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The Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA 2001), July 14,

2001, Nagoya

(3-06) Smokeless and Low NOx Combustion in a Dual-Fuel Diesel

Engine with Induced Natural Gas as the Main Fuel


*Hideyuki Ogawa, Noboru Miyamoto, Chenyu Li, Satoshi Nakazawa, and Keiichi Akao
Division of Mechanical Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University North 13, West 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8628, Japan Key Words: Diesel engine, Dual-fuel engine, Natural gas, Knocking, Exhaust gas emission

ABSTRACT
In a compression ignition engine, using a rich and lean biform mixture composition that avoids near stoichiometric and extremely over-rich regions would be effective to suppress NOx formation without increasing smoke when the overall excess air ratio approaches the stoichiometric ratio. To realize the formation of rich and lean mixtures and the control of ignition timing, a dual-fuel diesel engine with an induced gas with resistance to self-ignition as the main fuel and with a small quantity of diesel fuel for the ignition source has potential merits. However, this method has the problem of knocking and misfiring when the percentage of inducted fuel is increased. In this research smokeless and ultra low NOx combustion without knocking over a wide operating range was established in a dual-fuel diesel engine with induced natural gas as the main fuel. Optimizations of the combustion chamber shape and operating factors, including EGR and intake air throttling, which determine conditions of the in-cylinder gas, were investigated at several IMEP conditions. A lean quasi-homogenous mixture was formed with induced natural gas in the whole combustion chamber while a small quantity of diesel fuel was directly injected for an ignition source, as shown in figure 1. The injection timing of the diesel fuel was set at a relatively early stage in the compression stroke to avoid smoke emissions. A piston cavity divided by a lip in the sidewall, shown in the figure, was suitable to confine diesel fuel into the lower part of the cavity, and this suppressed knocking just after ignition. It was also expected that a slightly richer than stoichiometric mixture is formed in the lower part of the cavity, and a leaner mixture is formed in the upper part of the cavity. This mixture formation process was analyzed with a CFD simulation, which showed the possibility for biform mixtures without near stoichiometric or extremely over-rich regions in the chamber. The results of the experiments showed that a combination of the divided cavity, EGR, and intake air throttling was effective to simultaneously eliminate knocking and reduce THC and NOx over a wide IMEP range. At high IMEP silent and smooth combustion without knocking was achieved even with a large amount of induced natural gas. Moreover, the maximum IMEP increased in comparison with conventional diesel operation with a lower injection pressure system because smoke emission was not a limitation. At medium IMEP it was effective to adopt EGR and intake air throttling for ultra low NOx under relatively lower THC. However, at low IMEP it was difficult to avoid increases in THC and ISEC while realizing ultra low NOx and smokeless operation. At lower overall excess air ratio conditions, NOx reduction was shown with a biform mixture composition without near stoichiometric or extremely rich regions.

(a) Diesel fuel injection at 60CA BTDC

(b) Biform mixture formation at end of compression

Fig. 1 Concept of biform mixture formation in different piston cavity space in a dual-fuel engine

390

The Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA 2001), July 14, 2001, Nagoya

While smokeless and ultra low NOx combustion has been established with a lean premixed compression ignition engine, its operating range is limited to higher excess air ratios because of difficulties with both control of ignition timing and knocking [1-3]. Furthermore, the NOx emission is expected to significantly increase when the overall mixture strength approaches the stoichiometric ratio with a highly homogeneous mixture. Thus, using a biform mixture with separated rich and lean regions, while avoiding near stoichiometric and extremely over-rich regions, would be effective to suppress the NOx formation without smoke emission even when the overall excess air ratio approaches the stoichiometric ratio. To realize both the formation of rich and lean mixtures and the control of ignition timing, a dual fuel diesel engine with an induced gas with resistance to self-ignition as the main fuel and with a small quantity of diesel fuel for the ignition source has potential merits [4-6]. However, this combustion process also has problems of knocking and misfiring when the percentage of inducted fuel is increased. The objective of this research is to establish smokeless and ultra low NOx combustion without knocking over a wide operating range in a dual-fuel diesel engine with induced natural gas as the main fuel. In the experiments, optimizations of the combustion chamber shape and operating factors including EGR and intake air throttling, which determine conditions of in-cylinder gas, were investigated at several IMEP conditions.

INTRODUCTION

conditions included an injection pressure of 25 MPa (120 MPa during a reference test of conventional operations), a coolant temperature of 80 C, a swirl ratio of 2.2 at fullthrottle, and an engine speed of 1200 rpm.

Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder, fourstroke cycle, DI diesel engine (Nissan Diesel PE-6, bore stroke of 133 mm 140 mm, piston displacement of 1.9 dm3). Natural gas (methane: 84.9%, ethane: 7.5%, Propane: 5.1%) was continuously induced into an intake manifold 150 mm upstream from the cylinder head, and a small amount of conventional diesel fuel was directly injected into the combustion chamber as ignition source with a common rail fuel injection system. The piston had an interchangeable piston crown and cavity, allowing the use of two different piston cavity shapes with the same volume and compression ratio of 17, as shown in figure 2. Cavity (a) is a cavity divided by a central lip located along the center of the sidewall of the cavity uniquely developed to form a biform mixture composition, and (b) is an ordinary toroidal type for reference. The volume ratio of the lower part of the divided cavity in the top clearance is 40%. The injection timing of the diesel fuel was set at 60 CA BTDC, relatively earlier timing, to prevent an extremely rich mixture and smoke formation. With the combination of intake natural gas, early diesel fuel injection, and the divided cavity, the formation of a lean mixture of natural gas in the upper part of the cavity and a slightly rich mixture of natural gas and diesel fuel in the lower part of the cavity were realized. The fuel injection nozzle had four holes (0.21 mm in diameter) and the spray hole cone angle was 40. The effect of EGR was examined with the real exhaust gas, which was cooled by water except during a test for hot EGR. A throttle valve was installed in the intake manifold to control the overall excess air ratio with changes in the volumetric efficiency. The other operating 391

EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURES

The mixture formation processes in the combustion chamber of the dual-fuel operation under non-firing conditions were analyzed with a CFD simulation for the divided cavity and the ordinary toroidal cavity to show the possibility for formation of biform mixtures without near stoichiometric or extremely over-rich regions in the cavity. The simulation parameters corresponded to those of the experimental engine, and the combustion chamber cavity configurations in figure 2 were analyzed. The calculation started from the bottom dead center at start of compression stroke, and its conditions were set at temperature of 340 K, pressure of 0.1 MPa, percentage of natural gas in the overall input energy, gas of 80%, and overall excess air ratio of 1.2. In the calculation, the induced natural gas was assumed to form a uniform mixture in the combustion chamber. However, it should be noted that the mixture strength in the lower part of the combustion chamber in the experimental engine may actually be richer due to the fuel being continuously supplied to the intake port. Fuel accumulated in the intake manifold before opening of the intake valve results in a surge in fuel inducted during early intake. At BDC this early induced fuel may concentrate in the lower part of the combustion chamber. The injection timing of diesel fuel was set at 60 CA BTDC, corresponding with the experiments. Figure 3 shows the calculated distribution of equivalence ratios in the combustion chambers. At 40 CA BTDC, a rich mixture is formed along the diesel fuel spray axis toward the bottom of the cavity for both combustion chambers. After 20 CA BTDC, with the conventional toroidal cavity, diesel fuel diffuses in the whole combustion chamber and forms a bulk stoichiometric mixture with natural gas and diesel fuel. With the divided cavity most of the diesel fuel is confined and forms a slightly rich mixture in the lower part of the cavity, while a lean mixture of only natural gas exists in the upper part of the cavity. These indicate the possibility for formation of biform mixtures without near stoichiometric or extremely over-rich regions in the cavity. The following two effects may be expected with the rich and lean mixture formation: (1) With low excess air ratio, a slightly rich mixture is formed in the lower part of the cavity while a lean mixture is formed in the upper part of the cavity, suppressing the formation of a near stoichiometric mixture and reducing

COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF RICH AND LEAN BIFORM MIXTURE

(a) Divided cavity (b) Ordinary toroidal cavity Fig. 2 Combustion chamber configurations

The Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA 2001), July 14, 2001, Nagoya

NOx without smoke emission. (2) With this kind of dual-fuel engine with an ordinary combustion cavity, as the natural gas near the igniting diesel fuel explosively burns just after ignition, the initial combustion generally becomes rapid. This excessively rapid combustion itself makes a knocking sound like diesel-knocking and causes the explosive combustion of unburned natural gas in the later stage of combustion like spark-knocking. With the divided cavity of this investigation, as the diesel fuel is confined in the lower part of the cavity and the natural gas entrained into the igniting diesel fuel is decreased, the initial rapid combustion is diminished and the later explosive combustion like spark-knocking is also suppressed as a result.

EFFECT OF THE DIVIDED CAVITY WITH A CENTRAL LIP Figure 4 shows the indicated specific energy consumption (ISEC), exhaust gas emissions, maximum rate of pressure rise (dP/d)max, and estimated local excess air ratio in the lower part of the cavity (in) for both combustion chambers shown in figure 2 for different indicated mean effective pressures (IMEP) without EGR or intake air throttling. Here, in was estimated on the assumption that natural gas was uniformly distributed in the whole combustion chamber and all diesel fuel was distributed in the lower part of the cavity. Both THC and NOx were indicated by the mass per unit of indicated work (g/kWh) on assumption that the THC was methane and the NOx was NO2. The percentage of natural gas in the overall input energy, gas was kept at 88%. Smokeless operation is achieved for both combustion chambers in this operating range, and there is little difference in the ISEC and THC between the two combustion chambers. Much THC is emitted especially under the light load range, and this results in the significant increase in ISEC for both combustion chambers. Ultra low NOx combustion is realized under 0.3 MPa IMEP for both combustion chambers while
Equivalence ratio
0.7 1.0 1.3 1.6

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

the NOx increases with increasing engine load over 0.3 MPa IMEP. However, the increase in NOx from the divided cavity is more suppressed than the conventional toroidal cavity, particularly at the higher load. (dP/d)max with the toroidal cavity is higher than with the divided cavity for the higher load range, and becomes very high as knocking occurs at 0.5 MPa IMEP. This knocking is easy to identify as the engine noise increases rapidly with only a little increase in IMEP. The divided cavity suppresses the knocking until higher loads, but even with the divided cavity the operation is limited by knocking at 0.6 MPa IMEP without EGR or intake air throttling. Figure 5 shows average gas temperature in the cylinder, pressure, and rate of heat release (ROHR) diagrams for both the divided and conventional cavities at 0.5 MPa IMEP. With the conventional cavity the ignition timing is slightly earlier, the initial heat release is much larger, and

ISEC MJ/(kWh) i

25 20 15 10
Knocking

Smoke BU %

30 20 10 0 200 150 100 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.6 0.4 0.2

Divided Toroidal

( dP/d) max

Crank angle CA BTDC

MPa / CA

NOx g/(kWh) i

THC

g/(kWh) i

in

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.2 0.4 0.6

IMEP MPa
Fig. 4 ISEC, smoke, THC, NOx, and (dP/d)max with two combustion chambers for varied IMEP ( EGR = 0%, gas = 88%) 392

(a) Divided cavity (b) Toroidal cavity Fig. 3 Distribution of equivalence ratios in the combustion chamber simulated by a CFD code

The Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA 2001), July 14, 2001, Nagoya

Mean temp. K

1000 500 0
Divided Toroidal

ISEC MJ/(kWh) i

1500

13 12
Knocking Misfire

Smoke BU %

Press. MPa

8 6 4 ROHR MJ/(kmol CA) 2

11 10
IMEP= 0.5 MPa

5 0 30 20 10

0.7 MPa

2 0 -20 0 20 40 Crank angle CA ATDC 60

NOx g/(kWh) i (dP/d) max MPa / CA

THC g/(kWh) i

Fig. 5 In-cylinder temperature, indicator diagrams, and ROHR for the dual-fuel diesel combustion with conventional toroidal and divided cavities (EGR = 0%, gas = 88% , IMEP = 0.57 MPa) extremely explosive combustion occurs at the later stage of combustion (6CA BTDC), which is not observed in the ROHR of the divided cavity. The initial larger heat release with the conventional cavity is caused by the increase in the amount of natural gas burned together with the diesel fuel mixture just after ignition. The explosive heat release at the later part of combustion is caused by explosive combustion of unburned natural gas, similar to spark knocking in an SI engine. With the divided cavity, the ignition source mixture from the diesel fuel is confined in the lower part of the cavity and this suppresses the initial heat release. This milder initial combustion results in more gradual temperature rise as shown in the figure, and prevents spark-knocking-like combustion. The mild heat release after top dead center may be due to the combustion of unburned natural gas, mainly present in the squish area, which is promoted by the entrainment of the burned gas. The NOx reduction with the divided cavity relative to the toroidal cavity for IMEP over 0.3 MPa seen in figure 4 may be caused by the lower gas temperature transition after ignition shown in figure 5 rather than by the effect of rich and lean mixture formation as the mixture strength in the lower part of the cavity estimated by in is leaner than the stoichiometric ratio. The divided cavity proved more suitable than the conventional cavity in suppressing knocking for dual-fuel operation with natural gas. The effect of EGR and intake air throttling with the divided cavity will be discussed in the following sections. EFFECT OF gas, EGR, AND INTAKE AIR THROTTLING Figure 6 shows ISEC, exhaust gas emissions, (dP/d)max, and estimated local excess air factor in the lower part of the cavity, in for both 0.5 MPa (without EGR) and 0.7 MPa (with 20% EGR) with changes in the fraction of the overall input energy delivered as natural gas, gas.

20 10 0 0.6 0.4 0.2 2.0

in

1.5 1.0 80

0.5 MPa 0.7 MPa

gas

90

Fig. 6 Effect of gas on ISEC, smoke, THC, NOx, and (dP/d)max Here, operation at 0.7 MPa IMEP without EGR is impossible because of spark-knocking-like combustion. At 0.5 MPa IMEP and with increasing gas, THC and ISEC increase while NOx decreases, and misfiring inevitably occurs with too much gas. With decreasing gas, although THC decreases, (dP/d)max increases and eventually operation becomes impossible because of spark-knockinglike combustion. At 0.7 MPa IMEP while the operating range decreases further because of knocking and misfiring, very low NOx and smokeless operation with an acceptable level of THC emission is possible in the operating range. This low NOx emission at this low overall excess air and higher load condition may be caused by the effect of formation of a rich and lean biform mixture avoiding regions with a near stoichiometric mixture as in is less than 1.0 as shown in figure 6. Figure 7 indicates the effect of volumetric efficiency

393

The Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA 2001), July 14, 2001, Nagoya

ISEC MJ/(kWh) i

ISEC MJ/(kWh) i

12 10 10
Misfire

16 14 12 10 5 0

Misfire

Smoke BU %

EGR

5 0 30 20 10 0 20 10 0 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 50 60


EGR = 0 % 10 % 18 %

0% 10% 18% 24%

Smoke BU %

EGR 0% 14% (Cold) 12% (Hot)

NOx g/(kWh)i THC g/(kWh) i

NOx g/(kWh) i THC g/(kWh) i

100 80 60 40 4 2 0 2

14 % Hot EGR = 12 % EGR = 0 %

24 %

in

in
70 80 90

1.5 1

50

60

70

80

90

v
Fig. 7 Effect of v on ISEC, smoke, THC, and NOx for different EGR ratios at medium load (gas = 88% , IMEP = 0.5 MPa) (v) by air throttling and cold EGR on ISEC, exhaust gas emissions, and in at 0.5 MPa IMEP and gas of 88%. The THC and NOx simultaneously reduce with decreases in v at this engine load condition. In particular, at 18% EGR ratio significant NOx reduction is possible by intake air throttling without deterioration of ISEC or smoke emission, showing that the combination of air throttling and EGR is effective for simultaneously reducing emissions and ISEC. However, with 26% EGR, intake air throttling becomes difficult because of misfiring and EGR higher than 26% is impossible even without intake air throttling. This NOx reduction with intake air throttling may be caused by the rich and lean biform mixture formation while more significant reduction is expected by enforcing the rich and lean biform mixture formation as in in figure 7 is still in the lean side. Figure 8 shows results similar to figure 7 but for a lower load of 0.3 MPa IMEPnear idling condition. Here, gas is fixed at 86% and three intake air conditions are considered: no EGR, 14% cold EGR, and 12% hot EGR. Although ultra low NOx without smoke emission is real394

v
Fig. 8 Effect of v on ISEC, smoke, THC, and NOx for different EGR ratios at low load (gas = 86% , IMEP = 0.3 MPa) ized regardless of intake air throttling or EGR in this lean condition, the THC is much higher than at 0.5 MPa IMEP. The THC decreases with decreasing v and ISEC improves slightly but misfiring occurs at excessively low v. There is no significant effect of cold or hot EGR on THC reduction. This high THC is caused by the ultra lean mixture in the upper part of the cavity where diesel fuel, the ignition source, is scarce. At lower load, stopping the supply of natural gas and using homogeneous compression ignition operation with only diesel fuel would be more suitable to prevent an increase in THC. COMPARISON BETWEEN DUAL-FUEL OPERATION AND CONVENTIONAL DIESEL OPERATION Figure 9 shows engine performance and emissions for dualfuel and conventional diesel operation. Here, the fuel injection timing for conventional diesel operation is set at 8CA BTDC, the best timing for ISEC. Two fuel injection pressures were tested25 MPa, the same as dual-fuel operation, and 120 MPa. ISEC, exhaust gas emissions, gas, and EGR ratio are taken on the ordinate. With this dual-fuel operation, smokeless combustion is realized over

The Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA 2001), July 14, 2001, Nagoya

25 ISEC MJ/(kWh) i 20 15 10 20 10 0 200 150 100 50 0


Dual fuel Conventional (120 MPa) Conventional (25 MPa)

Knocking

10 5
100

Conventional (120 MPa) Conventional (25 MPa) Dual-fuel

gas

90 80 70

In this research, optimizations of the combustion chamber shape and operating factors which determine conditions of in-cylinder gas in a dual-fuel diesel engine with induced natural gas as the main fuel were investigated to establish smokeless and ultra low NOx combustion without knocking over a wide operating range. The results are summarized in the following. 1. A combination of the divided cavity with a central lip, EGR, and intake air throttling was effective to simultaneously eliminate knocking and reduce THC and NOx over a wide IMEP range. 2. At lower overall excess air ratio, NOx reduction was established by creating a biform mixture without near stoichiometric or extremely rich regions with the uniquely developed divided cavity. 3. With the divided cavity, as the diesel fuel was confined to the lower part of the cavity and the natural gas entrained into the igniting diesel fuel decreased, the initial excessively rapid combustion diminished and spark-knocking-like rapid combustion was suppressed. 4. At high IMEP silent and smooth combustion without knocking was established even with a large amount of induced natural gas. Moreover, the maximum IMEP increased in comparison with conventional diesel operation with a lower injection pressure system because smoke emission was not a limitation. 5. At medium IMEP it was effective to adopt EGR and intake air throttling to achieve ultra low NOx under relatively low THC. However, at low IMEP it was difficult to avoid increases in THC and ISEC while realizing ultra low NOx and smokeless operation. 1. Takeda, Y., Nakagome, K. and Niimura, K., Emission characteristics of premixed lean diesel combustion with extremely early staged fuel injection, SAE Paper 961163, 1996. 2. Yokota, H., Kudo, Y., Nakazima, H., Kakegawa, T., and Suzuki, T., A new concept for low emission diesel combustion, SAE Paper 970891, 1997. 3. Yanagihara, H., Sato, Y., and Mizuta, J., A Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Soot in Diesel Engines under a New Combustion System (Uniform Bulky Combustion System UNIBUS), 17th International Vienna Motor Symposium, p.303 314, 1996. 4. Suzuki, H., Koike, N., Ishii, H., and Odaka, M., Exhaust Purification of Diesel Engines by Homogeneous Charge with Compression Ignition, SAE Paper 970313, 1997. 5. Daisho, Y., Yaeo, T., Koseki, T., Kihara, R., and Saito, T., Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emissions in a DirectInjection Diesel Engine Dual-Fueled with Natural Gas, SAE Paper 950645, 1995. 6. Daisho, Y., Takahashi, K., Iwashiro, Y., Nakayama, S., Kihara, R., and Saito, T., Controlling Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emissions in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Dual-Fueled with Natural Gas, SAE Paper 952436, 1995.

CONCLUSIONS

NOx g/(kWh) i

THC g/(kWh)i

Smoke BU %

80 60

REFERENCE

EGR %

20 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

IMEP

MPa

Fig. 9 Comparison of exhaust emissions and ISEC for rich and lean combustion and ordinary diesel combustions the whole load range and the NOx decreased significantly in comparison with conventional diesel operation at both fuel injection pressures. At high load ISEC increases slightly and while the maximum IMEP is limited by knocking, it is still higher than the smoke limit of conventional operation with 25 MPa injection pressure. The THC at high load remains low while at low load THC and ISEC increase significantly. Stopping the supply of natural gas and using homogeneous compression ignition operation with only diesel fuel would be more suitable to prevent these deteriorations, as mentioned previously.

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