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# External Flow: Chapter 7 The Flat Plate in Parallel Flow

Summary

Physical Features

Physical Features

• As with all external flows, the boundary layers develop freely without constraint. • Boundary layer conditions may be entirely laminar, laminar and turbulent, or entirely turbulent. See text Section 7.2. • To determine the conditions, compute Re L =

ρ u∞ L u∞ L = μ ν

and compare with the critical Reynolds number for transition to turbulence, Re x , c .

Re L < Re x , c → laminar flow throughout
Re L > Re x , c → transition to turbulent flow at xc / L = Re x , c / Re L

• If boundary layer is tripped at the leading edge Re x . • Surface thermal conditions are commonly idealized as being of uniform temperature Ts or uniform heat flux q′′ s .) • Value of Re x . Nominally.g. c ≈ 5 × 105. . those with different fluids and fluid velocities. to geometrically similar surfaces experiencing different conditions.Physical Features (cont. as long as the similarity parameters and dimensionless boundary conditions are the same. the solution of the differential equations for non-dimension velocity and temperature will be the same. See the Text. e. c = 0 and the flow is turbulent throughout. Re x . • Thermal boundary layer development may be delayed by an unheated starting length. c depends on free stream turbulence and surface roughness.4. These are calculated as ρVL VL = → the Reynolds Number μ v c μ v Pr ≡ p = → the Prandtl Number α k Re L ≡ These dimensionless parameters allow us to apply results obtained for a surface experiencing convective heat transfer conditions. These are the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Therefore. Equivalent surface and free stream temperatures for x < ξ and uniform Ts x >ξ.2.. Section 7. (or q′′ s ) for We see there are two important dimensionless similarity parameters associated with the heat transfer in this case. or differences in size as described by the characteristic length. The Reynolds number represents the ratio of the inertia to the viscous forces The Prandtl number is the ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusivities.

Laminar vs turbulent flow. The functional relationship is determined for various geometries by analytical.2. Pr y* = 0 ( ) Nu → local Nusselt number In effect this states that the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient is a function of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. the temperature through the boundary layer is. m and n depend on the conditions of the problem.2.x ≡ and for Pr > 0. y* .. friction coefficient C f .2) or constant heat flux (Section 7. numerical or experimental means. Re L . Re L .g. x = 1. T* ≡ T − Ts = f x* .332 Re1/ x Pr k and δ = Pr1/3 δt • Average Boundary Layer Parameters: 1/ 2 C f . Solution for Flow over a Flat Plate • Subject to prescribed boundary conditions. numerical solutions to the momentum and energy equations yield the following results for the local boundary layer parameters: e.. Pr T∞ − Ts ( ) It can be shown that dimensionless local convection coefficient is then Nu ≡ hL ∂T * = * kf ∂y = f x* . For a flat plate the form of the expression is hx n Nu x = x = C ⋅ Re m x Pr k The values of the coefficients C.1 & 7. Tf = Ts + T∞ 2 . constant surface temperature (Section 7.664 Re1/ x Pr • The effect of variable properties may be considered by evaluating all properties at the film temperature.) • thus.Similarity Considerations (cont.g.6. for a prescribed geometry.328 Re − x 2 1/ 3 Nu x = 0.2.664 Re − x Nu x = hx x 2 1/ 3 = 0. e. x ρu / 2 2 ∞ 1/ 2 = 0.5) and the range of Re and Pr. τ s.

074 1742 C f .074 Re − L /5 1/ 3 Nu L = 0.037 Re 4 Re L Re L L − 871 Pr ( ) For Re x . 0.c = 5 × 105 . 1/ 5 C f .0296 Re 4 x Pr • Local Parameters: • Average Parameters: hL = 1 xc L ∫ h1am dx + ∫xc hturb dx L 0 ( ) Substituting expressions for the local coefficients and assuming Re x .0592 Re − x /5 1/ 3 Nu x = 0. L = 1/ 5 − /5 1/ 3 Nu L = 0. L = 0. x = 0.Turbulent Flow Turbulent Flow Empirical Correlations 1/ 5 C f . c = 0 or L  xc ( Re L  Re x . c ) .037 Re4 L Pr .

•Determine the h value from the Nu. usually evaluate properties at the film T + T∞ temperature T = s f 2 •Calculate the Re Number and Pr Number •Determine if you are looking for the local or average coefficient •Select the appropriate Nusselt number correlation (See Table 7.3): • Determine the flow geometry • Specify the reference temperatures & calculate fluid properties at that temperature.9) •Calculate Nusselt number and for the characteristic length scale.Methodology for a Convection Calculation To solve problems of this type (see Section 7. kf and the characteristic length •Substitute the h value in Newton’s Law of cooling and determine the heat transfer rate .

7 ×10−3 W/m ⋅ K /1m = 39. Orientation of Heated Surface (cont.2 W/m 2 ⋅ K ( 0. (b) Re x.037 1.7 )1/3 = 2139 > Nu L.1A ( Ts − T∞ ) = 39. k = 28. parametric calculations reveal that for L< 30 mm.2 × 10 m / s -6 2 -3 transition will occur just before the rough surface (xc = 0.36) ( ) For Configuration 1: h L. Air (Tf = 333K.7.1 = 1366 28.1 = ⎢0.037 1. Pr = 0.04 ×106. (see Eq.1 = 1366. ANALYSIS: For Configuration 1 with u L 20 m/s ×1m Re L = ∞ = = 1. 4/5 ⎡ ⎤ Nu L.04 ×106 − 871⎥ 0.21: Preferred orientation (corresponding to lower heat loss) and the corresponding heat rate for a surface with adjoining smooth and roughened sections.c = 5 × 105 for flow over A in Configuration 1.04 ×106 ( 0. it follows that the lowest heat transfer is associated with Configuration 1. Hence.) PROPERTIES: Table A-4.38 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) 4/5 Since Nu L. this configuration provides the preferred orientation. smooth rough Case 1 rough smooth Case 2 ASSUMPTIONS: (a) Surface B is sufficiently rough to trip the boundary layer when in the upstream position (Configuration 2). 7.71/3 = 1366 Eq.1 . Hence h L.2 × 10 m /s.2 W/m 2 ⋅ K q1 = h L. 7. . 1 atm): ν = 19. -6 2 ν 19.Problem: Orientation of Heated Surface Problem 7.7 × 10 W/m⋅K.1L k = Nu L.48m) for Configuration 1. In fact.2 = 0.5m × 1m )(100 − 20 ) K = 1568 W ( ) < Comment: For a very short plate. a lower heat loss may be associated with Configuration 2.

FIND: Initial rate of heat transfer from plate.688.0361W / m ⋅ K /1m ) 336 = 12.c = 5 × 10 5 . PROPERTIES: Table A-1.) SCHEMATIC: ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible radiation.4 × 10 m /s. (4) Negligible heat transfer from edges of plate.664 3. ρ = 7832 3 -6 2 kg/m . Tf = 433K): ν = 30.4 × 10 −6 m 2 / s = 3. Air (p = 1 atm. (2) Negligible effect of conveyor velocity on boundary layer development. (5) Re x. Table A-4. 2 1/ 3 = 0. k = 0.29 × 105 Nu L = 0. AISI 1010 steel (573K): kp = 49. (3) Plates are isothermal. flow is laminar over the entire surface. KNOWN: Plate dimensions and initial temperature.0361 W/m⋅K. Problem: Conveyor Belt (cont. Velocity and temperature of air in parallel flow over plates.2 W/m⋅K. c = 549 J/kg⋅K.1W / m 2 ⋅ K (1m ) 2 ( 300 − 20 ) °C = 6780 W .688)1/ 3 = 336 h = ( k / L ) Nu L = ( 0.Problem: Conveyor Belt Problem 7. Hence. ANALYSIS: The initial rate of heat transfer from a plate is q = 2 h As ( Ti − T∞ ) = 2 h L2 ( Ti − T∞ ) With Re L = u ∞ L / ν = 10 m / s × 1m / 30.1W / m 2 ⋅ K q = 2 × 12. (6) Constant properties. Pr = 0.664 Re1/ L Pr ( ) 1/ 2 ( 0.29 × 105 .24: Convection cooling of steel plates on a conveyor by air in parallel flow. Rate of change of plate temperature.

radiation exchange with the surroundings will be small and the assumption of negligible radiation is justifiable.4 × 10 .)   Performing an energy balance at an instant of time for a control surface about the plate.26°C / s dt i 7832 kg / m3 × 0. use of the lumped capacitance method is appropriate. − E out = E st . e_07_03_01 .006m × 549 J / kg ⋅ K dT = − h 2L2 ( Ti − T∞ ) dt i ( ) −4 COMMENTS: (1) With Bi = h ( δ / 2 ) / k p = 7. if adjoining plates are in close proximity.Problem: Conveyor Belt (cont. ρ δ L2c 2 12.1W / m 2 ⋅ K ( 300 − 20 ) °C dT =− = −0. (2) Despite the large plate temperature and the small convection coefficient.

fig_07_01 fig_07_02 .