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P R O J E C T P R O F I L E P P R R O O J E F I C L T E .

Readers should note that all BCA publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version. Slough. British Cement Association Wexham Springs. Crowthorne Berks Rh11 6Y5 Telephone: (0344) 762676 Fax: (0344) 761214 All advice or information from the British Cement Association is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitation of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application. .315 First published 1991 Reprinted 1992 ISBN 0 7210 1398 8 Price Group C © British Cement Association 1991 Published by the British Cement Association on behalf of the industry sponsors of the Reinforced Concrete Council. Berks 5L3 6PL Telephone: (0753) 662727 Fax: (0753) 660399 New address from 1 January 1993 Telford Avenue.97. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted.

Its members are Co-Steel Sheerness plc and Allied Steel and Wire. ACGI.P R O J E C T P R O F I L E G Baird BSc(Eng). CONTENTS s s THE PROJECT BUILDING SPECIFICATION Description 2 Space provisions Structure Enelope Internal finishes Services 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 6 6 8 8 9 10 11 12 s DESIGN AND PROCUREMENT Architecture Procurement Structure Services Structure Following trades Fitting out s CONSTRUCTION s s THE IN-SITU CONCRETE SOLUTION APPENDIX Project details 1 . Graham Baird is Deputy Managing Director of James Longley & Co Ltd and was closely involved with the design and construction of Parkside House. CEng. Woodstock Land plc. MCI0B C H Goodchild BSc. representing the major suppliers of reinforcing steel in the UK. and the British Cement Association. Tony Giddings acted as Project Manager for the developer. a Chartwell Land and Argent Group joint venture. CEng. MiStructE FOREWORD This publication was commissioned by the Reinforced Concrete Council. MCIOB. which was set up to promote better knowledge and understanding of reinforced concrete design and building technology. Charles Goodchild is Senior Engineer for the Reinforced Concrete Council. representing the major manufacturers of Portland cement in the UK. FICE AJ Giddings BSc.

It occupies a narrow site adjoining Roseberv Park in Epsom. and above all. Using the same type of construction in the basement and superstructure gave continuity of work and distinct programme advantages. However. Surrey. Built within budget and completed four weeks ahead of programme. In-situ concrete also gave greater flexibility for management control.P R O J E C T P R O F I L E THE PROJECT Parkside House is a high-quality office block on the south-west outskirts of London. Many different structural solutions were proposed by the contractors invited to tender. the structure set the standard for this highly prestigious £5 million project. and two levels of basement car parking below. delays in planning approvals. it gave the most economic solution. It provides a modern working environment close to the busy town centre with its excellent road. In-situ concrete construction reduced the overall height and minimized excavation in potentially verv difficult ground conditions. The south elevation from Rosebery Park 2 . and the need for faster procurement and cost savings. The building has three storeys of office accommodation above ground. The project was conceived as an in-situ concrete frame with the intention of using traditional forms of contract. and is a handsome addition to the 18th and 19th centurv character of the surrounding area. However. led to the adoption of a design and build form of contract. rail and motorway links. the successful contractor chose in-situ reinforced concrete for the basement and frame.

The basement has 133 car parking spaces on two levels each with a clear floor-to-soffit height of 2. one of the country’s leading firms of actuaries. with an internal clear height of 2. It also reflected the needs and aspirations of the proposed tenants.2 m to suit both office and basement car parking layouts.P R O J E C T P R O F I L E BUILDING SPECIFICATION Description The building is relatively large but traditional in appearance with clean and elegant lines. Structure A reinforced concrete raft foundation supports the basement walls and the concrete frame.0 x 7. A steel-framed mansard roof is fixed to the second floor columns and incoiporates precast floor units for the flat roofs and plant areas. The specification sought to describe a high-quality speculative office development in order to attract institutional funding. Office Second floor offices – a versatile working environment 3 . Its principal features are as follows: three levels of office accommodation basement and surface parking for 184 cars ground-floor client reception area air conditioning raised floors automatic lifts flexible office planning traditional cavity walls and pitched roof roof-level plant room and open areas.3 m. The structural grid is generally 6.60 m in all office areas. Another 51 spaces are provided at ground level. including four levels of in-situ concrete floors. • • • • • • • • • The approach to Pakeside House Spacious parking is provided in the two basement levels Space provisions The building provides 3200 m2 net lettable space on three floors.

and two ten-person hydraulic lifts give direct access to the car park levels. They were planned around a central maple joinery in a /ifi lobOy area 4 . Envelope The elevations are traditional brick and insulating block cavity walls. Traditional in character modern in concept Architecture A team of consultants was appointed to produce a conceptual design and to secure planning approvals. Two levels of basement were necessary to provide the required number of parking spaces. lay-in tiles and 675 mm ceiling voids. Basements are fairfaced concrete. The site was laid out to maximize surface parking and to give good access to the offices and basement.5 kN/m2.areas arc designed for an imposed load of 4 kN/m2 plus 1 kN/m2 for partitions. The site measures 120 m long by 30 m wide with mad access at one end. to give the occupiers natural light and commanding views over the park. Reception and lobby areas feature low-voltage halogen downlighters.5 m in width. painted walls and columns are enhanced by the extensive use of maple joinery. giving the building a comprehensive range of facilities and environmental control.5 kN/m2. It has parkland on one side and a substantial four-storey office block on the other. highquality carpet tiles cover the 150 mm raised floors. Lighting is provided by antiglare luminaires. A pitched slate roof surrounds areas of flat roof. The floors provide flexible space based on a 600 mm square grid. Many other services are provided. Services The offices are air conditioned with zonal controls for optimum comfort. Basement parking areas are designed for 2. The office floors were designed to bc a maximum of 14. Plant areas and oflice storage zones are designed for 7. Internal finishes Offke areas have suspended ceilings with exposed grids. The brief called for a design which reflected the character of Epsom’s elegant buildings and which maximized the development potential of the site. they are highlighted with reconstituted stone features and rendered areas.

Rainwater goods match the colour of the roof. It is punctuated by dormers clad with white UPVC boarding. The pitched roof is finished with dark grey fibrous cement slates. External details complement local architecture Open plant area at roof level Groundfloor windows . Chillers are positioned in open areas at either end of the building. with escape stairs at each end. lintels. Extensive hard and soft landscaping complements the building and surroundings. with the main elevation facing the park.a design that makes the building appealing yet unobtrusive.contrasting colours and textures are used on all elevations . Facades of yellow stock brickwork contrast with cream-coloured render above ground floor verandas and windows. architraves and decorative arches feature in all elevations. These areas allow room for any future increase in plant requirements. and their frames are white polyester powder-coated aluminium. a feature bell tower. colonnades. Light reconstituted stone cornices.core. lead flashings and copper finials. The elevations were modulated to ensure that views from the park are interesting and broken into well proportioned elements . well screened behind the line of the pitched roof. The windows and doors have a grey anti-sun coating to the outer pane of double glazing. The building was arranged to be symmetrical about the central reception area and was placed centrally over the basement. The main plant room is located within the roof space over the central core.

and for the development of the design during the negotiation stages. Following contract sum analyses and interviews. which had the support of a pre-let agreement. previous buildings were demolished under a separate contract February 1992: Parkside House is complete. precast concrete and steel. the pond gives an indication of the potential ground problemsfaced by the design and build contractor Site plan . was made in December 1988. They provided fully quantified allinclusive construction prices together with workedup architectural. with water under artesian pressure close beneath the intended formation level. When six first-stage tenders were received. A detailed planning application. It featured heavily in the report and had a great influence on the ultimate choice of foundation. the developer was surprised to find five different design solutions for the basement and three alternatives for the superstructure. Piezomcter readings indicated that the water could rise to the level of the upper basement slab. it was decided to USC a 750 mm thick raft foundation. so the frame material was not specified. Structure The contractor’s structural design was geared towards saving costs and simplifying construction as much as possible. Two contractors were invited to respond to the second stage tender. The soils investigation report showed the site to consist of Reading beds overlying Thanet sands. James Longley & Co Ltd were appointed under a JCT ‘81 form of contract. structural and M&E drawings. Their successful bid hinged on economies resulting from their structural solution . The original scheme and lease agreement called for an in-situ concrete frame. However. the developer needed to reduce the overall programme and costs. By using a raft and October 1990: work starts with probing for obstructions to temporary works pi/es. including in-situ concrete. the developer did not wish to inhibit other contractorled design solutions.an in-situ reinforced concrete basement and frame. This was seen as the quickest and most cost-effective way forward whilst achieving a truly competitive and fixed price. The original design team was not novated but was retained for advisory and monitoring services. The application was refused but overturned on appeal in January 1990. With the prelet agreement running. This had obvious implications for design and construction. He therefore opted for a two-stage design and build procurement route. After careful consideration.Procurement The site was acquired in November 1988 with the intention of providing additional office space in Epsom using a traditional procurement route.

Stability against lateral loads was achieved by moment connections between columns and floors. The raft automatically provided a running surface at lower basement level which. and by using the same moulds. Fire and load considerations dictated 350 mm slabs for the suspended basement and external ground floor slabs. For additional protection. This optimized thickness and weight. lent itself to traditional timber rafter construction supported on a steelwork frame. The roof level was maintained by adjusting the ground floor level. the excavation depth was rninimized. 400 mm square. gave a positive programme advantage over other types of foundation. The upper basement. from top of raft to underside of ground floor in one pour). The roof profile and shape. .. To speed the critical basement construction. Above ground floor level. ground.trough slabs with flat soffits. The raft avoided piling and the need for major de-watering during construction.. and the risk of the ground ‘boiling’ during excavation was reduced. The various Reading beds of clay plant areas were supported by Section through south elevation with screed Clear office OFFICES .. frame action was used to reduce the number of time-consuming concrete walls. and 325 mm thick slabs for the offices. first and second floor slabs were all designed as one-way spanning troughed floors with integral flat soffit beams. coupled with the many dormers. It was decided that the transition from concrete to steel should occur at eaves level to suit the sequence of trades. It also reduced risks of differential settlement and of concentrated pressures overloading an existing contiguous-piled retaining wall.+v: Reconstituted stone cornice and features W I T Ceiling and floor voids for services All superstructure columns one size OFFICES CAR PARK over Thanet sands 7 . it was decided to reduce the number of pours by constructing the 275 mm thick walls two storeys high (i. gave maximum repetition.-. continuity and speed of construction. All superstructure columns are the same size. together with the use of simple prefabricated main steel reinforcement. A combination of flexible rubber waterbars and water-activated expansion seals was used to ensure the water-tightness of all construction joints.e. and they align with basement columns and walls to avoid costly transition beams. the outside of the basement walls was painted with bitumen and the outside of the kicker joint was covered with rigid sheets of bentonite..

Sprayed thermal insulation to the underside of the ground floor offices gives an additional two hours’ fire resistance. Lighting levels were set at an average of 500 lux. On the park elevation. facilities for power. tracks and supporting steel grillage. lightning protection and. Structure Construction started in October 1990. The early stages were dominated by restricted access and by work on the large double basement. Air is taken from the office space via luminaires. a thin strip of free land was needed for a rail-mounted tower crane with its 32 piles. The building’s basement area occupies the vast majority of the site. a king post retaining wall and by an existing contiguous bored pile wall Basement wall kickers were cast integrally with the raftfoundation The building services were designed for an occupancy of one person per 10 m2 and an air supply of 12 litres per person per second. Services 77~ east elevation and entrance to the basement car park The 6 m deep excavation for the raft foundation was bounded by the crane runway. sanitation. Fire ratings were achieved primarily by using concrete’s inherent fire resistance. and fan units at either end provide six air changes per hour.precast concrete hollow-core units spanning onto steelwork with shelf angles. hose reels. Staircases are heated by panel radiators with thermostatic control valves. water softening. passed through the fan coil units and mixed with a ducted air supply. Temporary works for the 6 m excavation included the construction of a king-post retaining wall at the west end of the site. Air conditioning is provided by 80 four-pipe fan coil units per floor. drainage. Extract air is ducted and dispersed into the atmosphere. Internal design temperature is 21°C with 50% RH. Office lighting is provided by 600 x 600 mm modular recessed fluorescent luminaires suspended from the false ceiling grid system. telecommunications and data wiring. It has a comprehensive sprinkler and hose reel installation. hot and cold water supply. It is then heated or cooled as required before being returned through ceiling vents. which left only a very small space at the entrance for storing materials and site accommodation. within the raised floor void. fire alarms. Zone sensors and time switching give optimum environmental control. the other pulls. One set of fans pushes. The basement car park is lit using moistureprotected fluorescent fittings. and the re-use of the existing Ready to cast basement walls full height 8 . kitchen and toilet ventilation. Other services include lifts.

To enable work to continue. and surface water was controlled by pumping from four sumps. depending on demand. Formations were concreteblinded as soon as they were exposed. The steel mansard frames were subsequently erected onto the second floor columns. BS 8102: Protection of structures against water from the ground was used to assess the performance of this type of construction and its suitability for car park use. the snow was cleared manually. formwork was protected with polythene sheeting and cast slabs were covered with insulating blankets. Following trades The external cavity walls were started as sections of the second floor slab were struck. the open ends of the formwork were enclosed and blower heaters installed. During construction of the ground floor. and the precast concrete flooring units were then placed. plywood strips and polystyrene trough moulds. The basement walls were cast in two-storey high bays with keys and continuity bars included for the suspended basement slab. The first and second floors were poured in 400 m2 bays with 1 m strips left between each pour to allow for early-age thermal shrinkage. The in-situ staircases were cast with adjacent pours to give easy and safe access throughout the construction period. The 1 m strips were cast five days after the last adjacent pour. the site was beset by severe weather and heavy snowfall. giving safe and A wall construction joint alro showing continuity bars and keys for the suspended basement slab Pouring the upper basement slab The terraced sequence of construction: ground floor and upper basement slabs The first floor slab remains propped as external walls start 9 . The external water bar was welded and laid in the configuration of the raft and wall pours. The concrete frame was completed four weeks ahead of schedule. The raft slab was completed in eight pours with falls.contiguous-piled wall on the northern boundary. The suspended slabs were formed using a proprietary falsework system supporting trussed timber beams. One 20 mm expansion joint was incorporated. Concreting was able to continue by using heated mixing water. but these leaks were later sealed using epoxy mortar. Water did seep through a few of the basement kicker and wall joints. Kickers for the basement walls were formed integrally with the raft slab. Construction of the suspended basement and ground floor slabs followed in quick succession and led to the ‘terraced’ sequencing of the remaining structure. The other sides were battered and a ramp gave access to the deep excavation. drainage channels and cast iron pipework cast in. Reinforcement was fixed and checked before the slabs were concreted using a pump or crane and skip.

two weeks ahead of programme. security gates. Progress in the risers and main plant room was critical but the majority of the work lay in installing the four-pipe fan coil system. electrical first fix and ductwork to begin at an early stage. The reconstituted stone cornices weighed up to 1. Toilets are fully tiled and fitted with highquality cubicle partitions and vanity units. the access road. Raised floors are steel-encapsulated panels on pedestals. Screeded treads were provided to receive carpet. data and voice transmission wiring to 400 10 . veneered fire doors and lobby screens provide a high-quality joinery finish. The ceilings consist of an exposed grid and 600x600 mm lay-in tiles. Galvanized steel wind posts were fixed ahead of the bricklayers. The walls. Installation of the office heating and air conditioning started at ground floor level once the superstructure was weathertight. insulation and the reconstituted stone features. security systems. Parkside House was completed in 69 weeks. Trees and beech hedgerows completed the soft landscaping scheme. The weathertight nature of the basement allowed the sprinkler system. planters and other hard landscaping. a timber-crib retaining wall. frames. refuse and escape stair enclosures. These units were supported by stainless steel fixing systems connected to a concrete upstand beam at second floor level and to the steel frame at the upper level. Staircase finishes include decorated mild steel balustrades with either maple rollmop or moulded handrails. Maple window boards. The pitched roof frame was completed with timber rafters. were then built. The building was made watertight by mastic asphalt to the inverted flat roofs and profiled sheeting to the surrounding vertical faces. lighting. parking bays. skirtings. This 18-week contract included additional air conditioning.The reconstituted stone features were built into the insulated cavity walls Second floor columns support the roof steelwork The cornices are supported by stainless steel fixings Services riser duct clear access below.4 tonnes per metre run. Fitting out The design and build contractor was also awarded the tenant’s fitting-out works. an electrical substation. slates and architectural finishing details. External works included road improvements. complete with ties. battens over felt. drainage. They incorporate the lighting system and 240 individual fan coil units above discreetly marked 1200x600 mm access points. Internal columns and blockwork walls are plastered and incorporate crack control joints using back-to-back beads and silicone joints. where torsional distortion caused some delay before the problem was resolved.

speed and economy: a range of advantages that were ideal for such a prestigious and demanding project. by continuing the in-situ concrete construction of the basement through to the superstructure. By using a raft foundation and in-situ trough floors. The adaptations needed to the building’s services and partitions were facilitated by the flexibility given by the flat concrete soffits and uniform ceiling voids. It ensured buildability. notably in the reception area for clients. there was little to choose between steel. Minimizing structural floor zones also reduced the amount of external cladding. there were distinct advantages in overall speed and economy. and extensive internal partitioning. speed.terminals. Good production rates were established early and maintained throughout. Many factors swayed the contractor’s decision in favour of an in-situ concrete frame. Clients’ reception lounge Parkside House. The final installation and later modification of services were simplified by having no downstand beams. Alternative frames required downstand beams and hence suffered from the unnecessary risks and costs of digging a deeper basement. precast or in-situ concrete on the three-storey superstructure alone. the material had to change. the in-situ reinforced concrete frame proved to be the best option for Parkside House. economy and versatility 11 . Tenant requirements. it was possible to minimize structural zones and raise the general founding level without increasing the building’s height. In-situ concrete gave flexibility. As for speed of construction. fittings and fixtures. The double basement was clearly a case for reinforced concrete. In summary. but a steel-framed solution was the more obvious choice for the mansard roof Somewhere between these two points. . were easily accommodated. including a late variation in imposed loading to an area of floor. It was essential to avoid the danger of the ground ‘boiling’ during excavation. The level soffits of the trough slabs gave a great deal of freedom for the alternative M & E design solutions under consideration at the beginning of the contract. Risks and costs were therefore reduced.. a story of cowete quality. It allowed effective management control of progress and gave time for finalized detailed design (particularly important under design and build forms of contract). flexibility. However.

0 7. Frame Roof External walls Internal walls and doors Finishes Fittinm Services.7 1.24 49.81 207.65 28.0 12 .2 4.84 49.76 IO.22 8.8 6.9 7.4 s r.06 % 13. M & E.0 4.3 100.A P P E N D I X Developer Woodstock Land plc.4 32.68 12.91 40.23 642. a Chartwell Land and Argent Group joint venture Broadway Malyan Campbell Reith Hill Kenchington Ford Turner Fletcher Mills James Longley & Co Ltd Developer’s Design Team Conceptual Architect Structural Engineer Services Engineer Cost Consultants Design and Build Contractor 1990 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY 1991 JUN JUL AUC SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN 1992 FEB ESTABLISH SITE BASEMENT mm I FINISHES EXTERNAL WORKS COMMISSION & HANDOVER Gross floor area Basement car park (gross) Net lettable area Number of storevs Number of basement levels 8050 m2 4166 m2 3202 m2 3 2 Substructure £/m2 84. lifts etc External works etc Preliminaries Design fees and LA fees Total 65.1 10.2 2.44 64.68 31.

Start Finish Duration October 1990 February 1992 16 months ( Second Jloor 1 6000 I- 6000 Ground floor 3000 5800 7200 7200 7200 7500 7500 7200 7500 7500 7200 7200 7200 5000 6000 6000 .

A.J. Baird. Giddings and CH.95:725.329 con@rete . Goodchild 1 693. EPSOM G.111.PROJECT PROFILE: PARKSIDE HOUSE.23 (410.51) BRITISH CEMENT ASSOCIATION PUBLICATION 97.