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Processing of thermomechanical rolled steel with respect of welding and cutting

Jürgen Schütz, EWE Welding Laboratory, Dillinger Hütte

12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE

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Verfasser/Dokument

z Different delivery conditions of fine grained steel z Processing of thermo-mechanical rolled steel
) Flame cutting ) Forming ) Welding ) Flame straightening
Verfasser/Dokument

) Post weld heat treatment

12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE

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z Different delivery conditions of fine grained steel z Processing of thermo-mechanical rolled steel
) Flame cutting ) Forming ) Welding ) Flame straightening
Verfasser/Dokument

) Post weld heat treatment

12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE

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2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 4 .01.z Different delivery conditions of fine grained steel z Processing of thermo-mechanical rolled steel ) Flame cutting ) Forming ) Welding ) Flame straightening Verfasser/Dokument ) Post weld heat treatment 12.

plasma cutting.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 5 Verfasser/Dokument .Oxygen cutting.01. laser cutting no preheat required no scale on the surface 12.

01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 6 Verfasser/Dokument .12.

01.¾ flame cutting material is combusted with oxygen and oxides are blown out ¾ plasma-cutting material is melted by ionized gas and blown out by gas jet (oxygen / nitrogen) ¾ laser-cutting material is vaporized (minor thickness) or combusted with oxygen Verfasser/Dokument 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 7 .

material suiteable for gas cutting : ¾ ¾ ¾ ignition temperature lower than melting temperature melting temperature of oxides lower than melt temperature of base material positive energy balance to keep material above ignition temperature 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 8 Verfasser/Dokument .01.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 9 Verfasser/Dokument .01.liquidus-temperature ignition-temperature 12.

Combustion of the plate ? 1.01. plate to be cut 5. propane. oxides are blown out in the jet. gas -oxygen (heating) 3.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 10 . combustion of gas (acetylene. combustion of iron within the oxygen (7 bar) jet. oxygen -jet (cutting) 4.autogenous) 1. 0. heating flame Verfasser/Dokument 12. heating of subsurface to ignition temperature 3. (exothermic process .5 bar) 2. nozzle 2.

12. It also provides a protective shield between the cutting oxygen stream and the atmosphere. . ¾ ¾ Cutting oxygen combines with iron to form iron oxide.01.In brief ¾ Oxy acetylene flame preheats the metal to the ignition point at the place to be cut.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 11 Verfasser/Dokument Cutting oxygen jet blows away molten iron and iron oxide thereby cutting a narrow slit or kerf in the metal object.

Datum und Veranstaltung eintragen 12 .

too fast o.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 13 .01.k too slow Verfasser/Dokument 12.

01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 14 Verfasser/Dokument .12.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 15 Verfasser/Dokument .12.01.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 16 Verfasser/Dokument .Oxy-cutting Ö rapid heating and cooling at the flame cut edge ª martensitique microstructure : maximum hardness is only a function of carbon content Hv = f(C) . 800*C(%) +294 12.01.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 17 Verfasser/Dokument .90° section. for hardness measurement 12.01. 50 mm plate thickness 15° section.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 18 Verfasser/Dokument .12.01.

z Different delivery conditions of fine grained steel z Processing of thermo-mechanical rolled steel ) Flame cutting ) Forming ) Welding ) Flame straightening Verfasser/Dokument ) Post weld heat treatment 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 19 .01.

01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE .straining of outer surface : ε = t / (2r + t) r t : mandrel (bending) radius : plate thickness Verfasser/Dokument approximate value : 2r >> t ε = t/2r or….. ε = thickness / diameter 20 12.

12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 21 Verfasser/Dokument .01.

5 0.15%C S460N 0.18%C S460N 0.11%C non grinded edge grinded edge grinded edge non grinded edge grinded edge Verfasser/Dokument S460M 0.0 0.0 1.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 22 .0 S460M 0.0 3.5 2.13%C 12.0 2.10%C S460N 0.5 bending (180°) without cracking crack initiation at subsurface crack initiation at edge non grinded edge r/t technical bending specimen 3.5 1.Influence of edge preparation for technical bending specimen 4.01.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 23 Verfasser/Dokument .12.01.

01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 24 Verfasser/Dokument .Hot forming 12.

01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 25 Verfasser/Dokument .Hot forming 12.

12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 26 Verfasser/Dokument .

ductile Verfasser/Dokument 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 27 .Effect of cold forming on steel properties ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ increase of yield strength higher yield to tensile ratio reduction of residual elongation shift of transition from brittle .01.

Cold forming impact energy after 5% strain staining + ageing initial ΔTstrain ΔTageing Verfasser/Dokument test temperature 12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 28 .

Cold forming impact energy S+A+ initial PWHT staining + ageing test temperature 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 29 Verfasser/Dokument .01.

01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 30 . average [joules] 125 100 75 50 25 Verfasser/Dokument 0 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 test temperature [°C] 12.40mm (CMnNb) influence of straining. ageing and tempering on TT (1/4 thickness) 150 delivery condition 10 % strain 10 % strain + aged (250°/30min) 10 % strain + 580°C/30min impact energy.S420M .

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 31 .z Different delivery conditions of fine grained steel z Processing of thermo-mechanical rolled steel ) Flame cutting ) Forming ) Welding ) Flame straightening Verfasser/Dokument ) Post weld heat treatment 12.01.

e yield. toughness) ¾ Welding position may be respected ¾ Any subsequent PWHT has to be taken into account ¾ But no difference to normalized steel Verfasser/Dokument 12.Consumables for welding TM-rolled steels : ¾ Consunables have to be selected in a way that they fulfill the required mechanical properties ( i.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 32 . tensile.

2 % Ni 5 ml H2 /100g all welding positions DC –current.6-1.DIN EN 499 E 46 6 1Ni B 4 2 H5 electrode 460 MPa Reh TT 47 J. -60°C 0.01. >105% efficiency basic covered Verfasser/Dokument 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 33 .

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 34 Verfasser/Dokument .preheating )Toughness in the HAZ )Working range 12.z Welding )HAZ hardness )Hydrogen induced cracking .01.

15 % %C 12. WEZ Weld metal WEZ Base material 200 A1-line 0. WEZ temp.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 35 Verfasser/Dokument 400 .temperature 1600 melt fusion line 1400 CGWEZ 1200 austenite A3 lin e fine grained WEZ partly aust.01.

0 kJ/mm upper lower 225 225 200 200 175 175 150 -4 -2 2 4 150 -4 -2 2 4 distance from fusion line [mm] distance from fusion line [mm] 12.100mm SAW 0.7 kJ/mm upper lower 250 S420M .01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 36 Verfasser/Dokument .S420M 100mm HAZ hardness as a function of distance from fusion line hardness HV 10 275 275 hardness HV 10 250 S420M .100mm SAW 5.

12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 37 Verfasser/Dokument .

01.12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 38 Verfasser/Dokument .

HAZ hardness tests on bead on plate welds 1 5 10 20 39 cooling time t8/5 s 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE Verfasser/Dokument .01.

01.1400 1300 1200 1100 Tmax (fusion line) 1350°C temperature [°C] 1000 900 800 700 600 500 Verfasser/Dokument 40s 20s 400 300 200 10s time [sec] 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 40 .

heat input [kJ/mm] 5 40 s 4 30 s 3 20 s 2 10 s 1 3-dimensional heat flow Verfasser/Dokument 0 50 100 150 200 250 41 interpass temperature [°C] 12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE .

V.Ni.B 150 1 10 100 t8/5 Zeit 12.Cr.B Ti C.Si.Ni.Cu.Si.Mn.Mo.Cr.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 42 Verfasser/Dokument .Cu.Si.01.Mo.Mn.Ni.Cr.Nb C C.Mn.Mo.WEZ-Härte 450 400 350 300 250 200 C.

HAZ hardness tests on bead on plate welds 500 HAZ hardness (HV10) 400 S 460 N 300 1 5 10 20 43 cooling time t8/5 s 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE Verfasser/Dokument 200 S 460 M .01.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 44 Verfasser/Dokument .01.12.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 45 Verfasser/Dokument .01.Hydrogen induced crack parallel to fusione line in the CG-HAZ 12.

01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 46 Verfasser/Dokument .Hydrogen induced crack In the HAZ of a multi-pass weld 12.

35 + (53 CET .Calculation of minimum preheating temperature (EN 1011) CET = C + (Mn + Mo)/10 + (Cr + Cu)/20 + Ni/40 To = 700 CET + 160 tanh (t/35) + 62 HD exp 0.DIN 8572) = Wärmeeinbringen ( kJ/cm) Tekken Test : 12.01.330 t HD Q = Blechdicke (mm) = Wasserstoff-Eintrag (ml/100 g .2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 47 Verfasser/Dokument .32) Q .

12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 48 Verfasser/Dokument .01.

Tp (°C)

150 125 100 75 50 25 0 0,2

Tp(°C)

200 175

C 0,07 0,12 0,18

Mn 1,55 1,55 1,45

Mo 0 0 0
CET Q d HD

Cr 0,03 0,03 0,03

Cu 0,2 0,2 0,05

Ni 0,2 0,25 0,05

200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 0 5 10 15 hydrogen ml/100g deposit metal

0,24 % 0,29 % 0,33 % 1,5 1,5 1,5 50 50 50 5 5 5

0,25

CET = C + (Mn+Mo)/10 + (Cu+Cr)/20 + Ni/40 (%)

0,3

0,35

0,4

0,45

0,5

75 50 25 0

0

25

50

75 100 plate thickness (mm)

0

1

2

3 4 5 welding heat input (kJ/mm)

12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE

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Verfasser/Dokument

200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0

200 175 150 125 100

Tp (°C)

Tp (°C)

12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE

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Verfasser/Dokument

Preheating temperature EN1011
150 125 100
heat input hydrogen hydrogen Heat input GSMAW kJ/mm GMAW 1.0 0.7 kJ/mm 2 ml/100g 2 DM ml/100g SMAW DM SMAW 2.2 2.0kJ/mm kJ/mm 4 ml/100g 4 ml/100g SAW 3.3 DM SAW 3.3kJ/mm kJ/mm 7 ml/100g 7 ml/100g

S460 (N) S355J2G3 (N) S460N

S355G8+N Offshore
75 50 25

S500M
S420G2+M S460M S355G8+M
Verfasser/Dokument

0

20

40

60

80

100

plate thickness plate thickness
12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 51

HAZ toughness of S355N and S355M 350 300 S355M (Nb) S355N Offshore S355N standard S355N old 0.20% C.12% C.08% C.01. 0.001% S 0.20% C.003% S 0.028% S impact energy [joules] 250 200 150 100 0 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 52 temperature [°C] 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE Verfasser/Dokument 50 . 0. 0. 0.001% S 0.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 53 Verfasser/Dokument .Advantages of TM-steel .01.Processing TM 350 300 250 High toughness / High safety S355J2+N S460ML S690QL Welding leads to toughness reduction High toughness in the base material reduces the risk of brittle fracture and gives saftey! Charpy-V [J] 200 150 100 50 0 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 Temperature [°C] 12.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 54 Verfasser/Dokument .01.Impact testing of thick welds for the approval of offshore steels 12.

01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 55 .GRD 450 TMCP plate thickness 60-100mm 300 mean impact energy at -40°C [J] 250 200 150 100 50 Verfasser/Dokument FL 0 0 1 2 FL+2mm 3 FL+5mm 4 5 heat input [kJ/mm] 12.

preheat and interpass temp.100mm 1 2 3 4 5 56 Heat input [kJ/mm] 12. interpass temp.Working range Temperature [°C] 250 200 150 100 50 S355J2G3 70 mm higher heat input max.01. min.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE . Verfasser/Dokument S355M .

01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 57 .z Different delivery conditions of fine grained steel z Processing of thermo-mechanical rolled steel ) Flame cutting ) Forming ) Welding ) Flame straightening Verfasser/Dokument ) Post weld heat treatment 12.

12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 58 Verfasser/Dokument .01.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 59 Verfasser/Dokument .01. This causes a bulging of the heated zone.The flame straightening of a plate is based in principle on a local heating of the area to be shortened in combination with the hindrance of thermal expansion by the cold vicinity. When cooling down to ambient temperature the resulting tensile stresses will lead to the required deformation. 12.

01.The efficiency of the process depends on : ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ thermal field wall thickness heating rate very narrow located heating restraint and stiffness of the construction 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 60 Verfasser/Dokument .

The final tensile stresses are producing the effect on geometry. 12. For S355 / 420M steel both conditions are fulfilled for temperatures exceeding approximately 450°C.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 61 Verfasser/Dokument .Lower limit of applicable temperature At peak temperature the area to be straightened must undergo plastic deformation. During subsequent cooling the compressive stresses turn into tensile stresses. Thus the temperature must be increased above the temperature where sufficiently high compression stress are built up so that the yielding occurs The yield strength at elevated temperature is lowered to such an extent that the compressive stress will lead to sufficient bulging of the area to be straightened. So any lower temperatures are ineffective for shaping.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 62 Verfasser/Dokument .01. Two different flame straightening procedures have to be distinguished because they require different temperature limits. 12.Upper limit of applicable temperature The upper limit of the temperature range is shall not be exceeded in order to regain the mechanical properties of the plate after subsequent cooling.

01. Temperatures above 925°C shall not be permitted to avoid grain growth.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 63 Verfasser/Dokument Surface heating rapid cooling peak temperature max. 900-950°C . So are the mechanical properties. Cooling speed is in the range of high heat input welding. Due to the fast transformation again a fine grained microstructure is achieved which is very similar to the initial microstructure. (examples: line heating) 12.In the first case the plate is only superficially heated. The heat input related to the plate thickness is small. Due to the steep temperature gradients in the through thickness direction cooling is very fast.

triangular heating) 12. For a short period 650°C may still be acceptable. 600-650°C . The heat input related to the plate thickness is high. To avoid softening of the steel temperatures exceeding 600°C are not permitted. but clearly below 700°C so that a partial transformation to austenite can be excluded. The larger the heated area the slower the cooling. The heated area cools down slower than in the first case. Air cooling represents the very extreme of such procedure.In the second case the entire cross section of the plate is heated.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 64 Verfasser/Dokument Full section heating rather slow cooling peak temperature max. (examples: wedge heating.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 65 Verfasser/Dokument .Zusammenstellung der Glühfarben beim Flammrichten 12.01.

01.z Different delivery conditions of fine grained steel z Processing of thermo-mechanical rolled steel ) Flame cutting ) Forming ) Welding ) Flame straightening Verfasser/Dokument ) Post weld heat treatment 12.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 66 .

2 18.01.0 18.8 Verfasser/Dokument Hollomon Parameter Holding temperature 600°C 600°C 600°C 630°C 630°C Holding time 60 min 240 min 480 min 60 min 240 min HP-Factor 17.53 18.4 18.6 18.8 17.8 17.2 17.Response of tensile properties on PWHT (S420 M) yield strength MPa tensile strength MPa 560 440 540 420 520 400 20mm 25mm 50mm 500 20mm 25mm 50mm 380 16.8 480 16.8 18.2 18.2 17.25 Hollomon Parameter 12.0 17.0 17.6 17.6 17.00 17.05 18.4 17.6 18.15 18.4 18.4 17.0 18.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 67 .8 18.

For post weld heat treatment recommended parameters 530°C .2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 68 .580°C 1-2 hours Verfasser/Dokument 12.01.

Good initial toughness allows considerable cold deformation Excellent weldability as a result of the optimised chemical composition. benefits: ƒ ƒ ƒ ¾ the omission of preheating. the application of higher weld deposition rates omission of post weld heat treatment ¾ ¾ Weight reduction in the construction without a drawback for processing 69 12.01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE Verfasser/Dokument .Summary and conclusion ¾ ¾ No hot forming allowed No heat treatment above ~600°C Processing temperatures up to ~600°C are acceptable “warm”-forming. PWHT.

2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 70 . this creates compressive stress • Expanding material will be plastically deformed due to colder vincinity Verfasser/Dokument (flame straightening) 12.01.• Distortion caused by residual stress : • Yield strength will lower with increasing temperature • Tensile stress occurs when material shrinks • Transformation constituents (martensite/perlite) have higher volume than austenite.

01.2010 ADVANCED STEEL FOR THE FUTURE 71 Verfasser/Dokument .Entstehung von Schrumpf.und Umwandlungsspannungen tensile 300 thermal shrinkage austenite temperature 300 martensit formation 500 700 900 ferrite / bainite formation 300 compressive Yield point = f(T) 12.