost effective technologies to reduce NOx and Sox emissions. since emissions are proportional to the content of pollutants in fuel. 21 . speed reduction. After introducing the new IMO regulations SECA ports will be in a low competing situation in comparison with ports in other regions of Europe. energy efficiency and switching toward alternative fuels are key means for reducing CO2 emissions. in many cases. Using more expensive fuel will result in significant cost increases for transportation by sea. New regulations on emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) have recently increased the interest in and demand for alternative fuels. to some extent.1%. It is likely that the logistics flow in Europe will change in favour of European ports not included in the ECA. and ship modifications. Analysis has been carried out on impact of changeover to low-sulphur fuel on the freight rates. What’s more. From 2015 vessels operating in SECA will be obliged to use fuel with a sulphur content not exceeding 0. both in economics and environmental terms. It regulates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). short sea shipping will not be cost-effective.

For this reason.Review of Certain IMO regulations (Specially Sox emission control) is due in 2018 to determine the availability of fuel to comply with fuel oil standards set forth in regulations and to analyze the trends in global fuel market in terms of supply and demand. However. References: 1. breaking and decoupling the connection between the environmentally negative impacts from ships and economic growth looks difficult to achieve. Report on “Future environmental regulations for shipping in the Baltic Sea area and their consequences for the sea ports” a technical paper presented to the seminar “Baltic Ports and Environment – new regulations and challenges” held on 7th December 2010Malmö.imo. Marine Technology Education Consortium (MTEC) Module C1 lecture notes. This is an essential step as the preliminary studies have shown that the more stringent legislations will have a negative impact on shipping industry. Sweden 4. a balance between both technological improvements and international legislation is essential.org 3. 2. Lloyds Register Rule Finder version 9. January 2011. 22 . Statutory Documents.15. IMO website www.