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# ALGEBRA

Areas of focus:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Expanding and factoring terms Solving an equation for an unknown Quadratic and biquadratic equations Logarithms and Exponents Determinants Systems of linear equations Solving linear systems in terms unknown variables Inequalities

Expanding and factoring terms: The basic rules used for reorganization of terms in an expression are

The following relations are useful in either expanding or factoring simple algebraic expressions.

x2 + Ax + B = (x + a)(x + b), where A = a + b, B = ab

Solving an equation for an unknown:

The four basic operation of reorganization, regrouping, multiplication by a common factor, and division by a common factor can be used to solve for a unknown variable in an equation Reorganization: Reorganization is the process of moving the terms separated by addition, subtraction, or equality signs. When reorganization moves a term from one side of equality to another, then the sing of the term must be changed. The following is a simple example of reorganization. All the equations convey the same information.

Regrouping: The process of regrouping involves the gathering of term with common factors together. This process frequently involves reorganization, expansion of term and factoring of common expressions. The following is a simple example of regrouping of terms.

Another example of regrouping is

Multiplication by a common factor: One can multiply all terms in an equation by a common factor. The resulting equation retains the relation between the variables if the factor is not zero or infinity. A simple example of multiplication by a common factor is given by

Division by a common factor: One can divide all terms in an equation by a common factor. The resulting equation retains the relation between the variables if the factor is not zero or infinity. A simple example of division by a common factor is given by

Solving for a variable: The process of solving for a variable combines the above operations to find the value of a given variable in terms of the other variables in an equation. For example, the value of x in the following equation can be found by these steps:

Solving for y in terms of x and z in this same equation can be done through the following steps.

Quadratic and bi-quadratic equations: The quadratic equation is given by the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, where x is the variable to be solved for and a, b, and c are coefficients that do not depend on x. The solution to the quadratic equation is known as its roots and can be evaluated by

The roots of the quadratic equation are real numbers only when b2-4ac is positive or zero. The bi-quadratic equation is ax4 + bx2 + c = 0, and has the roots

Logarithms and Exponents: Logarithms and exponents are related by the following relation:

Where a is the base of the logarithm. If a = e = 2.718282 then the logarithm is known as the natural log, and if a = 10 it is known as the common log. The natural log of x is also written as ln(x). Some properties of the logarithm that hold for all bases are log (xy) = log (x) + log (y) log (x/y) = log (x) - log (y) log (xn )= n log (x) Some common values of the logarithm are

The argument of a logarithm can only be positive. The value of the logarithm is negative for arguments between zero and one, and positive for arguments grater than one (i.e., log(1) = 0, log (x) > 0 if x > 1; log (x) < 0 if 0 < x < 1).

One can use these relations to help solve equations containing exponents and logarithms. one can solve for x by following the steps: Determinants: The determinant of a two by two matrix is given by The determinant of a three by three matrix is given by Systems of linear equations: A system of linear equations is a set of two or more equations that are linear in the designated variables. An example of a system of two linear equations in the variables x and y is One can solve a system of linear equations in terms of the designated variables by one of several different methods. For example. Elimination and back substitution: .

but equivalent. back substitution is used to solve for the previously eliminated unknown variables. Once the system is reduced to one equation and one variable.The most systematic method of solving a system of linear equations is by elimination and back substitution. For example. system . For example. for the system of equations one can solve for x from the first equation to get Substitution into the second equation gives one equation in y that is This can be solved for y to get Substitution of y back into (c) gives x as Other methods of elimination: One can frequently find shortcuts to solving systems of equations by adding or subtracting a multiple of one equation to the another equation. This involves elimination of one equation by taking one equation and solving for one variable in terms of the other variables and then substituting this expression into the remaining equations to reduce the number of equations and unknown variables. the first equation in the system of equations given by can be multiplied by 2 to get the new.

Substitution into the second of the original equations gives Cramer's rule: Cramer's rule can be used to solve a linear system of equations. The denominator consists of the determinant of the coefficients. The numerator consists of .Subtraction of the second equation from the first eliminates x to give This can be solved for y to get Any one of the above equations can now be used to get x. the solution of each unknown is the ratio of two determinants. For example. consider the linear system The solution to this system is As can be seen.

consider the following system of equations. then the system cannot be inverted and does not have a unique solution. Solving linear systems in terms of unknown variables: Sometimes one needs to solve a system of equations in terms of a set of unknown parameters. This system is linear in x and y. One can solve for x and y in terms of z by simply manipulating the equations as if z was another constant. the first column of the matrix of coefficients is replaced. For the first unknown. the second column of the matrix of coefficients is replaced. If the determinant of the coefficients is zero (the system is singular). A system for which the right hand side is zero for all the equations is called homogeneous and has a nonzero solution only when the matrix of coefficients is singular. For example. For the second unknown. consider the inequality . and so on. Cramer's rule can be used for any size system. The direction of the inequality changes every time the equation is multiplied by a negative number. For example. Inequalities: Inequalities are manipulated in a similar manner to equalities with one exception. For example. elimination of x to solve for y in terms of z will involve the following steps: Back substitution of y into (*) gives x in terms of z.the determinant of a matrix that is constructed from the matrix of coefficients by replacing one column by the column of constants from the right-hand-side of the system of equations.

Relations between angle of a triangle 6. trapezoids. Similar triangles 7. Approximation of area and volume Area and perimeter of basic two-dimensional objects: . parallelograms. consider solving for x in the inequality The steps are GEOMETRY Areas of focus: 1. and ellipses 2.If both sides of the inequality are multiplied by -1. Relation among angles when lines intersect 4. rectangles. Pythagorean triplets 9. spheres. Centroid of geometric objects 10. circles. Relation among angles when parallel lines intersect a line 5. Volume and surface area of three-dimensional objects: cubes. parallelepipeds. Pythagorean theorem 8. then we obviously get As another example. and cones 3. ellipsoids. Area and perimeter of basic two-dimensional objects: triangles.

sector of a circle. Triangle: b = base h = height Rectangle/Square: Area = a b Perimeter = 2 (a + b) Parallelogram: Area = a h Perimeter = . and ellipse. rectangle. parallelogram. trapezoid.The following is a listing of the area and/or perimeter of a triangle. circle.

Area = constant for parallelograms with equal base and equal height. Trapezoid: Circle: r = radius d = diameter =2r Area = Circumference = Sectors of circles: .

cylinder. Angle measured in radians. cone. sphere. and pyramid. Cubes and rectangular parallelepipeds: . Sector area = Ellipses: Volume and surface area of three-dimensional objects: The following is a listing of the surface area and/or volume of a cube.Arc Length. parallelepiped.

Volume = abc Surface area = 2(ab+bc+ca) Parallelepipeds: A = Area of base h = Height Volume = Ah Right Circular Cylinder: Volume = Lateral surface = Spheres: r = radius .

Cones: l2 = r2 + h2 Pyramid or irregular cone: Relation among angles when lines intersect: .

. Relation among angles when parallel lines intersect a line: When a line intersects parallel lines it makes identical angles with both lines. Relations between angle of basic objects: Interior angles of a triangle: Exterior angles of a triangle: .e. and adjacent angles add to 180o (i.Opposing angles are equal when two straight lines intersect. ).

The respective heights of these triangles are also proportional to the sides. as shown.Interior angels of a parallelogram: In a parallelogram opposite angles are equal Also: 2A + 2B =360o Similar Triangles: The triangles ABC and ADE are called similar triangles. there exists a relation between the lengths of the sides given by . Pythagorean Theorem: The Pythagorean Theorem states that for a right triangle. The sides of two similar triangles are proportional and the angels are the same.

The centroid of the following objects are indicated by a C.13) and (7.10) from (3.g. Centroid of geometric objects: The centroid of an object is the geometric center of it.4.a2 + b2 = c2 Pythagorean Triplets: There are Pythagorean triples for the sides a.4. b.5).8.5)) also create Pythagorean triplets. (5..25).12. The triplets (a.c) are related through the relation a2 + b2 = c2.24. (6. and c of a right triangle. . The following are examples of right triangles with sides given in terms of Pythagorean triplets.b. All constant multiples of these triplets (e. such as (3.

.Approximation of area and volume: Strips: The area of a strip can be approximated as the length of the strip times its width if the strip is of uniform width and if its width is small compared to its length.

2. 3. 5. A = surface area t = thickness Volume = At TRIGONOMETRY Areas of focus: 1.s = length t = width Slabs and shells: The volume of a slab can be calculated as the surface area times the thickness if the thickness is uniform. 4. The volume of a shell can be approximated using this relation. Degrees versus radians Trigonometric functions Trigonometric relations between complementary angles Pythagorean Theorem The fundamental relation between sine and cosine The unit circle and visualizing the trigonometric functions . 6. but the thickness must be small relative to the principal radii of curvature of the shell.

Approximation for small angles: sine.. Trigonometric identities 12. and is also 2 radians. and tangent 13.. and is normally approximated by 3.7. Law of sines 9.. Degrees 0o 30o 45o 60o 90o 180o 270o 360o Radians 0 Revolutions 0 1 Trigonometric Functions: . due to linear proportionality of the two scales. Curves of sine. The following table gives equivalent angles in degrees. cosine. cosine.14159. Inverse of trigonometric functions 8. and tangent Degrees Versus Radians: One revolution is 360o.14. Thus. and revolutions. radians. Law of cosines 10. the conversion from x degrees to y radians is: One radian is equal to 3. Values of trigonometric at specific angles 11.

. ". secant. then one writes in place of . For example. and cosecant. respectively. A trigonometric function has one argument that is an angle and will be denoted " trigonometric functions one uses the abbreviated forms: . . cotangent. . Consider the angle in the following figure. tangent. In writing the . . sometimes these are written as The value of each trigonometric function for an acute angle (<90o) can be directly related to the sides of a right triangle. The same rule does not apply to negative exponents since the exponent "-1" is reserved for the inverse trigonometric function. If the exponent "n" is positive. and . . Functions of Complementary Angles: . . Also. The values of the trigonometric functions for this angle are given as: Note: the exponents of trigonometric functions follow a special rule. .The trigonometric functions are named sine. respectively. . cosine. and .

(5.. we can also write: Pythagorean Theorem: The Pythagorean theorem states that for a right triangle.5).12.b. . and all constant multiples of these triplets (e. (6.10)).In this figure. such as (3.24.4. as shown. This can be used to derive a basic relation between the sine and cosine functions. Since . and are complementary angles. meaning .25) sided triangles. Examination of the basic relation between the trigonometric functions and the sides of the triangle reveal the following relations between the complementary angles and .c). there exists a relation between the length of the sides given be a2 + b2 = c2 There are also Pythagorean triples for (a.8. Fundamental Relations Among Trigonometric Functions: From the Pythagorean Theorem of plane geometry we know that x2 + y2 = r2.g.13) and (7.

the projection of this line onto the vertical axis is . The projection of this line . It can be seen that the sine has positive value in the first and second quadrants. From the unit circle one immediately discovers that the sine and cosine functions can have values from -1 to 1. Next draw a radial line from the center of the circle to the its arc and making a counter clockwise angle with the horizontal axis as shown in the figure. as shown in the figure. One denotes the quadrants of the unit circle as shown in the figure. To do this.TRIGONOMETRY FOR STATICS PART 2: The Unit Circle and Visualizing Trigonometric Functions: The fundamental relation suggests that the sine and cosine can be visualized by using a circle of unit radius. as shown in onto the horizontal axis is and if the radial line is extended to intersect the vertical line AB one can get the figure. and negative value in the third and fourth . draw a circle of unit radius. and that the tangent can have any value form to .

The unit circle can also help one memorize the values of the trigonometric functions. at At At . The cosine has positive value in the first and fourth quadrant and negative value in the second and third quadrants.quadrants. The tangent has positive value in the first and third quadrants and negative value in the second and fourth quadrants. For example.

At

Inverse of Trigonometric Functions:
The inverse trigonometric functions are: arcsine, arccosine, and arctangent. For a specific value z, function and For example, solution is these are written as: , that has , . and For example, . the provides the angles . In a similar manner,

, respectively, provide the angles for which means the angle . Likewise,

for which the sine has a value of 0.5. Thus, one has a solution .

The inverse trigonometric functions are also written as sin-1, cos-1, and tan-1. For example, is the same as . This contradicts the convention established for

positive exponents. Therefore, even though

The inverse angles

trigonometric

functions

are

multi

valued. For

example,

the

all satisfy the relation

and are, therefore,

the solutions to . This can clearly be seen on the unit circle since the projection of radial lines at 30o and 150o onto the vertical axis are the same.

On the unit circle the addition of 360o to any angle results in a new radial line that falls on top of the original radial line. Therefore, the value of any trigonometric functions at an angle same as its value at that, for example, is the . This is also true for the addition of any integer multiple of 360o so for any integer n.

Law of Sines:

The law of sines states that

This can be shown by considering the triangles AXB and CXB in the following figure. We have or and , hence .

. In a similar manner one can show that

Law of Cosines: The law of cosines states that

This can be shown by considering the triangle BXC that gives:

a2 = p2 + (CX )2 = p2 + (b - AX)2 or a2 = p2 + b2 + (AX)2 - 2b(AX) (1) Considering the triangle AXB one gets: p2 + (AX)2 = c2 and Substituting these into (1) one obtains:

The other relations are obtained in a similar manner.

GO TO PART 3
TRIGONOMETRY FOR STATICS PART 3: Values of Trigonometric Functions at Specific Angles: For 0o and 90o: These functions are limiting values that can be observed from the drawing. As side y approaches 0 (zero), the x approaches r.

For 30o and 60o: For 45o: Trigonometric Identities: Basic identities: .

Half-angles: Identities in terms of tan (/2): where Curves of Sine. and Tangent: Sine function: . Cosine.

The sine function is an odd function since Cosine function: The cosine function is an even function since Tangent function: The tangent function is an odd function since Note that as Approximation of Trigonometric Functions at Small Angles: .

To determine a coordinate one draws a perpendicular onto the coordinate axis. points above the origin on the y-axis are positive and below it are negative.. For example. . 4. when an angle following approximations (expressed in radians) is very small. ) ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY Areas of focus: 1. In a similar manner. In this case. Commonly used coordinate systems Equation of a straight line Equation of a circle Equation of conic sections Commonly used coordinate systems: Rectangular coordinates in 2-D: The location of a point in a two-dimensional plane can be represented by a pair of numbers representing the coordinates of the point in a rectangular coordinate system. y) in the rectangular x-y coordinate system shown.e. the point A in the figure has coordinates (x. 3. the arrows on the coordinate axis indicate that points to the right of the origin O on the x-axis are positive and to the left are negative.As a close approximation. we may use the    replace replace replace with with with unity (i. 2.

z) in the rectangular coordinate system shown. For example. . As indicated by the arrow. point A in the figure has coordinates (x. For example.and y-axes.Polar coordinates: The location of a point in a two dimensional plane can be represented by a pair of numbers representing the coordinates of the point in a polar coordinate system. the point A in the figure has coordinates in the polar coordinate system shown. To get these coordinates one can drop a perpendicular line from A onto the x-y plane to get point B and then draw perpendiculars onto the x. In this coordinate systemr represents the radial distance from the reference point O to the point A and represents the angle the line OA makes with the reference lineOB. Rectangular coordinates in 3-D: The location of a point in three-dimensional space can be represented by a triplet of numbers representing the coordinates of the point in a rectangular coordinate system. the angle is positive if measured counter clockwise from OB and negative if measured clockwise. y.

Spherical Coordinates: The coordinates of a point in three-dimensional space can be represented in spherical coordinates by the triplet as shown in the figure. .Cylindrical Coordinates: The coordinates of a point in three-dimensional space can be represented in cylindrical coordinates by the triplet ( ) as shown in the figure.

y) that satisfy the equation where.Equation of a straight line: The equation of a straight line in a plane is given in the x-y coordinate system by the set of points (x. as shown in the figure. One can evaluate the equation of a line from any two points on it.y2). For example.y1) and (x2. consider points A and B shown in the figure with coordinates (x1. Since ACD and ABE are similar triangles. respectively. and b is the y-coordinate of the point of intercept of the line and the y-axis. we have This can be put in the above format by selecting . a represents the slope of the line in terms of its rise divided by its run.

y) that satisfy the equation .If x1 = 0. as can be seen from the figure. Equation of a circle: The circle centered at the origin of a rectangular coordinate system is given by the set of all points (x. then.

y1) and of radius r. the equation of the points on the circle is given by Equations of conic sections: The ellipse. defines the conic section and is given by . as can be seen in the figure. AB is the directrix and. r is the radius of the circle. known as the eccentricity. In polar coordinates the equation of a circle is given by specifying the radial coordinate r to be constant. and hyperbola are conic sections. parabola.where. the constant e. For a circle centered at point (x1. In the figure. Their curves have the distinct characteristic that each point on the curve is such that the ratio of its distance from a line known as the directrix and a point known as the focus is a given constant. F is the focus.

The value of the eccentricity defines the conic shape. respectively. e < 1 gives an ellipse e = 1 gives a parabola e > 1 gives a hyperbola Equation of an ellipse: The equation of an ellipse in the rectangular x-y coordinate system is given by where a and b are half the lengths. of the major and minor axis. .

this equation will result in one of the two following graphs. .Equations of parabolas: The basic equation of a parabola in a rectangular x-y coordinate system is given by Depending on the sign of a. A parabola that is rotate 90o can be represented by the equation The graph of this is shown in the following figure.

The equation for parabolas moved from the origin to another point is given in the following figures. Equations of hyperbolas: The equation of a hyperbola centered at the origin with its major axis on the x-axis is given by .

A hyperbola with equal major and minor axis and with axis rotated 45o from the x-y axes has an equation where the major and minor axes each have a length of . The lengths of the major and minor axis of the hyperbola are given by 2a and 2b.y1). where F1 and F2 are the focal points and the major axis is the line that passes through these points. then the equation of the hyperbola becomes To get a hyperbola with major axis parallel to the vertical axis. respectively. If the center of the hyperbola is moved from the origin to a point with coordinates (x1. as shown in the following figure. one can change x and y in the equations.The figure shows the graph of this equation. The figure shows this hyperbola. .

4. 8. 5. . Differentiation Maximization and minimization Partial derivatives Integration Integration over a line Double integrals Integration over an area Centroid of an area Integrating differential equations Differentiation: The derivative of a function is a measure of how the function changes as a result of a change in the value of its argument. 7. and is defined by As shown in the figure. the derivative of the function f(x) at point x gives the slope of the function at x in terms of the ratio of the rise divided by the run for the line AB that is tangent to the curve at point x. 2. 9. Given the function f(x). the derivative off with respect to x is written as or as .CALCULUS Areas of Focus: 1. 6. 3.

As shown in the figure. one can also write the definition of the derivative as The basic rules of differentiation are The derivative of commonly used functions: The following is a list of the derivatives of some of the more commonly used functions. .The derivative of the function f(x) is also sometimes written as f ' (x).

The product rule for derivatives: Consider a function such as f(x)=g(x)h(x) that is the product of two functions. to take the derivative of f(x) = (2x+3) (4x+5)2 one can follow these steps . The product rule can be used to calculate the derivative of f with respect to x. The product rule states that For example.

and an inflection point at C. where U = x2+a. to calculate the derivative of f(U) = Un with respect to x. . or an inflection point of the function. This can be clearly seen in the figure. a local minimum. where the function has three points at which the tangent to the curve is horizontal (the slope is zero). one can follow these steps Maximization and minimization: A point on a smooth function where the derivative is zero is a local maximum. This function has a local maximum at A. a local minimum at B.The chain rule for derivatives: Consider the function f(U). One can calculate the derivative of f with respect to x by using the chain rule given by For example. where U is a function of x.

a local minimum.One can determine whether a point with zero derivative is a local maximum. Global maximum and minimum: . or an inflection point by evaluating the value of the second derivative at that point. One can then check the second derivative for each point to get the specific character of the function at each point. one can find the local maximums. and inflections points by solving the equation to get all points x that have a derivative of zero. Given a smooth function f(x). local minimums.

Given a function f(x. Partial derivative: The derivative of a function of several variable with respect to only one of its variables is called a partial derivative.y). As can be seen in the figure.The global maximum or minimum of a smooth function in a specific interval of its argument occurs either at the limits of the interval or at a point inside the interval where the function has a derivative of zero. the function shown has a global maximum at point A on the left boundary of the interval under consideration. its partial derivative with respect to its first argument is denoted by and defined by Since all other variables are kept constant during the partial derivative. a global minimum at B. For example. it represents the slope of the curve one obtains when varying only the designated argument of the function. the partial derivative of the function evaluated by treating y as a constant so that one gets with respect to x is . and a local minimum at D. a local maximum at C.

The chain rule can be used to find the derivative of f with respect to x by the rule For example. V(x)] of two arguments U and V. Let F denote the integral of f(x) over the interval from x1 to x2. The derivative of f with respect to x is given by Integration: The integral of a function f(x) over an interval from x1 to x2 yields the area under the curve of the function over this same interval. This is written as . consider the function f = UV2 where U =2x+3 and V=4x2.The chain rule: Consider a function f[U(x). each a function of x.

Therefore. is also an anti-derivative of f(x). The basic rules of integration are . the function F(x) + C. the integral is approximated by This approximation approaches the value of the integral as the width of the strips approaches zero. a known value of the integral at a specified point is used to calculate the constant of integration. This constant is known as the constant of integration and may be determined only if one has additional information about the integral. Normally. Since the derivative of a constant is zero.and is called a definite integral since the limits of integration are prescribed. Indefinite Integrals: A function F(x) is the indefinite integral of the function f(x) if The indefinite integral is also know as the anti-derivative. where C is any constant. The area under the curve in the following figure can be approximated by adding together the vertical strips of area . given a function F(x) to be an anti-derivative of f(x). Therefore. the indefinite integral of a function can only be evaluated up to the addition of a constant.

up to a constant of integration [ ]: .The indefinite integral of commonly used functions: The following is a list of indefinite integrals of commonly used functions.

one can subtract the value of the definite integral evaluated at the lower limit of integration from its value at the upper limit of integration. if you have the indefinite integral Note that C. one can use to change the variable of integration from x to U . You evaluate the constant of integration by selecting the constant of integration such that the integral passes through a known point. It is common to sometimes use the notation Change of variables: Given a function U(x).Note: Remember to add a constant of integration. cancels in the subtraction and need not be included. Relating definite and indefinite integrals: To obtain the value of the definite integral knowing the value of the indefinite integral of the function. For example. The change of variables results in the rule . the constant of integration.

Therefore. Therefore. The resulting equation is For example. . we can write this function as where U = ax and steps. given the function where U = ax+b and following steps. we can write this function as . the integral of fcan be evaluated by using the following . the integral of f can be evaluated by using the Change of variables for a definite integral is similar with an additional change in the limits of integration. given the function .For example.

. is written as . one can use integration by parts to integrate the following integral using the relation For example. that is defined by s = 0 to s = l.Integration by parts: Given the functions U(x) and V(x). to evaluate the integral One can take integration by parts we get and so that and . Using Integration over a line: The integral F of function f(s) over line AB.

using the relations would yield . For example. consider integrating the function f(x. in the figure shown we can see that The sign of the root must be selected based on the specifics of the problem under consideration. one can evaluate F by a change of variables to get Depending on the format the information is provided in. it might be necessary to use the Pythagorean Theorem to relate the differential line element along the arc of the curve to the x and y coordinates. For example. such as x in the figure.When either the domain of integration or the function is described in terms of another variable. Direct integration.y) =xy2 over the straight line defined in the figure from point A to point B.

Double integral: The double integral of function f(x.y) first integrating over x and then integrating over y is given by The notation implies that the inner integral over x is done first. Once the inner integral is completed and the limits of integration for x are substituted into the expression. the integration would be written as . the outer integral is evaluated and the limits for y are substituted into the resulting expression. To integrate over y first and then over x. treating y as a constant. The rules of integration are the same as used for single integration for both the integration over x and the integration over y.

Consider the following example of double integration of the function f(x.y) =xy2. the limits of integration need not be constants. Unlike the example..One can also write the integral limits without specifying the variable (i. There will be no problem as long as the inner integral is conducted fist and the limits are substituted into the resulting expression before the outer integral is evaluated. For example. The order dxdy or dydx clearly specifies what variable a specific limit is associated with. without using "x=" and "y="). .e. consider the following integral.

Integration over an area: The double integral F of the function over the area A is written as .

each with an area .. This process fills the domain with differential elements of area and is shown in the figure. As shown in the figure.e. At the limit of small element sizes. the integral gives the volume under the surface . into many small dAs). one needs to section the domain of integration A into small parts (i. If dA=dxdy is selected. the sum of these area elements adds up to the original domain of integration. Thus. The differential element of area dA in a rectangular x-y coordinate system is given by either dA=dxdy or dA=dydx. then for each value of y an integration over x is conducted from the left limit of the domain to its right limit. The difference between the two is the order of integration. the domain of integration can be sections into rectangular sections. the value of the integration does not depend on this selection. Each fdA is the volume of the column with base dA and height f. To accomplish the summation that is represented by the integral. . yet the ease of integration may strongly depend on the choice for dA.This integral is the sum of fdA over the area A. If done correctly.

if one takes dA=dydx. the order of integration changes. In this case the integral can be written as . This is shown in the figure. the limits of integration of x depend on the value of y so that the integral is written as On the other hand. for each x between x1 and x2. the argument is integrated over y from the lower limit of area to its upper limit. In this case.As can be seen from the figure.

For example. consider the integral of f(x. one can get the integral from . The integral can be defined as Alternately.y) =xy over the domain shown in the figure.

Otherwise the integration process is similar to rectangular coordinates. Polar coordinates: The differential element of area in polar coordinates is given by This is a result of fact that the circumferential sides of the differential element of area have a length of . the result of the integration does not change based on the selection of the order of integration. as shown in the figure. yet the setup of the integrals does change.As can be seen. .

For example. the centroid represents the area weighted average location of the body. each segment having an area Ai and coordinates of its centroid as xi and yi. For a continuous shape the summations are replaced by integrations to get . As such. the location of each segment is weighted by the area of the segment and after addition divided by the total area of the shape. consider a shape that is a composite of n individual segments. The coordinates of the centroid of this composite shape is given by As can be seen.Centroid of an area: The centroid of an area is the area weighted average location of the given area.

each indicated by a C. .where A is the total area. Centroid of common shapes: The following figures show the centroid of some common objects.

Integration of differential equations: Differential equations are relations that are in terms of a function and its derivatives. Some of the simplest differential equations are of the form The variables in such equations can be separated to get . There are some methods for solving these equations to find an explicit form of the function.

as was done in the two above examples.and then integrated to get where C is the constant of integration. then one can use the methods of integration to integrate the differential equation. consider the differential equation The variables in this equation can be separated to give . For example. A slightly more complicated differential equation is one of the form The variables in such equations can be separated to get and then integrated to get In general. if one can separate the variables.

The result of integrating this expression is where the constant of integration can be found knowing a point (xo. For this case and the complete solution can be written as If the variables cannot be separated directly. yo) that the function must pass through. Vectors and vector addition . then other methods must be used to solve the equation. VECTOR METHODS Areas of focus: 1.

is the typical representation of a vector. by or A. The magnitude of a vector is its length and is normally denoted Addition of two vectors is accomplished by laying the vectors head to tail in sequence to create a triangle such as is shown in the figure. A line of given length and pointing along a given direction. . A vector connecting two points 7. Triple product 10. Dot product 8. Rectangular coordinates in 2-D 5. Rectangular coordinates in 3-D 6. Base vectors and vector components 4. or a character with a line under it (i. Typical notation to designate a vector is a boldfaced character. a vector is a mathematical object that has magnitude and direction. ).e. a character with and arrow on it. such as an arrow. Unit vectors 3. Cross product 9. On the other had..2. Triple vector product Vectors and vector addition: A scalar is a quantity like mass or temperature that only has a magnitude.

). .. A unit vector is sometimes denoted by replacing the arrow on a vector with a "^" or just adding a "^" on a boldfaced character (i. where P and Q are vectors and a is a scalar.The following rules apply in vector algebra. Any vector can be made into a unit vector by dividing it by its length. Therefore.e. Unit vectors: A unit vector is a vector of unit length.

Any vector can be fully represented by providing its magnitude and a unit vector along its direction. the vector in the figure can be written as the sum of the three vectors u1. e2. and u3. For example. each along the direction of one of the base vectors e1. u2. Base vectors and vector components: Base vectors are a set of vectors selected as a base to represent all other vectors. The idea is to construct each vector from the addition of vectors along the base directions. and e3. so that .

u2.Each one of the vectors u1. u2. Let u1. and u3 is parallel to one of the base vectors and can be written as scalar multiple of that base. and u3 denote these scalar multipliers such that one has The original vector u can now be written as .

and u3 are known as the components of u in the base described by the base vectors e1. and e3. and u3. or Cartesian base. The figure shows how a vector can be resolved along the three directions by first finding a vector in the plane of two of the directions and then resolving this new vector along the two directions in the plane. a vector can be resolved along any three non-coplanar lines. If the base vectors are unit vectors and are mutually orthogonal. then the base is known as an orthonormal. u2.The scalar multipliers u1. In three dimensions. If the base vectors are unit vectors. A vector can be resolved along any two directions in a plane containing it. . u2. of the three vectors u1. The figure shows how the parallelogram rule is used to construct vectors a and b that add up to c. respectively. e2. then the components represent the lengths. Euclidean.

if the two vectors A and B are represented by then.When vectors are represented in terms of base vectors and components. addition of two vectors results in the addition of the components of the vectors. Using the base vectors. one can represent any vector F as . Rectangular components in 2-D: The base vectors of a rectangular x-y coordinate system are given by the unit vectors and along the x and y directions. respectively. Therefore.

and z coordinate directions. and that are along the x.y. one has the following relations. respectively. . . Rectangular coordinates in 3-D: The base vectors of a rectangular coordinate system are given by a set of three mutually orthogonal unit vectors denoted by .Due to the orthogonality of the bases. as shown in the figure.

and z directions. y. in the figure the projections of vector A along the x. . In a rectangular coordinate system the components of the vector are the projections of the vector along the x. and Az. Ay. For example.The system shown is a right-handed system since the thumb of the right hand points in the direction of z if the fingers are such that they represent a rotation around the z-axis from x to y. This system can be changed into a left-handed system by reversing the direction of any one of the coordinate lines and its associated base vector. y. respectively. and z directions are given by Ax.

and the orthogonality of the base vectors.As a result of the Pythagorean theorem. the magnitude of a vector in a rectangular coordinate system can be calculated by Direction cosines: Direction cosines are defined as .

The direction cosines can be calculated from the components of the vector and its magnitude through the relations . As shown in the figure. .where the angles . the direction cosines represent the cosines of the angles made between the vector and the three coordinate directions. and are the angles shown in the figure.

the unit-vector along the vector A is obtained from Therefore. . For example. and z directions.The three direction cosines are not independent and must satisfy the relation This results form the fact that A unit vector can be constructed along a vector using the direction cosines as its components along the x. y.

A vector connecting two points: The vector connecting point A to point B is given by A unit vector along the line A-B can be obtained from .

. As a result one gets The dot product has the following properties.A vector F along the line A-B and of magnitude F can thus be obtained from the relation Dot product: The dot product is denoted by " " between two vectors. The dot product of vectors A and B results in a scalar given by the relation where is the angle between the two vectors. Order is not important in the dot product as can be seen by the dot products definition.

Since the angle between a vector and itself is zero.Since the cosine of 90o is zero. the magnitude of a vector can be written in terms of the dot product using the rule Rectangular coordinates: When working with vectors represented in a rectangular coordinate system by the components then the dot product can be evaluated from the relation . the dot product of two orthogonal vectors will result in zero. and the cosine of zero is one.

and can be evaluated using the dot product. The relation for the projection is . The scalar projection of vector A along the unit vector is the length of the orthogonal projection A along a line parallel to .This can be verified by direct multiplication of the vectors and noting that due to the orthogonality of the base vectors of a rectangular system one has Projection of a vector onto a line: The orthogonal projection of a vector along a line is obtained by moving one end of the vector onto the line and dropping a perpendicular onto the line from the other end of the vector. The resulting segment on the line is the vector's orthogonal projection or simply its projection.

The vector projection of A along the unit vector simply multiplies the scalar projection by the unit vector to get a vector along . The cross product is denoted by a " " between the vectors . This gives the relation The cross product: The cross product of vectors a and b is a vector perpendicular to both a and b and has a magnitude equal to the area of the parallelogram generated from a andb. The direction of the cross product is given by the right-hand rule .

That is. Rectangular coordinates: When working in rectangular coordinate systems. If the order of operations changes in a cross product the direction of the resulting vector is reversed. The cross product has the following properties.Order is important in the cross product. the cross product of vectors a and b given by .

and c is given by . b.can be evaluated using the rule One can also use direct multiplication of the base vectors using the relations The triple product: The triple product of vectors a.

This can be seen from the figure since The triple product has the following properties Rectangular coordinates: Consider vectors described in a rectangular coordinate system as .The value of the triple product is equal to the volume of the parallelepiped constructed from the vectors.

The triple product can be evaluated using the relation Triple vector product: The triple vector product has the properties .