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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A.

Abstract Functional Grammar is a general theory that try to explain natural language structure and it can be classified into Linguistic Fungsionalism. Two persons who developed Functional Grammar are Simon Dik from Dutch and Michael A.K. Halliday from England. Simon Dik developed Functional discourse grammar and Michael Halliday developed Systemic Functional Grammar. Development of theory concerns to three things which has relevation each other. There are Natural Language Function, Relational Process Function and Target that want to be reached. It uses the theory as their analysis from many aspects and language using. The main theoritical construct used as data analysis is transitiviti. This construct finds its roots in Hallidays Systemic Functional Grammar. In transitivity refers to how meaning is represented in the clause. The are many kinds of traditional grammars that changed its term in this modern grammar. Traditional grammar aims to describe the grammar of standard English by comparing it with Latin. As such, it is prespective. Students learn the names if parts of speech (noun, verbs, prepotitions, adverbs, adjective), parse textbook sentences and learn to to correct so-called bad grammar (Gerot and Wignell:1994:5). Formal grammar are concerned to describe the structure of individual sentences (Gerot and Wignell:1994:5). Functional grammars view language as a resource for making meaning. The grammars attempt to describe language in actual use and so focus on text and their context (Gerot and Wignel:1994:6). The sentences to be anayzed each word in many terms. The analyzing is available in text and to be analized each sentence and clause.

Menunggu Dosen kasih Tugas UAS ganjil CHAPTER II THE CONTEXT-TEXT CONNECTION

Because we oriented to Mr.Hallidays theory, therefore we only concern to his analysis theory : a. b. c. Systemic describes language and system of meaning which is making Functional deals with as it uses. Grammar only be based on certain value, assumption or beliefe and there resources that speakers and draw on in the process of communicating.

is no grammar is free from value. The first approach is based on the principle that language use text is structured in response to the needs of people as socil creature. The text must reffer to social

context in society specifically. Because language will develop continually appropriate with human needs. Transitivity is part of the ideational function of language and is a fundamental and powerful semantic concept in Halliday, an essential tool in the analysis of representation. Transitivity shows how speakers encode in language their mental picture of reality and how they account for their experience of the world around them. One of the task to be analyzed with transitivity is recount text below.

Sebelum Kuliah dimulai, refreshing dulu The text will be analized is recount text that has title MY ADVENTURE AT LEANG CAVE. Recount Text
MY ADVENTURE AT LEANG CAVE On Sunday, my parents, my best friend Novi, and I visited a cave at Maros called Leangleang . It was my first time to visit the cave, better yet, my best friend came to visit it with me. The cave was famous for its primitive cave wall paintings which were some hand prints and wild boar paintings. The cave and its surroundings was turned into a national park, so it was taken care of . My parents took a rest in a small hut for visitors of the park, while Novi and I adventured around the cave with a guide. We had to climb some metal stairs to get to the cave, because the cave was embedded into a small mountain. Next stop was a place where some seashells littered the ground and some were actually piled into a big mound! The guide said that these piles of seashells are called kjokkenmoddinger, or kitchen trash.

The humans who lived here ate the shells and dumped the left overs in their kitchen. The last place was a small museum where they have skeletons of the humans who lived in the caves. The skeletons along with some roughly made jewelry and weapons were placed inside glass cases for display. The walls of the museum were adorned with photographs taken when they did an excavation there. After a quick lunch with Novi and my parents, we decided it was time to go back home. We really had the time of our lives.

The analysis of Theme and Transitivity can be found in Appendix 2. Below is the division of elements of the text in the schematic structure and available in every clause. 1. cave [[at Maros called Leang-leang]] b. It was my first time [[to visit the cave]] ORIENTATION a. On Sunday, my parents, my best friend Novi and I visited a

c. 2. a) b) c) d) e)

Better yet, my best friend came to visit it with me EVENTS Event I The cave was famous for its primitive cave wall paintings The cave and its surroundings was turned into a national park, My parents took a rest in a small hut for visitors of the park, We had to climb some metal stairs to get to the cave Next stop was a place

[[Which were some hand prints and wild boar paintings]] [[So it was taken care of ]] [[While Novi and I adventured around the cave with a guide]] [[Because the cave was embedded into a small mountain]] [[Where some seashells littered the ground and some were actually piled into a big mound]] f) The guide said Event II [[that these piles of seashells are called kjokkenmoddinger, or kitchen trash.]] a) The humans who lived here ate the shells [[and dumped the left overs in their kitchen]] b) The last place was a small museum [[Where they have skeletons of the humans ]] [[who lived in the caves]] c) The skeletons along with some roughly made jewelry [[And weapons were placed inside glass cases for display]] d) The walls of the museum were adorned with photographs taken [[When they did an excavation there. ]] 3. REORIENTATION a. [[After a quick lunch with Novi and my parents we decided]] it was time to go back home

b.

We really had the time of our lives.

Hand out Functional Grammar B. The 1) schematic structure, organization and the

purpose of the text Recount Text Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2) story 3) 4) a. Language Feature of Recount Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc Using chronological connection; then, first, etc Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc Using action verb; look, go, change, etc Using simple past tense Types of recount: Personal recount : retelling of an activity that the writer/speaker has been Generic Structure of Recount Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the

personally involve in, such as: biography, autobiography b. c. Factual recount : recording the particular of an accident, such as : report Imaginative recount : talking on an imaginary role and giving detail of of a scientific experiment, police report , news report, historical account events.(Nursahid and Sudarso, 8SMP Panduan Belajar. Primagama)

This text about someones experience that including Personal Recount, where the genre of the text has a generic structure. They are Orientation, Events, and Reorientation. There is no published who writes the text. The writer only downloaded on the internet without knowing the writer (participants) of the text. This text is not the writers experience. The writer doesnt know whether that text is reality experience or only imaginative recount. Furthermore, in the Orientation has fulfilled requirements as orientation appropriate with the content of orientation, where the content of the orientation are time, place and participants ( i.e. On Sunday, cave at Maros called Leang, Mother, the writer and her friend). In the next part, the writer also divided two events, where in every event, there are many activities that the participants do in the cave Leang. To show how many acivities which the participants do there, there are squence of events signed by chronological order (i.e. Next, the last place, and after). The last part is content of feeling from the participant. It means that, it is an opsional. In the last paragraph shows that the activities that they do in that place is happy ending (i.e. We really had the time of our lives ) it is a comment of the

participant that she is very happy. C. Grammatical analysis of elements in the text Text My Adventure at Leang Cave consist of some clauses and automatically there are many subordinating conjunction in it. One of the example We had to climb some metal stairs to get to the cave, because the cave was embedded into a small mountain(Yuniarti Dwi Arini:2012). .The conjunction combine two clauses or more. The first clause in that sentence including independent clause because it can stand alone. While the next clause, it is including dependent clause, because it can not stand alone(Yuniarti Dwi Arini:2012:15). This text about someones experience that including Personal Recount, where the genre of the text has a generic structure. They are Orientation, Events, and Reorientation. There is no published who writes the text. The writer only downloaded on the internet without knowing the writer (participants) of the text. Through the system of Transitivity, it shall be exploring the clause in its Who, Does, What,Who, When, where Why or how function (Gerot and Wignel, 1994:52). Because this text is Recount, furhermore there are many Circumtences that present about: Time, place, manner, and quality (Gerot and Wignel, 1994:52). There is Value to show that it was has a value in Participants life. Whereas, She enjoyed that moment with her hearted people those are her friend and her parents. In this part, only available one Value (My first time). When Theme and Rheme analyzed, in Orientation consist of Unmarked Topical Theme and Mark Topical Theme especially Nominal Group. Where this Theme as a simple theme because only consist of Theme and Rheme. The sentences only contain of simple sentences. And then the sentence is Mark Topical Theme which is not the subject, for example in sentence (On Sunday, my parents, my best friend Novi and I visited a cave) (Gerot and Wignel, 1994:104). Table.1 Process type in the orientation of the recount text
Proc ess type ateria M ental M erba V elationa R irc, C ehavior b xistenti e

l/ i ntensive

cause and possesi ve,

al

al

Tota l

In this unit, the participats do many things activites structurally. It begins to admire that place (The cave was famous for its primitive cave wall paintings ) and finally she walked around the cave guided by a guide. From that moment, she had knowledge about the cave. These activities use many Material Process, kind of Material Process used in events. Processes are central to Transitivty. Participants and Circumstances are incumbent upon the doings, happenings, feelings and beings. This suggests there are different kinds of goings on (Gerot and wignel, 1994:54). ( Novi and I adventured around the cave with a guide), the underlined word means that material process happen in that time. The participants can repeat her material process again. It is not her habit there. If the participant live there, it will be her habit. And it will be changed Behaver and Behavioral Process. For Behavioral Process like The humans who lived here ate the shells, in this activity, they eat the shells is their habit because they are living surounding the sea (seashells). Furthermore, it is the activity where it is a condition that almost every day the human around the cave eat shell. Behavioral Process divided into sets. The process are physiological or pshycological and the Range element name the actual process. In the second set, someone or something is actually acting, sometimes upon someone or something else (Gerot and Wignel:1994:62). Verbal processes are processes of saying,or more accurately, of symbolically signallying (sayer and Verbal Process)( Gerot and

Wignel:1994:62). The guide said that these piles of seashells are called kjokkenmoddinger, or kitchen trash. The guide explains, saying something about one of the place in the museum that called kjokenmodinger. Almost the clauses dominated by conjunction. In Theme , conjunction including Textual Theme. Conjunctions tend to provide Textual Theme within a clause complex and are called Structural Themes (Gerot and Wignel:1994:106). Likewise Conjunctions almost always occur at the beginning of a clause and carry the logicosemantic relations between clauses (Gerot and Wignel:1994:106). Table.2 Process type in the Events of the recount text
Process type ateria l M ent al M erb al V elation al/ i ntensiv e R irc, cause and possesiv e C ehavior al b xistenti al e

Total

8 6

After a quick lunch with Novi and my parents, we decided, in this sentence, to decide something, everyone use their thinking. And the clause we decided it doest need acting, but this verb uses sensing, perceving and thinking. Furthermore, this process called Mental Process. It needs physical moving. Mental Processes is not so much acting or acting upon in doing sense, as sensing having feeling, perceiving or thinking (Gerot and Wignel:1994:58). The word really in the last sentence of reorientation shows that what they feel after going to Leang Cave. Three kinds of Circumstances appear in the reorientation (Cir. Manner Quality, Time and Place). To go back home as a Rheme. Because there are no Topical as a Theme. But, this sentence including clause, to go as a verb

although it contains infinitive. Table.1 Process type in the orientation of the recount text
Process type ateri al M enta l M erb al V elation al/ i ntensi ve R irc, cause and possesiv e, C ehavio ral b xistent ial e

Total

Sambil Nunggu Dosen FG, Narsis dulu.kenangkenangan di Gedung yang belum di rehab.

REFERENCES

1. Th.M.Sudarwati,dkk(2006)Look A Head an English Course For Senior High School Students Year X.Jakarta:Erlangga. 2. Yuniarti Dwi Arini(2012)PR Bahasa Inggris Untuk SMA/MA.PT. Macana Jaya Cemerlang.Jakarta:PT Intan Pariwara. 3. Linda Gerot, Peter Wignell,(1994)Making Sense of Functional Grammar, Australia:Gerd Stabler.

TRANSITIVITY ANALYSIS
1. a. Orientation On Sunday Circ.Loc.Time My parents, my best friend Novi and I actor Pro: Mat Circ.Loc.Pl Visited A cave

b.

At Marros Token/Circ:Loc:Pl

called Pr:rel. Int:att

Leang-leang Attributive/Cir:Loc:Pl

It Token

Was Pr:Rel Int:Ident

My first time Value/Cir:Loc.Time

d.

To visit Pr:Mat

The cave Goal My best friend Actor it Goal Came Pro:Mat With me Circ:manner:quality

e. Better yet Circ:Loc.time f. To visit Pro:Mat 2. Events

Event I a. The cave Carrier Pr:rel Int:attributive Phenomenon was famous Attributive For its primitive cave wall paintings Goal

b.

Which

Were

Some hand prints and wild board paintings

Carrier

Pr:rel Int:att

attributive

JURNAL SUMARRY OF FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR SUBJECT Submitted as partial fulfillment the Final Test of Technologi Komunikasi Lecturer : Ade Suherman, S.pd.

By Noni Sukendah 2109120226

ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT FACULTY OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES AND TEACHERS TRAINING GALUH UNIVERSITY CIAMIS 2013