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Essentials of Process Control

Walker. D. Baekeland.McGraw-Hill Chemical Engineering Series Editorial Advisory Board James J. Jackson. School University . University of James Dean. this committee submitted its report to the McGraw-Hill Book Company in September 1925. From the universities as William H. D. Michael T. Cat-berry. thermodynamics. James R. Klein. Chemical engineering is a dynamic profession. H. Reese. N. Peters. From industry came such pioneer practitioners as Leo H. stoichiometry. John V. and Harry A. The McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical Engineering stands as a unique historical record of the development of chemical engineering education and practice. McGraw-Hill. Schowalter. McBride. Lewis. of Emeritus Advisory Board Max S. D. kinetics. Curtis. After several meetings. Kirkpatrick as consulting editor. with its editor B. and indeed lead. Whitaker. Colorado Building the Literature of a Profession Fifteen prominent chemical engineers first met in New York more than 60 years ago to plan a continuing literature for their rapidly growing profession. From this beginning there has evolved a series of texts surpassing by far the scope and longevity envisioned by the founding Editorial Board. the needs of the chemical engineering profession during the years to come. Matthew Tirrell. Dorr. M. Arthur D. and its literature continues to evolve. Professor Eduardo D. then editor of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering. Fair. C. and R. Retired Professor of Chemical William P. and transfer operations. Little. H. J. School Engineering. Charles L. White. In the series one finds the milestones of the subject’s evolution: industrial chemistry. unit operations and processes. Parmelee. Dean. In the report were detailed specifications for a correlated series of more than a dozen texts and reference books which have since Engineering and which became the become the McGraw-Hill Series in cornerstone of the chemical engineering curriculum. Clark and its consulting editors. remains committed to a publishing policy that will serve.. served as chairman and was joined subsequently by S. . Warren K. C. James. came such eminent J. Alfred H. S.

and Schuit: Chemistry of Catalytic Processes Holland: Fundamentals of Multicomponent Distillation Katz and Lee: Natural Gas Engineering: Production and Storage King: Separation Processes Lee: Fundamentals of Microelectronics Processing Luyben: Process Modeling.Series Bailey and Bennett and Myers: Momentum. Simulation. Katzer. Heat. and Poling: Properties of Gases and Liquids Smith: Chemical Engineering Kinetics Smith and Van Ness: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Treybal: Mass Transfer Operations Valle-Reistra: Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries Hazardous Waste Management . and Transfer Approach Brodkey and Hershey: Transport Phenomena: A Carberry: Chemical and Reaction Engineering Constantinides: Applied Numerical Methods with Personal Computers Coughanowr: Process Systems Analysis and Control de Nevers: Air Pollution Control Engineering de Nevers: Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers Douglas: Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes Edgar and Himmelblau: Optimization of Chemical Processes Gates. and Control for Chemical Engineers Luyben and Luyben: Essentials of Process Control McCabe. Smith. Prausnitz. and Harriott: Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering Marlin: Process Control: Designing Processes and Control Systems Dynamic Middlemann and Hochberg: Process Engineering Analysis in Semiconductor Device Fabrication Perry and Chilton (Editors): Perry Chemical Engineers’ Handbook Peters: Elementary Chemical Engineering Peters and Timmerhaus: Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers Reid.


INC. Luyben Du Pont Central Research and Development Experimental Station William L.Essentials of Process Control Michael L. Luyben Department of Chemical Engineering Lehigh University THE MCGRAW-HILL COMPANIES. .

Luyben. William L. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Luyben. I. use ISBN o-07-114193-6 Printed in Singapore . The cover was designed by Wanda Kossak. II.. This book cannot be re-exported from the country to which it is consigned by McGraw-Hill. the production supervisor was Denise L. The editors were Clark and John M. 1997 96-8642 When ordering this title. Includes index. Copyright 1997 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. cm. All rights reserved. ISBN o-07-039 172-6. ISBN o-07-039 1. Title. Inc. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976.8 9 0 BJE PMP 9 8 7 This book was set in Times Roman by Publication Services. or stored in a data base or retrieval system. Chemical process control.ESSENTIALS OF PROCESS CONTROL International Editions 1997 Exclusive rights by McGraw-Hill Book Co-Singapore for manufacture and export. no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. William L. Inc. Luyben. Michael L. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Luyben. 2 3 4 5 6 7. (date) Essentials of process control Michael L.

Dr. he joined the Process Control and Modeling Group in the Central Research and Development Department of Du Pont. re- searcher. Luyben is currently a research Engineer with Du Pont’s Central Research and Development Department. Michael L. While a student. in Chemistry (1988) from Lehigh University. in Chemical Engineering (1987) and B. he worked during several summers in industry.D. in Chemical Engineering at Princeton University in 1993. He was the recipient of the strumentation Technology Award in 1969 from the Instrument Society of America.D. including two summers with Du Pont and one summer with Bayer in Germany. Luyben received his B. from the introductory course in mass and energy balance through the capstone senior design course and an interdisciplinary controls laboratory. Luyben worked for the Engineering Department of Du Pont in process dynamics and control of chemical plants. His work has focused on the dynamic modeling and control of chemical and polymer plants. in Chemical He then worked for Exxon Engineering from Pennsylvania State University in Refinery and at the Abadan Refinery (Iran) in plant for five years at the technical service and petroleum processing design. . Luyben has taught at Lehigh University since 1967 and has participated in the development of several innovative undergraduate courses. and practicing engineer. Dr. Luyben has authored a number of papers on plantwide control and on the interaction of process design and process control. from the University of Delaware in 1963.S. Luyben is an active consultant for industry in the area of process Education Award in 1975 and the Incontrol. William L.AUTHORS William Luyben has devoted over 40 years to his profession as teacher. Dr. Dr.S. After earning his Ph. Michael L. working with Professor Chris Floudas. He has worked on plant improvement studies and on the design of new facilities. author.S. After completing his Ph. He has directed the theses of more than 40 graduate-students and has authored or coauthored six textbooks and over 130 technical papers. Luyben received his B. Luyben is currently a Professor of Chemical Engineering at Lehigh University.


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2.2.2 Control of a Three-Tank Process 1 2 6 1.3 1.5 Conclusion Problems 54 58 59 67 67 Conventional Control Systems and Hardware .2.3.2 Perturbation Variables 36 27 27 31 2.4 General Concepts and Terminology Laws.4 Solution Using 2.2. Languages.4 Analog and Digital Controllers 3.1 87 for Closedloop Response 3.3 Nth-Order Linear with Constant Coefficients 2.2 Second-Order Linear with Constant 2.3. I’ Sensors 3.2 Languages Control 1. and Levels of Process Control Process Control Laws 1.1 Classification and Definition 2.2 Examples of Process Dynamics and Control Some Important Simulation Results 1.2.1 1.1.3 Responses of Simple Linear Systems 2.3 Levels of Process Control Process 20 22 .1 Control Instrumentation 3.1 Proportional and Proportional-Integral Level Control 1.1.2 Transmitters 3.Preface xvii 1 Introduction 1.1.5 Conclusion 24 P A R T Time Domain Dynamics and Control 2 Time Domain Dynamics 2.4. Performance of Feedback Controllers 3.3 Control Valves 3.1.5 Computing and Logic Devices 3.2 Linearization and Perturbation Variables 2.2.1 First-Order Linear Ordinary Differential Equation 2.1 Linearization 2. 3.2 Load Pcrjormance .1.

4 Conclusions Problems 99 99 4 Advanced Control Systems 4.7 Conclusion 6 Plantwide Control Conclusion Problems 120 122 126 128 129 135 135 5 Interaction between Steady-State Design and Dynamic Controllability 5.3.2 Consecutive 165 5.1 Ratio Control 4.3.2 6.62 Basic Concepts of the Reactor-Column-Recycle 5.4 Impact of Controllability on Capital Investment and Yield 5.3 Series Cascades of Units Effect of Recycle on Time Constants Snowball Effects in Recycle Systems .1 Steady-State Design 5.2 Gravity-Flow Condenser Simple Quantitative Example 5.3 Tuning 3.5 5.6 Valve Position (Optimizing) Control 4. I Rules of 3.4. I Liquid Holdups 5.2 Trial 3.7 Feedforward Control Concepts 4.4 TyreusMethod Error 3.2.1 Single-Reaction Case Reactions Case 5.2 Cascade Control 4.1 6.8 Control System Design Concepts 4.2 Dynamic Controllability 5.3 Computed Variable Control 4.51 151 152 Introduction Qualitative Examples 5.2 5.6 General Trade-off between Controllability and Thermodynamic Reversibility Quantitative Economic Assessment of Steady-State Design and Dynamic Controllability Alternative Approaches Capacity-Based Method Example 5.3.1 5.4 Override Control 4.3 Maximum Heat Removal Rate Criterion 153 5.3.3 Ziegler-Nichols Method 3.xii 3.5 Nonlinear and Adaptive Control 4.

2. I Closedloop Characteristic Equation and Closedloop Transfer Functions 265 265 8.8 Conclusion Problems 254 255 255 8 Laplace-Domain Analysis of Conventional Feedback Control Systems 8.2 Incomplete Conversion Case 6.1 7.3 Sine 7.6.2 Stability Examples 7.6 6.2 Poles and Zeros 241 249 7.4 Transfer Functions Transforms 234 237 7.5.1 and Closedloop Systems Characteristic Equation 8.2 Ramp 7.2 with Respect to Time 7.3 Interaction between Design and Control 6.2 Linearity Property 230 229 229 Transformation of Important Functions Integration 7.3 Performance Specifications 8.1 Step 7.6. I Dejnition 7.6 Properties of Transfer Functions 7.2.4 of Steady-State Sensitivity Analysis to Screen Plantwide Control Structures Control Screened 190 6. Complete One-Pass Conversion 6.2.7 Transfer Functions for Feedback Controllers 7.2 Dynamic 271 273 .7 Plantwide Control Design Procedure Conclusion Problems 220 222 222 P A R T 2 Laplace-Domain Dynamics and Control 7 Laplace-Domain Dynamics 7.4 Exponential 7.5.3 Inversion of 7.4 7.5.5 Exponential Multiplied by Time 7.61 Physical Realizability 7. I Steady-State Specifications Steady-State Gains Multiplication by a Constant 7.6 Impulse (Dirac Delta Function 7.2 Transformation Fundamentals 7.4 Stability Analysis 6.4.5 Second-Order Reaction Example 6.2.1.

Series Cascade 9. 9.5 Model-Based Control 9.1 Nyquist Stability Criterion 11.5.3 Openloop-Unstable Processes 9.? Il.3.3 Representation 10.1 Definition 10.1.4 Computer Plotting FORTRAN Programs for Plotting Frequency Response 10.1 Cascade Control 9.1 Simple Systems 9.3.3 Representation 372 372 .4 Processes with Inverse Response 9.1 Direct Synthesis 9.6 Conclusion P A R T 3 Frequency-Domain Dynamics and Control 339 339 341 344 10.2 Internal Model Control 9.2.3 Nichols Plots 10.5 Conclusion Problems 287 288 9 Laplace-Domain Analysis of Advanced Control Systems 9.3.5 Conclusion Problems 369 370 11 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Closedloop Systems I 1.4.1 Nyquist Plots 10.4 on Controllability 316 of Lags of Reactor Scale-up 323 326 331 331 9.2 Bode Plots 360 10 Frequency-Domain Dynamics Program for Plotting Frequency Response 10.4 Root Locus Analysis I Construction of Root Locus Curves 276 Proof I.2 .2 Nonlinear 9.2 Feedforward Control 9.2 Basic Theorem 10. 1. I Parallel Cascade 301 301 308 9.xiv 8.3 PD Control 9.1 Linear Feedforward Control Feedforward Control 9.5.

3 Selection of Manipulated Variables 13.1 Engineering Judgment Decomposition 11.1.6 407 412 414 414 P A R T 4 Multivariable Processes 4 2 9 429 12 Matrix Representation and Analysis 12.2.2 Selection of Controlled Variables 13.5 BLT Tuning 13.4. 459 460 461 466 . I Closedloop Characteristic Equation 12.6 Load Rejection Performance .X V I 11.4 Conclusion Problems 13 Design of Controllers for Multivariable Processes 13.2 Stability 12. Three-CSTR Process with 11.3.2 Singular 456 456 457 13.1 Problem Definition 13. in the Frequency Domain Log Modulus I 11.2 Decoupling 447 452 452 12. I Response of Feedback Controllers Controller (PI) Controller I Examples 11. I Matrix Properties Transfer Function Representation 12.4 Elimination of Poor Pairings 13.2.3 State Variables Niederlinski Index 440 12.1 Matrix Representation 12.2.3 Interaction Relative Gain Array 12.3 Processes First-Order 397 Use of for Frequency Response Plots Capacity-Based Method for Quantifying Controllability 11.7 Conclusion Problems 11.2 Multivariuble Nyquist Plot 12.2.

4.2 Impulse Sampler 14.8 Conclusion Problems 471 472 472 P A R T Sampled-Data Systems 14 Sampling.3 Physical Realizability 15. and Stability 14.7 and Closedloop Systems 14.7 Model Predictive Control 13.3 Effect of Root Locus Design Methods 15. 15.2.2 Frequency-Domain Design Techniques 15.2 Derivation of Transforms of Common Functions 14.5 Inversion 480 483 486 Pulse Transfer Functions 14.4 14.8 Stability in the Plane 14.2.6 Hold Devices 14.3 Basic Sampling Theorem Transformation 14. I Identification I 545 546 Frequency .1 Definition 14.1 Nyquist Method of Criterion 15.5 Conclusion Problems P A R T 6 Identification 16 Process Identification 16.4 Transform Theorems 14.4 Minimal-Prototype Design 15. I. I Definition 14. 511 513 513 521 15 Stability Analysis of Sampled-Data Systems .1 Introduction 14. Transforms.2 Rigorous Approximate Method 15.4.9 Conclusion Problems 496 498 499 509 5 1.1.xvi Use 528 529 535 535 15.1 Fundamental Concepts 16.2 Occurrence of Sampled-Data Systems in Chemical Engineering 477 477 14.1.

7. Conclusion Problems Methods Identification Toolbox 556 560 565 565 567 567 571 Appendix A Computer Programs Nonlinear Model Appendix B: Instrumentation Hardware Index .5 Least-Squares 16.3 16.2 16. I Functions Transfer 16.4 Direct Methods I Direct Wave Testing Pulse Testing Relay Feedback Identification 16.6 Use of the 16.4.16.


1956) was a modest 230 pages. and (most important) useful. Our intended audience is junior and senior undergraduate chemical engineering students. not impress them with elegant mathematics or language. Simulation programs (in FORTRAN) for a number of example processes are used to generate dynamic results. The recently published text by Ogunnaike and Ray (1994) runs 1250 pages! It seems obvious to us that more material has been developed than can be taught in a typical one-semester undergraduate course in process control. or garbage trucks. clear. we hope you find the book readable. The senior author’s first edition ( 1973) was 560 pages. a short and concise textbook is needed that presents only the essential aspects of process control that every chemical engineering undergraduate ought to know. (1989) was 710 pages.PREFACE The field of process control has grown rapidly since its inception in the evidence of this growth in the body of knowledge is easily found by comparing the lengths of the textbooks written over this time period. those students who want to specialize in control can go further by referring to more comprehensive texts. xix . The purpose of this book is to fulfill this need. we devote two chapters to them. Therefore. Therefore. This book is intended to be a learning tool. mechanical. We illustrate this in several places in the text. One of the unique features of this book involves our coverage of two increasingly important areas in process design and process control. The first is the interaction between steady-state design and control. The second is plantwide control with particular emphasis on the selection of control structures for an entire multi-unit process. All engineering fields use the same mathematics for dynamics and control. Other books have not dealt with these areas in any quantitative way. Because we feel that these subjects are central to the missions of process design engineers and process control engineers. emphasis is placed The mathematics of the subject are minimized. The book is meant to provide the fundamental concepts and the practical tools needed by all chemical engineers. The text by Seborg et al. We try to educate our readers. 747 jumbo jets. Designing control systems for chemical reactors and distillation columns in chemical engineering has direct parallels with designing control systems for F-16 fighters. Plotting and analysis are accomplished using aided software (MATLAB). Ferrari sports cars. The popular Coughanowr and (1965) text was 490 pages. Since many advanced control topics are not included. and electrical. regardless of the particular area they eventually enter. such as Ogunnaike and Ray (1994). The first process control book (Cealgske. on examples that illustrate principles and concepts of great practical importance. examples and problems that the interdisciWe have injected industry utilize the talplinary nature of the control field. Most control groups ents of engineers from many disciplines: chemical.

A steady-state analysis. or supercomputer exercise will overcome our ignorance if we ignore the true subject of our work. At a minimum. we need to know what characteristics (deadtimes. transport rates. Finally. they must be robust to changes in operating conditions and process variables. you will covered the essential areas of process control. and capacitances) govern the dynamic response of the system. Luyben William L. mathematical manipulation. Michael L. and uncertainties. Considerations of controllability need to be incorporated into the process design. 3. Careful attention must be paid to the practical consequences of any proposed control strategy. then we can apply the basic principles of process control to solve engineering problems. and they must work reliably. we must recognize that the design of a process fundamentally determines how it will respond dynamically and how it can be controlled. We must also understand something about the dynamic behavior of the individual units and the process as a whole. It is always best to utilize the simplest control system that will achieve the desired objectives. Sophistication and elegance on paper do not necessarily translate into effective performance in the plant. If we keep these ideas in mind.When you completed your study of this book. 4. No amount of detailed modeling. is typically not sufficient to operate a chemical process satisfactorily. We must understand its operation. We need to think of Process control with a capital P and a small c. Luyben . What ideas should you take away from this study and apply toward the practice of chemical engineering (whether or not you specialize as a control engineer)? I. Our control systems must ensure safe and stable operation. constraints. 2. The most important lesson to remember is that our focus as engineers must be on the process. Sometimes the solution to a control problem does not have anything to do with the control system but requires some modification to the process itself. although essential.

Essentials of Process Control .