You are on page 1of 3

Module 2 Metals: properties, uses and reactions

• •

A particular metal is used for a particular purpose because it's properties make it suitable for such a purpose Common Properties Of Metals

2% carbon which is very malleable ◦ has a fairly good tensile strength. and are malleable and ductile ◦ Electrical conductivity – the current passing through a 1 metre cube of the substance when a voltage of 1 volt is passed through is applied through opposite faces of the cube. . It is measured by stretching a sheet of the material until it breaks • Iron → relating uses to properties ◦ rarely used in pure form ◦ usually using Mild steel which is 0. corrugated sheets for roofing and the outer cases of refrigerators. can be used to make motor car bodies. measured in megohm-1 ◦ Thermal conductivity – the energy transmitted per second through a 1 metre cube of the substance when there is 1 degree Celsius difference across opposite faces.◦ Metals are solid elements that have a lustrous appearance and good electrical and thermal conductivity. measured in k-1 ◦ Hardness – measurement through the Moh's scale through assigning numbers to materials based on the scale where talc is 1 being the softest and diamond is 10 being the hardest ◦ Tensile strength – a measure of how well a material resists bending. washing machines etc. twisting or stretching and indicates the suitability of the material for structural purposes.

C to 1000 B. that humans developed a method of generating these higher temperatures and also the ability to forge iron into tools and weapons. Anthropologists and historians end the Iron Age at 1 C.Metal Different Metals Throughout History and their uses: The first metal to be extracted from an ore was copper. This led to a technological difference between societies with bronze and those without it. As time progressed. was difficult as the melting point needed was too great for wood fires to achieve.C.C. processing and moulding rapidly spread out throughout Europe and Asia. It was not until 1200 B. copper tools did not replace the stone ones currently in use.E is called the Iron Age. and quantities being used increased markedly (Especially after the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century). This occurred in the Middle East in about 6000 B. this is .C. However. Iron is a much harder metal than bronze. moulded and worked much more easily in wood fires. bronze had become prominent and used for tools and weapons throughout the European and Asian continents. to 1. the finished products of copper were fairly soft as pure copper is an extremely soft metal.Module 2 .C. simply put – nations that first developed methods of mining and using Bronze as weapons were able to conquer less developed nations. Throughout the Modern Age. It was necessary to blow air into the fire to get a sufficiently high temperature.) because it had been found in nearly pure form in meteorites. Bronze was the most prominent metal used for weapons and tools from about 2000 B. however. Systematically. Around 2000 B. This copper was used to make domestic utensils and possible some types of ornaments..C. around 3000 B. In Cyprus. iron as a substance had been known to exist at least thousand years before this (2500 B.Chemistry .E and like to call the era to present the Modern Age. using wood-fires (charcoal) you must generate a temperature higher than that of copper extraction. copper was actively mined. Bronze has a much lower melting point than copper and so could be melted. Furthermore. However. Tin mines were available in Cornwall around this period as well. the technologies for producing iron and steel rapidly improved.C. and then it must be softened in order to forge it.C. the period from about 1000 B. and therefore most weapons and tools were made of iron instead. Therefore.C. That is why this era is known as the Bronze Age. The technology for extracting. it was discovered that heating copper and tin ores with charcoal produced a much harder metal alloy – Bronze. Copper oxide was heated with charcoal (mainly carbon) and globules of copper resulted. In order to extract iron from iron oxide. Working copper.