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CHAPTER 6

D’Arsnoval Wattmeter Dynamometer Best type of meter movement A dynamometer type which has uniform scale; Most expensive; Mainly used as wattmeter; Can be used for AC or DC works Can only be applied to DC work only; The reason why its scale is uniform is because it is spring controlled; Springs provide the controlling force; Most sensitive instrument Considered as attraction and repulsion instruments; Typical IFS is 50mA; Typical VFS is 50mV; Uses squared scale; Most commonly used induction type of instrument Is an integrating type of instrumenr When both deflecting and controlling torque act, the pointer of an indicating instrument comes to ______ (for analog ins) Causes the moving system to deflect from its zero position (for analog ins) Ensures that the deflection of the pointer for a given value of measured quantity always has the same value (for analog ins) Quickly brings the moving system to rest in its final position Opposes the deflecting torque If the pointer is in the final deflected position Instrument where output voltage is proportional to the temperature; An ammeter used to measure high freq currents Type of resistor used to measure temp changes with change in resistance When should a fuse be replaced by a higher rated unit? Time interval that a waveform is High or low is _____ of the signal Time delay between pulses The interval of a pulse from start to end Heart of CRO (cathode ray oscilloscope) Measures resistance accurately; Balanced if there is no current the flows through the load; R1/R2 = R3/R4 Measures Voltage accurately Measures unknown inductance with in terms of known capacitance; Used to measure medium coils (1<Q<10) Measures capacitance Not operated by passage of current; Used for measuring high direct voltages (say 10KV); Used exclusively as voltmeters Disc is made of ______ is eddy-current damping Oscilloscope provides easy measurement of _____ DC voltage provided by a diode sensor Typical power range of diode sensor DC voltage provided by a thermal converter Typical power range of a thermal converter Typical power range of a thermocouple sensors _____ has a squared scale. For Time Measurement, _____ of the scope is used. When the vertical input is 0, the electron beam may be positioned at the _____ of the screen. _____ is calibrated in V/cm or mV/cm for amplitude measurements. Measures tank circuit frequency Operates in the magnetic attraction-repulsion principles Provides RMS measurements for sinusoids Fluid friction damping is applied to _______ The temp coef of resistance of a shunt material is _____ Shunts are generally made of ____ Pointers are generally made of ____ Used to balance both halves of the difference in amplifier or cathode coupled amplifier in VTVM Type of meter that provides precise reading of V,I,R where there is generation of samples at the input and feeds it to a digital read-out The smallest signal that can be reliably measured in VTVTM = (IFS x Rm)/(IT –IFS) Rm = internal resistance Pattern displayed by the oscilloscope which has steady state char

Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instruments

Moving Iron instruments

Induction watt-hr meter Watt-hour meter Rest Deflecting force Controlling force Damping force Damping and Controlling Torques Damping torque is zero Thermocouple Thermistor Never Pulse width Pulse delay Period CRT Wheatstone Bridge

Potentiometer Bridge Maxwell Bridge Wien Bridge Electrostatic voltmeter

Conductor and Non magnetic material Peak to Peak Value 1V at 10mW 0.1nW to 10mW Less the 10mV 0.1 to 100mW 0.1uW to 100mW Hot wire instrument Horizontal Scale Vertical Center Vertical Scale Grid-dip meter Milliamter Multimeter Kelvin electrostatic meter Negligible Manganin Aluminum Zero adjust DMM Sensitivity RSH Lissajous Pattern

500mW – absolute max rating for OP-AMP interval power dissipation 1V/us – typical slew rate of OP-AMP ±30V – absolute max rating for an OP-AMP differential input voltage 20dB/decade – rate of gain reduction in OP-AMP 80nA – typical input bias current of 741 OP-AMP 25mA – short circuit current output of 741 OP-AMP 0. Most commonly used type of linear IC.# of power supplies required by 741 OP-AMP OP-AMP magnitude comparator circuit OP-AMP input bias current uA741C OP-AMP Voltage follower Summing Point in an OP-AMP Ratio of Rf/R must be equal to the reciprocal of the number of inputs Negative Power BW Less than 1W 2 mega ohms 555 timer Square wave clock RC synthesis Single-Stone SSI MSI LSI VLSI BIFET Relaxation oscillator Digital IC Linear IC Thick Film and Thin Film Common Mode signal -55 to +125 deg Celsius -25 to +85 deg Celsius 0 to +70 deg Celsius Military and Industrial DIP packaging Doesn’t use feedback Is the average of the 2 base currents Is used for commercial purposes. 0 mark is located ______ for a simple ohmmeter The smallest change in applied stimulus that will indicate a detectable change in deflection in an indicating instrument CHAPTER 7 Inductor To produce change in output when an input voltage equals a reference voltage OP-AMP Cannot be fabricated in IC Purpose of comparator in OP-AMP Mostly uses positive feedback. pero eto yung sagot sa book) IC OP-AMP that combines FETS and Bipolar transistors Operates on the principle of the charge and discharging of a capacitor Possesses digital signals Possesses analog signals We can use ____ and _____ if higher power ICs are needed. High Zin. Low Zout. High reliability. (Yung letter C choice is ‘Military or Industrial’ diba dapat EITHER-OR?) Low in cost. open loop gain is infinity. The highest undistorted freq output of an OP-AMP for a given slew rate and peak voltage Power dissipation of most low power linear IC Typical input resistance of the OP-AMP when measured under open loop Most popular IC in used in timing circuits. the ICs are tested and classified as either ______. Tiniest packaging known. Its CMRR = 70dB An OP-AMP circuit that has its output tied directly to the inverting terminal A terminal of the OP-AMP where the input resistors are commonly connected Condition to convert a summing amplifier to an averaging amplifier The summing amplifier has 2 or more input and its output voltage is proportional to the _______ of the algebraic sum of its input voltages. 50mW – typical power dissipated of OP-AMP. Ruggedly resists vibration Lower cost.5V/uS – slew rate of 741 OP-AMP 2 .At half of full At far right Resolution Indicating instruments are assumed to be most accurate at _____ part of the scale. BW is infinity. Can be used in monostable and astable applications _____ is an astable multivibrator (relaxation oscillator) Technique used to eliminate the need for inductive elements in monolithic IC “Monos” / “Lithos” Up to 9 gates 10 to 100 gates More than 100 gates More than 1000 gates (not sure about these ranges kasi iba yung nasa table summary. Smaller in size It exhibits a freq that can be varied with a DC control voltage IC’s advantages over discrete devices (soldered devices) VCO . Signal that is applied with equal strength to both inputs of a differential amplifier or an OP-AMP Military and space IC Industrial IC Commercial IC After assembly.

5 mils 4 mils x 6. Unwanted capacitance between connecting wires and ground Intel i486 32 bit microprocessor has _________ on a single chip It is the value of the input voltage that switches the output comparator or Schmitt trigger Type of ground that appears at the inverting input of an OP-AMP that used negative feedback 1969.5 mils x 3 mils 3 mils x 4.5 to 15GHz The inverting input is connected to the +5V Ground Czochralsky Pulling technique Compensating Capacitor Voltage gain of a differential amplifier Source of output offset voltage Letter-prefix code indicates the ______ Letter-suffix code indicates the _________ Most common packaging type packaging suffix for Plastic DIP for surface mounting on a PC board packaging suffix for Plastic DIP for insertion in sockets packaging suffix for Ceramic DIP Typical dimension of a MOSFET in a single chip IC Typical dimension of a DIODE in a single chip IC Typical dimension of a BJT in a single chip IC Advantage of a shunt regular type over a series regulator type Type of response that characterizes a single pole low pass filter The term pole refers to a ________ in terms of circuit component. N D P.Av = Rc / 2Re The difference in VBE values manufacturer Packaging type D. the inverting input is connected to the ___ Most common method used for the growth of single crystals for IC farbrication Prevents oscillations inside an OP-AMP . ______________ To use a comparator for zero-level detection.N J 1.5 mils It has an inherent current limiting Flat response Single RC circuit Stray wiring capacitance 1M transistors Trip point Virtual ground CCD (charge-coupled Capacitor) 0. by WS Boyle and GE Smith Microwave ICs cover the freq range In a 5V level detector circuit. J.