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Data analysis and interpretation
Findings and suggestions
INTRODUCTION ABOUT TOPIC
The study has to be made to improve the Best Price Modern Wholesale Store‘s market potential in the Raipur city, and for this you have to undertake the project title:
“Study Of B2B Membership & Marketing Of Bharti Walmart- Best Price Modern Wholesale Store”
The project is carried on in Raipur city and try to promote membership and at the same time aware businessman about this new concept of modern wholesale.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The project revolves around, finding out the process of membership & marketing: 1. To aware the people about the Bharti Walmart- Best Price modern wholesale store. 2. To study the customer perception about the new concept of modern wholesale. 3. To study the level of customer satisfaction about the store. 4. Expanding the member base of Best price modern wholesale store in Raipur.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Overall, the project gives fine insight of market condition for a new entry in a wholesale market section. It also gives a model designed for a new entry in a market and acceptance level of the customers.
Poor feedback from some of the retailers was a hurdle in carrying on the research work effectively.LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT This project has faced some of the limitations. LIMITATIONS 1. 5 . hotels of Indore city. As limitations could impure the projects transparency & its authenticity. Giving excuses like lack of time hampered the performance. Due to time constraints. Also some time they were giving information on the basis of their personal judgment. Some of the limitations cannot be minimized whereas it was possible in some cases and due steps were taken to increase the reliability of project. Retailers were giving vague information. it was necessary to minimize the limitation to some extent. It was observed that some of them responded partially while some refused to cooperate. 2. 4. a sample was chosen on the basis of convenience so as to be the representative of total retail shops. 3.
COMPANY PROFILE 6 .
everyday.BEST PRICE Best price is a modern wholesale store for business member only and work in the format of SAM CLUB OF WALMART. 1. to enable member to maintain profits day after day. Store layout 7 . Best price is members buying agent. A easy process of membership making is followed in which a person who is Reseller.‖ BENEFITS TO MEMBERS Best price is a one stop shop for all the needs of member. Best possible prices.EVERY SINGLE MEMBER. have 0ffice and Institution or belong to Horeca have to summit their business license along with the invoice copy and a identity proof then the membership card is allocated to them with the name of their firm . All the possible help is given to make the business of members to grow and prosper. Inventory management. Food safety and quality control Assortment planning. Relevant product assortment based on members needs. Seminars and training program on Latest industry trend. Best price is a cash and carry store and offers free membership to their members and hence allow them to purchase in their store. Live cooking demos by renowned chefs. Members get a consistent product quality and availability. MISSION ―ENABLING THE BUSINESS TO PROSPER ……. Member can treat Best Price as their Godown.person name and the his photo.
retail store owners. personal & home care. including a wide range of fresh. Best Price Modern Wholesale store is a one-stop business-to-business store that meets the day-today needs of restaurant owners. Ring Road No 2. is spread over 53. fruit and vegetable resellers.000 registered members. office supplies & other general merchandise items. The Best Price Modern Wholesale store situated at Bhanpuri.000 square feet and stocks over 5. kiranas stores. Bharti Walmart Pvt. Mr. dry groceries. food safety & hygiene workshops & live demonstrations for hotels. Model Kirana store to learn how to run members store more efficiently.500 items. 8 . ―We are delighted to expand our footprint to Central India with the launch of our first store in Chhattisgarh. hotel & restaurant supplies. Managing Director and CEO. ―Raipur is an important regional centre of India and we are excited to start our operations here with the launch of Best Price Modern Wholesale store. said. Mr. offices and institutions. apparels. Raipur. which are available at competitive wholesale prices. allowing retailers and business owners to lower their cost of operations. We have already received very good response to this store with over 25. of which about 40 are from the tribal community. frozen & chilled foods. Ltd. We have invested $7 million in Chhattisgarh and created over 200 inclusive jobs. ‗My Partner‘ programme that includes seminars on taxation for Kirana owners. Raj Jain. service and layout of the Store is customized to specific needs of members who can walk into the store and source high quality products in the quantities they need and at the time they require. Taxation. thereby providing a sustainable means of income.‖ Speaking on the launch. hoteliers. restaurants and caterers. We believe our operations will add value to Chhattisgarh‘s economy by providing a wide range of products to kirana stores and other businesses at competitive prices. Bhilai Bilaspur Bye Pass Road. The assortment. Chairman. fruits & vegetables. Bharti Walmart said. Rajan Bharti Mittal. caterers. 2. Bharti Walmart will also source products locally and provide direct and indirect employment opportunities to people in particular the youth.
The products in the Raipur Best Price Modern Wholesale store.‖ Bharti Walmart sources a large number of products locally to provide an impetus to the local industry and create employment in local economy. boost local manufacturing and help in further strengthening the economy of Chhattisgarh. flour. including Bharti Retail‘s wholly owned Easy Day stores. office supplies and other general merchandise items. Bharti Walmart Private Limited is a business-to-business (B2B) joint venture between Bharti Enterprises and Walmart for wholesale cash-and. Best Price Modern Wholesale stores are present in Amritsar.We are certain that this store will help create several indirect jobs. A typical cash-and-carry store will stand between 50. manufacturers and farmers. The JV launched its first B2B wholesale cash-and-carry store in Amritsar in May 2009. rice. curd. Kota. The JV launched its first B2B Best Price Modern Wholesale cash-and-carry store in Amritsar in May 2009. The JV is expected to open 12 new wholesale cash-and-carry facilities and employ approximately 4. personal and home care. Zirakpur. The joint venture (JV) has already set up a Distribution Centre in Punjab which will partly service the merchandise needs of the JV‘s cash-and-carry stores as well as retail stores around the area. rice bran oil. eggs. soya oil. sourced from Chhattisgarh and Raipur includes: milk.000 and 100. Currently. meat. hotel and restaurant supplies. frozen and chilled foods. About Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited is a business-to-business (B2B) joint venture between Bharti Enterprises and Wal-Mart for wholesale cash-and-carry and back-end supply chain management operations in India to serve small retailers.000 square feet and sell a wide range of fresh.000 and 100. fruits and vegetables. clothing. dry groceries. A typical cash-and-carry store will stand between 50.000 people by December 2011. personal and 9 . manufacturers and farmers. frozen and chilled foods. poultry. dry groceries. Bhopal. Ludhiana and Raipur. fruits and vegetables.000 square feet and sells a wide range of fresh.carry and back-end supply chain management operations in India to serve small retailers. Jalandhar. stationary and bakery products. paneer.
Best Price Modern Wholesale store (a joint venture of Bharti enterprises and WalMart) Best Price Modern Wholesale store is a one-stop shop that meets the day-to-day needs of restaurant owners. The JV is expected to open 97 wholesale cash-and-carry facilities and employ approximately 50. The assortment. offices and institutions. Business to Business. adding to the growth of the local economy and creating job opportunities. in Amritsar. which are available at competitive wholesale prices. fruit and vegetable resellers. Over 90% of these goods and services are being sourced locally. opened its first cash-andcarry store. office supplies and other general merchandise items. caterers.000 items. kiranas. hoteliers. thereby helping keep costs to a minimum. the joint venture between Bharti Enterprises and Wal-Mart Stores Inc for wholesale. ―Best Price Modern Wholesale‖. service and store layout of ―Best Price Modern Wholesale‖ store is customized to the specific needs of business members who can walk into the store and source high quality products in the quantities they need and at the time they require. hotel and restaurant supplies. 10 . Best Price Modern Wholesale will offer an assortment of around 6.000 people in coming years. including food and nonfood items. other retail store owners.home care. with the cash and carry store directly employing over 150 local people. allowing retailers and business owners to lower their cost of operations. clothing. cash-and-carry and back-end supply chain management operations in India. Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited (Bharti Wal-Mart).
the group‘s flagship company. Sri Lanka. Bharti started its telecom services business by launching mobile services in Delhi (India) in 1995. Seychelles. Bharti enterprises Group Overview Founded in 1976. Jersey. displays. Guernsey. safe food handling. Through its global telecom operations Bharti group has presence in 21 countries across Asia. layout and fixtures. Bangladesh. Africa and Europe – India. Since then there has been no looking back and Bharti Airtel. and foods. retail. With its entrepreneurial spirit and passion to undertake business projects that are transformational in nature. who are small and medium retailers. ‗Best Price Modern Wholesale‘ has introduced several education programmes for its members with customized modules for different target segments. 11 . customer retention and value added services. Food Safety and Category Workshops are also being introduced. has emerged as one of top telecom companies in the world and is amongst the top five wireless operators in the world. Food Preparation. different education programmes for members with customized modules for different target segments like Taxation. and advise on various aspects of using low cost modern techniques and processes such as assortment planning.Best Practices Sharing Based on research and feedback from members on their professional needs. A model ‘Mera Kirana’ is being created that will share best practices with members. licenses. backroom. Bharti has grown from being a manufacturer of bicycle parts to one of the largest and most respected business groups in India. financial services. Bharti has created world-class businesses in telecom. In addition. by Sunil Bharti Mittal.
Ghana. Niger. Madagascar. The group offers a complete portfolio of financial services – life insurance. Telemedia. Tanzania. The group has growing interests in other areas such as telecom software.Burkina Faso. Malawi. Over the past few years. real estate. What sets Bharti apart from the rest is its ability to forge strong partnerships. Sierra Leone. Uganda. Bharti strongly believes in giving back to the society and through its philanthropic arm the Bharti Foundation it is reaching out to over 30. Chad. Companies under Bharti enterprises (a) Bharti Airtel Bharti Airtel Limited is a leading emerging market telecom services provider with operations in 19 countries across Asia and Africa. Kenya. and Zambia. Nigeria. Over the years some of biggest names in international business have partnered Bharti. Bharti also serves customers through its fresh and processed foods business. 12 .as well establishing large scale cash & carry stores to serve institutional customers and other retailers. Democratic Republic of Congo. IBM. Axa Group is the partner for the financial service business and Del Monte Pacific for the processed foods division. The company is structured into four strategic business units . Currently. Ericsson. training and capacity building. Nokia Siemens and Alcatel-Lucent are key partners in telecom.Mobile. general insurance and asset management – to customers across India. Gabon. the group has diversified into emerging business areas in the fast expanding Indian economy. Singtel. Walmart is Bharti‘s partner for its cash & carry venture. With a vision to build India‘s finest conglomerate by 2020 the group has forayed into the retail sector by opening retail stores in multiple formats – small and medium . Enterprise and Digital TV. Congo Brazzaville.000 underprivileged children and youth in India. and distribution of telecom/IT products.
All services are offered under the Airtel-Vodafone brand under a partnership to bring a range of Vodafone global products together (g) Centum Learning Limited Centum Learning Limited provides end-to-end learning and skill-building solutions that enhance business performance to Bharti Group and several large corporates. It has grown from strength to strength. application delivery platforms and customer-facing applications. constructing and managing over ten top of the line facilities for Bharti group companies and third party clients (d) Beetel Teletech Limited Beetel is a leading global technology brand which offers a wide range of innovative products in the mobile phones. retail and residential real estate. IT peripherals and fixed line telephone segments. for various mobile operators across 18 states of India (c) Bharti Realty Limited Bharti Realty Limited is a young.(b) Bharti Infratel Limited Bharti Infratel Limited is amongst India‘s leading telecom passive infrastructure service providers. 13 . owns and manages telecom towers and communication structures. The company deploys. (e) Comviva Comviva is the global leader in providing mobile solutions beyond VAS. With an extensive portfolio of solutions spanning VAS infrastructure. vibrant and dynamic realty company with expanding interests in commercial. Comviva enables mobile service providers to enrich mobile users‘ lives (f) Jersey and Guernsey Jersey Airtel and Guernsey Airtel are subsidiaries of Bharti group and offer mobile services on the islands of Jersey and Guernsey respectively in the Channel Islands (Europe).
Bharti Group (42%) and Aditya Birla Telecom Limited (16%) and is India‘s leading mobile towers company (l) FieldFresh Foods Pvt. The Company operates easy day neighborhood stores and compact hypermarket stores called easy day Market (j) Bharti AXA Life Insurance Bharti AXA Life Insurance is a joint venture between Bharti and AXA Group. The company offers branded FieldFresh fruits & vegetables across India and international markets. including Europe and the Middle East 14 . Ltd. Ltd FieldFresh Foods Pvt. Today. manufacturers. institutions and farmers (i) Bharti Retail Bharti Retail is a wholly owned subsidiary of Bharti Enterprises. a JV between Vodafone Essar (42%).(h) Bharti Walmart Bharti Walmart is a B2B joint venture between Bharti Enterprises and Walmart for wholesale cash & carry and back-end supply chain management operations in India to serve small retailers. Bharti AXA Life has a national footprint of distributors trained to provide quality financial advice and insurance solutions to the large Indian customer base (k) Indus Towers Indus Towers. a joint venture company between Bharti Enterprises and Del Monte Pacific Ltd. The company launched national operations in December 2006.
 The company operates under its own name in the United States.S. Supercenters. In 2009. it generated 51% of its US$258 billion sales in the U. and Neighborhood Markets. and Canada. The retail department stores sell a variety of mostly non-grocery 15 . and in India as Best Price. Walmart has 8. 1969. WalMart Stores U. and publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange in 1972.S.WalMart Introduction WalMart Stores. It operates in Mexico as Walmex. including the 50 states and Puerto Rico. and the largest public corporation when ranked by revenue. South America and China are highly successful.. Arkansas.8% of total sales for financial year 2010. Walmart's investments outside North America have had mixed results: its operations in the United Kingdom. Inc.S. It has wholly owned operations in Argentina. or 63. Walmart is also the largest grocery retailer in the United States. The company was founded by Sam Walton in 1962. It is headquartered in Bentonville. in the United Kingdom as Asda. It also owns and operates the Sam's Club retail warehouses in North America. under 55 different names. incorporated on October 31. accounting for $258 billion. It consists of three retail formats that have become commonplace in the United States: Discount Stores. is the company's largest division. while it was forced to pull out of Germany and South Korea when ventures there were unsuccessful. is an American public multinational corporation that runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouse stores. in Japan as Seiyu. WalMart Stores U. branded as Walmart since 2008 and WalMart before then.500 stores in 15 countries. The company is the world's 18th largest public corporation. from grocery business. Brazil. according to the Forbes Global 2000 list.
compared to $102 for name-brand drugs.1 m2) to 224.476.1 m2). 2007.com. due to low sales. and expanded to all stores in Florida by January 2007. though emphasis has now shifted towards supercenters. The service was discontinued on December 21. While the average price of generics is $29 per prescription.000 square feet (9.000 square feet (4. which include more grocery items.738. a pharmacy. walmart. Walmart Discount Stores A typical Walmart discount department store in Laredo. they are using the same mechanisms of mass distribution that it uses to bring lower prices to other products. the company launched a "beta" version of a movie download service.3 m2).000 films and television episodes from all major studios and television networks. which sold about 3. many of Walmart's low cost generics are imported from India and made by drug makers in that country including Ranbaxy and CIPLA. In September 2006. While it's little known outside of the drug industry. They carry general merchandise and a selection of groceries. Texas Walmart discount stores are discount department stores with size varying from 51. Walmart maintains that it is not selling at a loss. Florida area. 2007. The pilot program was launched at stores in the Tampa. Walmart announced a pilot program to sell generic drugs at just $4 per prescription. with an average store covering about 102. Many of these stores also have a garden center. On February 6. Tire 16 .products.810. or providing as an act of charity – instead. This division also includes Walmart's online retailer.000 square feet (20.
and also include a full-service supermarket. there were 706 Walmart discount stores in the United States.000 to 261. Some also have gasoline stations. All of the Bud's Discount City stores closed or converted into Walmart Discount Stores by 1997. the busiest in the world was one in Rapid City. with an average of about 197. a bank branch. pet shop.104. Walmart opened its first Bud's Discount City location in Bentonville. As of April 2011. dairy products. usually Subway or McDonald's. Inside the discount store the fast food outlets. portrait studio. Many locations were opened to fulfill leases in shopping centers as Walmart stores left and moved into newly built Supercenters. and fresh seafood.9 m2). portrait studio. Walmart Supercenters are hypermarkets with size varying from 98. optical center.247. and numerous alcove shops. Bud's operated as a closeout store. pharmacy. a cell phone store and a fast food outlet. In 2006. optical center. baked goods.301. Tire & Lube Express. Many Wal-Mart Supercenters also have a garden center. The first Walmart store opened in Rogers. In 1990. such as cellular 17 .000 square feet (18. one-hour photo processing lab. South Dakota. onehour photo processing lab. garden produce.7 m2). Arkansas in 1962.5 to 24. These stock everything a Walmart discount store does.000 square feet (9. Florida. frozen foods. Walmart Supercenter A picture of a remodeled Wal-Mart Supercenter in Miami. including meat and poultry. much like Big Lots.& Lube Express. delicatessen.
New York. and a limited selection of general merchandise. The largest Supercenter in the United States. Missouri. The first Supercenter opened in 1988. Neighborhood Market by Walmart Neighborhood Market by Walmart is a chain of grocery stores that average about 42.9 m2). Hypermart USA. health and beauty aids. in Bentonville. All of the Hypermart USA stores were later closed or converted into Supercenters. As of April 2011. in Washington." since the company introduced the new Walmart logo in 2008.000 square feet (3.8 m2) and two floors. Sunoco. As of April 2011. hair and nail salons. They are used to fill the gap between discount store and supercenters. Texas a year earlier.phone stores. covering 260. there were 184 Neighborhood Markets in the United States. Arkansas.154. opened in Garland. is located in Crossgates Commons in Albany. local bank branches (newer locations have Wood forest National Bank branches). photo developing services. but sometimes Dunkin' Donuts.901. there were 2. Some also sell gasoline distributed by Murphy Oil Corporation (whose Walmart stations are branded as "Murphy USA"). simply referring to these stores as "Walmart. Supermercado de Walmart 18 . which include full lines of groceries. and fast food outlets — usually Subway. ("Optima").000 square feet (24. Inc. or Tesoro Corporation ("Mirastar"). McDonald's or Blimpie. A similar concept. The "Supercenter" portion of the name on these stores has been phased out. The first Neighborhood Market opened in 1998. video rental stores.913 Wal-Mart Supercenters in the United States. offering a variety of products. pharmaceuticals.
2009." a warehouse retail operation patterned after Sam's Club. Walmart also planned to open "Mas Club. The Marketside branding is also used for some groceries found in Walmart.600 m2) store in the Spring Branch area of Houston. Sam's Club 19 . The stores opened in October 2008 and are said to be less than half the size of a conventional supermarket. a 39. Marketside Marketside is a chain of four grocery stores. Houston Walmart opened "Supermercado de Walmart" locations to appeal to Hispanic communities in the United States. The store was a conversion of an existing Walmart. all in the state of Arizona. The first one.000 square feet (3.Supermercado de Walmart in Spring Branch. opened on Wednesday April 29.
As of April 2011. A typical Sam's Club store in Maplewood. and Puerto Rico. Sam's has found a niche market in recent years as a supplier to small businesses. the company announced that it plans to enter the electronic medical records business by offering a software package to physicians in small practices for $25.5% of Walmart's total sales. However. Sam's Club stores are "membership" stores and most customers buy annual memberships. often in large quantities. In March 2009. Oklahoma under the name "Sam's Wholesale Club". Wal-Mart is partnering with Dell and eClinicalWorks." Their current slogan is "Savings Made Simple" as Sam's Club attempts to attract a more diverse member base. All Sam's Club stores are open early hours exclusively for business members and their old slogan was "We're in Business for Small Business. 20 .000. Mexico. China. The first Sam's Club opened in 1983 in Midwest City. Missouri Sam's Club is a chain of warehouse clubs which sell groceries and general merchandise.com in this new venture. Sam's Club's sales during 2010 were $47 billion. Walmart also operates more than 100 international Sam's Clubs in Brazil.Article II. there were 609 Sam's Clubs in the United States. or 11. Some locations also sell gasoline. non-members can make purchases either by buying a one-day membership or paying a surcharge based on the price of the purchase.
The unorganized retail will grow 10% from US$ 309 billion 2006-07 to US$ 496 billion in 201112. India ranks second to Vietnam.66 by 2012. is expected to reach USD 17 billion by 2010. there has been a lot of innovation seen in the retail format in India. it has become a big hit in India. It topped the list in 2007. One of the latest retail formats making a grand entry in this game of guts and guile is ‗Wedding Malls‘. India is the world‘s 4th largest economy in terms of Purchasing Power Parity. India is rated ahead of China on the Foreign Direct Investment Confidence Index (FDICI) making it an attractive retail market among other emerging economies in the world. India is rated in the highest category of the Aspirational Index in Asia as per the AC Nielsen Online Omnibus Survey 2005 According to NCAER. it is expected to move to the third position by 2010. after USA.Retail Scene in India The Indian retail industry accounts for 10% of the GDP and 8% of employment. the annual retail sale that was close to US$ 6 billion in 2007. only 14% Indian households will have annual household incomes less than US$ 921. An unheard of entity in the advanced global retail markets like the United States and Europe. from US$ 322 billion in 2006-07 to US$ 590 billion in 2011-12. As per AT Kearney‘s GRDI for 2008. Of late. China and Japan. The ICRIER study found that total Indian retail business would grow at 13%. India is being touted as the next big retail destination with an average CAGR of 40% to 45% The sheer size of the population demands attention from retailers worldwide and the potential for growth in this nascent industry is tremendous. These malls stock the whole list of items and 21 . According to a study conducted by the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry (ASSOCHAM).
ranging from jewelry to apparels.products that are required in a typical Indian wedding. These outlets showcase the designs and patterns of traditional handloom and handicraft products. ‗Village Malls‘ are another innovation. The ‗Khadi Plazas‘ are a retail project successfully rolled out by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission. 22 . These are basically an extension of the fair price shops revamped to cater to the larger needs of the local population. manufactured in Indian villages in a trendy and chic package targeted at young buyers.
one of the most successful corporate groups in India. staples. such as Reliance Digital (consumer durables & information technology). Backed by the Reliance group. poultry. RRL has increased its footprint to more than 900 stores in 80 cities across 14 states in India. Reliance AutoZone (automotive products & services) and Reliance Living (homeware.In june 2007 the Aditya Birla group launched its first retail store under the brand name More in Pune . dairy products. furnishings). RRL added new formats to its spectrum. Reliance Wellness (health.Competitor Analysis (a) RELIANCE Reliance Retail Limited (RRL). a subsidiary of Reliance Industries Limited (RIL). was set up to lead Reliance Group‘s foray into organized retail. thousands of farmers and vendors. Based on its core growth strategy of backward integration. Keeping in sync with its multi-format store strategy. Reliance Retail Limited (RRL) has grown rapidly and has catered to millions of customers. RRL has made rapid progress towards building an entire value chain starting from the farmers to the end consumers. RRL operates in formats such as Reliance Fresh (neighbourhood store). music & entertainment). (b) ADITYA BIRLA GROUP The Aditya Birla group bought regional supermarket chain Trinetra. Reliance TimeOut (books. Reliance Jewels (jewellery). Pearle Europe (optical products) and Hamleys (toys). The stores offer a wide range of product categories including fruits and vegetables. Reliance Trends (apparel & accessories). They also have specialty formats. a pharmacy and a well-stocked bakery. home care. Office Depot (office stationery). furniture. Reliance Mart (all under one roof supermarket) & Reliance Super (mini-mart). wellness & beauty). Reliance Footprint (footwear). iStore (Apple products). household general merchandise. 23 .. which offer a range of products for daily household usage. RRL has entered into strategic partnerships with reputed companies such as Marks and Spencer (apparel and accessories). modular kitchens. Since its inception in 2006. personal care.
In 1989. Corporation. Carrefour offers shopping online in several countries (France. Metro which is headquartered in Germany and has entered India in 2003. Hyderabad and Kolkata. Tesco is also planning a deal with Tata Group‘s retailing subsidiary Trent. at the end of 2011.(c) METRO With a global turnover of 33. are available to customers. Taiwan. South Korea and Thailand). Metro is present in 30 countries with over 650 stores. Tesco will provide retail expertise and technical capability to support the development of Trent‘s hypermarket ‗Star Bazaar‘. Poland. Malaysia. For the development of the cash & carry business. A wide selection of services. Turkey . varying from country to country. has so far opened five outlets across Bangalore. such as home delivery and in-store or in-warehouse collections. Tesco is planning to invest around £60 million (Rs 480 crore) in the first two years. and to get access to the retail business through Trent. Mumbai. After Taiwan. (d) TESCO Tesco Plc from UK has 814 stores in other Asian countries (China. Spain and Romania.1 billion euro. Japan. The first cash & carry outlet would be set up in Mumbai. The deal with Tata. Carrefour also has 11 franchise operated hypermarkets in 24 . Looking for expansion opportunities. it leveraged the experience it gathered in Taiwan to move into other Asian markets. either company-operated or franchises. Thailand. Metro has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) of Rs 900 crore with the Punjab Government to open six more centers in Punjab. Carrefour itself owns over 3000 brands across all the income segments. Tesco wants to set up a 100% subsidiary. Carrefour became the first international retailer to venture in Asia when it entered Taiwan through a joint venture with Uni President Enterprises. Carrefour also operates in the United Arab Emirates and Jordan in a joint venture with Majid al Futtaim. Spain. Carrefour has presence in countries like Colombia.000 stores. Tesco has announced plans to set up a wholesale cash & carry business in India. (e) CARREFOUR The Carrefour group has over 15. Belgium and others).
Carrefour has also opened a franchise owned branch in the Bahrain City Centre in 2008. neither firm has any outlets as of now. However as of now. Carrefour has announced its intentions of entering of entering in the Indian Market by end of 2010 by entering into an alliance with Future group. a major player in the Indian retail industry.Saudi Arabia. 25 . Carrefour has set up two entities in India: Carrefour WC&C India Pvt Ltd to run cashand-carry businesses and Carrefour Master Franchise Company Pvt Ltd for its retail business.
ANALYSIS USING PORTER’S FIVE FORCES 26 .
Product differentiation: These new players own a large number of firm brands most of which are successfully sold throughout its stores. these players have deep pockets and have previously also established their presence in a number of countries. the growth potential of this market has made it attractive for foreign players. 27 . The product differentiation they bring to the table is enormous Capital requirements: Although entering an alliance with a major Indian corporate and establishing new stores through the country may require sufficient capital investments. As already mentioned players like Carrefour and Tesco are planning to enter into this market by getting into alliances with already established Indian corporate.ANALYSIS USING PORTER’S FIVE FORCES THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS INTENSITY OF RIVALRY BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS THREAT OF PRODUCT SUBSTITUTES THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS : Although the organized retail sector of India is very small.
Access to distribution channels: A joint venture or a partnership with retail giants as the Future Group in case of Carrefour or a reputed corporate house as the Tata Group will give these companies a very strong supply chain capacity. Carrefour understands the distribution business better than most, and Future Group is a leader in India
Government policy: A policy released recently states that, ―companies cannot sell more than 25% of their cash and carry business to ‗Group‘ Companies and that too the use should be internal. This will prove a major discouragement to the foreign entrants as they will have to reduce their 100% stakes in Indian companies. This will reduce their control over the retail model followed
BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS Historically, suppliers enjoy a strong position of control in the retail industry. However with the growth of organized retail, many large retail players are going for vertical integration and manufacturing products under the firm brand. Since these products also give them more margin they are more inclined to promote these firm brands. This recent trend has somewhat decreased the bargaining power of suppliers in the recent past. BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS In retail, consumer loyalty is the most important ingredient for success. But the industry is so characterized that there are very few switching costs. Also, documented transactions in retail are very less, and hence even proper data is not available. Thus repurchase is not predictable Price of competitor products can be lowered all too easily in this industry, leading to a price war. Since both the companies being analyzed specialize in discount and bargain selling, a price war is inevitable. Unless the discount selling is utilized to lock customers in loyalty programs etc, the customers would just buy from where it is cheaper
THREAT OF PRODUCT SUBSTITUTES Since the retail industry is considered over here the threat of product substitutes does not essentially come into the picture. INTENSITY OF RIVALRY AMONG COMPETITION This may be a lesser deterrent for new entrants as the industry of organized retail itself is growing, even though actual existing figures are very low The number of firms competing for a share of the pie is also low. Apart from Indian firms, there are very few foreign players large enough to maintain sustainability over some years, that have chosen India‘s dense and fast growing Retail industry However with more number of foreign as well as domestic players trying to venture into the sector this scenario might change very quickly and the industry may become very competitive.
ENTRY OF FOREIGN COMPETITORS AS CARREFOUR
The entry of major foreign players as Carrefour will have substantial impact on BhartiWalMart joint venture. DRIVERS OF COMPETITIVE ABILITY
Shaded Area = Market commonality between firms. The rectangle = Resource endowment A. The triangle = Resource endowment B. Walmart and Carrefour both specialize in cost saving shopping for daily needs. Both are cost leaders in their respective geographies. They both are strong distribution system leaders. In India, both the firms will be facing the same fast growing middle class with increasing disposable incomes. The supplier market and procurement channels may overlap to a large extent.
AWARENESS The information available in the industry is symmetric to both the firms. The government impositions are the same, the native retail players are themselves competing for the same resources. The question to be asked is this: Will demand drive the growth story of such joint ventures by foreign conglomerates with Indian Business houses. MOTIVATION Carrefour, when the joint venture with Indian firm Future Group becomes a reality, is going to compete on the same national level almost on the same geographical, cultural and ethnic demographics as Walmart. There is more than enough motivation for Walmart to predict and prevent future bad performance brought about by a competitor as strong as Carrefour. ABILITY Carrefour has the sourcing for whatever resources it requires. It already has a very good relationship with suppliers in the countries it is present in. if it decides to source materials from India as well, it needs to establish its credibility and build relations with suppliers from scratch. Instead, if it sells its existing portfolio of products after determining suitability to Indian markets, it will have to utilize Future Group‘s existing logistics network which itself is very strong. Although WalMart has been present in the Indian market, It has not been able to develop a huge first movers advantage which would keep it far ahead of the competition. MARKET COMMONALITY Since Carrefour and Walmart will be competing for the same resources and courting the same customers, Carrefour may be looking at newer markets where its competitor is not present yet. It may be the rural grocery format that it has successfully implemented in France and other parts where it sells dairy, meat and other products on a daily basis to its
However along with this Carrefour will also scavenge WalMart‘s current market. RESOURCE DISSIMILARITY Walmart may face certain issues with the suppliers in the Indian context as relationships should be built with them. Carrefour enjoys the advantage of having a partner who is respected both for its supplier relations and its distribution channel. This is one market that is potentially huge in India. Bharti is strong with its logistics. though there are indications that it could be Walmart.rural customers. 32 . So it is difficult to say which firm will be the weaker when it comes to obtaining resources as of now. so that will not be a major concern. whose population lives mostly in villages.
CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUNG 33 .
As available on License Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership 6 Small Scale Industries Registration Until cancelled 10 years from date of Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid SMALL INDUSTRIE S Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Declaration Existing and Valid Existing and Valid BANKS Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid BIG SHOPS.NO. GOOD BUSINESS Status BUSINESS 34 . Name of License Validity Supporting doc required 1 VAT Registration Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership 2 Central Sales Tax Registration Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership 3 Entertainment License As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid THEATRE.Various licenses that were considered as a business license for granting membership to the business person are as follows: LIST OF LICENCES S. RADIO STATION 4 License under Essential Commodities Act 5 RBI Registration for Opening of Banks/ NBFC etc. GOOD BUSINESS Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid BIG SHOPS.
IMMIGRATI ON OFFICES 10 Shops & Commercial Establishments Registration As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid ALL MEDIUM. BAR.issuing membership 7 Registration for Registered Societies Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid SCHOOLS. FACTORIE S. BAR. Etc. ST-1) Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid HOTEL. CONSULTA NTS.D RUG STORE. INDUSTRIE S. LIQUOR SHOPS 35 .S MALL SHOPS 11 Liquor License As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid LIQUOR SHOPS.ME DICAL STORE Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid HOTEL. 8 Excise License Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership 9 Service Tax Registration (including print out of application form for registration from internet portal of Central Board of Excise and Customs. BANK. HOTEL 12 Drug License As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid CHEMIST. RESTRAUN TS. ORGANISA TIONS.
Where ever weighing scale is kept 14 Kerosene Oil Outlet License Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid fair price shops 15 Factory Registration Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid factories.ind ustries.13 Stamping and Calibration of Weights and Measures As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid KIRANA. Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid IRTC 36 . police offices 19 Letter from the authorized officer/ Ministry of Railways stating the supply is required for Indian Railways.. manufacturi ng units 16 License for selling Insecticides / Pesticides As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid Insecticides / Pesticides shop 17 Affiliation for School from urban/local/state government authority Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid SCHOOLS 18 Letter from the Police Commissioner/Commanding Officer/ Defence Ministry stating the /regiment for which the supply is sought is part of Police/Indian Army Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid ARMY Cantt.
21 Charitable Institution/Welfare Trust Registration As available on License Income tax exemption certi +declaration Existing and Valid 22 Labour License As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid Medium. Big Shops Food Product shops 23 Prevention of Food Adulteration License As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid 24 Electricity Board Contractor License Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid Govt.Contra ctors 25 Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid Fruits & vegetable shops 26 Copy of Renewal Application of a license (with copy of receipt of fee paid for the same during the same financial year) As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid 27 No Objection Certificate for Dhabas (from Municipal Corporation only) As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid Dhaba's 28 Letter issued by Gram Panchayat / Nagar Council / Nagar Panchayat. Temples.20 Recognition by Religious Body like recognition of Gurudwaras by SGPC Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid GURDWAR A's. with undertaking from the owner of the business As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid Gram Panchayat 37 .
Pvt.MEDIU M. Firms.Ltd. Tin plate 1 financial year Declaration Existing and Valid 32 Fish Farm License 5 Years Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration New 33 Seed Business License Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration New 34 Rashtriya Shaksharta Mission Certificate As available on License As available on License As available on License Declaration New 35 License for Running Hand Cart Declaration New 36 License for Running the Business of recruitment for deployment of Indian workers Declaration Existing and Valid 37 Certificate from Government for a Registered Association Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration New Association Registration with Govt. Industries 31 Registration by Municipal Corporation to Hawkers.29 Trade License issued by Municipal Corporation As available on License Declaration Existing and Valid ALL Big.Body 38 .SMALL SHOPS 30 Certificate of Incorporation of Company Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration Existing and Valid Companies.
Diagnostic centres Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration New Hotels./ as available on certificate 38 License from Diary Development Department 39 Letter for Distributorship for Himanchal Pradesh Marketing Corporation 40 License to Shopkeepers for Working in Specific Premises/Zones (like Army Cantonment Area) 41 Professional Tax Registration (issued by Cantonment Board) 42 License from Health Services Family Welfare Department Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership 43 Luxury Tax Registration (Hotels) Until cancelled 10 years from date of issuing membership 44 Certificate of registration from CM&HO/CMO (for Hospitals and Diagnostic Centres) 45 Letter of Permission (LoP) for Export Oriented Unit (issued by Software Technology Parks of India) 46 Co-operative Society As available Latest copy of Existing co-operative As available on License Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration New As available on License Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration New Hospitals. Restraunts Latest copy of outgoing invoice+Declaration New 1 financial year Declaration Existing and Valid As available on License Declaration New As available on License As available on License Declaration New Declaration New 39 .
: Kam Kazi Mahilla Kalyan Yojana) Declaration Existing and Valid 50 License for running a Private Security Agency As available on License As available on License As available on License Declaration New 51 License for fitting LPG / CNG kits Declaration New 52 Form C pertaining to Registration of Partnership Firms Declaration New Registration of firms. 53 License for ensuring Pollution Control by Local Authority As available on License Declaration New 54 Registration for Printing Newspaper As available on License 1 year Declaration New 55 License for Cable TV operator Declaration Not yet visible in Mtracks cable tv operators 56 License to perform cataract surgery As available on License Declaration Not yet visible in Mtracks 57 License for running Placement Agency in Rajasthan As available on License Declaration Not yet visible in Mtracks 40 .on License outgoing invoice+Declaration and Valid socities 47 Schools running under Registered Societies (Registration of Society with Letter Head of School indicating Society's Reg. No.) Declaration New 48 License to establish a Saw Mill As available on License As available on License Declaration New 49 Approval from Local Authority for running a self employment group (eg.
Reseller 2.The members of the best price are divided into three categories 1. Office and Institutions (O&I) 41 . Horeca 3.
mixers. Apoorti store Shop Selling Clothes. glass ware etc Segment Business Line Description New Examples 5912991 Reseller 572200 Reseller 5441992 Reseller 543100 542100 541100 541111 Reseller Reseller Reseller Reseller 42 .Toffee. Biscuits Vegetable and fruit merchant Shops selling meat and fish Grocery stores. opticals. mobile shop etc machine tools. Innerwear etc curtain shops Pan Masala Shops Luggage and leather goods stores Bags etc cosmetics. mobile shop etc) 599300 594800 Reseller Reseller Tobacco stores and stands Luggage and leather goods stores 592100 Reseller Liquor stores Drug stores Household appliance stores Medical stores Household appliance stores (small appliances . book stores.irons. book stores.The list of various groups of members and SIC codes are as follows SIC CODES SIC Codes 519900 Reseller Nondurable goods (furniture. opticals. Chawal Chains like kabuliwala.paneer and milk etc Confectionery Shop. chain Shops selling shoes and all Dairy products . glass ware etc) 599900 Reseller Miscellaneous retail stores (cosmetics. juicers etc) 571900 Reseller Miscellaneous home furnishings 569900 Reseller Miscellaneous apparel and accessory stores 566100 545100 Reseller Reseller Shoe stores Dairy products stores Confectionery Fruit and vegetable markets Meat and fish markets Grocery stores Supermarkets. Daal.Aata. machine tools.
studios. TVs etc) 5399991 O&I Army-Navy goods stores Any Army-Navy Grocery Store. repair. printing press. Mandir etc All kind of registered social society Schools & Colleges 866100 862100 829900 O&I O&I O&I Religious organizations Professional organizations Schools and educational services 806200 O&I General medical and surgical hospitals All kind of hospitals 738900 O&I Business services (Photocopy. mobile solution etc) Photocopy.Narmada Switch Gear etc factories – apparel 238900 O&I Apparel and accessories (Factories) 25900 O&I Poultry and eggs Poultry Farms 43 .barbers Banks . Bajaj Allianz) Executive offices (Offices e. toys All kind of Hardware Store Durable goods (washing machines.(Hypercity) 539900 Reseller Miscellaneous general merchandise 531100 525100 509900 Reseller Reseller Reseller Department stores Hardware stores Durable goods etc crockery. repair.All private & government banks 478900 399900 O&I O&I Transportation services Manufacturing industries Transport Services Manufacturing Industries . LIC. utensils. mobile solution etc 723100 602900 O&I O&I Beauty shops Commercial banks Beauty Saloon. studios. refrigerators. Police Grocery Stores 911100 O&I Executive offices (Offices e. STD. STD.g. plastic goods & furniture. disposables.g. luggage. ICICI Lombard) Like Gurudwara. printing press.
café coffee day etc Fast-food restaurant. Resort Which are for members only Bar 581300 581213 581230 Horeca Horeca Horeca Drinking places Chinese restaurant Fast food restaurants and stands (Juice Bars. members only (Amritsar Club) Girls and Boys Hostels CHS All Kind of Hotels And Motels clubs. Fast food etc) Fast food restaurants and stands (Juice Bars. chain (Pizza Hut etc) 581250 Horeca Family restaurants Eating places (Dhabas) Caterers Snack shop (Tea stalls) Miscellaneous food stores (Mithai Shops) 5812990 Horeca 5812993 Horeca 5812315 Horeca 549900 Horeca 546100 Horeca Retail bakeries Bakeries Shops selling all bakery items 44 . take aways etc) barista. juice shops etc Sweets Shops 581234 581237 Horeca Horeca Coffee shop Fast-food restaurant.7011991 O&I 5411991 O&I 701100 864141 Horeca Horeca Hostels Cooperative food stores Hotels and motels Bars and restaurants. chain (Pizza Hut etc) Family restaurants Dhabas and all Cateters chai walas. Fast food.
R. The beads are as follows: RAIPUR BEAT PLAN BIRGAON BHANPURI URLA SARONA RINGROAD No.Raipur city is divided into various beats for easy location of areas to different Business development associate and also to the membership development associate.I. ANUPAM NAGAR KHAMHARDIH DAL DAL SIWANI PACHPEDI NAKA RAM SAGAR PARA TIKRA PARA GOL BAJAR 45 .2 RAWABHATA URKURA KHAMTARAI SHIVANAND NAGAR W.P. S SHRI NAGAR SANYASI PARA GUDYARI JANTA COLONY RAM NAGAR ASHOK NAGAR GOGAON MURRABHATTI BADA ASHOK NAGAR FAFADIH STATION ROAD MODAHA PARA MEKAHARA KUMHAR PARA PARAS NAGAR DEVENDRA NAGAR TATI BANDH KABIR NAGAR AASHRAM DINDAYAL UPADHYA PURANI BASTI AAMAPARA RAIPURA LAKHE NAGAR KOTA HIRAPUR RAJ KUMAR COLLAGE AAMA NAKA MARUTI ENDARE DANGNIYA CHOIBE COLONI SAMATA COLONI KUSHALPUR ASHWANI NAGAR CHANDRASHEKHAR NAGAR CHAGORA BHATA MAHADEV GHAT SUNDAR NAGAR RAM KUND KANKALI PARA BRAMHAN PARA KATORA TALAB SHAIELENDRA NAGAR RAJENDRA NAGAR SHYAM NAGAR TEIGOR NAGAR TELI BANDHA VISHAL NAGAR PANDRI SADDU SHANKAR NAGAR RAJA TALAB ANVATI VIHAR MEGNETO GURUDWARA ROAD MOVA AVANTI CHOWK MADI GATE V.
targets as per predefined formats 100% QC of applications received from field 100% QC of data entered in Mtracks Ensure all complete applications are entered into system Renewals of expired membership as per set process Ensure adherence to Membership policy Train and manage MDAs Ensure 100% issuance of permanent cards-database management.MAHAVEER NAGAR NEW RAJENDRA NAGAR PRIYDARSHNEEV TATYA PARA RATHOD CHOWK SANTOSHI NAGAR BHATHAGAOW MALVEEY ROAD BANJARI CHOWK AAJAD CHOWK KALI BADI MOTI BADHA CHOWK DEVPURI MANA SADAR BAJAR SAPTI BAJAR SEJ BAHAR POLICE LINE SHARDA CHOWK BAIJNATH PARA GHARSIVA DHANELI SILTARA.KURA SANTURA PASATARAI Membership: Manage Membership Drive operations during Membership Drive Reporting and tracking of drive results vs. timely reporting and tracking Liaison with ISD to ensure systems are running and operational Ensure correct data on Mtracks without duplications – weekly validation of data dump to ensure correct unduplicated data on system 46 . liaison with courier agency. bulk printing. data management.
Marketing: Supervise all marketing activities execution at the store o Leaflets – Inputs from store. Banners. Standees etc o Signages & Space selling Execute events according to the store marketing calendar Coordinate for the execution of GO Communication plan o Sizing & execution of In store branding & space selling o Coordinating & monitoring all BTL & On Ground activities Execute the Model Kirana & Education Program at the store. member feedback etc Responsible for the Price sign communication execution at the store level Ensuring proper footfall counting & reporting at the store Co-ordinate with local vendors for printing & installation of marketing collaterals o Drop downs. footfalls. 47 . timely distribution o SMS – Collate offers weekly for the same o On ground – Monitor & check effectiveness of the same o Submit a consolidated activity report as per the template at the end of the campaign including photos.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 48 .
RESEARCH PROCESS Formation of objective Secondary data collection Selection of sample size Questionnaire preparation Primary data collection Data analysis Findings and suggestions Limitations Conclusion 49 .
2) Analytical Research – In analytical research.‖ Redman and More defined research as ―a systematized effort to gain new knowledge. 4) Fundamental Research – It is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. TYPES OF RESEARCH The basic types of research are as follows: 1) Descriptive Research – It includes surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. 3) Applied Research – It aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial /business organization. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.RESEARCH The advanced learner‘s dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as ―a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.‖ The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. 5) Quantitative Research – It is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. the researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material. 50 .
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking in the organization.e. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. often without due regard for system and theory. Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment 8) Conceptual Research – It is related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies on our economic system..6) Qualitative Research – It is concerned with qualitative phenomenon i. phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. 7) Empirical Research – It relies on experience or observation alone. 51 . It is data based research.
Thus. the plan to select 50 of city‘s all retailers in a certain way constitutes a sample design. systematic sampling. if we have to select a sample of 300 items from a universe of 52 . cluster/area sampling whereas non-probability samples are those based on convenience sampling.SAMPLE DESCRIPTION Sample selection procedure – businessmen from different areas of Raipur were taken as sample. In other words. This sampling method involves purposive or deliberate selection of particular units of the universe for constituting a sample which represents the universe. ii) Simple random sampling – This type of sampling is also known as chance sampling or probability sampling where each and every item in the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample and each one of the possible samples. Probability samples are those based on simple random sampling. judgment sampling and quota sampling techniques. With probability samples each element has a known probability of being included in the sample but the non-probability samples do not allow the researcher to determine this probability. has the same probability of being selected for example. in case of finite universe. a sample design is a definite plan determined before any data are actually collected for obtaining a sample from a given population. SAMPLE DESIGN The researcher must decide the way of selecting a sample or what is popularly known as the sample design. Samples can be either probability samples or non-probability samples. Sample Size – The total sample size was 50. i) Deliberate sampling – It is also known as purposive or non-probability sampling. stratified sampling.
000 customers. It has issued its cards to 15. This procedure is useful when sampling frame is available in the form of a list. Suppose some departmental store wishes to sample its credit card holders.000 card holders could be formed into 100 clusters of 150 card holders each. Under area sampling we first divide the total area into a number of smaller nonoverlapping areas. iii) Systematic sampling – In some instances the most practical way of sampling is to select every 15th name on a list.000 items. The sample size is to be kept say 450. Using the random number tables is another method of random sampling. Sampling Method Used: The sampling method used for filling the questionnaire is Non Probability Sampling in which Convenient Sampling was used. every 10th house on side of a street and so on.000 items on the slips of a paper and conduct a lottery. v) Area sampling – It is quite to cluster sampling and it often talked about when the total geographical area of interest happens to be big one.15. then a number of these smaller areas are randomly selected. Sampling of this type is known as systematic sampling. and all units in these small are included in the sample. then we can put the names or numbers of all the 15. generally called geographical clusters. 53 . For cluster sampling this list of 15. In such a design the selection process starts by picking some random point in the list and then every nth element is selected until the desired number is secured. iv) Cluster sampling – It involves grouping the population and then selecting the groups or clusters rather than individual elements for inclusion in the sample.
questionnaire method was used in this project. There are two types of data: 1) Primary Data – The primary data are those which are collected fresh and for the first time. 4. A formal list of questions is prepared. 54 . Respondents have proper time to answer. These as under: Merits: 1. The methods used for this research for primary data collection are: Interview method Questionnaire Questionnaire method For the collection of primary data. 2. and the respondents are asked to answer these questions. Low cost even when universe is large. It is free from bias of interviewer. There are some merits of this method. 3. and thus happen to be original in character.METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Data is nothing but simply collection of facts and figures. 5. Large samples can be made. Respondents who are not easily approachable can also be reachable.
journals. 2) Secondary data: These are those data. which are not collected afresh and are used earlier also and thus they cannot be considered as original in character. companies reports. private and public organizations and even by governments. There are many ways of data collection of secondary data like publications of the state and central govt. particular in case of big enquiries. For this project secondary data was taken from company‘s reports and websites. banks etc. .Collection of data through questionnaire is quite popular. Secondary data used for this research is: Internet Company in-house brochures Literature Personal meetings with company employees 55 .. It is being adopted by private individuals. website. reports prepared by researchers. research workers. reports of various associations connected with business. Industries.
Data collection method: Survey Method Survey instrument: Questionnaire (Close Ended) Sampling technique: Convenient sampling Sample size: 50 businessmen including Retailers. Area of survey: Raipur 56 . literature. Sample unit: owners of retail shops and businessmen from different areas of Raipur.Questionnaire Secondary Data – Internet. HoReCa and O & I. company in-house brochures.Research Design Type of research: Analytical research Sources of data: Primary Data & Secondary Data Primary Data .
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 57 .
Name of the Business RESELLER 70% ORGANISATION 10% INDUSTRY 20% OTHERS 0% BUSINESS RESELLER ORGANISATION INDUSTRY OTHERS 0% 20% 10% 70% INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows that 70% of business members are resellers.1. So the major portion of the business is catered by resellers. 10% are organization. 58 . 20% are industry.
2. And rests of our customers are from caterers. school/college. Fruits and vegetables & stationary shops provide more customers to our store. and office 59 . What is the type of business that you are dealing with? KIRANA SHOP FRUITS & VEGETABLE STATIONARY SHOP HOTELS RESTAURENT CATERER OFFICE SCHOOL/ COLLEGE OTHERS 42% 10% 12% 24% 4% 4% 2% 2% 0% BUSINESS TYPE KIRANA SHOP HOTELS OFFICE 4% 24% 12% 10% FRUITS & VEGETABLES RESTAURENT SCHOOL/ COLLEGE 4% 2% 2% 0% 42% STATIONARY SHOP CATERERS OTHERS INTERPRETATION: Most of our customers are from kirana shops and hotels.
3. How did you come to know about the store? SMS CABLE TV RADIO OUTDOOR HOARDINGS FLYER ON GROUND ACTIVITY IN MARKET VISIT BY BEST ASSOCIATES INVITATIONS NEWSPAPER AD OTHER PEOPLE 2% 0 0 16% 4% 0 40% 12% 20% 6% Sources of Promotion SMS Radio Flyer Visit by a Best Price associate Newspaper Ad 6% 20% 40% 12% Cable TV Outdoor Hoardings On ground activity in markets Invitation Card Other people 2% 0% 0% 16% 4% 0% INTERPRETATION: The above graph shows that 40% customers came to know about BPMW by the visit of the best price associates then next by the advertisement which regularly comes in newspaper and outdoor hoardings also helped them a lot while identifying the store. 60 .
trolleys) Store Displays (inside outside) Carrying information Overall rating 61 .4. toilets.g. water. How was your experience at the store on the following parameters? V GOOD GOOD 17 19 18 21 19 16 21 18 28 20 27 25 24 POOR 8 9 7 19 18 22 4 20 5 2 0 5 6 V POOR 2 1 2 2 3 10 2 4 1 0 0 0 2 Best Prices Quality Range Credit solution Delivery solution Time taken in Billing Ease of locating merchandise Ease of reaching the store/location Store promotion offers and effectiveness Parking and other facilites 23 21 23 8 10 2 23 8 16 28 23 20 18 Store utility (e.
trolleys) Parking and other facilites Store promotion offers and effectiveness Ease of reaching the store/location Ease of locating merchandise VPOOR POOR GOOD Time taken in Billing VGOOD Delivery solution Credit solution Range Quality Best Prices 0 5 62 10 15 20 25 30 .Overall rating Store Displays (inside outside) Carrying information Store utility (e.g. toilets. water.
Credit SolutionCredit Solution at best price store was not satisfactory as per the analysis here I had found that only 8 customers are having very good perception toward credit solution and 21 customers are having good perception but 19 customers are having poor perception and 2 are having very poor perception toward credit solution and it is because of cash and carry format of BWM. 17 customers are having good perception toward Prices but on the other hand 8 customers are not satisfied they are having poor perception toward prices and 2 customers are having very poor perception. 18 customers are having good perception toward but on the other hand 7 customers are not satisfied they are having poor perception toward ranges and 2 customers are having very poor perception.INTERPRETATION: Best Price As per the best price concerned out of 50 customer. RangeAs per the Range concerned out of 50 customer. Time Taken in BillingTime taken in billing at best price store was not satisfactory here I had found that only 2 customers are having very good perception and 16 customers are having good perception 63 . Delivery SolutionAs per the Delivery Solution concerned out of 50 customer. 23 customers are having very good perception towards the ranges which was offered by the Best Price store. QualityAs per quality concerned 21 customers are having very good perception towards the quality of the products and 19 customers are having good perception but also I had analyzed that 9 customers are against towards the quality of the product they are having poor perception and 1 customer was also having very poor perception. 19 customers are having good perception but on the other hand 18 customers are not satisfied they are having poor perception toward Delivery Solution and 3 customers are having very poor perception and it was because of the high transportation charges which was charged at Best Price. 23 customers are having very good perception towards the price which was offered by the Best Price store. 10 customers are having very good perception which was offered by the Best Price store.
Ease of locating MerchandiseAs per the best price concerned out of 50 customer. 20 customers are having good perception and only 2 customer was not satisfied. 21 customers are having good perception but on the other hand 4 customer faced problem while locating the items are having poor perception toward prices and 2 customers are having very poor perception. 28 customers are having good but on the other hand 5 customers are not satisfied they are having poor perception and 1 customers are having very poor perception. 23 customers are having very good perception towards Merchandise. 64 .but 22 customers are having poor perception and 10 are having very poor perception towards the billing and it is because of less number of desks at store. 16 customers are having very good perception. Ease of reaching the store/locationBWM Store was located at outer part of the Raipur city at a distance of 10kms because of this same problem i had found that only 8 customers are having very good perception toward the location and 18 customers are having good perception but 20 customers are having poor perception and 4 are having very poor perception toward location. Store Promotion offersAs per the Store promotion offers concerned out of 50 customer. Parking and other FacilitiesBest Price store provides more than 1acres of area for parking facilities for their customers which was higher as comparison to other store of Wal-Mart in India here I had found that 28 customers are having very good perception.
65 .5. How will you take the stocks with you? 3PL 76% OWN VEHICLE 24% GOODS CARRIER 3 PL OWN VEHICLE 24% 76% INTERPRETATION: From the above pie it is clear that mostly members prefer 3PL rather than own vehicle.
―Do you think that Best price modern wholesale store provide you with the required items of your need‖ ALL ITEMS THE ALMOST ALL ALL THE SOME ITEMS THE ITEMS NECESSARY ITEMS 30% 40% 8% VERY FEW 18% 4% AVAILABILITY ALL THE ITEMS SOME ITEMS ALMOST ALL THE ITEMS VERY FEW ITEMS 4% 8% 18% ALL THE NECESSARY ITEMS 40% 30% INTERPRETATION: On the basis of availability the customers nod for all the necessary item is 40% which is the highest. For almost all items it is 30%. 66 . For all the items it is 18%.6. For some items it is 8% and the percentage of dissatisfactory customers is very few which 4% is.
7. The overall performance of the staff towards the customers was good. Customer Service SurveyExcellent Good Average Fair Poor 22 17 6 3 2 11 18 7 11 3 17 19 9 4 1 2 19 10 17 19 7 17 3 2 4 Staff was available in a timely manner Staff greeted you and offered to help you Staff was friendly and cheerful throughout Staff showed knowledge of the products/ services Staff answered your questions Staff answered your questions Staff showed knowledge of the products/ services Poor Fair Staff was friendly and cheerful throughout Average Good Excellent Staff greeted you and offered to help you Staff was available in a timely manner 0 5 10 15 20 25 INTERPRETATION: The satisfaction level of the customers was high as compared in the survey conducted by our team. 67 .
68 . Will you visit the Best Price store again? YES 100% NO 0% INTERESTED IN VISITING AGAIN YES 0% NO 100% INTERPRETATION: Through analysis we came to know that customers are happy with the store visit. And they are ready to visit the store again and again.8.
69 .9. Will you recommend this store to other business members? YES 100% NO 0% RECOMMEND YES 0% NO 100% INTERPRETATION: The affirmation of the customers for recommending the store to other business men was 100%.
It is found that almost all the necessary items are available in the store. Membership drive plays the most important role in making the people aware about the BPMW. As per the opinion of the customers staff of the BPMW store is almost up to the mark. 6. Kirana shops are highly engaged in this B2B marketing. Billing time taken at best price store is one the main drawback of the store. 7. Most of the members are resellers as compare to organization and industry. 70 . 9. As per the survey done it is found that people prefer more of the 3PL than own vehicle. 2. regional price and also because its provide Kodak Mahindra credit facility. 4. Keeping the facilities offered by ‗BEST PRICE‘ store in mind people are more attracted and satisfied with services and products of the store and hence would recommend this store to others.FINDINGS 1. Customers are more attracted towards best price store because its offers best product with good quality. 5. 8. 3.
BPMW Store should give proper training session to their staff members according to their appointed sections.RECOMMENDATIONS 1. 2. As per customers it is found that BPMW store should increase the Credit periods as per the customers need. BPMW Store should increase the number of billing counter so as to avoid the wastage of time at counter. 71 . 3. 4. BPMW Store should also concentrate and more link ups with organizations and industries so as to expand their business.
72 . Resellers contribute almost 65% of sales of Best price modern wholesale store. Offices. HoReCa (Hotels. toy shops. meat shops etc.PRACTICAL LEARNING Best price modern wholesale divides its customer base into 3 target business member categories: a. fruits and vegetable shops. catering. Kirana shops. O&I (office and institutions) All type of offices and institutions come under this marketing division of Best Price Modern Wholesale store. schools. A separate marketing segmentation is also done to cater to the needs and identifying demand in this area which is known as HoReCa. parlors. come under the category of O&I. Sweet Shops which can purchase the grocery and other things from Best price modern wholesale store. hospitals. Resellers b. apparel/footwear shops. Dhabas. colleges. restaurants and catering) HoReCa includes all types of restaurants. come under the category of resellers. stationery shops. There is a separate marketing strategy with separate marketing team which looks in this department known as reseller. HoReCa c. HoReCa contributes around 20% of sale of the store. industries etc. O&I Resellers Resellers include all the small and big shops which can purchase from the best price and sell the stuff in the market.
knowing the basics of membership procedure is must. For getting the business membership of Best price modern wholesale store business entity must have a valid business license. commercial. Process of becoming a member of Bharti Walmart Fill up the Application Form Business/ Trade Licenses Visit store with ID proof Get Permanent Membership Card Following in the membership procedure used for providing membership to particular business unit: Best price modern wholesale (BPMW) falls within the Sam‘s club stores of WalMart and only members of the store can purchase from the Best price modern wholesale store. business. As it helps one to know about the legal documents required for the membership. BPWM sells goods to its Business members only on the condition that the said goods are not purchased for the personal consumption and further such purchase is for resale. validity of the Units to become a member and preserving of records for any further use. 73 . O&I contribute around 15-20% of the sale of the Best Price Modern Wholesale store. It also has its own marketing team to identify and fulfill demand in this category. Membership Procedure Basics of filling Membership Form- For the purpose of business development. institutional and/or industrial use only.
Member should bring the issued membership card for purchasing goods from the store. An authorization letter for the same is required which is given on the valid letter head of the business unit. Issuing of the cards: An application form is filled for the business entity along with the undertaking that terms and conditions would be fulfilled by the member. on behalf of primary holder. 2 guests are allowed along with every holder of the membership card for purchasing of goods from the store. Hence. Following which. Membership card also serves the purpose of billing at the billing counter. It scans the valid licenses‘ copy and photo id of the applicants. it clicks the picture of the applicant and a membership card is generated. After which it generates a membership number. Copy of the valid business license is taken along with the application form of the interested business entity. Membership card bears the photograph and membership number of the applicant. Membership cards include following 2 types of cards: 1.issued to the owner of the business entity.issued only if requested by the primary holder for 2 other people who could purchase for the business unit. A business card is provided by BPMW. 74 . This card is duly checked at the entrance of the store. 2. Entry of them is done in the software called mtracks. overall 3 cards (1 primary and 2 add on) are issued for single business entity. which is co terminus with the validity of the business licenses/registration of the member‘s business entity of expiry of ten years from the date of execution of card whichever happens earlier. person is called the primary holder of the card. All the essential formalities are fulfilled. Add on. Primary card.
It also helped to improve my confidence in communicating with the clients. Raipur. Our target included new as well as old members of the Best price modern wholesale store. Taking orders. Understanding there are needs and hence calling the stock 6. introducing best price to customers. All the aforementioned points gave a practical experience of sales in the market. 4. 75 . Some of the important aspects of learning were: 1. I was sent along with the team to many important areas of Raipur. as it is going to be pinched in. in the market. Generating leads 3. Understanding the product completely. Sending quotations etc. It worked as the training for the major portion of sales which was supposed to be done by me for the store. This assignment was done along with the business development team.Working with the sales team Working with the sales team and understanding the basics of generating Leads. building healthy customer relationships and completing targets. Introducing the requirements which can be fulfilled by us. 7. which comes under office and institution segment of the Best Price Modern Wholesale. 2. Knowing the demands of the customer both said and unsaid. 5. This training part taught me different aspects of business development and sales which framed the complete marketing strategy of Bharti Walmart stores. taking orders etc.
76 . Best Price Modern Wholesale has a huge market potential. Customers are delighted by the variety and price of the product available in the store.CONCLUSION Best Price Modern Wholesale distinguishes itself from the competitors with the help of largest collection of brands. The concept of providing all materials under one roof for wholesale products is new of its kind and has the potential of attracting more customers. Unique market strategy adopted by best price modern wholesale store for providing wholesale products at cheaper rates compared to other wholesalers and distributors. Events and Activations.
. 4. Larreche www. 3. Kothari C. 5. 7.bharti walmart.goolge. 2nd Edition. www. Philip Kotler. Boyd.com 77 . Marketing Strategy . Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 11th Edition. Marketing Management. 2.bpmw.R. 6.com www.com best price manual paper. Walker Mullins.
2. 13. 24. 1. 22. 8. 19. 16. FIRST NAME VIMAL MEGHNATH ANIL SUKHPREET SINGH 5. 11. 10. 21. 15. 17. 25. INDAR JEET LALIT KUMAR RAJESH KUMAR FANESH RAVI KUMAR ASHOK NILESH KISHAN PRAKASH PRAKASH MS RANJANA SANJAY JAYANT MITHLESH KUMAR 20. 3.ANNEXURE CUSTOMERS LIST NO. 6. 26. 9. RAJ SUNITA DURGESH KUMAR HOMLAL HIMMATLAL BASANT KUMAR SWENIK GUPTA RODEKAR BAJAJ SAHU SINHA KHEMANI ISRANI JAIN BHATIYA SINGH VERMA AGRAWAL SAHU NISHAD SINHA ISRANI KUMAR SUGANDH SUGANDH BEDI DEMOULA GOUTAM TIWARI B K TRADERS KHALSHA AUTO SERVICE LALIT HARDWARE STORES AGRAWAL JI KA GULSHAN SWEETS JOY ON LINE RAVI COMMUNICATION ADITYA SALES TANISHKA FANCY STORE KISHAN MEDICAL STORE RAJESH DAILY NEEDS RAJESH DAILY NEEDS VASUNDHRA ELECTRONIC SAI VIDEO WORLD SUBHAM MEDICAL SAMRIDHI FANCY AND GIFT CORNER SHRI SANT STATIONARY AND GENERAL STORE ASTHA MOBILE TEENS TRADITIONAL AND WESTERN JAI MAHAMAYA MEDICAL STORES SUMIT ELECTRONIC DEVI KIRANA STORE OM MOBILE AND BAG HOUSE DADAJI SPEARS PARTS LAST NAME JAIN DEWANGAN JAIN BUSINESS VIMAL PAAN MANDIR AND GENERAL STORES PRABHA STD PCO AND PHOTO COPY UNIQUE CARD AND GIFT 78 . 14. 18. 23. 7. 4. 12.
. PRAFULL VIJAY KUMAR HARILAL DEEPAK KUMAR DINESH HARISH KUMAR KRISHNKANT GOVERDHAN HIMANSHU CHETAN RAJESH TAJUDDHIN LEELA VINAY KUMAR 79 . 46. 38. 40. 56. 39. 33. 43. 52. 50. 55. 35. 51. 49. 36. 48. 37. 42. 45. 47. 28. 54. 29. 41. 57.27. 34. NET RAM DHIRAJ KUMAR BIRENDRA NARAYAN KUMAR SAHU DUBEY SAHU SETH LAL KIRANA STORES GANGA MAYA KIRANA STORES SAHU CYCLE AND KIRANA STORE KURRE RUPRAILA GUPTA SAHU DEWANGAN GARG KEDIA KUKREJA MALIK RATHOR PATEL PATEL PATEL NARENDRA KUMAR KURRE MAHESH CLOTH STORE SHIV SHAKTI MOBILE AND GENERAL STORES SAHU HOTEL MAA PARMESHWARI DAILY NEEDS SAI BABA TELICOM KEDIA HARDWARE AND MILL STORES SWEET HUT DAILY NEEDS MAMTA HOTEL POONAM SWEETS QUALITY ELECTRICALS TRADERS ISHWAR PLY AND HARDWARE KRISHNA HARDWARE 31. 53. 30. DEEPAK SHAILENDRA RAMADHEEN DINESH APURVA RAJESH SATISH AKHTAR KIRTI KAMLA BEN SHRI BABULAL VITTHAL BHAI MOHAMMAD JUMMAN BHINSARA KHOAIYAR PATEL PATEL TAUNK MAKHIJA GULWANI TIWARI PATEL RATHOR MEHTA RATHOR KHOKHAR DEVI DEWANGAN SUPER CYCLE STORES VIRA AGENCIES PATEL DOOR AND PLY SARVODAY TRADERS DEEPAK GENERAL STORES SUPER NEEDS RADHA SWAMI COLLECTION GOLDEN RESTAURENT SHIVAM MEDICALS KRISHNA SALES SWATI MEGJINE AND STATIONARY SHRI HARI ENTERPRISES EDAN TRADERS AND KIRANA STORES LUCKY MARKET VINAY FANCY AND GENERAL STORES 44. 32.
77. ANKIT MAWJI VISHWANATH SUNIL NARENDRA KUMAR 68. 59.58. 74. 81. 79. 71. 69. 65. 73. 78. 84. 67. 83. 62. 72. 86. 76. 80. 82. 87. 61. JAI PRAKASH SARASWATI KANTI LAL DILIP RAMCHANDRA ANIL PRADEEP SHANKAR VIJAY BALRAM DINESH KUMAR ASHOK MURLIDHAR SARASWATI HIRALAL JAYA ANIL NARENDRA GUPTA DAS PATEL SAHU SACHDEV ELECTRONICS AACHAL NEW COLLECTION ASHISH DISTRIBUTER MUSKAN MOBILE SUNIL KIRANA STORES SAHU TRIPATHI SAHU ELECTRICALS MANISH DEALY NEEDS JANGHEL JAIN NAYDU PATEL MAKHIJA KOTWANI JAIN GUPTA ISRANI KHENWANI PAMNANI SETHIYA TALWANI DEWANGAN DEVI VALECHA VAJPAYEE MUTHA NIRATKAR SADGURU FANCY AND GENERAL STORES JAIN COLD DRINKS MAA AMBEY TREVELLERS JALARAM SWEETS DILIP PROVISION STORES RAJ GENERAL STORES JAIN HARDWARE AND TOOLS CO GUPTA HARDWARE STORES ISRANI HARDWARE NEW DIGITAL WORLD MOBILE ZONE DINESH TRADERS SHRI RADHA MOBILE CHANDAR CLOTH STORE POOJA NEEDS PADMA PROVISION STORES SAI CHANDRA GAS SERVICES C R B JWELLERS RAJU AUTO CENTRE 80 . PURAN DAS PREM NARAYAN CHHANNU LAL TEJ BAHADUR TALREJA GUPTA DEWANGAN SAB PURAN KIRANA STORES SONU GIFT AND FANCY STOORES RAHUL STD PCO SHRI JAI BAJRANG MEDICAL STORES UMESH PAY AND FURNITURE AND BHARAT LAL 63. 85. MANISH YASHWANT KUMAR 70. 66. 75. 60. 64.
KUMAR 88. 89. 91. 90. SANTOSH PRAVIN LOKESH PRASHANT SURENDRA KUMAR KASHYAP BALAJI PRINTERS SALUNKE BURAD CHAWRA AGRAWAL DARGOBA TANCH AND REFINERY MAHAVEERCHAND ASHOK KUMAR JWELORS SWASTIK FINANCE SERVICES AGRAWAL HOME APPLIANCES 81 . 92.
Name of the Business: Reseller Organization Industries Other 2. l. How did you come to know about the store? SMS Flyer Invitation Cable TV Radio Outdoor Hoardings Other people On ground activity in markets Card Visit by a Best Price associate Newspaper Ad (Pl specify publication)………………………………… 4.Bharti Walmart Raipur Business Member Questionnaire DATE: …/…. e. What is the type of business that you are dealing with? Kirana shop Fruits & Vegetable shop Caterers Stationery shop Hotels Restaurants/ Dhabas Offices Schools/Colleges Other Institution (Pls./…………. Membership No. Best Prices O Quality O Range O Credit solution O Delivery solution O Member service by staff O Time taken in Billing O Ease of locating merchandise O Ease of reaching the store/location O Parking and other facilities O Store promotion offers and effectiveness O Store utility (e. c. g.. water.Poor O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 82 . h. trolleys) O Store Displays (inside outside) O Overall rating O Good O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Poor O O O O O O O O O O O O O O V. n.Good a.. as on Business Card…………………… Member name: …………………………………. f.g. How was your experience at the store on the following parameters? V. i. Contact no:………………………… 1. d. j. k. m. toilets. specify)………………………… 3. b.
Your own vehicle a) Pl specify type of vehicle – …………………………………………………………. How will you take the stocks with you a. Staff showed knowledge of the products/ services? a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d) Fair e) Poor e. Customer Service Surveya.. Staff was friendly and cheerful throughout? a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d) Fair e) Poor d. 3 PL b. Do you think that Best Price modern wholesale store provide you with the required items of your need? a) All the item b) Almost all the items c) All the necessary items d) Some items e) Very few 7. Staff greeted you and offered to help you? a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d) Fair e) Poor c. 6.5. Will you visit the Best Price store again? A) Yes B) No If NO. Will you recommend this store to other business members? A) Yes Thank You B) No 83 . Staff answered your questions? a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d) Fair e) Poor 8. please specify……………………………………………………………………… 9. Staff was available in a timely manner? a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d) Fair e) Poor b.
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