You are on page 1of 4

SOS Chemistry Tables

Flame Tests for Metal Cations
Cation Magnesium ion Barium ion Copper ion Calcium ion Sodium ion Potassium ion Flame Colour Blinding White Apple Green Green Blue Brick Red Yellow Orange Lilac

Sodium Hydroxide Test for Metal Cations
Metal Ion Aluminium Al3+ Calcium Ca2+ Magnesium Mg2+ Copper Cu2+ Iron Fe2+ Iron Fe3+ Precipitate White * White * White * Blue Green Brown (rust)

*If you get a white precipitate, add more sodium hydroxide solution and the aluminium precipitate will dissolve. If the white precipitate does not dissolve then the metal ion is calcium or magnesium. These can be distinguished using a flame test (magnesium ions have no flame colour).

a distinctive pungent smell is given off while damp red litmus paper turns blue. which if bubbled through limewater it turns limewater milky. you first add to the sample few drops of the reagent sodium hydroxide solution. CO32.) When hydrochloric acid or nitric acid is added to any carbonate containing compound. either solid or in solution. and if Ammonium ions are present. Carbon Dioxide is given off.[aq]) To identify Sulfate ions we first add drops of hydrochloric acid to the sample and then add a few drops of Barium Chloride. NH4+ (aq) + OH→ NH3 + H2O Hydroxide ions (from the sodium hydroxide added) . then you warm the sample. Halide Anion Bromide Chlorine Iodide Colour of Precipitate Cream White Yellow Test for aqueous Sulfate ions (SO4 .(aq) + 2H+ (aq) → CO2 (g) + H2O (l) Test for Ammonium ions (NH4+) To test for ammonium ions.(aq) → BaSO4 (s) Test for Carbonate ions (CO32. If Sulfate ions are present in the solution then a white precipitate of insoluble Barium Sulfate will form.Silver Nitrate Test for Halide Anions *You first add a few drops of dilute Nitric acid (HNO3) to clear impurities and then a few drops of Silver Nitrate solution (AgNO3) to create a precipitate to identify the ion. Ba2+ (aq) + SO42.

Halogens Halogen State at room temperature (°C) Gas Gas Liquid Solid Characteristics M. Chlorine: It is very toxic. Gas: (Sublimation) Violet Radioactive Increases as you move down the Group Decreases as you move down the Group Astatine . Reactivity Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Pale Yellow Yellow-Green Liquid: Red-Brown Solid: Grey.P. Test for starch Add Iodine reagent to a solution or directly on a potato or other materials such as bread. Oxygen: You hold a glowing splint in the mouth of the test tube and if oxygen gas is present the splint will relight.Test for gases Hydrogen: You hold a lighted splint in the mouth of the test tube and if hydrogen gas is present it will explode with a ‘squeaky’ pop. Carbon Dioxide: When bubbled through limewater. A blue-black color results if starch is present. limewater turns milky. or flour. It turns damp blue litmus paper red and later white as it is bleached. crackers.

Potassium-. lead iodide Sodium-.Hydroxide Most other carbonates Most other hydroxides . Ammonium. lead chloride. Ammonium.Carbonates Sodium-. silver iodide.Solubility Soluble All nitrates Most sulfates Most chlorides. silver bromide. barium sulfate and calcium sulfate Silver chloride. bromides and iodides Insoluble None Lead sulfate. Potassium-. lead bromide.